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Title:
COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR TREATING DISEASES OF PROTEIN AGGREGATION INVOLVING IC3B DEPOSITION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/055967
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
The invention provides antibodies that preferentially bind to iC3b relative to C3b. These antibodies find use in treatment and prophylaxis of a variety of diseases associated with deposits of the fragment.

Inventors:
BASI GURIGBAL S (US)
BARBOUR ROBIN (US)
LIU YUE (US)
Application Number:
US2013/063601
Publication Date:
April 10, 2014
Filing Date:
October 05, 2013
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
NEOTOPE BIOSCIENCES LTD (IE)
BASI GURIGBAL S (US)
BARBOUR ROBIN (US)
LIU YUE (US)
International Classes:
C07K16/18
Domestic Patent References:
WO2000029447A12000-05-25
WO2009064854A22009-05-22
WO2009149189A22009-12-10
Other References:
ROBINSON, AP ET AL.: 'Macrophage Heterogeneity In The Rat As Delineated By Two Monoclonal Antibodies MRC OX-41 And MRC OX-42' THE LATTER RECOGNIZING COMPLEMENT RECEPTOR TYPE 3. IMMUNOLOGY. vol. 57, February 1986, pages 239 - 247
SIIMAN, O ET AL.: 'Competitive Antibody Binding To Soluble CD16b Antigen And CD16b Antigen On Neutrophils In Whole Blood By Flow Cytometry.' CYTOMETR vol. 44, 01 May 2001, pages 30 - 37
EIGENBROT, C ET AL.: 'X-Ray Structures Of Fragments From Binding And Nonbinding Versions Of A Humanized Anti-CD18 8 Antibody: Structural Indications Of The Key Role Of VH Residues 59 to 65.' PROTEINS. vol. 18, no. 1, January 1994, pages 49 - 62
BAN, N ET AL.: 'Crystal Structure Of An Idiotype-Anti-Idiotype Fab Complex.' IMMUNOLOGY vol. 91, March 1994, pages 1604 - 1608
BRIDGES, A ET AL.: 'Variable Region cDNA Sequences And Characterization Of Murine Anti-Human Interferon Gamma Receptor Monoclonal Antibodies That Inhibit Receptor Binding By Interferon Gamma.' MOL LMMUNOL. vol. 32, December 1995, pages 1329 - 1338 & DATABASE GENBANK Database accession no. AAB17412.1
SCHEEL, T ET AL.: 'Variable-Region Gene Repertoire Analysis Of Locally Defined Synovial B And Plasma Cells Reveals Selected B Cell Expansion And The Accumulation Of Large Plasma Cell' CLONES 20 February 2011,
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
LIEBESCHUETZ, Joe (Bank of America Plaza101 South Tryon Street, Suite 400, Charlotte North Carolina, US)
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Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

6G1 and 2H8r consensus.

1. An antibody that competes with 6G1 or 2H8r for binding to iC3b.

2. Monoclonal antibody 6G1 or 2H8r, or a humanized, chimeric or veneered form of 6G1 or 2H8r, wherein 6G1 is a mouse antibody characterized by a light chain variable region having an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO:6 and heavy chain variable region having an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO: 19, and 2H8r is a mouse monoclonal antibody characterized by a light variable region having an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO: 12 and a heavy chain variable region having an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO:24.

3. The antibody of claim 1, comprising heavy chain CDRs having the sequences NYGMN (SEQ ID NO:36), WINT YTGEPX 1 Y ADX2FKG (wherein XI is T or R and X2 is D or E) (SEQ ID NO:37) and GGYPHYYSMDY (SEQ ID NO:38), and light chain CDRs RASQDKNLYLN (wherein X is S or N) (SEQ ID NO:39), YTSXLHS (wherein X is R or K) (SEQ ID NO:40) and QQGXTLPRT (wherein X is K or N) (SEQ ID NO:41).

4. A humanized, chimeric or veneered form of monoclonal antibody 6G1 wherein 6G1 is a mouse antibody characterized by a light chain variable region having an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO:6 and heavy chain variable region having an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO: 19.

5. The antibody of claim 1 comprising a mature light chain variable region having at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:9 and a mature heavy chain variable region having at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 22.

6. The antibody of claim 5 wherein the mature light chain variable region has at least 95% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:9 and the mature heavy chain variable region has at least 95% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:22.

7. The antibody of claim 5, wherein the mature light chain variable region has at least 98% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:9 and the mature heavy chain variable region has a least 98% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:22.

8. The antibody of any of claims 1-7, wherein least one of positions L69, L71 and L73 is occupied by R, Y and L respectively and at least one of positions H38, H46 and H89 is occupied by K, K and T respectively.

9. The antibody of any of claims 1-8, wherein positions H46 and H89 are occupied by K and T respectively.

10. The antibody of any of claims 1-9, wherein positions H38, H46 and H89 are occupied by K, K and T respectively.

11. The antibody of any of claims 1-10, wherein positions L69, L71 and L73 are occupied by R, Y and L respectively.

12. The antibody of claim 10, wherein positions L44 and L87 are occupied by I and F respectively.

13. The antibody of claim 1, wherein the mature light chain variable region has an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO:9 and the mature heavy chain variable region has an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO:22.

14. The antibody of any preceding claim, wherein the mature light chain variable region comprises the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO:6 and the mature heavy chain variable region comprises the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO: 19.

15. A humanized antibody comprising a humanized mature light chain variable region comprising the three light chain Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO:6 and a humanized mature heavy chain variable region comprising the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO: 19 and; wherein positions L69, L71 and L73 are occupied by R, Y and L respectively and positions H38, H44, H46 and H89 are occupied by K, D, K and T respectively.

2H8r

16. The monoclonal antibody of claim 1 that is 2H8r or a humanized, chimeric, or veneered form thereof, wherein 2H8r is a mouse antibody characterized by a mature light chain variable region comprising SEQ ID NO: 12and a mature heavy chain variable region comprising SEQ ID NO:24.

17. The antibody of claim 16, comprising three heavy chain Kabat CDRs and three light chain Kabat CDRs from the heavy and light chain variable regions of SEQ ID NOS. 12 and 24.

18. The antibody of claim 16, comprising a mature light chain variable region having at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 15 and a mature heavy chain variable region having at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:27.

19. The antibody of claim 18, wherein the mature light chain variable region has at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 15 and the mature heavy chain variable region has at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:27 .

20. The antibody of claim 18, wherein the mature light chain variable region has at least 95% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 15 and the mature heavy chain variable region has at least 95% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:27.

21. The antibody of claim 18, wherein the mature variable region light chain has at least 98% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 15 and the mature heavy chain variable region has at least 98% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:27.

22. The antibody of any of claims 16-21, wherein at least one of positions of L71 and L73 is occupied by Y and L respectively and at least one of positions H38, H46, and H89 is occupied by K, K, and T respectively.

23. The antibody of any of claims 16-22, wherein positions H46 and H89 are occupied by K and T respectively.

24. The antibody of any of claims 16-23, wherein positions H38, , H46, and H89 are occupied by K, K, and T respectively.

25. The antibody of any of claims 16-24, wherein positions H46 and H89 are occupied by K and T respectively.

26. The antibody of any of claims 16-25, wherein positions L71 and L73 are occupied by Y and L respectively.

27. The antibody of any of claims 16-26, wherein position L71 is occupied by

Y.

28. The antibody of any of claims 16-27, wherein positions L44 and L87 are occupied by I and F respectively.

29. The antibody of any of claims 16-28, wherein the mature variable region light chain comprises the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO: 12 and the mature variable region heavy chain comprises the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO:24.

30. The antibody of claim 18, wherein the mature light chain variable region has an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO: 15 and the mature heavy chain variable region has an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO:27.

31. A humanized antibody comprising a mature light chain variable region comprising the three light chain Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO: 12 and a mature heavy chain variable region comprising the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO:24; wherein positions H38, , H46, and H89 are occupied by K, K, and T respectively, and positions L71 and L73 are occupied by Y and L respectively.

32. A humanized antibody comprising a mature humanized heavy chain variable region comprising the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO: 12 and a mature light chain variable region comprising the three light chain Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO:24; wherein positions H46 and H89 are occupied by K and T respectively, and position L44 and L71 are occupied by I and Y.

5D2

33. A monoclonal antibody that competes with 5D2 for binding to iC3b.

34. The antibody of claim 33, wherein 5D2 comprises a mature light chain variable region having an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO: 17 and a mature heavy chain variable region having an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO:28.

35. The antibody of claim 33, comprising three light chain Kabat CDRs and three heavy chain Kabat CDRs of the mature light and heavy chain variable regions of SEQ ID NOS. 17 and 28.

36. The antibody of claim 33 comprising a mature light chain variable region having at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 18 (LI) and a mature variable region heavy chain having at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:30.

37. The antibody of claim 36, wherein the mature light chain variable region has at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 18 and the mature variable region heavy chain has at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:30.

38. The antibody of claim 36, wherein the mature light chain variable region has at least 95% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 18 and the mature variable region heavy chain has at least 95% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:30.

39. The antibody of claim 36, wherein the mature light chain variable region has at least 98% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 18 the mature variable region heavy chain has at least 98% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:30.

40. The antibody of any of claims 33-39, wherein at least one of positions L36, L49, L69, L71, and L104 is occupied by F, S, K, Y, and L respectively and at least one of positions HI, H5, H44, H69, and H89 is occupied by E Q, S, L, and L respectively.

41. The antibody of any of claims 33-40, wherein positions H5 and H44 are occupied by Q and S respectively.

42. The antibody of any of claims 33-41, wherein positions H5, H44, H69, and H89 are occupied by Q, S, L, and L respectively.

43. The antibody of any of claims 33-42, wherein positions H5 and H44 are occupied by Q and S respectively.

44. The antibody of any of claims 33-43, wherein positions L36, L49, L69, L71, and LI 04 are occupied by F, S, K, Y, and L respectively.

45. The antibody of any of claims 33-44, wherein the mature light chain variable region comprises the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO: 17 the mature heavy chain variable region comprises the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO:28.

46. The antibody of claim 36, wherein the mature light chain variable region has an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO: 18 and the mature heavy chain variable region has an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO:29.

47. The antibody of claim 36, wherein the mature light chain variable region has an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO: 18 and the mature heavy chain variable region has an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO:30.

48. A humanized antibody comprising a mature light chain variable region comprising the three light chain Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO: 18 and a mature humanized heavy chain variable region comprising the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO:29, wherein positions HI, H5, H44, H69, and H89 are occupied by E, Q, S, L, and L respectively, and positions L36, L49, L69, L71, and LI 04 are occupied by F, S, K, Y, and L respectively.

49. A humanized antibody comprising a mature light chain variable region comprising the three light chain Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO: 18 and a mature humanized heavy chain variable region comprising the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO:30 , wherein positions HI, H5 and H44 are occupied by E, Q and S respectively, and positions L36, L49, L69, L71, and LI 04 are occupied by F, S, K, Y, and L respectively.

50. The antibody of any preceding claim that is an Fab fragment, or single chain Fv.

51. The antibody of any of claims 1-50, wherein the isotype is human IgGl.

52. The antibody of any preceding claim having at least one mutation in the constant region.

53. The antibody of claim 52, wherein the mutation reduces complement fixation or activation by the constant region.

54. The antibody of claim 53 having a mutation at one or more of positions 241, 264, 265, 270, 296, 297, 322, 329 and 331 by EU numbering.

55. The antibody of claim 54 having alanine at positions 318, 320 and 322.

56. The antibody of any of claims 1-50, wherein the isotype is of human IgG2 or IgG4 isotype.

57. The antibody of any preceding claim, wherein the mature heavy chain variable region is fused to a heavy chain constant region and the mature light chain constant region is fused to a light chain constant region.

58. The antibody of claim 57, wherein the heavy chain constant region has the amino acid sequence designated SEQ ID NO:43 provided the C-terminal lysine residue may be omitted.

59. The antibody of claim 57, wherein the light chain constant region has the amino acid sequence designated SEQ ID NO:42.

60. The antibody of any preceding claim, wherein the heavy chain constant region is a mutant form of natural human constant region which has reduced binding to an Fey receptor relative to the natural human constant region.

61. A pharmaceutical composition comprising an antibody of any preceding claim and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

62. A method of treating or effecting prophylaxis of a disease characterized by abnormal levels or distribution of iC3b relative to healthy individuals comprising administering an effective regime of the antibody of any of claims 1-60 to a patient having or at risk of a disease associated with iC3b aggregation and thereby treating or effecting prophylaxis of the disease.

63. The method of claim 62, wherein the disease is rheumatoid arthritis.

64. The method of claim 62, wherein the disease is systemic lupus

erythematosus.

65. The method of claim 62, wherein the disease is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

66. The method of claim 62, wherein the disease is a macular degenerative disease.

67. The method of claim 62, wherein the disease is a complement-associated eye condition.

68. The method of claim 67, wherein the disease is age-related macular degeneration.

69. The method of claim 67, wherein the disease is choroidal neovascularization

70. The method of claim 67, wherein the disease is uveitis.

71. The method of claim 67, wherein the disease is an ischemia-related retinopathy.

72. The method of claim 71, wherein the disease is a diabetic retinopathy.

73. The method of claim 67, wherein the disease is endophthalmitis.

74. The method of claim 67, wherein the disease is diabetic macular edema, pathological myopia, von Hippel-Lindau disease, histoplasmosis of the eye, Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO), corneal neovascularization or retinal neovascularization.

75. The method of claim 62, wherein the disease is Alzheimer's disease.

76. A method of inhibiting formation of drusen comprising administering an effective regime of the antibody of any of claims 1-60 to a patient having or at risk of a disease associated with drusen formation and thereby inhibiting drusen formation in the patient.

77. A method of inhibiting aggregation of iC3b comprising administering an effective regime of the antibody of any of claims 1-60 to a patient having or at risk of a disease associated with iC3b aggregation and thereby inhibiting iC3b aggregation in the patient.

78. A method of stabilizing a non-toxic conformation of iC3b comprising administering an effective regime of the antibody of any of claims 1-60 to a patient having or at risk of a disease associated with iC3b and thereby stabilizing a nontoxic conformation of iC3b.

79. A method of clearing drusen comprising administering an effective regime of the antibody of any of claims 1-60 to a patient having drusen and thereby clearing drusen from the patient.

80. A method of clearing iC3b comprising administering an effective regime of the antibody of any of claims 1-60 to a patient having an abnormally high level of iC3b and thereby clearing iC3b from the patient.

81. The method of claim 80, wherein the disease is age related macular degeneration.

82. The method of claim 80, wherein the disease is Alzheimer's disease.

83. A method of treating or effecting prophylaxis of a disease associated with iC3b, comprising administering an effective regime of the antibody of any of claims 1-60 to a patient having or at risk of the disease and thereby treating or effecting prophylaxis of the disease.

84. The method of claim 83, wherein the antibody is as defined in any of claims 1-60.

85. The method of claim 83, wherein the patient is an ApoE2 carrier.

86. A method of treating or effecting prophylaxis of age related macular degeneration comprising administering an effective regime of the antibody of any of claims 1-60 to a patient having or at risk of the disease and thereby treating or effecting prophylaxis of the disease.

87. A method of treating or effecting prophylaxis of Alzheimer's disease comprising administering an effective regime of the antibody of any of claims 1-60 to a patient having or at risk of the disease and thereby treating or effecting prophylaxis of the disease; wherein the antibody stains plaques in immunohistochemical analysis of AD brain.

88. A method of reducing amyloid plaque in an Alzheimer's disease patient comprising administering an effective regime of the antibody of any of claims 1-60 to a patient having the disease and thereby treating or effecting prophylaxis of the disease; wherein the antibody stains plaques in immunohistochemical analysis of AD brain.

89. The method of any of claims 62-88, wherein the regime is administered topically, intravenously, intravitreally, orally, subcutaneously, intraarterially, intracranially, intrathecally, intraperitoneally, intranasally or intramuscularly.

90. The method of any of claims 62-88, wherein the regime is administered intravitreally.

Description:
COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR TREATING DISEASES OF PROTEIN AGGREGATION INVOLVING IC3B DEPOSITION

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

[0001] The present application is a non-provisional of US 61/710,655 filed October 5, 2012, incorporated by reference in its entirety for all purposes.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Complement is an auxiliary system in immunity and antimicrobial defense including more than 35 plasma or membrane proteins. Complement is predominantly activated by a cascade of proteolytic steps. The three complement activation pathways (classical, lectin and alternative) all lead to the activation of complement protein C3, which is cleaved into fragments C3a and C3b.

[0003] The classical complement activation pathway begins with antibodies bound to a pathogen surface, which in turn bind the Clq complement component. This sets off a serine protease catalytic cascade involving serum complement proteins that ultimately cleaves C3 to its active form, C3b. The lectin pathway is activated via recognition of carbohydrate motifs by lectin proteins. The alternative pathway activates complement by direct reaction of an internal C3 ester with recognition motifs on the pathogen surface.

[0004] C3 is a heterodimer of an alpha chain and a beta chain held together by a disulfide bond formed between the N-terminal regions of the two chains. Another disulfide bond exists between the N-terminal region and the C-terminal region of the alpha chain. The alpha chain contains a thioester between a cysteine and a glutamine residue that are three positions apart. This thioester allows for the activation-dependent formation of covalent bonds. Activation of C3 by C3-convertases yields C3a and C3b. C3b changes its conformation to expose the internal thioester bond and binds to nearby nucleophils (acceptor molecules). This is the initial step in complement-mediated opsonization, that is, the rendering of pathogens subject to phagocytosis by, for example, macrophages. C3b has the ability to self-amplify and circulating levels in plasma are subject to tight control. Cleavage and consequent inactivation of C3b is achieved by factor I and a cofactor, yielding iC3b, which is normally then further degraded by factor I and CRl. Comparison of C3b to C3 demonstrates that the molecule undergoes major conformational rearrangements with each proteolysis, which exposes not only the internal thioester bond, but additional new surfaces of the molecule that can interact with cellular receptors.

[0005] To prevent unwanted complement activation in the body, most mammalian cells are equipped with regulators that block complement amplification on host cells. Without these intrinsic regulators, the generation of activated complement proteins facilitates inflammation and tissue damage. Thus, non-cellular surfaces that lack intrinsic complement regulators are especially prone to complement attack and are fully dependent on protection by soluble complement regulators in serum. Unregulated complement activation has been associated with various chronic inflammatory diseases and degenerative diseases. The complement split products C3a and C5a, which function as a chemo-attractant and activators of neutrophils and inflammatory macrophages via the C3a and C5a receptors, are dominant in this inflammatory cascade. Complement activation has been shown to be an important component capable of driving chronic inflammation in immune-complex mediated diseases such as membrane- proliferative glomerulonephritis, nephrotoxic nephritis, and arthritis.

[0006] AMD is the primary cause of blindness in the elderly, affecting 30-50 million elderly individuals worldwide. Genetic association studies link polymorphisms in factor H, factor B, and C3 with AMD. The lack of regulation of the alternate pathway for complement activation is postulated as a major cause underlying the two primary clinical forms of AMD: wet (exudative) and dry. Wet AMD is the less common form (10-20% of total AMD cases) and is characterized by choroidal neo-vascularization of retinal pigment epithelial cell layer in the retina.

[0007] AMD is a disorder characterized by extracellular lipoproteinaceous deposits known as drusen. Drusen forms in eye tissue between the basal surface of retinal pigment epithelial cells and a basement membrane complex called Bruch's membrane and includes lipofusin pigments from degenerating RPE cells and plasma components. Among the constituents of drusen are complement proteins depositing on the lipofuscin, which originates from degenerating retinal pigment epithelial cells, and Αβ peptide (Johnson, Leitner et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002; 99(18): 11830-5; Dentchev, Milam et al. Mol Vis. 2003; 9: 184-90; Yoshida, Ohno-Matsui et al. J Clin Invest. 2005;115(10):2793-800; Luibl, Isas et al., J Clin Invest. 2006;116(2):378-85).

Drusen is immunoreactive for C3 fragments and other complement proteins, such as, for example, iC3b, Factor H and the membrane attack complex C5b-C9. SUMMARY OF THE CLAIMED INVENTION

[0008] The invention provides monoclonal antibody 6G1 or 2H8r, or a humanized, chimeric or veneered form of 6G1 or 2H8r, wherein 6G1 is a mouse antibody characterized by a light chain variable region having an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO:6 and heavy chain variable region having an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO: 19, and 2H8r is a mouse monoclonal antibody characterized by a light variable region having an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO: 12 and a heavy chain variable region having an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO:24. Optionally, the antibody is a humanized, chimeric or veneered form of monoclonal antibody 6G1 wherein 6G1 is a mouse antibody characterized by a light chain variable region having an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO:6 and heavy chain variable region having an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO: 19.

[0009] The invention also provides an antibody that competes with 6G1 or 2H8r for binding to iC3b. Optionally, the antibody comprises heavy chain CDRs having the sequences NYGMN (SEQ ID NO:36), WINTYTGEPXIY ADX2FKG (wherein XI is T or R and X2 is D or E) (SEQ ID NO:37) and GGYPHYYSMDY (SEQ ID NO:38), and light chain CDRs R AS QDIXNLYLN (wherein X is S or N) (SEQ ID NO:39), YTSXLHS (wherein X is R or K) (SEQ ID NO:40) and QQGXTLPRT (wherein X is K or N) (SEQ ID NO:41). Optionally, the antibody comprises a mature light chain variable region having at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:9 and a mature heavy chain variable region having at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:22. Optionally, the antibody comprises a mature light chain variable region having at least 95% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:9 and a mature heavy chain variable region having at least 95% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:22. Optionally, the antibody comprises a mature light chain variable region having at least 98% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:9 and a mature heavy chain variable region having at least 98% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:22. Optionally, at least one of positions L69, L71 and L73 of the antibodies is occupied by R, Y and L respectively and at least one of positions H38, H46 and H89 is occupied by K, K and T respectively. Optionally, positions H46 and H89 of the antibodies are occupied by K and T respectively. Optionally, positions H38, H46 and H89 are occupied by K, K and T respectively. Optionally, positions L69, L71 and L73 are occupied by R, Y and L respectively. Optionally, positions L44 and L87 are occupied by I and F respectively. Optionally, the mature light chain variable region has an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO:9 and the mature heavy chain variable region has an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO:22. Optionally, the mature light chain variable region comprises the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO:6 and the mature heavy chain variable region comprises the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO: 19.

[0010] The invention further provides a humanized antibody comprising a humanized mature light chain variable region comprising the three light chain Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO:6 and a humanized mature heavy chain variable region comprising the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO: 19 and; wherein positions L69, L71 and L73 are occupied by R, Y and L respectively and positions H38, H44, H46 and H89 are occupied by K, D, K and T respectively.

[0011] The invention provides a monoclonal antibody 2H8r or a humanized, chimeric, or veneered form thereof, wherein 2H8r is a mouse antibody characterized by a mature light chain variable region comprising SEQ ID NO: 12 and a mature heavy chain variable region comprising SEQ ID NO:24. Optionally, the antibody comprises three heavy chain Kabat CDRs and three light chain Kabat CDRs from the heavy and light chain variable regions of SEQ ID NOS. 12 and 24. Optionally, the antibody comprises a mature light chain variable region having at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 15 and a mature heavy chain variable region having at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:27. Optionally, the mature light chain variable region has at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 15 and the mature heavy chain variable region has at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:27. Optionally, the mature light chain variable region has at least 95% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 15 and the mature heavy chain variable region has at least 95% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:27. Optionally, the mature variable region light chain has at least 98% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 15 and the mature heavy chain variable region has at least 98% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:27. Optionally, at least one of positions of L71 and L73 of the antibodies is occupied by Y and L respectively and at least one of positions H38, H46, and H89 is occupied by K, K, and T respectively. Optionally, positions H46 and H89 of the antibodies are occupied by K and T respectively. Optionally, positions H38, , H46, and H89 are occupied by K, K, and T respectively. Optionally, positions H46 and H89 are occupied by K and T respectively. Optionally, positions L71 and L73 are occupied by Y and L respectively. Optionally, position L71 is occupied by Y. Optionally, positions L44 and L87 are occupied by I and F respectively. Optionally, the mature variable region light chain comprises the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO: 12 and the mature variable region heavy chain comprises the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO:24. Optionally, the mature light chain variable region has an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO: 15 and the mature heavy chain variable region has an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO:27.

[0012] The invention also provides a humanized antibody comprising a mature light chain variable region comprising the three light chain Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO: 12 and a mature heavy chain variable region comprising the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO:24; wherein positions H38, , H46, and H89 are occupied by K, K, and T respectively, and positions L71 and L73 are occupied by Y and L respectively.

[0013] The invention further provides a humanized antibody comprising a mature humanized heavy chain variable region comprising the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO: 12 and a mature light chain variable region comprising the three light chain Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO:24; wherein positions H46 and H89 are occupied by K and T respectively, and position L44 and L71 are occupied by I and Y.

[0014] The invention provides an antibody that competes with5D2 for binding to iC3b. 5D2 comprises a mature light chain variable region having an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO: 17 and a mature heavy chain variable region having an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO:28. Optionally, the antibody comprises three light chain Kabat CDRs and three heavy chain Kabat CDRs of the mature light and heavy chain variable regions of SEQ ID NOS: 17 and 28. Optionally, the antibody comprises a mature light chain variable region having at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 18 (LI) and a mature variable region heavy chain having at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 30. Optionally, the mature light chain variable region has at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 18 and the mature variable region heavy chain has at least 90% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:30. Optionally, the mature light chain variable region has at least 95% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 18 and the mature variable region heavy chain has at least 95% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:30. Optionally, the mature light chain variable region has at least 98% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 18 the mature variable region heavy chain has at least 98% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:30.

Optionally, at least one of positions L36, L49, L69, L71, and L104 of the antibodies is occupied by F, S, K, Y, and L respectively and at least one of positions HI, H5, H44, H69, and H89 is occupied by E Q, S, L, and L respectively. Optionally, positions H5 and H44 of the antibodies are occupied by Q and S respectively. Optionally, positions H5, H44, H69, and H89 of the antibodies are occupied by Q, S, L, and L respectively. Optionally, positions H5 and H44 of the antibodies are occupied by Q and S respectively. Optionally, positions L36, L49, L69, L71, and LI 04 of the antibodies are occupied by F, S, K, Y, and L respectively. Optionally, the mature light chain variable region comprises the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO: 17 the mature heavy chain variable region comprises the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO:28. Optionally, the mature light chain variable region has an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO: 18 and the mature heavy chain variable region has an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO:29. Optionally, the mature light chain variable region has an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO: 18 and the mature heavy chain variable region has an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NO:30.

[0015] The invention also provides a humanized antibody comprising a mature light chain variable region comprising the three light chain Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO: 18 and a mature humanized heavy chain variable region comprising the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO:29, wherein positions HI, H5, H44, H69, and H89 are occupied by E, Q, S, L, and L respectively, and positions L36, L49, L69, L71, and L104 are occupied by F, S, K, Y, and L respectively.

[0016] The invention further provides a humanized antibody comprising a mature light chain variable region comprising the three light chain Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO: 18 and a mature humanized heavy chain variable region comprising the three Kabat CDRs of SEQ ID NO:30 , wherein positions HI, H5 and H44 are occupied by E, Q and S respectively, and positions L36, L49, L69, L71, and LI 04 are occupied by F, S, K, Y, and L respectively.

[0017] In any of the above antibodies, the antibody is an Fab fragment, or single chain Fv. In any of the above antibodies, the isotype is of human IgG2 or IgG4 isotype. In any of the above antibodies, the isotype is human IgGl. In any of the above antibodies, the antibody has at least one mutation in the constant region. Optionally, the mutation reduces complement fixation or activation by the constant region. Optionally, the antibody has a mutation at one or more of positions 241, 264, 265, 270, 296, 297, 322, 329 and 331 by EU numbering. Optionally, the antibody has alanine at positions 318, 320 and 322. [0018] In any of the above antibodies, the mature heavy chain variable region is fused to a heavy chain constant region and the mature light chain constant region is fused to a light chain constant region. Optionally, the heavy chain constant region has the amino acid sequence designated SEQ ID NO:43 provided the C-terminal lysine residue may be omitted. Optionally, the light chain constant region has the amino acid sequence designated SEQ ID NO:42.

[0019] In any of the above antibodies, the heavy chain constant region is a mutant form of natural human constant region which has reduced binding to an Fey receptor relative to the natural human constant region.

[0020] The invention further provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising any of the above antibodies and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

[0021] The invention further provides a method of treating or effecting prophylaxis of a disease characterized by abnormal levels or distribution of iC3b relative to healthy individuals comprising administering an effective regime of any of the above antibodies to a patient having or at risk of a disease associated with iC3b aggregation and thereby treating or effecting prophylaxis of the disease. Optionally, the disease is rheumatoid arthritis. Optionally, the disease is systemic lupus erythematosus. Optionally, the disease is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Optionally, the disease is a macular degenerative disease. Optionally, the disease is a complement-associated eye condition. Optionally, the disease is age-related macular degeneration. Optionally, the disease is choroidal neovascularization. Optionally, the disease is uveitis. Optionally, the disease is an ischemia-related retinopathy. Optionally, the disease is a diabetic retinopathy. Optionally, the disease is endophthalmitis. Optionally, the disease is diabetic macular edema, pathological myopia, von Hippel-Lindau disease, histoplasmosis of the eye, Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO), corneal neovascularization or retinal

neovascularization. Optionally, the disease is Alzheimer's disease

[0022] The invention further provides a method of inhibiting formation of drusen comprising administering an effective regime of any of the above antibodies to a patient having or at risk of a disease associated with drusen formation and thereby inhibiting drusen formation in the patient. [0023] The invention further provides a method of inhibiting aggregation of iC3b comprising administering an effective regime of any of the above antibodies to a patient having or at risk of a disease associated with iC3b aggregation and thereby inhibiting iC3b aggregation in the patient

[0024] The invention further provides a method of stabilizing a non-toxic conformation of iC3b comprising administering an effective regime of any of the above antibodies to a patient having or at risk of a disease associated with iC3b and thereby stabilizing a nontoxic

conformation of iC3b.

[0025] The invention further provides a method of clearing drusen comprising administering an effective regime of any of the above antibodies to a patient having drusen and thereby clearing drusen from the patient.

[0026] The invention further provides a method of clearing iC3b comprising administering an effective regime of any of the above antibodies to a patient having an abnormally high level of iC3b and thereby clearing iC3b from the patient. Optionally, the disease is age related macular degeneration. Optionally, the disease is Alzheimer's disease.

[0027] The invention further provides a method of treating or effecting prophylaxis of a disease associated with iC3b, comprising administering an effective regime of any of the above antibodies to a patient having or at risk of the disease and thereby treating or effecting prophylaxis of the disease. Optionally, the antibody is any of the above antibodies. Optionally, the patient is an ApoE2 carrier.

[0028] The invention further provides a method of treating or effecting prophylaxis of age related macular degeneration comprising administering an effective regime of the antibody of any of claims 1-60 to a patient having or at risk of the disease and thereby treating or effecting prophylaxis of the disease.

[0029] The invention further provides a method of treating or effecting prophylaxis of

Alzheimer's disease comprising administering an effective regime of the antibody of any of claims 1-60 to a patient having or at risk of the disease and thereby treating or effecting prophylaxis of the disease; wherein the antibody stains plaques in immunohistochemical analysis of AD brain. [0030] The invention further provides a method of reducing amyloid plaque in an Alzheimer's disease patient comprising administering an effective regime of the antibody of any of claims 1- 60 to a patient having the disease and thereby treating or effecting prophylaxis of the disease; wherein the antibody stains plaques in immunohistochemical analysis of AD brain.

[0031] In any of the above methods, the regime is administered topically, intravenously, intravitreally, orally, subcutaneously, intraarterially, intracranially, intrathecally,

intraperitoneally, intranasally or intramuscularly. In any of the above methods, the regime is administered intravitreally.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0032] Fig. 1 shows the sequence of human precursor C3 protein. The beta chain and N- and C-terminal fragments of the alpha chain present in iC3b are underlined.

[0033] Fig. 2 shows proteolytic processing of C3 to iC3b. The thioester bond (bold line) formed between Cys and Glu is shown for native C3 (amino acids of the thioester region are in circles). (1) Activation of native C3 by C3-convertases yields C3a and C3b bound to an acceptor R (here via ester linkage). (2) C3b inactivation by factor I and a cof actor. (3) iC3b is further degraded by factor I and CR1. (4) Acceptor-bound C3dg is trimmed by unspecific plasma proteases to C3d.

[0034] Figs. 3, 4, and 5 show the relative binding of antibodies 2H8r, 2A10, 6G1 and 5D2 to iC3b, C3b and C3 in a sandwich ELISA assay.

[0035] Fig. 6 shows immunohistochemical staining with various concetrations of antibody 6G1 of brain tissue from a man with Alzheimer's disease.

[0036] Fig. 7 shows the results of preabsorbing 6G1 with iC3b, C3 or C3b protein prior to immunohistochmical staining of brain tissue from a patient with Alzheimer's disease.

[0037] Figs. 8 and 9 shows staining of retinal epithelial tissue from subjects with AMD with 5D2 (Fig. 8), or 6G1 antibody (Fig. 9).

[0038] Fig. 10 shows direct ELISA of humanized 6G1 compared to chimeric 6G1. [0039] Fig. 11. shows sandwich ELISA of humanized 6G1 compared to chimeric 6G1. DEFINITIONS

[0040] Monoclonal antibodies and other therapeutic agents are typically provided in isolated form. This means that the agent is at least partially separated from the components with which it is naturally associated, if any, and/or is typically at least 50% w/w pure of proteins and other macromolecules arising from its production or purification but does not exclude the possibility that the agent is combined with an excess of pharmaceutical acceptable excipient(s) intended to facilitate its use. Sometimes monoclonal antibodies are at least 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95% or 99% w/w pure of proteins and other macromolecules from production or purification. Often an isolated monoclonal antibody or other therapeutic agent is the predominant macromolecular species remaining after its purification. Optionally, an isolated monoclonal antibody or other therapeutic agent is purified to essential homogeneity meaning that no other macromolecular species form a discrete band on gel analysis.

[0041] Antibodies of the invention typically bind to their target with an association constant (also known as an affinity constant) of at least 10 6 , 10 7 , 10 8 , 10 9 or 10 10 M "1 . S ome such antibodies bind to their target with a K D of 10 - " 7 , 10 - " 8 , 10 - " 9 or 10 - " 10 M. K D is the reciprocal of association constant. Such binding is specific binding in that it is detectably higher in magnitude and distinguishable from non-specific binding occurring to at least one unrelated target. Specific binding can be the result of formation of bonds between particular functional groups or particular spatial fit (e.g., lock and key type) whereas nonspecific binding is usually the result of van der Waals forces. Specific binding does not however necessarily imply that a monoclonal antibody binds one and only one target. An antibody may preferentially bind one target relative to another target if the antibody binds with at least 2-fold, 5-fold, 10-fold or greater affinity constant to the first target relative to the second target, which can be determined, for example, by methods discussed below. The association constant of a humanized antibody can also be compared with that of a donor or a chimeric form of the donor. Preferably the affinity of the humanized antibody is within a factor of 4, 2, 3, 2, or 1.5 of that of the donor. Some humanized antibodies have an affinity the same (within the margin of error of

measurement as that of a donor or chimeric form thereof). Some humanized antibodies have an affinity the same as or greater than (e.g., up to 2, 3 or 4 fold) than that of a donor or chimeric antibody. [0042] The basic antibody structural unit is a tetramer of subunits. Each tetramer includes two identical pairs of polypeptide chains, each pair having one "light" (about 25 kDa) and one "heavy" chain (about 50-70 kDa). The amino-terminal portion of each chain includes a variable region of about 100 to 110 or more amino acids primarily responsible for antigen recognition. This variable region is initially expressed linked to a cleavable signal peptide. The variable region without the signal peptide is sometimes referred to as a mature variable region. Thus, for example, a mature light chain variable region means a light chain variable region without the light chain signal peptide. The carboxy-terminal portion of each chain defines a constant region primarily responsible for effector function. A constant region can include any or all of a CHI region, hinge region, CH2 region and CH3 region.

[0043] Light chains are classified as either kappa or lambda. Heavy chains are classified as gamma, mu, alpha, delta, or epsilon, and define the antibody's isotype as IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD and IgE, respectively. Within light and heavy chains, the variable and constant regions are joined by a "J" region of about 12 or more amino acids, with the heavy chain also including a "D" region of about 10 or more amino acids. (See generally, Fundamental Immunology (Paul, W., ed., 2nd ed. Raven Press, N.Y., 1989), Ch. 7) (incorporated by reference in its entirety for all purposes).

[0044] The mature variable regions of each light/heavy chain pair form the antibody binding site. Thus, an intact antibody has two binding sites. Except in bifunctional or bispecific antibodies, the two binding sites are the same. The chains all exhibit the same general structure of relatively conserved framework regions (FR) joined by three hypervariable regions, also called complementarity determining regions or CDRs. The CDRs from the two chains of each pair are aligned by the framework regions, enabling binding to a specific epitope. From N- terminal to C-terminal, both light and heavy chains comprise the domains FR1, CDR1, FR2, CDR2, FR3, CDR3 and FR4. The assignment of amino acids to each domain is in accordance with the definitions of Kabat, Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 1987 and 1991), or Chothia & Lesk, J. Mol. Biol. 196:901- 917 (1987); Chothia et al., Nature 342:878-883 (1989). Kabat also provides a widely used numbering convention (Kabat numbering) in which corresponding residues between different heavy chains or between different light chains are assigned the same number. [0045] The term "antibody" includes intact antibodies and binding fragments thereof.

Typically, fragments compete with the intact antibody from which they were derived for specific binding to the target. Fragments include separate heavy chains, light chains Fab, Fab', F(ab') 2 , F(ab)c, Fv and single domain antibodies. Single (variable) domain antibodies include VH regions separated from their VL partners (or vice versa) in conventional antibodies (Ward et al., 1989, Nature 341: 544-546) as well as VH regions (sometimes known as VHH) from species such as Camelidae or cartilaginous fish (e.g., a nurse shark) in which VH regions are not associated with VL regions (see, e.g., WO 9404678). Single domain antibodies in which one chain is separated from its natural partners are sometimes known as Dabs and single domain antibodies from Caemelidae or cartilaginous fish are sometimes known as nanobodies. Constant regions or parts of constant regions may or may not be present in single domain antibodies. For example, natural single variable domain antibodies from Camelidae include a VHH variable region, and CH2 and CH3 constant regions. Single domain antibodies can be subject of humanization by analogous approaches to conventional antibodies. The Dabs type of antibodies are usually obtained from antibodies of human origin. NANOBODY types of antibody are of Camelidae or shark origin and can be subject to humanization. Fragments can be produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or by enzymatic or chemical separation of intact

immunoglobulins. As well as monospecific antibodies, the term "antibody" also includes a bispecific antibody. A bispecific or bifunctional antibody is an artificial hybrid antibody having two different heavy/light chain pairs and two different binding sites (see, e.g., Songsivilai and Lachmann, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 79:315-321 (1990); Kostelny et al., J. Immunol., 148: 1547-53 (1992)).

[0046] The term "epitope" refers to a site on an antigen to which an antibody binds. An epitope can be formed from contiguous amino acids or noncontiguous amino acids juxtaposed by tertiary folding of one or more proteins. Epitopes formed from contiguous amino acids are typically retained on exposure to denaturing solvents whereas epitopes formed by tertiary folding are typically lost on treatment with denaturing solvents. An epitope typically includes at least 3, and more usually, at least 5 or 8-10 amino acids in a unique spatial conformation. Methods of determining spatial conformation of epitopes include, for example, x-ray crystallography and 2- dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. See, e.g., Epitope Mapping Protocols, in Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 66, Glenn E. Morris, Ed. (1996). A "neoepitope" is an epitope that becomes accessible only upon some modification relative to a precursor state, such as cleavage, covalent modification (e.g., phosphorylation) or conformational change.

[0047] Antibodies that recognize the same or overlapping epitopes can be identified in a simple immunoassay showing the ability of one antibody to compete with the binding of another antibody to a target antigen. The epitope of an antibody can also be defined by X-ray

crystallography of the antibody bound to its antigen to identify contact residues. Alternatively, two antibodies have the same epitope if all amino acid mutations in the antigen that reduce or eliminate binding of one antibody reduce or eliminate binding of the other. Two antibodies have overlapping epitopes if some amino acid mutations that reduce or eliminate binding of one antibody reduce or eliminate binding of the other.

[0048] Competition between antibodies is determined by an assay in which an antibody under test inhibits specific binding of a reference antibody to a common antigen (see, e.g., Junghans et al., Cancer Res. 50: 1495, 1990). A test antibody competes with a reference antibody if an excess of a test antibody (e.g., at least 2x, 5x, lOx, 20x or lOOx) inhibits binding of the reference antibody by at least 50% but preferably 75%, 90% or 99% as measured in a competitive binding assay. Likewise a reference antibody competes with a test antibody if an excess of a reference antibody (e.g., at least 2x, 5x, lOx, 20x or lOOx) inhibits binding of the test antibody by at least 50%, 75%, 90% or 99% as measured in a competitive binding assay. Antibodies identified by competition assay (competing antibodies) include antibodies binding to the same epitope as the reference antibody and antibodies binding to an adjacent epitope sufficiently proximal to the epitope bound by the reference antibody for steric hindrance to occur. Two-way competition (reference competes with test and vice versa) indicates a more proximate relationship between epitopes (e.g., same or substantially overlapping epitopes) than one way inhibition (e.g., partially overlapping or proximate epitopes).

[0049] The term "patient" includes human and other mammalian subjects that receive either prophylactic or therapeutic treatment.

[0050] For purposes of classifying amino acids substitutions as conservative or

nonconservative, amino acids are grouped as follows: Group I (hydrophobic side chains): met, ala, val, leu, ile; Group II (neutral hydrophilic side chains): cys, ser, thr; Group III (acidic side chains): asp, glu; Group IV (basic side chains): asn, gin, his, lys, arg; Group V (residues influencing chain orientation): gly, pro; and Group VI (aromatic side chains): trp, tyr, phe. Conservative substitutions involve substitutions between amino acids in the same class. Non- conservative substitutions constitute exchanging a member of one of these classes for a member of another.

[0051] Percentage sequence identities for antibodies are determined with antibody sequences maximally aligned by the Kabat numbering convention. After alignment, if a subject antibody region (e.g., the entire mature variable region of a heavy or light chain) is being compared with the same region of a reference antibody, the percentage sequence identity between the subject and reference antibody regions is the number of positions occupied by the same amino acid in both the subject and reference antibody region divided by the total number of aligned positions of the two regions, with gaps not counted, multiplied by 100 to convert to percentage.

[0052] An individual is at increased risk of a disease if the subject has at least one known risk- factor (e.g., genetic, biochemical, family history, situational exposure) placing individuals with that risk factor at a statistically significant greater risk of developing the disease than individuals without the risk factor.

[0053] The term "symptom" refers to a subjective evidence of a disease, such as altered gait, as perceived by the patient. A "sign" refers to objective evidence of a disease as observed by a physician.

[0054] Statistical significance means p<0.05.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

I. General

[0055] The present invention provides antibodies that preferentially bind to iC3b relative to C3b. These antibodies serve to reduce signs or symptoms of diseases associated with deposits of iC3b, such as AMD or AD. Although an understanding of mechanism is not required for practice of the invention, an antibody may reduce signs and/or symptoms of such a disease as a result of the antibody promoting clearing of iC3b (and/or its further degradation products such as C3d and C3c), or inhibiting the iC3b or further degradation products from inter or intramolecular aggregation, or from binding to other molecules, or by stabilizing a non-toxic conformation, among other mechanisms Clearing of iC3b or its further degradation products can be via phagocytosis or otherwise and can be of deposits or iC3b in free form (e.g., in the blood).

Clearing of iC3b can inhibit further deposition and/or reduce existing deposits of drusen of which iC3b is a component. Because the antibody preferentially binds to iC3b over C3b, the toxicity of truncated iC3b can be inhibited without unacceptable reduction of the immunological role of C3b.

[0056] Antibodies that preferentially bind to iC3b or agents that can induce such antibodies can be used in methods of treating or effecting prophylaxis of AMD or AD and other diseases associated with the presence of iC3b.

II. C3 precursor, C3, C3a, C3b and iC3b

[0057] C3, C3a, C3b and iC3b are proteolytic fragments of C3 precursor. Unless otherwise apparent from the context, reference to any of the polypeptides refers to a natural human form thereof. An exemplary human sequence for C3 precursor protein is NCBI P01024.2 or

GL 119370332 reproduced in Fig. 1. (The corresponding Swiss Prot identifier is P01024).

Natural human variants of this exemplary sequence are also included. Twenty-two such variants are listed in the Swiss-Prot database. Exemplary sequences for C3, C3a, C3b and iC3b can be found as subsequences of the C3 precursor shown in Fig. 1. Amino acids 1-22 of the C3 precursor are a cleaved signal peptide. Amino acids 23-667 form a beta chain. The beta chain is present in each of C3, C3b and iC3b. Amino acids 667 to 671 (RRRR; SEQ ID NO:44) are cleaved in processing of C3 precursor to C3 separating the beta chain from an alpha chain. Residues 672 to 1663 form an alpha chain of C3. Residues 672 to 748 of this alpha chain are cleaved to form the C3a fragment (anaphylatoxin). The remainder of the alpha chain of C3, residues 749 to 1663 forms the alpha chain of C3b. The alpha chain of C3b is cleaved to generate N-terminal and C-terminal fragments and an excised peptide in conversion of C3b to iC3b. The N-terminal fragment runs from residue 749 to 1303 and the C-terminal fragment from residue 1321 to residue 1663. The excised peptide (C3f) not present in iC3b runs from residue 1304 to residue 1320 (annotation of Swiss Prot P01024).

[0058] The proteolytic steps in conversion of C3 to iC3b are illustrated by Fig. 2. C3b includes a beta chain and alpha chain held together by disulfide bonding. iC3b constitutes about 0.5% of plasma complement proteins. iC3b differs from C3b in that instead of the complete alpha chain present in C3b, iC3b includes non-contiguous N- and C-terminal fragments held together by disulfide bonding. The different structures of iC3b and C3b give rise to at least two neoepitopes present in iC3b and not present in C3b. One such epitope occurs at the C-terminus of the N-terminal fragment (for example, the arginine residue at position 1303 in the C3 precursor sequence). For ease of reference, the last 20 amino acids of the N-terminal fragment are reproduced and assigned SEQ ID NO:2 (KDAPDHQELN LDVSLQLPSR). This epitope is also present on the further breakdown product C3d (see Fig. 2). The other epitope occurs at the N-terminus of the C-terminal fragment (the N-terminal residue of this fragment being S at position 1321 in the exemplary C3 precursor sequence shown in Fig.2. The first 20 amino acids of the C-terminal fragment are reproduced and assigned SEQ ID NO:3 (SEETKENEGF

TVTAEGKGQG). This epitope is also present on the further breakdown product C3c (Fig.2).

[0059] The N-terminal fragment of the alpha chain in iC3b has the following sequence (SEQ ID NO:4)

ARAS HLGLARS NLDEDIIAEENIVS RS EFPES WLWN VEDLKEPPKNGIS TKLMNIFLKDS I TTWEILAVSMSDKKGICVADPFEVTVMQDFFIDLRLPYSVVRNEQVEIRAVLYNYRQNQ ELK VRVELLHNP AFCS LATTKRRHQQT VTIPPKS S LS VP Y VIVPLKTGLQE VEVK A A V YH HFIS DG VRKS LKV VPEGIRMNKT V A VRTLDPERLGREG VQKEDIPP ADLS D QVPDTES ET RILLQGTPVAQMTEDAVDAERLKHLIVTPSGCGEQNMIGMTPTVIAVHYLDETEQWEKF GLEKRQG ALELIKKG YTQQLAFRQPS S AFA AFVKR APS TWLTA Y V VKVFS L A VNLIAID S Q VLCG A VKWLILEKQKPDG VFQED AP VIHQEMIGGLRNNNEKDM ALT AFVLIS LQE A KDICEEQ VNS LPGS ITKAGDFLE AN YMNLQRS YT V AIAG Y ALAQMGRLKGPLLNKFLTT AKDKNRWEDPGKQLYNVEATSYALLALLQLKDFDFVPPVVRWLNEQRYYGGGYGSTQ ATFM VFQ ALAQ YQKD APDHQELNLD VS LQLPS R

[0060] The C-terminal fragment of the alpha chain of iC3b has the following sequence (SEQ ID NO:5)

SEETKENEGFTVTAEGKGQGTLSVVTMYHAKAKDQLTCNKFDLKVTIKPAPETEKRPQ DAKNTMILEICTRYRGDQDATMSILDISMMTGFAPDTDDLKQLANGVDRYISKYELDKA FS DRNTLIIYLD KVS HS EDDCLAFKVHQ YFN VELIQPG A VKV Y A Y YNLEES CTRFYHPEK EDGKLNKLCRDELCRCAEENCFIQKSDDKVTLEERLDKACEPGVDYVYKTRLVKVQLS NDFDE YIM AIEQTIKS GS DE VQ VGQQRTFIS PIKCRE ALKLEEKKH YLM WGLS S DFWGE KPNLSYIIGKDTWVEHWPEEDECQDEENQKQCQDLGAFTESMVVFGCPN [0061] Fragments of iC3b are sometimes referred to by providing a range of the first and last amino acid, as for amino acids 15-20 of SEQ ID NO:2 or 1-5 of SEQ ID NO:3. Such a range defines the start and end point of a fragment but does not preclude the fragment being linked to a heterologous molecule, such as a carrier molecule to form a conjugate. Likewise, antibody binding specificity is sometimes defined by a range of amino acids. If an antibody is said to bind to an epitope within amino acids 15-20 of SEQ ID NO: l, for example, what is meant is that the epitope is within the recited range of amino acids including those defining the outer-limits of the range. It does not necessarily mean that every amino acid within the range constitutes part of the epitope. Thus, for example, an epitope within amino acids 15-20 of SEQ ID NO:2 may consist of amino acids 15-20, 16-19, 17-18, 17-20 or other segments of SEQ ID NO:2.

III. Antibodies

A. Binding specificity and functional properties

[0062] The invention provides monoclonal antibodies preferentially binding to iC3b relative to C3b. Antibodies of 6G1, 5D2, or 2H8r are three exemplary mouse monoclonal antibodies of IgGlk isotype.

[0063] Preferential binding means that an antibody binds to iC3b detectably more strongly than to C3b, and C3 beyond experimental error, for example with a higher association constant, higher on-rate and/or lower off rate. Some antibodies have affinity constants at least 2, 5 or 10- fold higher for iC3b than C3b. Some antibodies have a K D 2- to 20-fold lower for iC3b than C3b. Some antibodies have an affinity constant at least 10-fold higher for iC3b than C3 or C3b, or a K D at least 10-fold lower for iC3b than C3 or C3b as measured by surface plasmon resonance, for example, in a Biacore assay (e.g., by the procedure of the Examples). Some antibodies have affinity constants at least 2-fold higher for iC3b than C3b as measured in an immunoassay in which the iC3b is indirectly immobilized to a plate via an antibody (e.g., a sandwich ELISA assay, such as described in the Examples). Some antibodies bind to iC3b and lack any significant binding to C3b (i.e., binding indistinguishable between C3b and an irrelevant control protein).

[0064] Some antibodies preferentially binding to iC3b over C3b may recognize a

conformational epitope present on iC3b that is not present or at least not precisely replicated conformationally or thermodynamic ally in C3b due for example to differences in folding patterns between iC3b and C3b. Purified iC3b protein or fragments thereof of sufficient length and structure to develop a characteristic conformation (such as the iC3b available from

Complement Technology as described in the Examples) or cells, such as sheep red blood cells (SRBC's), containing surface deposited iC3b can be used as an immunogen.

[0065] Antibodies can be screened for binding to iC3b (using e.g., intact or substantially intact iC3b) and for lack of binding or at least reduced binding to C3b. Screening for lack of or reduced binding to C3b (i.e., preferential binding to iC3b relative to C3b) can be performed with C3b itself or a fragment thereof incorporating at least the sequences present in iC3b and flanking sequence(s) or a precursor of C3b, such as C3. For such screening assays, the binding target (e.g., iC3b, C3b or C3) can be indirectly immobilized to a plate via an antibody.

[0066] The present invention provides three exemplary mouse monoclonal antibodies of 6G1, 2H8r, and 5D2 (originally produced by hybridomas of the same designation). Each of antibodies 6G1, 2H8r, or 5D2 preferentially binds to iC3b relative to C3b or C3. For example, each of 6G1, 2H8r, or 5D2 has an affinity constant at least 2-fold higher for iC3b than C3b as measured by a sandwich ELISA assay, and an affinity constant at least 10-fold higher for iC3b than C3b as measured by a Biacore assay. Antibody 5D2 is cross -reactive between human and mouse iC3b, whereas 6G1, and 2H8r specifically bind human iC3b with little if any binding to mouse iC3b. Antibodies 6G1 and 2H8r stain amyloid plaques in brain tissue from an Alzheimer's disease patient, whereas 5D2 does not. Decreased staining of amyloid plaques with 6G1 was observed when the antibody was pre-absorbed with iC3b (but not with C3b or C3) providing an indication of greater preferential binding of 6G1 to iC3B over C3b or C3.

[0067] Some antibodies of the invention bind to the same or overlapping epitope as mouse monoclonal antibodies 6G1, 2H8r, or 5D2. Some antibodies bind to the same epitope as mouse monoclonal 6G1, 2H8r, 5D2. Some antibodies compete for specific binding to iC3b with a mouse monoclonal antibody 6G1, 2H8r, or 5D2. 6G1 and 2H8r compete with each other. 5D2 shows a small degree of one-way inhibition in a competition assay with 6G1 or 2H8r indicating 5D2 binds to a distinct epitope from 6G1 or 2H8r but that the epitopes may be overlapping or proximate to one another . The ability of 5D2 to cross-react between mouse and human forms of iC3b provides evidence the epitope is present in a region showing high sequence identity between mouse and human, for example at or near the C-terminus of the C-terminal fragment of the alpha-chain of C3B (SEQ ID NO:5).

[0068] Antibodies having the binding specificity of a selected murine antibody (e.g. 6G1, 2H8r, and 5D2), and in consequence, sharing at least one, some or all of functional properties of one of the antibodies can be produced by several methods. One such method produces variants of a starting antibody by phage display. See Winter, WO 92/20791. This method is particularly suitable for producing human antibodies. In this method, either the heavy or light chain variable region of the selected murine antibody is used as a starting material. If, for example, a light chain variable region is selected as the starting material, a phage library is constructed in which members display the same light chain variable region (i.e., the murine starting material) and a different heavy chain variable region. The heavy chain variable regions can for example be obtained from a library of rearranged human heavy chain variable regions. A phage showing strong specific binding for iC3b (e.g., at least 10 8 and preferably at least 109 M- " 1 ) is selected. The heavy chain variable region from this phage then serves as a starting material for constructing a further phage library. In this library, each phage displays the same heavy chain variable region (i.e., the region identified from the first display library) and a different light chain variable region. The light chain variable regions can be obtained for example from a library of rearranged human variable light chain regions. Again, phages showing strong specific binding for iC3b are selected. The resulting antibodies usually have the same or similar epitope specificity as the murine starting material.

[0069] Another method produces variants of of antibodies by mutagenesis of cDNA encoding the mature heavy and light variable regions of an exemplary antibody, such as 6G1, 2H8r, and 5D2. Monoclonal antibodies that are at least 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98% or 99% identical to 6G1, 2H8r, or 5D2 in amino acid sequence of the mature heavy and/or light chain variable regions and maintain its functional properties, and/or which differ from the respective antibody by a small number of functionally inconsequential amino acid substitutions (e.g., conservative substitutions), deletions, or insertions are also included in the invention. Some antibodies are monoclonal antibodies comprising six CDRs of 6G1, 2H8r, or 5D2, respectively.

[0070] Antibodies discriminating between iC3b and C3b that are not end-specific but bind to conformational epitopes present in iC3b but not present or not precisely replicated in C3b can be produced by immunizing with longer peptide immunogens sufficient to develop a characteristic conformation, for example iC3b itself or at least 50, 100, 200 or 250 contiguous residues of one or both of its component chains. Longer peptides can be produced by recombinant expression among other methods. Antibodies generated by such methods are screened for preferential binding to iC3b relative to C3b.

[0071] Some antibodies that preferentially bind to iC3b relative to C3b or C3 stain iC3b deposits present in drusen and/or amyloid plaques, e.g., amyloid plaques in brain tissue of a subject with Alzheimer's disease or from a brain of transgenic mouse model thereof. Amyloid plaques are insoluble protein aggregates formed extracellularly by the accumulation of amyloid peptides such as Αβ42. Amyloid plaque deposits comprise a central core of amyloid fibrils surrounded by dystrophic neuritis, axonal terminals and dendrites, microglia and fibrous astrocytes. As detailed in the Examples, antibodies that stain amyloid plaques can be screened in an immunohistochemical assay of AD brain. Antibodies can be screened for staining drusen by comparing staining of eyes from an AMD mouse model such as any of the models described in greater detail below (for example, ApoE4-HFC mice) and/or human tissue obtained from normal and AMD eyes obtained, for example, from the North Carolina Eye Bank, the Lions Eye Bank, and the Medical Eye Bank of Florida (Ding et al., PNAS 2011; Ramkumar et al., Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 29 (2010) 169-190).

[0072] Some antibodies that preferentially bind to iC3b relative to C3b reduce amyloid plaque burden. Antibodies reducing amyloid plaque burden can be screened, e.g., in vivo in animal models or in vitro using a tissue sample from a brain of a patient with Alzheimer's disease or an animal model having characteristic Alzheimer's pathology.

[0073] Some antibodies that preferentially bind to iC3b relative to C3b bind to and/or reduce drusen deposits. Antibodies reducing drusen deposits can be screened, e.g., in vivo in animal models or in vitro using a tissue sample from an eye of a patient with AMD or an animal model having characteristic AMD pathology. [0074] Some antibodies (e.g., 6G1 and 2H8r) that preferentially bind to iC3b relative to C3b or C3 bind to human iC3b without significantly binding to iC3b from non-human species (i.e., binding to the non-human species is similar to that of an irrelevant control antibody). Some antibodies (e.g., 5D2) that preferentially bind to iC3b relative to C3b or C3 bind to human iC3b and are cross-reactive with iC3b (but not C3b) from at least one non-human mammalian species. For example, the cross-reactive antibody binds to human iC3b and also binds to iC3b from a non-human primate (e.g., cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque, ape, baboon, chimpanzee, orangutan, or gorilla), a rodent (e.g., mouse, rat, hamster, Guinea pig, or rabbit), cow, goat, donkey, pig, dog, cat, or horse. Cross -reactive antibodies have affinity constants for human iC3b within a factor of 2 or 5 for non-human iC3b. Antibodies cross-reacting with rodent iC3b (e.g., murine iC3b) are advantageous in preclinical studies.

C. Humanized antibodies

[0075] A humanized antibody is a genetically engineered antibody in which the CDRs from a non-human "donor" antibody (e.g., 6G1, 2H8r, or 5D2) are grafted into human "acceptor" antibody sequences (see, e.g., Queen, US 5,530,101 and 5,585,089; Winter, US 5,225,539, Carter, US 6,407,213, Adair, US 5,859,205 6,881,557, Foote, US 6,881,557). The acceptor antibody sequences can be, for example, a mature human antibody sequence, a composite of such sequences, a consensus sequence of human antibody sequences, or a germline region sequence. Thus, a humanized antibody is an antibody having some or all CDRs entirely or substantially from a donor antibody and variable region framework sequences and constant regions, if present, entirely or substantially from human antibody sequences. Similarly a humanized heavy chain has at least two and usually all three CDRs entirely or substantially from a donor antibody heavy chain, and a heavy chain variable region framework sequence and heavy chain constant region, if present, substantially from human heavy chain variable region framework and constant region sequences. Similarly a humanized light chain has at least two and usually all three CDRs entirely or substantially from a donor antibody light chain, and a light chain variable region framework sequence and light chain constant region, if present, substantially from human light chain variable region framework and constant region sequences. Other than nanobodies and dAbs, a humanized antibody comprises a humanized heavy chain and a humanized light chain. A CDR in a humanized antibody is substantially from a corresponding CDR in a non-human antibody when it contains no more than 2 or 1 substitutions, insertions or deletions in any CDR except that CDRH2 when defined by Kabat may have no more than 6, 5, 4, 3, 2 or 1 substitutions, insertion or deletions and/or when at least 85%, 90%, 95% or 100% of corresponding residues (as defined by Kabat) are identical between the respective CDRs. The variable region framework sequences of an antibody chain or the constant region of an antibody chain are substantially from a human variable region framework sequence or human constant region respectively when at least 85, 90, 95 or 100% of corresponding residues defined by Kabat are identical.

[0076] Although humanized antibodies often incorporate all six CDRs (preferably as defined by Kabat) from a mouse antibody, they can also be made with less than all CDRs (at least 3, 4, or 5) CDRs from a mouse antibody (e.g., Pascalis et al., J. Immunol. 169:3076, 2002; Vajdos et al., Journal of Molecular Biology, 320: 415-428, 2002; Iwahashi et al., Mol. Immunol. 36: 1079- 1091, 1999; Tamura et al, Journal of Immunology, 164: 1432-1441, 2000).

[0077] In some antibodies only part of the CDRs, namely the subset of CDR residues required for binding, termed the SDRs, are needed to retain binding in a humanized antibody. CDR residues not contacting antigen and not in the SDRs can be identified based on previous studies (for example residues H60-H65 in CDR H2 are often not required), from regions of Kabat CDRs lying outside Chothia hypervariable loops (Chothia, J. Mol. Biol. 196:901, 1987), by molecular modeling and/or empirically, or as described in Gonzales et al., Mol. Immunol. 41: 863, 2004. In such humanized antibodies at positions in which one or more donor CDR residues is absent or in which an entire donor CR is omitted, the amino acid occupying the position can be an amino acid occupying the corresponding position (by Kabat numbering) in the acceptor antibody sequence. The number of such substitutions of acceptor for donor amino acids in the CDRs to include reflects a balance of competing considerations. Such substitutions are potentially advantageous in decreasing the number of mouse amino acids in a humanized antibody and consequently decreasing potential immunogenicity. However, substitutions can also cause changes of affinity, and significant reductions in affinity are preferably avoided. Positions for substitution within CDRs and amino acids to substitute can also be selected empirically.

[0078] The human acceptor antibody sequences can optionally be selected from among the many known human antibody sequences to provide a high degree of sequence identity (e.g., 65- 85% identity) between a human acceptor sequence variable region frameworks and corresponding variable region frameworks of a donor antibody chain.

[0079] Certain amino acids from the human variable region framework residues can be selected for substitution based on their possible influence on CDR conformation and/or binding to antigen. Investigation of such possible influences is by modeling, examination of the characteristics of the amino acids at particular locations, or empirical observation of the effects of substitution or mutagenesis of particular amino acids.

[0080] For example, when an amino acid differs between a murine variable region framework residue and a selected human variable region framework residue, the human framework amino acid can be substituted by the equivalent framework amino acid from the mouse antibody when it is reasonably expected that the amino acid:

(1) noncovalently binds antigen directly,

(2) is adjacent to a CDR region,

(3) otherwise interacts with a CDR region (e.g. is within about 6 A of a CDR region), (e.g., identified by modeling the light or heavy chain on the solved structure of a homologous known immunoglobulin chain) ; and

(4) a residue participating in the VL-VH interface.

[0081] Framework residues from classes (l)-(3) as defined by Queen, US 5,530,101 are sometimes alternately referred to as canonical and vernier residues. Framework residues defining canonical class of the donor CDR loops determining the conformation of a CDR loop are sometimes referred to as canonical residues (Chothia and Lesk, J. Mol. Biol. 196, 901-917 (1987), Thornton & Martin J. Mol. Biol., 263, 800-815, 1996). A layer of framework residues that support antigen-binding loop conformations play a role in fine-tuning the fit of an antibody to antigen are sometimes referred to as vernier residues (Foote & Winter, 1992, J. Mol. Bio. 224, 487-499). Other candidates for substitution are residues creating a potential glycosylation site. Other candidates for substitution are acceptor human framework amino acids that are unusual for a human immunoglobulin at that position. These amino acids can be substituted with amino acids from the equivalent position of the mouse donor antibody or from the equivalent positions of more typical human immunoglobulins. Other candidates for substitution are acceptor human framework amino acids that are unusual for a human immunoglobulin at that position.

[0082] The invention provides humanized forms of the mouse 5D2 antibody. The mouse antibody comprises mature light and heavy chain variable regions having amino acid sequences comprising SEQ ID NOS. 17 and 28 respectively . The invention provides two exemplified humanized mature heavy chain variable regions (H1-H2) and one exemplified humanized mature light chain variable region (LI). Both the H1L1 and H2L1 permutations show a similar affinity constant (the same within the margin of measurement error) to that of a chimeric 5D2 antibody. The H2L1 version has fewer back mutations (eight), i.e. human to mouse mutations in the variable region frameworks.

[0083] The invention provides variants of the H2L1 humanized antibody in which the humanized mature heavy chain variable region shows at least 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98% or 99% identity to SEQ ID NO:30 and the humanized mature light chain mature variable region shows at least 90%, 95%, 96%, 97% 98% or 99% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 18.

Preferably, in such antibodies some or all of the backmutations in H2L1 are retained. In other words, at least 1, 2 or 3 of positions HI, H5 and H44 are occupied by E, Q and S respectively. Likewise position L36, L49, L69, L71 and L104 are occupied by F, S, K, Y and L respectively. The CDR regions of such humanized antibodies are preferably identical or substantially identical to the CDR regions of H2L1, which are the same as those of the mouse donor antibody. The CDR regions can be defined by any conventional definition (e.g., Chothia) but are preferably as defined by Kabat.

[0084] One possibility for additional variation in 5D2 H2L1 variants are additional

backmutations in the variable region frameworks. Either of both of the additional positions backmutated in HI can also be made (i.e., positions H69 and H89 occupied by L). Many of the framework residues not in contact with the CDRs in the humanized mAb can accommodate substitutions of amino acids from the corresponding positions of the donor mouse mAb or other mouse or human antibodies, and even many potential CDR-contact residues are also amenable to substitution or even amino acids within the CDRs may be altered, with corresponding position of the human acceptor sequence used to supply variable region frameworks. Alternate human acceptor sequences can be used besides BAC01558 for the light chain and BAC01879 and ADX65082.1 for the heavy chain. If different acceptor sequences are used, one or more of the backmutations recommended above may not be performed because the corresponding donor and acceptor residues are already the same without backmutation. For example, when using a heavy chain acceptor sequence in which position HI is occupied, the residue occupying that position can be used instead of E at position HI.

[0085] The invention also includes humanized antibodies in which the mature light and heavy chain variable regions shows at least 90, 95, 96, 97, 98 or 99% sequence identity to the mature light and heavy chain variable regions of 5D2 H1L1.

[0086] The invention also provides humanized forms of antibodies 6G1 and 2H8r. Mouse 6G1 comprises a mature light and heavy chain variable regions having amino acid sequences comprising SEQ ID NOS:6 and 19 respectively. Mouse 2H8r comprises a mature light and heavy chain variable regions comprising SEQ ID NO: 12 and SEQ ID NO: 24 respectively. These antibodies compete with one another for binding to iC3b. The mature light and heavy chain variable regions of 6G1 and 2H8r show a high degree of sequence identity differing at two positions at CDRH2, one position in each of the light chain CDRs, one positions in the heavy chain variable region frameworks and three positions in the light chain variable region frameworks. The consensus sequences of the 6G1 and 2H8r Kabat CDRs are as follows CDRH1: NYGMN (SEQ ID NO:36), CDRH2: WINT YTGEPX 1 Y ADX2FKG (wherein XI is T or R and X2 is D or E) (SEQ ID NO:37) and CDRH3: GGYPHYYSMDY (SEQ ID NO:38), and light chain CDRs CDRL1: R AS QDIXNLYLN (wherein X is S or N) (SEQ ID NO:39), CDRL2: YTSXLHS (wherein X is R or K) (SEQ ID NO:40) and CDRL3: QQGXTLPRT (wherein X is K or N) (SEQ ID NO:41). The invention includes any antibody having CDRs conforming to the consensus formula (i.e., representing different permutations of the CDR variations between 6G1 and 2H8r).

[0087] The invention provides four exemplified humanized mature heavy chain variable regions of the 6G1 antibody (H1-H4) and five exemplified mature humanized light chain variable regions (L1-L5). Humanized antibodies can be performed from any permutation (i.e., H1L1, HI- L2, H1L3, H1L4, H1L5, H2L1, H2L2, H2L2, H2L3, H2L4, H2L5, H3L1, H3L2, H3L3, H3L4, H3L5, H4L1, H4L2, H4L3, H4L4, H4L5). The H3L3 permutation shows similar affinity constant (the same within the margin of measurement error) to that of a chimeric 6G1. [0088] The invention provides variants of the H3L3 6G1 humanized antibody in which the humanized mature heavy chain variable region shows at least 90%, 95%, 96, 97, 98 or 99% identity to SEQ ID NO:22 and the humanized mature light chain variable region shows at least 90%, 95%, 96%, 97% 98% or 99% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:9. In some such antibodies some or all of the backmutations in H3L3 are retained. In other words, at least 1, 2, 3, or 4 of positions H38, H44, H46 and H89 are occupied by K, D, K and T respectively. Likewise at least 1, 2 or all of positions L69, 71 and 73 are occupied by R, Y and L respectively. The CDR regions of some such humanized antibodies are substantially identical to the CDR regions of H3L3, which are the same as those of the mouse donor antibody. The CDR regions can be defined by any conventional definition (e.g., Chothia) but preferably as defined by Kabat.

[0089] Variants of H3L3 may differ from H3L3 in, for example, additional backmutations in the variable region frameworks. Either or both of the additional positions backmutated in version L5 and L4 {L44 is only backmutated in version 4} can also be made (i.e., L44 occupied by I or L87 occupied by F). Many of the framework residues not in contact with the CDRs in the humanized mAb can accommodate substitutions of amino acids from the corresponding positions of the donor mouse mAb or other mouse or human antibodies, and even many potential CDR-contact residues are also amenable to substitution or even amino acids within the CDRs may be altered with corresponding position of the human acceptor sequence used to supply variable region frameworks. Alternate human acceptor sequences can be used besides AAD29608.1 for the light chain and BAC01510.1 for the heavy chain. If different acceptor sequences are used, one or more of the backmutations recommended above may not be performed because the

corresponding donor and acceptor residues are already the same without backmutation.

[0090] The invention also provides antibodies comprising light and heavy chain mature variable regions having at least 90, 95, 96, 97, 98 or 99% sequence identity to the light and heavy chain variable regions of any of the humanized 6G1 antibodies H1L1, HI, L2, H1L3, H1L4, H1L5, H2L1, H2L2, H2L2, H2L3, H2L4, H2L5, H3L1, H3L2, H3L4, H3L5, H4L1, H4L2, H4L3, H4L4, H4L5.

[0091] The humanization strategy for 2H8r is similar to 6G1 given the high sequence identity of the two antibodies. Positions L69 of 6G1 and 2H8r are occupied by R and T respectively. The invention provides three exemplified humanized mature heavy chain variable regions of the 2H8r antibody (H1-H3) and four exemplified humanized mature light chain variable regions (Ll- L4). Humanized antibodies can be performed from any permutation (i.e., H1L1, H1L2, H1L3, H1L4, H2L1, H2L2, H2L2, H2L3, H2L4, H3L1, H3L2, H3L3, and H3L4,). The variable region frameworks of H3L3 for 2H8r are the same as those for H3L3 of 6G1 except for position L69 and H44. Positions L69 of 6G1 and 2H8r are occupied by R and T respectively. The L3 chain of 6G1 backmutates a T in the human light chain acceptor sequence to R at position L69. Such a backmutation needs not be performed in the L3 version of 2H8r because residue L69 is already a T in 2H8r. Positions H44 of 6G1 and 2H8r are occupied by D and G respectively. The L3 chain of 6G1 backmutates a G in the human heavy chain acceptor to a D at position H44. Such a backmutation needs not be performed in the L3 version of 2H8r because H44 is already a G.

[0092] The invention provides variants of the H3L3 humanized 2H8r antibody in which the humanized mature heavy chain variable region shows at least 90%, 95%, 96, 97, 98 or 99% identity to SEQ ID NO:27 and the humanized mature light chain variable region shows at least 90%, 95%, 96%, 97% 98% or 99% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO: 15. In some such antibodies some or all of the backmutations in H3L3 are retained. In other words, at least 1, 2, or 3of positions H38, H46 and H89 are occupied by K, K and T respectively. Likewise at least 1 or both of positions L71 and L73 are occupied by Y and L respectively in some antibodies. The CDR regions of such humanized antibodies are preferably substantially identical to the CDR regions of H3L3, which are the same as those of the mouse donor antibody. The CDR regions can be defined by any conventional definition (e.g., Chothia) but preferably as defined by Kabat.

[0093] Variants of 2H8r H3L3 may differ from 2H8r H3L3 by, for example, additional backmutations in the variable region frameworks. Either or both of the additional positions backmutated in version L2 or L4 can also be made (i.e., position L44 occupied by I or L87 occupied by F). Position L69 can be mutated to R as in the L3 version of 6G1. Many of the framework residues not in contact with the CDRs in the humanized mAb can accommodate substitutions of amino acids from the corresponding positions of the donor mouse mAb or other mouse or human antibodies, and even many potential CDR-contact residues are also amenable to substitution or even amino acids within the CDRs may be altered. With corresponding position of the human acceptor sequence used to supply variable region frameworks. Alternate human acceptor sequences can be used besides AAD29608 for the light chain and BAC01510 for the heavy chain. If different acceptor sequences are used, one or more of the backmutations recommended above may not be performed because the corresponding donor and acceptor residues are already the same without backmutation.

[0094] The invention further provides variants of humanized antibodies comprising mature light chain and heavy chain variable regions having at least 90, 95, 96, 97, 98 or 99% sequence identity to the mature light and heavy chain variable regions of any of 2H8r HI LI, HI L2, H1L3, H1L4, H2L1, H2L2, H2L2, H2L3, H2L4, H3L1, H3L2, H3L4,.

D. Chimeric and Veneered Antibodies

[0095] The invention further provides chimeric and veneered forms of non-human antibodies, particularly 6G1, 2H8r, and 5D2.

[0096] A chimeric antibody is an antibody in which the mature variable regions of light and heavy chains of a non-human antibody (e.g., a mouse) are combined with human light and heavy chain constant regions. Such antibodies substantially or entirely retain the binding specificity of the mouse antibody, and can be about two-thirds human sequence contributed by the human constant regions.

[0097] A veneered antibody is a type of humanized antibody that retains some and usually all of the CDRs and some of the non-human variable region framework residues of a non-human antibody but replaces other variable region framework residues that may contribute to B- or T- cell epitopes, for example exposed residues (Padlan, Mol. Immunol. 28:489, 1991) with residues from the corresponding positions of a human antibody sequence. The result is an antibody in which the CDRs are entirely or substantially from a non-human antibody and the variable region frameworks of the non-human antibody are made more human-like by the substitutions.

E. Human antibodies.

[0098] Human antibodies against iC3b are provided by a variety of techniques described below. Methods for producing human antibodies include the trioma method of Oestberg et al., Hybridoma 2:361-367 (1983); Oestberg, U.S. Patent No. 4,634,664; and Engleman et al., US Patent 4,634,666, use of transgenic mice including human immunoglobulin genes (see, e.g., Lonberg et al., W093/12227 (1993); US 5,877,397, US 5,874,299, US 5,814,318, US 5,789,650, US 5,770,429, US 5,661,016, US 5,633,425, US 5,625,126, US 5,569,825, US 5,545,806, Nature 148, 1547-1553 (1994), Nature Biotechnology 14, 826 (1996), Kucherlapati, WO 91/10741 (1991) and phage display methods (see, .e.g. Dower et al., WO 91/17271 and McCafferty et al., WO 92/01047, US 5,877,218, US 5,871,907, US 5,858,657, US 5,837,242, US 5,733,743 and US 5,565,332. Immunization of a transgenic mouse or B-cells in vitro can be performed as described for non-human antibodies. In addition, human antibodies to iC3b may also be obtained via direct cloning of antibodies from plasma B-cells of human volunteers seropositive for the antigen in question, e.g. iC3b in this instance, as described in Wrammert et al. (2008) Nature 453:667-672 & Kashyap et al. (2008) PNAS 105:5986-5991.

F. Selection of constant region

[0099] The heavy and light chain variable regions of chimeric, humanized (including veneered), or human antibodies can be linked to at least a portion of a human constant region. The choice of constant region depends, in part, whether antibody-dependent complement and/or cellular mediated cytotoxicity is desired. For example, human isotopes IgGl and IgG3 have complement-mediated cytotoxicity whereas human isotypes IgG2 and IgG4 have poor or no complement-mediated cytotoxicity. Light chain constant regions can be lambda or kappa.

[0100] An exemplary human light chain kappa constant region has the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:42:

TV A APS VFIFPPS DEQLKS GTAS V VCLLNNF YPREAKVQWKVDN ALQS GNS QES VTEQD S KDS TYS LS S TLTLS KAD YEKHKV Y ACEVTHQGLS S P VTKS FNRGEC

[0101] An exemplary human IgGl heavy chain constant region has the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:43:

AS TKGPS VFPLAPS S KS TS GGT A ALGCLVKD YFPEP VTVS WNS G ALTS G VHTFP A VLQS S GLYS LS S V VT VPS S S LGTQTYICN VNHKPS NTKVDKKVEPKS CDKTHTCPPCP APELLGG PS VFLFPPKPKDTLMIS RTPEVTC V V VD VS HEDPEVKFNWY VDG VE VHN AKTKPREEQ Y NS TYR V VS VLT VLHQD WLNGKE YKCKVS NKALP APIEKTIS KAKGQPREPQ V YTLPPS R DELTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDK S RWQQGN VFS CS VMHE ALHNH YTQKS LS LS PGK

[0102] The C-terminal lysine of SEQ ID NO:43 can be omitted. Antibodies can be expressed as tetramers containing two light and two heavy chains, as separate heavy chains, light chains, as Fab, Fab', F(ab')2, and Fv, or as single chain antibodies in which heavy and light chain variable domains are linked through a spacer.

[0103] Human constant regions show allotypic variation and isoallotypic variation between different individuals, that is, the constant regions can differ in different individuals at one or more polymorphic positions. Isoallotypes differ from allotypes in that sera recognizing an isoallotype binds to a non-polymorphic region of a one or more other isotypes. Reference to a human constant region includes a constant region with any natural allotype or any permutation of residues occupying polymorphic positions in natural allotypes or up to 3, 5 or 10 substitutions for reducing or increasing effector function as described below.

[0104] One or several amino acids at the amino or carboxy terminus of the light and/or heavy chain, such as the C-terminal lysine of the heavy chain, may be missing or derivatized in a proportion or all of the molecules.

[0105] Substitutions can be made in the constant regions to reduce or increase effector function such as complement-mediated cytotoxicity or ADCC (see, e.g., Winter et al., US Patent No. 5,624,821; Tso et al., US Patent No. 5,834,597; and Lazar et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:4005, 2006), or to prolong half-life in humans (see, e.g., Hinton et al., J. Biol. Chem.

279:6213, 2004).

[0106] Because antibodies of the invention are used to treat diseases in which pathology is in part mediated by activated forms of complement, it is preferred to include one more substitutions that reduce complement mediated cytotoxicity. Reduction in complement mediated cytotoxicity can be accomplished with or without reduction in Fc receptor binding depending on the nature of the mutation(s). Antibodies with reduced complement mediated cytotoxicity but little or no reduction in Fc receptor allow a desired effect of Fc-mediated phagocytosis of iC3b without activating complement, which may contribute to side effects. Exemplary mutations known to reduce complement-mediated cytotoxicity in human constant regions include mutations at positions 241, 264, 265, 270, 296, 297, 322, 329 and 331. Mutations in positions 318, 320, and 322 have been reported to reduce complement activation in mouse antibodies. Alanine is a preferred residue to occupy these positions in a mutated constant region. Some exemplary human mutations that have been used include F241A, V264A, D265A, V296A, N297A, K322A, and P331S in human IgG3 and D270A or E, N297Q, K322A, P329A, and P331S in human IgGl. The combination of E318A, K320A, R322A mutations can also be used, particularly in human & mouse IgGl antibodies, to eliminate Clq binding to the Fc region. Here, as elsewhere, the EU numbering scheme is used for numbering amino acids in the constant region of an antibody.

[0107] Substitution at any or all of positions 234, 235, 236 and/or 237 reduce affinity for Fey receptors, particularly FcyRI receptor and also reduces complement binding and activation {see, e.g., US 6,624,821 WO/2009/052439). An alanine substitution at positions 234, 235 and 237 reduces effector functions, particularly in the context of human IgGl. Optionally, positions 234, 236 and/or 237 in human IgG2 are substituted with alanine and position 235 with glutamine. {See, e.g., US 5,624,821.) to reduce Fc receptor binding.

[0108] Exemplary substitutions for increasing half-life include a Gin at position 250 and/or a Leu at position 428.

G. Expression of recombinant antibodies

[0109] Chimeric, humanized (including veneered) and human antibodies are typically produced by recombinant expression. Nucleic acids encoding the antibodies can be codon- optimized for expression in the desired cell-type (e.g., CHO, or Sp2/0). Recombinant polynucleotide constructs typically include an expression control sequence operably linked to the coding sequences of antibody chains, including naturally-associated or heterologous promoter regions. Preferably, the expression control sequences are eukaryotic promoter systems in vectors capable of transforming or transfecting eukaryotic host cells. Examples of such promoters include CMV (e.g., human, mouse or Chinese hamster), ubiquitin or Chinese hamster elongation factor 1(a) (CHEF). Once the vector has been incorporated into the appropriate host, the host is maintained under conditions suitable for high level expression of the nucleotide sequences, and the collection and purification of the cross-reacting antibodies. The vector or vectors encoding the antibody chains can also contain a selectable gene, such as dihydrofolate reductase or glutamate synthase, to allow amplification of copy number of the nucleic acids encoding the antibody chains.

[0110] E. coli is a prokaryotic host that can be used for expressing antibodies, particularly antibody fragments. Microbes, such as yeast are also useful for expression. Saccharomyces is a preferred yeast host, with suitable vectors having expression control sequences, an origin of replication, termination sequences and the like as desired. Typical promoters include 3- phosphoglycerate kinase and other glycolytic enzymes. Inducible yeast promoters include, among others, promoters from alcohol dehydrogenase, isocytochrome C, and enzymes responsible for maltose and galactose utilizations

[0111] Mammalian cells are a preferred host for expressing nucleotide segments encoding immunoglobulins or fragments thereof. See Winnacker, From Genes to Clones, (VCH

Publishers, NY, 1987). A number of suitable host cell lines capable of secreting intact heterologous proteins have been developed in the art, and include CHO cell lines, such as DG44, various COS cell lines, HeLa cells, HEK293 cells, L cells, and non-antibody-producing myelomas including Sp2/0 and NSO. Preferably, the cells are nonhuman. Expression vectors for these cells can include expression control sequences, such as an origin of replication, a promoter, an enhancer (Queen et al., Immunol. Rev. 89:49 (1986)), and necessary processing information sites, such as ribosome binding sites, RNA splice sites, polyadenylation sites, and transcriptional terminator sequences. Preferred expression control sequences are promoters derived from endogenous genes, ubiquitin, CHEF, cytomegalovirus, SV40, adenovirus, bovine

papillomavirus, and the like. See, e.g., Co et al., J. Immunol. 148: 1149 (1992).

[0112] Nucleic acids encoding antibody heavy and light chains can be expressed on the same or different vectors. Having introduced vector(s) encoding antibody heavy and light chains into cell culture, cell pools can be screened for growth productivity and product quality in serum-free media. Top-producing cell pools can then be subjected ot FACS-based single-cell cloning to generate monoclonal lines. Specific productivites above 50 pg or 100 pg per cell per day, which correspond to product titers of greater than 7.5 g/L culture, are preferred. Antibodies produced by single cell clones can also be tested for turbidity, filtration properties, PAGE, IEF, UV scan, HP-SEC, carboydrate-oligosaccharide mapping, mass spectrometery, and bining assay, such as ELISA or Biacore. A selected clone can then be banked in multiple vials and stored frozen for subsequent use.

[0113] Once expressed, antibodies can be purified according to standard procedures of the art, including protein A capture, column chromatography (e.g., hydrophobic interaction or ion exchange), low-pH for viral inactivation and the like (see generally, Scopes, Protein Purification (Springer- Verlag, NY, 1982)). [0114] Methodology for commercial production of antibodies can be employed, including codon optimization, selection of promoters, transcription elements, and terminators, serum-free single cell cloning, cell banking, use of selection markers for amplification of copy number, CHO terminator, serum free single cell cloning, improvement of protein titers (see, e.g., US 5,786,464, US 6,114,148, US 6,063,598, US 7,569,339, US 5,888,809, WO2004/050884, WO2008/012142, WO2008/012142, WO2005/019442, WO2008/107388, and WO2009/027471).

V. Screening Methods

[0115] Antibodies can be initially screened for the intended binding specificity as has already been described (e.g., preferential binding to iC3b over C3b. Antibodies can also be tested for ability to bind iC3b deposited on cell surfaces e.g., by FACS and inhibit pigment clumping.

[0116] Some screening methods are performed by immunoassay. Immunoassays include competitive and non-competitive assay systems using techniques such as surface Plasmon resonance, Biacore analysis, FACS analysis, immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry, Western blot analysis, radioimmunoassay (RIA), Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs), "sandwich" immunoassay, immunoprecipitation assay, precipitation reaction, gel diffusion precipitin reaction, immunodiffusion assay, agglutination assay, complement-fixation assay, immunoradiometric assay, fluorescent immunoassay, protein A immunoassay, mass spectrometry, immunoblots, competitive binding assay, bead-based assay,

radioimmunoprecipitation assay, colloidal gold assays, lateral flow assay, fluorescence polarization assay, nuclear magnetic resonance, and chemiluminescence assay (see, e.g., Ausubel et al., Editors, 1994-present, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y.).

[0117] As shown in the Examples, the conformational epitope of an antibody that

preferentially binds to iC3b relative to C3b or C3 can be lost when the iC3b is directly immobilized to a solid support (e.g., a plate), whereas the conformational epitope can be detected when the iC3b is indirectly immobilized to a solid support. Accordingly, preferred screening methods are immunoassays in which the iC3b is indirectly immobilized to a solid support (e.g., via an antibody). Preferably methods include a sandwich ELISA assay and/or a Biacore assay.

[0118] Antibodies with a desired binding specificity can be further tested for capacity to induce phagocytosis of iC3b in an in vitro assay. Such an assay includes deposited iC3b and phagocytic cells as well as an antibody under test. The deposited iC3b can be provided as cells, such as SRBC's having iC3b deposited on the cell surface. The deposited iC3b can also be provided as a tissue sample from a disease characterized by deposits of iC3b, such as a tissue sample from AMD affected eyes. The sample is monitored for a reduction in the level of deposit iC3b relative to a baseline level before supplying antibody and/or relative to a negative control lacking the antibody.

[0119] Several mouse models of AMD and other diseases characterized by iC3b deposits have been described and can in principle be used for screening antibodies or peptides that induce such antibodies. Antibodies against human iC3b are preferably first tested for cross-reactivity with corresponding mouse iC3b. Alternatively, a transgenic mouse harboring a human C3 transgene can be used. Other examples of animal models of AMD include a knockout model of factor H (Coffey 2007) and mice have null mutation of a Ccl-2 or Ccr-2 gene. These mice develop characteristic signs and symptoms of AMD, including accumulation of lipofuscin and drusen beneath the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), photoreceptor atrophy and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) after six months. Other models of AMD with drusen pathology and positive staining for the iC3b neo-epitope has been reported by Radu et al, 2010 ARVO Ann Conf, abstract D626), and C3c (the further breakdown product of iC3b) have been reported (Ambati, Nat Med. 9, 1390-7 (2003)). Other models are the abca4-/- mouse + light (G. Travis, UCLA); ApoE- mice fed a high fat high cholesterol diet (Dithmar et al, (2000) Invest Opthamol Vis Sci 41:2035-2042); and CEP-MSA immunized C57BL/6 (J. HoUyfield, Cle Clinic), which is C3d - ve. see Tables 1 and 2 of Prog. Retinal Eye Res. 29, 169-190 (2010) show properties of these and other mouse models. Other mouse models of AMD have been reported by Ding, et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 108:E279-E287, 2012), Sullivan et al. (J Biol Chem 272: 17972- 17980, 1997). Primate models of AMD have also been described (see, e.g., Hope et al., Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 76, 11-16 (1992)). Numerous other mouse models of AMD and related diseases are described in Tables 1 and 2 of USSN 13/441,818.

[0120] The invention also provides methods of screening an antibody for activity in reducing amyloid plaques or associated biological entity, for which such activity is desired. To screen for activity against amyloid plaques, a tissue sample from a brain of a patient with Alzheimer's disease or an animal model having characteristic Alzheimer's pathology is contacted with phagocytic cells bearing an Fc receptor, such as microglial cells, and the antibody under test in a medium in vitro. The phagocytic cells can be a primary culture or a cell line, such as BV-2, C8- B4, or THP-1. In some methods, the components are combined on a microscope slide to facilitate microscopic monitoring. In some methods, multiple reactions are performed in parallel in the wells of a microtiter dish. In such a format, a separate miniature microscope slide can be mounted in the separate wells, or a nonmicroscopic detection format, such as ELISA detection of Αβ can be used. Preferably, a series of measurements is made of the amount of amyloid plaques in the in vitro reaction mixture, starting from a baseline value before the reaction has proceeded, and one or more test values during the reaction. The antigen can be detected by staining, for example, with a fluorescently labeled antibody to Αβ or other component of amyloid plaques. The antibody used for staining may or may not be the same as the antibody being tested for clearing activity. A reduction relative to baseline during the reaction of the amyloid plaques indicates that the antibody under test has amyloid plaque reducing activity. Such antibodies are likely to be useful in preventing or treating Alzheimer's disease or other amyloidogenic diseases.

[0121] Several animal models of Alzheimer's disease and other diseases characterized by amyloid plaques have been described and can be used for screening antibodies clearing amyloid plaques or having activities against Alzheimer's disease. Examples of animal models of Alzheimer's disease include animals that express human familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) p- amyloid precursor (APP), animals that overexpress human wild-type APP, animals that overexpress p-amyloid 1-42 (pA), animals that express FAD presenillin- 1 (PS-1) (see, e. g., Higgins, LS, 1999, Molecular Medicine Today 5 : 274-276), mice overexpressing glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) (see Lucas et al, EMBO J. 20, p27-39, 2001), mice overexpressing mutant alleles of APP or PS 1, double (APP/PS 1) transgenic mouse models overexpressing mutant alleles of both APP and PS 1, double transgenic mice resulting from a cross between a mutant APP line Tg2576 and a mutant PS 1M146L transgenic line (Holcomb et al., Nat. Med. 4(1):97-100, 1998), transgenic mice over-expressing the "Swedish" mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP; Tg2576; K670N/M671L; Hsiao et al, 1996, Science, 274:99-102), transgenic APPV717F mice (a.k.a. PDAPP mice; Games et al. , Nature 373: 523-527, 1995), and a cohort of PDAPP mice lacking apoE (Bales et al., Nat. Genet. 17: 263-64,1997). [0122] Antibodies can also be tested in non-human primates that naturally or through induction develop symptoms of diseases characterized by iC3b, e.g., AMD, rheumatoid arthritis and SLE.

[0123] Tests on an antibody are usually performed in conjunction with a control in which a parallel experiment is conducted except that the antibody or active agent is absent (e.g., replaced by vehicle). Reduction, delay or inhibition of signs or symptoms disease attributable to an antibody or active agent under test can then be assessed relative to the control.

VI. Patients amenable to treatment

[0124] Patients amenable for treatment have or are at risk of developing an iC3b-associated disorder. Such a disorder means a disease characterized by abnormal levels or distribution of iC3b relative to healthy individuals and particularly diseases characterized by extracellular deposits formed by aggregates of iC3b, sometimes in association with other polypeptides and/or lipids. Such deposits stain with an antibody binding to a neoepitope on iC3b or other drusen component, or with. Such deposits are relatively insoluble in water compared with detergents or denaturing agents, such as guanidine. Such disorders may also be associated with elevated levels of iC3b in body fluids, such as plasma of CSF. iC3b-associated disorders include rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), macular degenerative diseases and other complement-associated eye conditions. Complement-associated eye conditions include macular degenerative diseases, such as all stages of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), including dry and wet (non-exudative and exudative) forms, choroidal neovascularization (CNV), uveitis, diabetic and other ischemia-related retinopathies,

endophthalmitis, and other intraocular neovascular diseases, such as diabetic macular edema, pathological myopia, von Hippel-Lindau disease, histoplasmosis of the eye, Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO), corneal neovascularization, and retinal neovascularization iC3b is also a component of plaques present in Alzheimer's disease (Loeffler et al., J. Neuroinflamm. 2008 5:9) so Alzheimer's and related diseases, such as mild-cognitive impairment can also be treated by the present methods.

[0125] The methods are particularly suitable for treating age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is age-related degeneration of the macula, which is the leading cause of irreversible visual dysfunction in individuals over the age of 60. Two types of AMD exist, non- exudative (dry) and exudative (wet) AMD. The dry, or nonexudative, form involves atrophic and hypertrophic changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) underlying the central retina (macula), as well as deposits (drusen) on the RPE. Patients with nonexudative AMD can progress to the wet, or exudative, form of AMD, in which abnormal blood vessels called choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVMs) develop under the retina, leak fluid and blood, and ultimately cause a blinding disciform scar in and under the retina. Nonexudative AMD, which is usually a precursor of exudative AMD, is more common. The presentation of nonexudative AMD varies; hard drusen, soft drusen, RPE geographic atrophy, and pigment clumping can be present. Complement components are deposited on the RPE early in AMD and are major constituents of drusen.

[0126] Patients amenable to treatment include individuals at risk of disease but not showing symptoms, as well as patients presently showing symptoms. Patients at risk of disease include those having a known genetic risk of a disease. Such individuals include those having relatives who have experienced this disease, and those whose risk is determined by analysis of genetic or biochemical markers. Genetic markers of risk include complement factor H (CFH)

polymorphism, which is associated with the risk of an individual to develop AMD and/or CNV. Mutations in CFH can activate complement, which in turn may lead to AMD/CNV. The CFH polymorphism accounts for 50% of the attributable risk of AMD (Klein et al., Science 308:385-9 (2005)). A common haplotype in CFH (HF1/CFH) has been found to predispose individuals to age-related macular degeneration (Hageman et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 102(2):7227- 7232 (2005)). Other polymorphisms associated with AMD occur in FB, C3 or LOC387715, a tissue protease. ApoE2 is also a genetic marker of risk of AMD and other diseases associated with iCB3. Smoking also confers enhanced risk of AMD.

[0127] Individuals having a disease associated with iC3b can usually be identified by conventional criteria. For example, techniques for diagnosing AMD include Fundus

Photography and Angiography, Optical Coherence Tomography and Ultrasound Examination and Ultrasound Biomicroscopy.

[0128] The presence of an ApoE4 allele has been associated with increased risk, increased severity and/or earlier age of onset of a large number of neurological disease and conditions including Alzheimer's disease (see, e.g., Mayley et al., PNAS 103, 5644-5651 (2006)). Because of the \association between neurological diseases and conditions and an ApoE4 allele, the present regimes can be used in treatment or prophylaxis of any subject that is carrier of an ApoE4 allele having any neurological disease associated with the deposition of iC3b (for example,

Alzheimer's disease) or considered at risk of developing one. The present regimes can also be used for treatment or prophylaxis such disease regardless of ApoE4 carrier status. Of the neurological diseases associated with iC3b deposition, the present methods are particularly suitable for treatment or prophylaxis of Alzheimer's disease, and especially in patients who are ApoE4 carriers. Patients amenable to treatment include individuals at risk of Alzheimer' s disease but not showing symptoms, as well as patients presently showing symptoms. Patients at risk of Alzheimer' s disease include those having a known genetic risk of a disease. Such individuals include those having relatives who have experienced this disease, and those whose risk is determined by analysis of genetic or biochemical markers. Genetic markers of risk include particularly the ApoE4 allele in heterozygous and even more so in homozygous form. Other markers of risk of Alzheimer' s disease include mutations in the APP gene, particularly mutations at position 717 and positions 670 and 671 referred to as the Hardy and Swedish mutations respectively, mutations in the presenilin genes, PS 1 and PS2, a family history of AD, hypercholesterolemia or atherosclerosis. Individuals presently suffering from Alzheimer' s disease can be recognized by PET imaging, from characteristic dementia, as well as the presence of risk factors described above. In addition, a number of diagnostic tests are available for identifying individuals who have AD. These include measurement of CSF tau and Αβ42 levels. Elevated tau and decreased Αβ42 levels signify the presence of AD.

[0129] In asymptomatic patients, treatment can begin at any age depending on the degree of risk (e.g. , 10, 20, 30 years of age) and/or visual confirmation of drusenoid pathology in the eye. Usually, however, it is not necessary to begin treatment until a patient reaches 40, 50, 60 or 70 years of age.

VII. Pharmaceutical compositions and methods of treatment

[0130] In prophylactic applications, an antibody or a pharmaceutical composition comprising the same is administered to a patient susceptible to, or otherwise at risk of a disease associated with iC3b (such as, for example, AMD or AD) in a regime (including dose, frequency and/or route of administration) effective to reduce the risk, lessen the severity, or delay the onset of at least one sign or symptom of the disease. In particular, the regime is preferably effective to inhibit or delay accumulation of iC3b in affected tissues, and/or inhibit or delay its toxic effects and/or inhibit and/or delay development of functional deficits (for example, vision in the case of AMD, mobility in the case of rheumatoid arthritis, and cognition or behavior in the case of AD). In therapeutic applications, an antibody is administered to a patient suspected of, or already suffering from a disease (for example, AMD) in a regime (dose, frequency and route of administration) effective to ameliorate or at least inhibit further deterioration of at least one sign or symptom of the disease. In particular, the regime is preferably effective to reduce or at least inhibit further increase of levels of iC3b, associated toxicities and/or functional deficits.

[0131] A regime is considered therapeutically or prophylactically effective if an individual treated patient achieves an outcome more favorable than the mean outcome in a control population of comparable patients not treated by methods of the invention, or if a more favorable outcome is demonstrated in treated patients versus control patients in a controlled clinical trial (e.g., a phase II, phase II III or phase III trial) at the p < 0.05 or 0.01 or even 0.001 level.

[0132] Treatment can be monitored in individual patients from conventional signs or symptoms of the disease in question as well as from levels of iC3b either in deposits associated with the disorder or in the blood or other body fluid, such as blood or CSF. A favorable treatment response is indicated by a reduction in iC3b deposits with time or at least inhibition of further increase compared with the increase expected in an otherwise comparable untreated patient. Treatment of eye conditions, such as AMD or CNV, can be monitored by various endpoints commonly used in evaluating intraocular diseases, such as degree or progression of vision loss. Vision loss can be evaluated by measuring the mean change in best correction visual acuity (BCVA) from baseline to a desired time point (e.g., where the BCVA is based on Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) visual acuity chart and assessment at a test distance of 4 meters), measuring the proportion of subjects who lose fewer than 15 letters in visual acuity at a desired time point compared to baseline, measuring the proportion of subjects who gain greater than or equal to 15 letters in visual acuity at a desired time point compared to baseline, measuring the proportion of subjects with a visual-acuity Snellen equivalent of 20/2000 or worse at a desired time point, measuring the NEI Visual Functioning Questionnaire, measuring the size of CNV and amount of leakage of CNV at a desired time point, e.g., by fluorescein angiography. Ocular assessments can include performing an eye exam, measuring intraocular pressure, assessing visual acuity, measuring slitlamp pressure, or assessing intraocular inflammation.

[0133] Treatment can also be monitored by determining levels of a passively administered or actively induced antibody in the blood or other body fluid of a patient or in a particular body fluid. The level of such antibodies can be determined, for example, by immuno assay, such as ELISA. iC3b or a fragment including a neoepitope thereof can be used as a binding partner in such an assay. However, such a binding partner may also detect antibodies binding to both iC3b and C3b not specific for a neoepitope. Neoepitope specific antibodies can be distinguished from antibodies binding to C3b by any of the methods described above for identifying an antibody that preferentially binds iC3b relative to C3b or C3. Alternatively, in the case of passive

administration, a level of an administered antibody to iC3b can be determined using an anti- idiotypic antibody to the administered antibody as a binding partner. Such monitoring is particularly useful for active immunization in assessing when an effective antibody response has developed and if and when a booster immunization is required to restore a waning level of antibody response from a previous immunization.

[0134] Effective doses of antibody vary depending on many different factors, including means of administration, target site, physiological state of the patient, whether the patient has a known genetic risk of iC3b associated disease, whether the patient is human or an animal, other medications administered, and whether treatment is prophylactic or therapeutic.

[0135] An exemplary dosage range for antibodies is from about 0.01 to 5 mg/kg, and more usually 0.1 to 3 mg/kg or 0.15-2 mg/kg or 0.15-1.5 mg/kg, of patient body weight. Antibody can be administered such doses daily, on alternative days, weekly, fortnightly, monthly, quarterly, or according to any other schedule determined by empirical analysis. An exemplary treatment entails administration in multiple dosages over a prolonged period, for example, of at least six months. Additional exemplary treatment regimes entail administration once per every two weeks or once a month or once every 3 to 6 months.

[0136] Antibodies can be administered via a peripheral route (i.e., one in which an

administered or induced antibody crosses the blood retina barrier to reach an intended site in the eye. Routes of administration include topical, intravenous, intravitreal, oral, subcutaneous, intraarterial, intracranial, intrathecal, intraperitoneal, intranasal or intramuscular. Preferred routes for administration of antibodies are intravenous, subcutaneous and ocular (e.g., eye drops or intravitreal) for ocular disorders. Preferred routes for active immunization are subcutaneous and intramuscular. This type of injection is most typically performed in the arm or leg muscles. In some methods, agents are injected directly into a particular tissue where deposits have accumulated.

[0137] Pharmaceutical compositions for parenteral administration are preferably sterile and substantially isotonic and manufactured under GMP conditions. Pharmaceutical compositions can be provided in unit dosage form (i.e., the dosage for a single administration).

Pharmaceutical compositions can be formulated using one or more physiologically acceptable excipient, such as a diluent, buffer, stabilizer, salt, sugar, polysorbate or other auxiliaries. The formulation depends on the route of administration chosen. For injection, antibodies can be formulated in aqueous solutions, preferably in physiologically compatible buffers such as Hank's solution, Ringer's solution, or physiological saline or acetate buffer (to reduce discomfort at the site of injection). The solution can contain formulatory agents such as suspending, stabilizing and/or dispersing agents. Alternatively antibodies can be in lyophilized form for constitution with a suitable vehicle, e.g., sterile pyrogen-free water, before use.

[0138] The present regimes can be administered in combination with another agent effective in treatment or prophylaxis of the disease being treated. For example, in the case of AMD, the present regime can be combined with inhibitors of VEGF, such as bevacizumab, ranibizumab, or aflibercept or in the case of rheumatoid arthritis NSAIDS, corticosteroids, immune

suppressants and TNF-alpha inhibitors, and NSAIDS, corticosteroids, or rituximab for SLE.

[0139] All publications (including GenBank Accession numbers, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot accession numbers and the like), patents and patent applications cited are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety for all purposes to the same extent as if each individual publication, patent and patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference in its entirety for all purposes. In the event of any variance in sequences associated with Genbank and UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot accession numbers and the like, the application refers to the sequences associated with the cited accession numbers as of the effective filing date of the application, meaning the date of the earliest priority application disclosing the relevant sequence. Unless otherwise apparent from the context, any step, feature, element, embodiment, aspect or the like of the invention can be used in combination with any other. Although the present invention has been described in some detail by way of illustration and example for purposes of clarity and understanding, it will be apparent that certain changes and modifications may be practiced within the scope of the appended claims.

EXAMPLES

Example 1. Immunization with iC3b protein

[0140] The injection schedule was as follows:

Table 1: iC3b injection schedule

[0141] Fusion JS 13: Mouse #1-3 was immunized 6 times, weekly, with 10 μg iC3b/100 μΐ mixed with RIBI adjuvant via intraperitoneal administration ("IP"). iC3b was obtained from Complement Technology #A115 Tyler, TX and EMD MiUipore #204863 Darmstadt, Germany. The mouse developed titers 1:405,000 to iC3b. Three days before the fusion, the mouse was boosted with 10 μg iC3b in PBS, half IV & half IP.

[0142] Fusion JS 14: Mouse #1-4 was immunized 4 times, weekly, with 10 μg iC3b/100 μΐ mixed with RIBI adjuvant, IP. The mouse developed titers 1:2,396,000 to iC3b. 3 days before fusion, the mouse was boosted with 10 μg iC3b in PBS, half via intravenous administration ("IV") & half IP.

[0143] Hybridomas designated 2H8, 6G1 (Ig2b, k) and 5D2 (IgGl, k) (among others) were isolated. Subsequent propagation of 2H8 involving 2-3 rounds of subcloning by limiting dilution suggested the original culture was likely a mix of two hybridomas, and a distinct cell line, designated 2H8r was propagated from the original.

Example 2. Characterization of antibodies by ELISA

[0144] Direct ELISA assay format: For primary screening, the plate was coated with EPSP.50-OVA (QLPRS linked to ovalbumin). Supernatants from fusion plates, control antibody, immunized mouse bleed, were used as detecting antibodies, respectively. Goat anti- mouse-HRP (Jackson ImmunoResearch #115-035-164) was used as the secondary antibody. 1- Step ABTS (Thermo #37615) was used as the substrate.

[0145] For secondary screening, positives from the primary screening were then screened in the sandwich ELISA assay format.

[0146] Sandwich ELISA assay format: For secondary screening, C3, C3b and iC3b were used for testing cross-reactivity. The plate was coated with chicken anti-C3 antibody (LeeBio #CC3-80A) as the capture antibody. For primary screening, only iC3b was used for antigen capture. For antibody characterization, all C3 proteins (C3 (Complement Technology #A113); C3b (Complement Technology #A114); and iC3b (Complement Technology #A115)) were used for antigen capture. Supernatants from cells, control antibody, mouse anti-human iC3b (the A209 antibody (Quidel)), were used as detecting antibodies, respectively. Goat anti-mouse-HRP (Jackson ImmunoResearch #115-035-164) was used as the secondary Antibody. 1-Step ABTS (Thermo #37615) was used as the substrate. The control antibody A209 shows preferential binding to iC3b over C3b and C3.

[0147] The sandwich ELISA was performed for the two mice in Example 3. First, cell supernatants were only tested for binding to iC3b. C3, C3b, and iC3b were used in the secondary screening for testing cross-reactivity. 6G1 and 5D2 were shown to preferentially bind iC3b in both ELISA screening and Biacore analysis.

[0148] Fusion JS 13 (fusion of mouse #1-3 in Example 1) had 96 iC3b positives in primary screen. Fusion JS 14 (fusion of mouse #1-4 in Example 2) primary screen had 360 mouse IgG positives in primary screen. Antibodies 6G1, and 5D2 showed better than 2-fold greater specificity for iC3b vs. C3 or C3b proteins (see Figs. 3 and 4). Whereas antibody produced by the 2H8 hybridoma showed little specificity for iC3b over C3 or C3b, antibody produced by 2H8r showed similar specificity as 6G1 (see Fig. 5). Thus, 2H8r was selected for humanization.

[0149] In a direct ELISA with C3, C3b and iC3b coated directly on the plate, all antibodies showed a lack of specificity. This suggests that the antibodies that specifically bound iC3b in the sandwich ELISA may recognize a conformational epitope specific to iC3b that is lost when coated on the plate.

Example 3. Characterization of antibodies by Biacore

[0150] A preliminary Biacore assay was done with four concentrations of either iC3b or one of the two potential cross-reactive complement species (e.g., C3b or C3) to assess relative cross- reactivity. Unlike ELISA, a two-fold difference in K D is not sufficient to establish specificity in the Biacore assay. An anti-mouse CM5 chip was prepared following manufacture protocol. Three antibodies (including 6G1) were captured at levels such that Rmax would fall between 25 and 50 RU. Four concentrations of either iC3b or cross-reacting protein were used. Both were from Complement Technologies as described above.

[0151] 6G1 shows specificity to iC3b relative to C3 (>10X difference in K D ) (Table 2). Table 2. Binding kinetic parameters of antibody6Gl

Example 4. Characterization of antibodies by immunoprecipitation

[0152] Co-Immunoprecipitation of both C3 and iC3b with antibodies: 20 μg of C3 and 2 μg of iC3b (Complement Technologies), 5μg of the test antibodies ( including 6G1, 5D2 and 2H8r), and 30 μΐ of washed Protein G-Sepharose (GE Lifesciences) were incubated at 4°C overnight in 200 μΐ of phosphated buffered saline (PBS). The precipitates were washed twice with PBS and once with radioimmuoprecipitation assay buffer (RIPA), and the bound protein was eluted by boiling the bead slurry in 20μ1 reducing/denaturing sample buffer (Invitrogen). In addition to immunoprecipitation samples, ^g C3 and O. ^g of iC3b protein was included as a loading control. Samples were resolved by SDS-PAGE on 10% Bis-tris gels (Invitrogen) and transferred to nitrocellulose. After blocking membranes for 1 hr in blocking buffer (Invitrogen), membranes were incubated overnight with rabbit anti-C3 antibody (Abnova, cat#PAB5002) at 0.5 μg/ml, washed with PBST, and incubated with goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody (Licor). Images were captured using a Licor Odyssey scanner. The alpha chain of C3 is about 110 kD in size and the beta chain is about 75 kD in size. The alpha chain of C3b is about 101 kD in size. The N-terminal fragment of the alpha chain of iC3b is about 63 kD in size and the C-terminal fragment of iC3b is about 43 kD in size. 5 μg of 5D2 was incubated with 2 μg of C3, C3b or iC3b or incubated with 20 μg C3 and 2 μg iC3b As a control, 0.4 μg of each of iC3b, C3b and C3 protein were run in separate lanes on a gel and detected by the Abnova rabbit polyclonal antibody and GAR-dye. 6G1 and 5D2also immunoprecipitated iC3b better than C3. Compared to other antibodies, the immunoprecipitation with 6G1 and 5D2 resulted in a much lighter or undetectable band around 98 kD, indicating that 6G1 and 5D2 have specificity for iC3b. 2H8r showed similar specificity in immunoprecipitation as 6G1 and 5D2.

[0153] Immunoprecipitation of either C3b or iC3b with antibodies: 2μg of either C3b or iC3b (Complement Technologies), 4μg of the test antibodies (including 6G1), and 30μ1 of washed Protein G-Sepharose (GE Lifesciences) were incubated at 4°C overnight in 250 μΐ of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The precipitates were washed twice with PBS and once with radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer (RIPA), and the bound protein was eluted by boiling the bead slurry in 20μ1 reducing/denaturing sample buffer (Invitrogen). In addition to

immunoprecipitation samples, 0^g each of purified protein was included as a loading control. Samples were resolved by SDS-PAGE on 10% Bis-tris gels (Invitrogen) and transferred to nitrocellulose. After blocking membranes for 1 hr in blocking buffer (Invitrogen), membranes were incubated O/N with rabbit anti-C3 antibody (Abnova, cat#PAB5002) at 0.5 μg/mL, washed with TBST, and incubated with goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody (Licor). Images were captured using a Licor Odyssey scanner. Immunoprecipitation of C3b with an antibody that binds C3b would result in bands at 75 kD and 100 kD in a reducing/denaturing gel.

Immunoprecipitation of iC3b with an antibody that binds iC3b would result in bands at 43 kD, 63 kD and 75 kD. An antibody specific for iC3b compared to C3b would result in a 43 kD band detected in the iC3b lane and little to no 100 kD band (intact alpha-chain) detected in the C3b lane. Antibody 6G1 had specificity for iC3b relative to C3b under these conditions.

Example 5. Immunohistochemical characterization of iC3b antibodies on the human Alzheimer's Disease brain

[0154] General Protocol: Five iC3b affinity-purified mouse monoclonal antibodies were generated and tested immunohistochemically on minimally fixed frozen sections of human brain cortex from a patient diagnosed with AD and a control. The Alzheimer's disease sample showed reactivity with some of the antibodies raised against iC3b, staining most prominently in the core of a subset of beta amyloid plaques. The iC3b staining was abundant and mostly confined to the grey matter, with some reactivity detected in the white matter. Normal control sections, in contrast, were largely negative for staining, except for slight reactivity around the vasculature. Of the antibodies that reacted, 6G1 was the most robust and was detected consistently at the core of beta amyloid plaques and showed the most specificity when pre-absorbed with purified human iC3b protein.

[0155] Methods: Fresh frozen human brain tissue was obtained from the University of California at San Diego ADRC Brain Bank. Sections of human brain tissue were taken from the frontal cortex of 91 -year-old male diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease and lacunar infarct (postmortem interval: unknown; Braak Stage 6.2) and normal cortex from a 77-year old female diagnosed with infarct and acute ischemic changes (PMI: 12 hours; Braak Stage 0). The tissue was cut on a cryostat at 10 μΜ and mounted directly on charged slides and dried overnight at room temperature. 10 μιη, cryocut slide-mounted tissue sections were fixed in acetone

(AX0125-4; EMD Chemicals; Gibbstown, NJ) at -20° C for 10 minutes. The sections were then rinsed 3 x for 5 minutes each in .01M phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4; Sigma; P3813- lOPak; St. Louis, MO). The sections were then immunohistochemically stained with the various iC3b antibodies at concentrations of 5, 2.5, 1.25, and .625 μg/ml. The immunoperoxidase method was the principal detection system, which consisted of a biotinylated goat anti-mouse secondary (Jacksonlmmuno Research; 115-065-166), a Vector ABC amplification step (ABC Elite Standard; PK-6100; Vector Laboratories), and visualization with a DAB substrate kit (Liquid DAB + Substrate Chromogen System; Dako K3468), which produced a brown deposit. Negative controls consisted of running an IgG-isotype control antibody on serial sections and performing the entire immunohistochemical procedure on adjacent sections in the absence of primary antibody. Tissues were also stained with positive control antibodies (3D6 and GFAP) to ensure that the tissue antigens were accessible for IHC analysis. Slides were imaged with an Olympus Nanozoomer 2.0HT and images were collected as TIFF files.

[0156] Pre-absorptions: To assess the specificity of the antibodies to its target antigens, the 0.1 μg/mL of the iC3b antibodies were pre-absorbed with 10 μg/mL (100-fold excess) of purified human iC3b, C3, or C3b (Complement Technology, Tyler, TX) overnight at 4° C. The antibodies were then applied to tissue and the immunohistochemistry procedure was conducted as outlined above.

[0157] Results: The immunoreactivity of the antibodies that stained the AD brain positively were quite robust at 0.625 μg/mL dilution, labeling plaques with various morphologies in the grey matter (with slight reactivity in the white matter). The reference murine monoclonal antibody (Cat. #A209; Quidel Corporation, San Diego, CA) showed the least amount of immunoreactivity to plaques when stained in parallel with the other iC3b antibodies at the same concentration. At 0.625 μg/mL dilution, 6G1 was most robust and was therefore further diluted at the sub-micro gram levels (Fig. 6). The best signal to noise ratio for 6G1 was attained at 0.^g/ml (see, "non-absorbed" tab in Fig. 7).

[0158] Pre-absorptions of the various iC3b antibodies with purified human proteins to iC3b, C3b, and C3 showed that the staining was attenuated when 6G1 was pre-absorbed with iC3b. The staining was unaffected when 6G1 was pre-absorbed with C3b or C3 (Fig. 7).

[0159] Part I: Primary Antibody Incubation for Slide-Mounted Sections

[0160] (1) Block endogenous peroxidase by incubating in 1% hydrogen peroxide in PBS for 30 minutes (H3410-1L; Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO)

[0161] (a) Rinse 3 x 5 minutes in .01M PBS, pH 7.4

[0162] (2) Incubate slides in with 500 μΐ of 5% heat-inactivated normal goat serum (#005- 000-121; Jackson ImmunoResearch; West Grove, PA) in 0.25% Triton X-100 (X100-500ML; Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO) in .01M phosphate buffered saline for 1 hour at room

temperature to block non-specific staining ("5% goat blocking solution"). [0163] (3) Block endogenous biotin in the tissue by incubating in Avidin/Biotin Blocking Kit (SP-2001; Vector Laboratories; Burlingame, CA).

[0164] (a) Incubate tissue in 250 μΐ Avidin solution for 15 minutes

[0165] (b) Rinse 3 x 5 minutes in PBS

[0166] (c) Incubate tissue in 250 μΐ Biotin solution for 15 minutes

[0167] (d) Rinse 3 x 5 minutes in PBS

[0168] (4) Dilute the primary ic3b antibodies in 5% goat blocking solution according to the concentrations .625 ug/mL or 0.100 μg/mL.

[0169] (5) Apply 500 μΐ of the antibody solution/slide and incubate for 1 hour at room temperature.

Part II: Biotinylated Secondary Antibody and ABC Amplification [0170] (1) Prepare goat anti-mouse secondary antibody.

[0171] (a) Dilute goat anti-mouse secondary antibody ("Biotin-SP-AffiniPure Goat Anti-

Mouse IgG (H+L) (min X Rat,Hu,Bov,Hrs,Rb Sr Prot); Jacksonlmmuno Research; 115-065- 166) 1:500 in 5% goat blocking solution.

[0172] (2) Rinse slides 3x with .01M PBS, pH 7.4.

[0173] (3) Add 500 μΐ ^ of secondary antibody solution/slide and incubate for 1 hour at room temperature.

[0174] (4) Prepare the ABC solution (ABC Elite Standard; PK-6100; Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA) by pre-complexing the avidin and biotin solutions 30 minutes prior to its use.

[0175] (a) Add 2 drops of A Solution for every 5 mL PBS .

[0176] (b) Add 2 drops of B Solution for every 5 mL PBS .

[0177] (c) Vortex the solution.

[0178] (5) Rinse slides 3 x 5 minutes in .01M PBS, pH 7.4. [0179] (6) Amplify with pre-complexed avid-biotin solution and incubate tissue sections for 1 hour.

[0180] (7) Rinse 3 x 5 minutes in .01M PBS, pH 7.4. Part III: Visualization with Chromogen

[0181] (1) Prepare the ABC solution (ABC Elite Standard; PK-6100; Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA) by pre-complexing the avidin and biotin solutions 30 minutes prior to its use.

[0182] (a) Add 2 drops of A Solution for every 5 mL PBS .

[0183] (b) Add 2 drops of B Solution for every 5 mL PBS .

[0184] (c) Vortex the solution.

[0185] (2) Rinse slides 3 x 5 minutes in .01M PBS, pH 7.4

[0186] (3) Amplify with pre-complexed avid-biotin solution and incubate tissue sections for 1 hour.

[0187] (4) Rinse 3 x 5 minutes in .01M PBS, pH 7.4

[0188] (5) Prepare the DAB solution (Liquid DAB + Substrate Chromogen System; Dako K3468; Carpinteria, CA)

[0189] (a) Mix 0.010 mL of Liquid DAB for every lmL of DAB substrate (e.g., 0.050mL for 5 mL DAB substrate solution.

[0190] (b) React the tissue sections with 500 μΐ of chromogen and substrate for 2 minutes or until the appropriate level of staining is attained.

[0191] (6) Rinse sections 3 x 5 minutes each to stop the reaction.

[0192] (7) Counterstain the slides in hematoxylin (Modified Harris Hematoxylin; #72704; Richard-Allan Scientific; Kalamazoo, MI) then dehydrate in increasing alcohol series (50-, 70-, 95-, 100-, 100-, and 100%), clear in 3 changes of fresh xylene, and coverslip with Cytoseal 60 (#8310-4; Richard- Allan Scientific Kalamazoo, MI).

Example 6. 5D2 is cross-reactive with murine iC3b [0193] A Costar RIA/EIA (Costar #3590) plate was coated with 5 μ^ηύ of rat monoclonal antibody 2/11 (Hycult biotech, Cat. HM1065) specific for mouse C3b/iC3b/C3c in 50 μΐ of PBS per well. The plate was coated at 4° C overnight. On day 2, the plate was washed 5 times with washing buffer (TPBS + 0.05% Tween 20) and blocked with 50 μΐ blocking buffer (PBS containing 1.5% BSA) per well for 1 hour at room temperature. Then the plate was washed 5 times with washing buffer and incubated with 50 μΐ per well of mouse serum diluted with blocking buffer (1:25 dilution). The mouse serum is a serum mixture from two mice. One hour post incubation, the plate was washed for 5 times and incubated with different amount of biotinylated iC3b antibodies as indicated (in 50 μΐ of blocking buffer). After 1 hour of incubation at room temperature, the plate was washed again for 5 times with washing buffer and incubated with 1: 4000 diluted Streptavidin-HRP (GE Healthcare, RPN 4401V) in 50 μΐ blocking buffer per well. The plate was washed for 5 times with washing buffer and incubated with 50 μΐ per well of 1-step ABTS (Thermo Scientific, prod # 37615) for 40 minutes at room temperature and read at 405 nM. Mouse serum ELISA data shows that 5D2 cross-reacts with murine iC3b.

Example 7. Fortebio-based antibody competition assay

[0194] To test whether a first antibody (Abl) competes with a second antibody (Ab2) for iC3b binding, streptavidin sensor was first dipped in PBS-0.1% BSA for 10 minutes. The sensor was then dipped in PBS-0.1% BSA with various different components in the following order: (1) Step 1: The sensor was dipped in PBS-0.1% BSA for 60 seconds to establish the baseline; (2) Step2: The sensor was dipped in PBS-0.1% BSA with 5 g/ml biotinylated Abl for 120 seconds to capture Abl; (3) Step 3: The sensor was dipped in PBS-0.1%BSA containing 100 nM (if Abl is 2H8r) or 500nM (if Abl is 2A10, 5D2 or 6G1) of purified human iC3b for 120 seconds for the captured Abl to bind to iC3b; and (4) Step 4: The sensor was dipped in PBS-0.1%BSA containing 50 g/ml of Ab2 for 120 seconds to test whether Ab2 can bind to iC3b following capture by Ab 1.

[0195] If the biotinylated Abl blocks Ab2 binding, and vice versa (the biotinylated Ab2 also blocks Abl binding), it can be concluded that Abl and Ab2 bind to the same epitope. If the biotinylated Abl does not block Ab2 binding and vice versa, it can be concluded that Abl and Ab2 bind to different epitope. If the biotinylated Abl blocks Ab2 binding but the biotinylated Ab2 doesn't block Abl binding, it can be concluded that Abl and Ab2 bind to overlapping epitopes or the two epitopes are in close proximity to each other.

[0196] It was found that antibody 6G1 does not compete with antibody 5D2 and antibody 2H8r does compete with 6G1.

[0197] Therefore, 6G1 and antibody 5D2 bind to different epitopes on iC3b.

Example 8. 6G1 and 5D2 do not compete with A209 and MAB1-82814

[0198] To test whether antibodies 6G1 and 5D2 compete with commercial anti-iC3B antibody A209, 0.4ug of iC3b were resolved by SDS-PAGE on 10% Bis-tris gels (Invitrogen) and transferred to nitrocellulose. After blocking membranes for 1 hour in blocking buffer (Invitrogen), membranes were incubated at room temperature with 1 μg/ml of biotinylated Quidel antibody in the absence or presence of 10 μg/ml of competing Abs. Membrane was washed with phosphate buffered saline Tween-20 (PBST), and incubated with goat anti-mouse secondary antibody (Licor). Images were captured using a Licor Odyssey scanner. It was found that neither of antibodies 6G1 or 5D2 compete with antibody A209 whereas commercial antibody MAB 1-82814 competes with A209.

[0199] Competition with antibody A209 was also tested using direct ELISA. The plate was coated with 10 μg/ml iC3b. Streptavidin-HRP (GE Healthcare, RPN 4401V) was used as detection antibody. In the first ELISA experiment, 1 μg/ml Biotinylated antibody A209 and 10 μg/ml of competing MAb (6Glor 5D2 or MAB 1-82814) was used as primary antibody. In the second ELISA experiment, 1 μg/ml Biotinylated Quidel MAb and 100 μg/ml of competing MAb (6G1 or 5D2) or 10 μg/ml MAB 1-82814 were used as primary antibody. OD was measured at 405 nm. It was found that neither of antibodies 6G1 or 5D2competes with antibody A209 whereas MAB 1-82814 competes with A209

[0200] The Western and ELISA results indicated that antibodies 6G1 and 5D2 bind to epitopes different from that of A209 and MAB 1-82814.

Example 9. Passive immunization in an APOE4-HFC mouse model

[0201] APOE4-targeted replacement mice expressing the E4 human apoE isoform were generated as described in Sullivan et al., J Biol Chem 272: 17972-17980, 1997. Aged male APOE4 mice (n = 104; 65-87 wk) are maintained on a normal rodent chow diet [normal diet (ND), Isopurina 5001; Prolab], and a subset of these mice are switched to an HFC diet (n = 84; TD 88051; Harlan Teklad) for 8 wk. The APOE4-HFC mice are also subgrouped based on antibody treatment. Mice are randomly assigned to treatment groups with even distribution by age. Animals injected with Fc- engineered anti-iC3b antibodies lacking Clq binding activity, but retaining FcR binding activity (2H8r, 6G1 and 5D2) or a control antibody receive one time per week i.p. injections (3 mg/kg body weight/injection) of the antibody

[0202] Visual function is monitored by analysis of b-wave electroretino grams (ERGs), a reliable measure of retinal activity and visual function (Niemeyer, Digit J Ophthalmol 4(10), 1998). Histological evaluation of sections of whole eyes through the optic nerve head is conducted to reveal pathologic changes in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and the presence of sub-RPE deposits in APOE4-HFC mice. RPE lesions are exemplified by

vacuolization, pyknosis, hyper- and hypo-pigmentation, and infiltrating microglia. . RPE damage in APOE4-HFC mice is quantified by immunostaining RPE flat mounts with an antibody to the tight junction protein, zona occludens 1 (ZO-1), staining nuclei with Hoechst 33342, and analyzing the images for RPE size, integrity, and number (Ding et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:E279-E287, 2011).

[0203] ERG: ERGs are recorded using the Espion E2 system (Diagnosys LLC) (Ding et al., Vision Res 48:339-345, 2008; Malek, et al., Adv Exp Med Biol 613:165-170, 2008). Data analysis and fitting were performed as described (Herrmann et al., J Neurosci 30:3239-3253, 2010). Personnel responsible for ERGs and assessment of pathology are masked to the identity of treatment groups.

[0204] Immunohistochemistry: Mouse posterior eyecups are embedded in agar and vibratome- sectioned at 50-100 μιη. Sections are blocked in 10% normal donkey serum (Jackson Immunoresearch), incubated overnight with primary antibodies, incubated for 2 h in Alexa fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody (Invitrogen), and counterstained with Hoechst 33342 (Invitrogen). Confocal images are acquired using a Leica SP5 laser-scanning confocal microscope.

[0205] Histology: Mice are deeply anesthetized and perfused transcardially with saline followed by fixative (4% paraformaldehyde in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, for immunohistochemistry or a mixture of 2% paraformaldehyde and 2% glutaraldehyde in phosphate buffer for semithin and ultra-thin sections). For semithin sections, eyeballs are enucleated; the cornea and lenses are removed, dehydrated, embedded in Epon-Spurr resin, cut at 500 nm, mounted on glass slides, and stained with toluidine blue. Sections are examined under a Zeiss Axioplan 2 microscope (Thornwood).

Example 10: Binding of Antibodies to the RPE in AMD patients

[0206] 2H8, 5D2, 5E10 and 6G1 were tested for binding to human Bruch's membrane/choroid tissues were performed. Antibody dilutions of 1: 10, 1: 100, 1;200, 1:500, 1:1000 were used. Antibodies 5D2 and 6G1 were effective in decorating drusen associated with Bruch's membrane, whereas 2H8 and 5E10 did not interact with drusen or any other tissue components. Accordingly, systematic analysis was only performed using antibodies 5D2 and 6G1. Results of staining in the initial dilution comparisons established that primary antibody concentration of 1:200 was the appropriate concentration to use for application of the primary antibodies.

[0207] For controls antibodies were preincubated with excess antigen to which these mab had been generated. We also used tissues probed only with the secondary antibody (goat-anti-mouse IgG). Because 5D2 and 6G1 were not effective in interacting with any tissue components probed, these also became useful nonspecific control mab.

[0208] Bruch's membrane/choroid preparations from the macula and surrounding areas of 16 donor eyes were isolated from donor eyes previously and probed with these antibodies. Five were from Stage 1 (normal), seven were from Stage 3, and five were from Stage 4 AMD eyes. Stage 4 was comprised of four wet AMD donor eyes (with fibrovascular scars present), and one with geographic atrophy. (Stages given are those from the AREDS study, as modified for use with postmortem donor eyes, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004, 45:4484).

[0209] Figs. 8 and 9 each contains three images. Each image is oriented with Bruch's membrane positioned along the horizontal axis of the image with the surface normally exposed to the basal side of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) along the upper surface. Drusen, indicated by oblique arrows, bulge upward from the surface of Bruch's membrane. The choroid is present along the lower half of each image. Positive immunocytochemistry reaction product is magenta in color and is associated with drusen present in the middle and upper image in each figure. The lower image shows unstained drusen present in pre-absorbed control. Some of the images contain melanin debris from the RPE along the upper surface of Bruch' s membrane that was not completely rinsed from the preparation at the time of isolation. RPE melanin has been circled when present in these figures and should not be confused with the positive

immunoreactivity of the antibodies with drusen. The dark brown material present in variable degrees in the choroid of the images represents melanin, which is a normal constituent of choroidal melanocytes.

[0210] AMD (Stage 3 and Stage 4). 6G1 was most effective in decorating drusen in each of the AMD tissues studied. In Fig. 9 two representative examples of drusen staining with 6G1 are presented. Not all drusen stained to the same degree, some were intensely stained throughout the entirety of druse, whereas others showed staining only in the center of the druse and not along the upper surface (toward the RPE, which was removed during preparation of the samples for study). This did not appear to be specific to the disease stage of the tissue. 6G1 when pre- absorbed with excess antigen did not decorate drusen, clearly indicating the presence of iC3b in drusen staining. Bruch' s membrane was not immunoreactive to 6G1.

[0211] Fig. 8 contains two representative examples of drusen staining with 5D2. In the Stage 4 AMD tissue presented, several drusen are present with variable staining, with intense staining of the left and middle of this image, to lighter staining of the druse on the extreme right. These variable staining intensities with 5D2 were commonly observed in the State 4 samples. Stage 3 samples showed less intense staining of drusen with 5D2 than did Stage 4 samples. Much of the 5D2 staining was associated with the outer regions of drusen with little to no staining of the central drusen core. Bruch' s membrane was not immunoreactive to 5D2.

[0212] Normal (Stage 1) donor eye tissues studied were free of drusen and showed no more staining of Bruch's membrane with 6G1 or 5D2 than was observed in the Stage 3 and 4 AMD tissues described above.

[0213] Conclusion: Monoclonal antibodies 2H8 and 5E10 did not show any utility in staining drusen in the human donor tissues used in this study. In contrast, 5D2 and 6G1 were highly specific in their ability to decorate drusen in stage 3 and 4 AMD tissues.

Example 11. Design of humanized 6G1 and 2H8r antibodies [0214] The starting point or donor antibody for humanization is the mouse antibody 6G1 or the mouse antibody 2H8r, which show substantial sequence identity with one another in the light and heavy variable regions. The variable kappa (VK) of m6Gl and m2H8r belongs to mouse Kabat subgroup 5 which corresponds to human Kabat subgroup. The VH of m6Gl and m2H8r belongs to mouse Kabat subgroup 2a which correspond to human Kabat subgroup 1 (Kabat et al., Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest, Fifth Edition. NIH Publication No. 91-3242, 1991). Kabat numbering is used throughout in this Example.

[0215] For either m6Gl or m2H8r , the 11-residue CDR-L1 belongs to canonical class 1, the 7-residue CDR-L2 belongs to class 1, and the 9-residue CDR-L3 belongs to class 1 in Vk (Martin & Thornton, J Mol Biol. 263:800-15, 1996). The 5-residue CDR-H1 belongs to class 1, the 17-residue CDR-H2 belongs to class 2 (Martin & Thornton, J Mol Biol. 263:800-15, 1996). CDR-3 has no canonical classes, but the 11-residue loop probably has a kinked base according to the rules of Shirai et al (1999). The residues at the interface between the VK and VH domains are the ones commonly found, except 144 in VK is an unusual residue in both mouse and human sequences.

[0216] A search was made over the protein sequences in the PDB database (Despande et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 33: D233-7, 2005) to find structures that would provide a rough structural model of 6G1. The crystal structure of idiotype-anti-idiotype Fab (pdb code 1IAI; Ban, N. et al., 1993) was chosen for the Vh structure since it had good overall sequence similarity and reasonably good resolution (2.9A). In addition, CDRs-Hl and H2 of 1IAI have the same canonical classifications as m6Gl and 2H8r Vh. 1IAI CDR-H3 also has a similar length to CDR- 3 of m6Gl and m2H8r (one amino acid difference) and also has a kinked base. The crystal structure of the anti-Mannopyranoside Fab (pdb code 2V7H; Krishnan, L. et al., 2008) was chosen for the VK structure since it had good overall sequence similarity and reasonably good resolution (2.8A). Additionally, CDRs-Ll, L2, and L3 had the same canonical classifications as m6Gl and m2H8r Vk. A structural model of the mouse 6G1 and mouse 2H8rr Fv region was built using Maestro and Bioluminate modules of Schroedinger Software package.

[0217] A search of the non-redundant protein sequence database from NCBI allowed selection of suitable human frameworks into which to graft the murine CDRs. For Vk, a human kappa light chain with NCBI accession code AAD29608.1 (GL4768677) (Wally, J. et al., 1998) was chosen (SEQ ID NO:31). It belongs to Kabat human kappa subgroup 1 and has the same canonical classes for CDR-Ll, L2, and L3 as those of m6Gl and m2H8rr. For Vh, human Ig heavy chain BAC01510.1 (GL21668966) (Akahori, Y. et al, 2001) (SEQ ID NO:33) was chosen. It belongs to Kabat human heavy chain subgroup 1 and has the same canonical classes for CDR-H1 and H2 as those of m6Gl and m2H8r. CDR-H3 of 6G1 and 2H8r has no canonical class, but the CDR-H3 of BAC01510.1 is nine residues long with a predicted kinked base.

[0218] The rationales for selection of several positions as candidates for backmutation of human to mouse Fr residues are as follows.

Variable light chain backmutations:

[0219] P44I: (here as elsewhere for framework backmutations, the first mentioned residue is the human residue and the second the mouse residue). This is an interface residue located on a beta sheet structure; cis-Proline may break the beta sheet.

[0220] T69R: Arginine at Kabat position L69 interacts with Aspartic Acid at Kabat position L28 in the CDR-Ll domain, which has the potential to form an ionic bond. This backmutation is only made in 6G1 and not in 2H8r.

[0221] F71Y: This is an interface residue. Tyrosine at Kabat position L71 may interact with Asparagine at Kabat position L31 in the CDR-Ll domain. Therefore we make this backmutation.

[0222] F73L: Leucine at Kabat position L73 is a more frequent residue in human IgG than Phenylalanine, therefore it is backmutated.

[0223] Y87F: This is an interface residue.

[0224] Variable heavy chain backmutations:

[0225] R38K: Both arginine and lysine at Kabat position H38 may interact with phenylalanine at position H64 in CDR-H2. [0226] G44D: Kabat position H44 is closely located to two backmutated amino acids at Kabat positions H38 and H46. A backmutation at Kabat position H44 may contribute to the conformational structure of the local domain. This backmutation is only made in 6G1 and not 2H8r.

[0227] E46K: Lysine at Kabat position H46 interacts with Glutamic acid at Kabat position H63 in the CDR-H2 domain. Glutamic acid at Kabat position H46 may disrupt this interaction.

[0228] V89T: Threonine at Kabat position H89 may form a hydrogen bond with

Phenylalanine at Kabat position H95, which is an interface residue. Valine at Kabat position H89 may interrupt this interaction, thus affecting the interface structure.

[0229] Tables 3 and 4 below summarizes the backmutations made in five humanized heavy chains (H1-H5) and five humanized light chains for 6G1 (L1-L4) and four humanized heavy chains (H1-H4) and four humanized light chains (L1-L4) for 2H8r.

[0230] Tables 3 and 4 shows backmutations of VH and VL

Table 3: Backmutation in 6G1

Example 12. Characterization of Humanized 6G1 Antibodies by Direct ELISA

[0231] Costar RIA/EIA (Costar #3590) plate was coated with lOOul/well of lOug ml iC3b (Complement Technologies) at 4 degree overnight. At day 2, the plate was washed 5 times with washing buffer (TPBS + 0.05% Tween 20) and blocked with lOOul blocking buffer (PBS containing 1.5% BSA) per well for 1 hour at room temperature. Then the plate was washed 5 times with washing buffer and incubated with lOOul per well of testing antibodies as indicated in the figure. After 1 hour of incubation at room temperature, the plate was washed again for 5 times with washing buffer and incubated with 1: 4000 diluted Goat anti human-HRP (Jackson Immunoresearch, Code 109-036-098, lot 99937) in lOOul blocking buffer per well. The plate was washed for 5 times with washing buffer and incubated with lOOul per well of 1-step ABTS (Thermo Scientific, prod # 37615) for 10 minutes at room temperature and read at 405 nM. Version H3L3 showed the same dissociation constant as chimeric 6G1 (Fig. 10).

Example 13. Characterization of Humanized 6G1 Antibodies by Sandwich ELISA

[0232] Costar RIA/EIA (Costar #3590) plate was coated with Chicken anti-C3 (LeeBio #CC3- 80A) antibody diluted to 2.5 ug/mL in 50ulPBS/well at room temperature for lhour and was washed 5 time with washing buffer (0.05% Tween 20 in PBS). Plate was then blocked with 250 uL/well of blocking buffer (1%BSA in PBS), then emptied plates and added 2.5ug/ml of ic3b (complement technology) in 50ul/well blocking buffer at room temperature for 1 hour. Plates were washed 5 times with washing buffer. Purified antibodies as indicated were added at 50 uL/well per template, incubated for 1 hour at room temperature. Plates were washed again with washing buffer for 5 times and followed by incubation with 50ul/well of Goat anti-human γ-HRP diluted at 1:2,000 (Jackson Immunoresearch, Code 109-036-098, lot 99937). For detection, the plate was washed for 5 times with washing buffer and incubated with 50ul per well of 1-step ABTS (Thermo Scientific, prod # 37615) for 10 minutes at room temperature and read at 405 nM. Fig. 11 shows that H3L3 has better affinity than H1L2 overall (even though at the highest concentration H1L2 looks to have a better affinity). [0233] In a further test, three versions of humanized 6G1, H3L3, H3L5 and H1L2 were tested for ability to immunoprecipitated C3 or iC3b in comparison with m6Gl, chi-6Gl and a negative control. Each of these humanized antibodies showed strong selectively for immunoprecipitation of iC3b over C3.

Example 14. Design of humanized 5D2 antibodies.

[0234] The starting point or donor antibody for humanization is the mouse antibody 5D2. The variable kappa (VK) of m5D2 belongs to mouse Kabat subgroup 5 which corresponds to human Kabat subgroup 1. The VH of m5D2 belongs to mouse Kabat subgroup 2a which corresponds to human Kabat subgroup 1 (Kabat, et. al., 1991). Kabat numbering is used throughout in this Example.

[0235] The 11 residue CDR-L1 belongs to canonical class 1, the 7 residue CDR-L2 belongs to class 1, and the 9 residue CDR-L3 belongs to class 3 in VK. (Martin & Thornton, 1996). The 6 residue CDR-Hl belongs to class 1, and the 17 residue CDR-H2 belongs to class 3. CDR-H3 has no canonical classes, but the 12 residue loop is predicted to have a kinked base according to the rules of Shirai et al. (1999). The residues at the interface between the VK and VH domains are the ones commonly found, except methionine at Kabat position H35 and asparagines at Kabat position H95 are unusual residues in both mouse and human sequences.

[0236] A search was made over the protein sequences in the PDB database (Deshpande et al., 2005) to find structures that would provide a rough structural model of 5D2. The structure of the antibody anti-human Mcp-1 (pdb code 2BDN_L; Boriack-Sjodin, P. A. et al, 2005) was chosen for the VK structure since it has good overall sequence similarity and reasonable resolution (2.53A). This antibody retained the same canonical structure for the loops as 5D2. The structure of antibody anti-human Fas (pdb code 1IQW; Yoshida-Kato, H., 2000) was chosen for the Vh structure since it has good overall sequence similarity and reasonably good resolution (2.5 A). It contains the same canonical structures for CDR-Hl and CDR-H2, and also a similar length CDR-H3 (one amino acid difference) with a kinked base. Maestro and Bioluminate were used to model a rough structure of 5D2 Fv.

[0237] A search of the non-redundant protein sequence database from NCBI allowed selection of suitable human frameworks into which to graft the murine CDRs. For VK, a human kappa light chain with NCBI accession code BAC01558 (Akahori et al, 2001) (SEQ ID NO:32) was chosen. It belongs to human kappa subgroup and has the same canonical classes for CDR-Ll, L2, and L3. For Vh, human Ig heavy chain ADX65082.1 (Scheet et al, 2010) (SEQ ID NO:34) and BAC01879 (SEQ ID NO:35) were chosen, which belongs to human heavy chain subgroup 1. They share the canonical form of 5D2 CDRH1 and H2. H3 is 13 residues long with a predicted kinked base.

[0238] The rationales for selection of several positions as candidates for backmutation are as follows.

[0239] Variable light chain backmutations:

[0240] Y36F: Tyrosine at Kabat position L36 forms a potential new hydrogen bond with tyrosine at Kabat position H107 in CDR-H3, which will yield a new interaction, thus affecting the conformational structure of the antibody.

[0241] Y49S: Tyrosine at Kabat position L49 forms a potential new hydrogen bond with tyrosine at Kabat position H107, which will yield a new interaction, thus affecting the conformational structure of the antibody.

[0242] T69K: Threonine at Kabat position L69 forms a potential new hydrogen bond with aspartic acid at Kabat position L28 in CDR-Ll, which will yield a new interaction, thus affecting the conformational structure of the antibody.

[0243] F71Y: Tyrosine at Kabat position L71 forms a hydrogen bond with asparagine at Kabat position L31 in CDR-Ll, which is critical to 5D2 structure. Phenylalanine at this position will cause the loss of this interaction.

[0244] V104L: Leucine is frequent in the human IgG framework at Kabat position LI 04. [0245] Variable heavy chain backmutations:

[0246] IE: Position 1 is deleted in the human acceptor and therefore position 1 from the donor is used.

[0247] V5Q: Glutamine at Kabat position H5 is also a human residue. [0248] G44S: Serine at Kabat position H44 forms a hydrogen bond with tyrosine at Kabat position L87, which is an interface residue.

[0249] I69L: Leucine at Kabat position H71 is close to interface residue tryptophan at Kabat position H36, which may affect the structure.

[0250] V89L: Valine at Kabat position H89 is close to interface residue tryptophan at Kabat position H36, which may affect the structure.

[0251] Two versions of the humanized mature heavy chain variable region (H1-H2) and one version of the humanized light chain variable region (LI) were made.

[0252] The following tables provides the sequences of the mature light and heavy chain variable regions of the 6G1, 2H8r and 5D2 antibodies, all exemplified humanized versions thereof and human acceptor sequences. Asterisks indicate positions of backmutations in humanized chains.

Table 5 6G1 light chains

6G1 Hu 6G1 Hu v5

6G1 v3 6G1 Hu v4 (T69R, Parent 6G1 Hu 6G1 Hu v2 (T69R, (P44I, F71Y, mouse vl (T69R, F71Y, T69R, F73L,

Kabat Linear mAb (T69R) F71Y) F73L) F71Y) Y87F) residue residue FR or SEQ ID SEQ ID SEQ ID SEQ ID SEQ ID NO. SEQ ID # # CDR NO. 6 N0.7 NO. 8 NO. 9 10 NO. 11

9 9 Frl S S S S S S

10 10 Frl S S S S S S

11 11 Frl L L L L L L

12 12 Frl S S S S S S

13 13 Frl A A A A A A

14 14 Frl S S S S S S

15 15 Frl L V V V V V

16 16 Frl G G G G G G

17 17 Frl D D D D D D

18 18 Frl R R R R R R

19 19 Frl V V V V V V

20 20 Frl T T T T T T

21 21 Frl 1 1 1 1 1 1

22 22 Frl s T T T T T

23 23 Frl c c c c c c

24 24 CDR-L1 R R R R R R

25 25 CDR-L1 A A A A A A

26 26 CDR-L1 S S S S S S

27 27 CDR-L1 Q Q Q Q Q Q7A CDR-L1

7B CDR-L1

7C CDR-L1

7D CDR-L1

7E CDR-L1

7F CDR-L1

28 28 CDR-L1 D D D D D D

29 29 CDR-L1 1 1 1 1 1 1

30 30 CDR-L1 N N N N N N

31 31 CDR-L1 N N N N N N

32 32 CDR-L1 Y Y Y Y Y Y

33 33 CDR-L1 L L L L L L

34 34 CDR-L1 N N N N N N Table 5 6G1 light chains

6G1 Hu 6G1 Hu v5

6G1 v3 6G1 Hu v4 (T69R, Parent 6G1 Hu 6G1 Hu v2 (T69R, (P44I, F71Y, mouse vl (T69R, F71Y, T69R, F73L,

Kabat Linear mAb (T69R) F71Y) F73L) F71Y) Y87F) residue residue FR or SEQ ID SEQ ID SEQ ID SEQ ID SEQ ID NO. SEQ ID # # CDR NO. 6 N0.7 NO. 8 NO. 9 10 NO. 11

35 35 Fr2 W W W W W W

36 36 Fr2 Y Y Y Y Y Y

37 37 Fr2 Q Q Q Q Q Q

38 38 Fr2 Q Q Q Q Q Q

39 39 Fr2 K K K K K K

40 40 Fr2 P P P P P P

41 41 Fr2 D G G G G G

42 42 Fr2 G K K K K K

43 43 Fr2 T T T T T T

*

44 44 Fr2 1 P P P 1 P

45 45 Fr2 K K K K K K

46 46 Fr2 L L L L L L

47 47 Fr2 L L L L L L

48 48 Fr2 1 1 1 1 1 1

49 49 Fr2 Y Y Y Y Y Y

50 50 CDR-L2 Y Y Y Y Y Y

51 51 CDR-L2 T T T T T T

52 52 CDR-L2 s s s s s s

53 53 CDR-L2 K K K K K K

54 54 CDR-L2 L L L L L L

55 55 CDR-L2 H H H H H H

56 56 CDR-L2 S S S S S S

57 57 Fr3 G G G G G G

58 58 Fr3 V V V V V V

59 59 Fr3 P P P P P P

60 60 Fr3 S S S S S S

61 61 Fr3 R R R R R R

62 62 Fr3 F F F F F F

63 63 Fr3 S S S S S S

64 64 Fr3 G G G G G G

65 65 Fr3 S S S S S S Table 5 6G1 light chains

6G1 Hu 6G1 Hu v5

6G1 v3 6G1 Hu v4 (T69R, Parent 6G1 Hu 6G1 Hu v2 (T69R, (P44I, F71Y, mouse vl (T69R, F71Y, T69R, F73L,

Kabat Linear mAb (T69R) F71Y) F73L) F71Y) Y87F) residue residue FR or SEQ ID SEQ ID SEQ ID SEQ ID SEQ ID NO. SEQ ID # # CDR NO. 6 N0.7 NO. 8 NO. 9 10 NO. 11

66 66 Fr3 G G G G G G

67 67 Fr3 S S S S S S

68 68 Fr3 G G G G G G

* * * * *

69 69 Fr3 R R R R R R

70 70 Fr3 D D D D D D

* * * *

71 71 Fr3 Y F Y Y Y Y

72 72 Fr3 S 1 1 1 1 1

* *

73 73 Fr3 L F F L F L

74 74 Fr3 T T T T T T

75 75 Fr3 1 1 1 1 1 1

76 76 Fr3 s s s s s s

77 77 Fr3 N s s s s s

78 78 Fr3 L L L L L L

79 79 Fr3 E Q Q Q Q Q

80 80 Fr3 Q P P P P P

81 81 Fr3 E E E E E E

82 82 Fr3 D D D D D D

83 83 Fr3 1 1 1 1 1 1

84 84 Fr3 A A A A A A

85 85 Fr3 T T T T T T

86 86 Fr3 Y Y Y Y Y Y

*

87 87 Fr3 F Y Y Y Y F

88 88 Fr3 C c c c c C

89 89 CDR-L3 Q Q Q Q Q Q

90 90 CDR-L3 Q Q Q Q Q Q

91 91 CDR-L3 G G G G G G

92 92 CDR-L3 N N N N N N

93 93 CDR-L3 T T T T T T

94 94 CDR-L3 L L L L L L

95 95 CDR-L3 P P P P P P5A CDR-L3 Table 5 6G1 light chains

6G1 Hu 6G1 Hu v5

6G1 v3 6G1 Hu v4 (T69R,

Parent 6G1 Hu 6G1 Hu v2 (T69R, (P44I, F71Y, mouse vl (T69R, F71Y, T69R, F73L,

Kabat Linear mAb (T69R) F71Y) F73L) F71Y) Y87F) residue residue F or SEQ ID SEQ ID SEQ ID SEQ ID SEQ ID NO. SEQ ID

# # CDR NO. 6 N0.7 NO. 8 NO. 9 10 NO. 11

95B CDR-L3

95C CDR-L3

95D CDR-L3

95E CDR-L3

95F CDR-L3

96 96 CDR-L3 R R R R R R

97 97 CDR-L3 T T T T T T

98 98 Fr4 F F F F F F

99 99 Fr4 G G G G G G

100 100 Fr4 G G G G G G

101 101 Fr4 G G G G G G

102 102 Fr4 T T T T T T

103 103 Fr4 K K K K K K

104 104 Fr4 L V V V V V

105 105 Fr4 E E E E E E

106 106 Fr4 1 1 1 1 1 1

107 107 Fr4 K K K K K K

108 108 Fr4 R R R R R R

Table 6 2H8r light chains

2H8r 2H8r Hu

Parent 2H8r Hu v2 2H8r Hu v3 v4 (F71Y, mouse 2H8r Hu (P44I, (F71Y, F73L, mAb vl (F71Y) F71Y) F73L) Y87F)

Kabat Linear SEQ ID NO. SEQ ID SEQ ID NO. SEQ ID NO. SEQ ID residue # residue # F or CD 12 NO. 13 14 15 NO. 16

3 3 Frl Q Q Q Q Q

4 4 Frl M M M M M

5 5 Frl T T T T T

6 6 Frl Q Q Q Q Q

7 7 Frl T S S S S

8 8 Frl T P P P P

9 9 Frl s S S S S

10 10 Frl s S S S S

11 11 Frl L L L L L

12 12 Frl S S S S S

13 13 Frl A A A A A

14 14 Frl S S S S S

15 15 Frl L V V V V

16 16 Frl G G G G G

17 17 Frl D D D D D

18 18 Frl R R R R R

19 19 Frl V V V V V

20 20 Frl T T T T T

21 21 Frl 1 1 1 1 1

22 22 Frl s T T T T

23 23 Frl c c c c c

24 24 CDR-L1 R R R R R

25 25 CDR-L1 A A A A A

26 26 CDR-L1 S S S S S

27 27 CDR-L1 Q Q Q Q Q

7A CDR-L1

7B CDR-L1

7C CDR-L1

7D CDR-L1

7E CDR-L1

7F CDR-L1

28 28 CDR-L1 D D D D D Table 6 2H8r light chains

2H8r 2H8r Hu

Parent 2H8r Hu v2 2H8r Hu v3 v4 (F71Y, mouse 2H8r Hu (P44I, (F71Y, F73L, mAb vl (F71Y) F71Y) F73L) Y87F)

Kabat Linear SEQ ID NO. SEQ ID SEQ ID NO. SEQ ID NO. SEQ ID residue # residue # F or CD 12 NO. 13 14 15 NO. 16

29 29 CDR-L1 1 1 1 1 1

30 30 CDR-L1 S S S S S

31 31 CDR-L1 N N N N N

32 32 CDR-L1 Y Y Y Y Y

33 33 CDR-L1 L L L L L

34 34 CDR-L1 N N N N N

35 35 Fr2 W W W W W

36 36 Fr2 Y Y Y Y Y

37 37 Fr2 Q Q Q Q Q

38 38 Fr2 Q Q Q Q Q

39 39 Fr2 K K K K K

40 40 Fr2 P P P P P

41 41 Fr2 D G G G G

42 42 Fr2 G K K K K

43 43 Fr2 T T T T T

*

44 44 Fr2 V P 1 P P

45 45 Fr2 K K K K K

46 46 Fr2 L L L L L

47 47 Fr2 L L L L L

48 48 Fr2 1 1 1 1 1

49 49 Fr2 Y Y Y Y Y

50 50 CDR-L2 Y Y Y Y Y

51 51 CDR-L2 T T T T T

52 52 CDR-L2 s s s s s

53 53 CDR-L2 R R R R R

54 54 CDR-L2 L L L L L

55 55 CDR-L2 H H H H H

56 56 CDR-L2 S S S S S

57 57 Fr3 G G G G G

58 58 Fr3 V V V V V

59 59 Fr3 P P P P P

60 60 Fr3 S S S S S Table 6 2H8r light chains

2H8r 2H8r Hu Parent 2H8r Hu v2 2H8r Hu v3 v4 (F71Y, mouse 2H8r Hu (P44I, (F71Y, F73L, mAb vl (F71Y) F71Y) F73L) Y87F)

Kabat Linear SEQ ID NO. SEQ ID SEQ ID NO. SEQ ID NO. SEQ ID residue # residue # F or CD 12 NO. 13 14 15 NO. 16

61 61 Fr3 R R R R R

62 62 Fr3 F F F F F

63 63 Fr3 S S S S S

64 64 Fr3 G G G G G

65 65 Fr3 S S S S S

66 66 Fr3 G G G G G

67 67 Fr3 S S S S S

68 68 Fr3 G G G G G

69 69 Fr3 T T T T T

70 70 Fr3 D D D D D

* * * *

71 71 Fr3 Y Y Y Y Y

72 72 Fr3 S 1 1 1 1

* *

73 73 Fr3 L F F L L

74 74 Fr3 T T T T T

75 75 Fr3 1 1 1 1 1

76 76 Fr3 s s s s s

77 77 Fr3 N s s s s

78 78 Fr3 L L L L L

79 79 Fr3 E Q Q Q Q

80 80 Fr3 Q P P P P

81 81 Fr3 E E E E E

82 82 Fr3 D D D D D

83 83 Fr3 1 1 1 1 1

84 84 Fr3 A A A A A

85 85 Fr3 T T T T T

86 86 Fr3 Y Y Y Y Y

*

87 87 Fr3 F Y Y Y F

88 88 Fr3 C c c c C

89 89 CDR-L3 Q Q Q Q Q

90 90 CDR-L3 Q Q Q Q Q

91 91 CDR-L3 G G G G G

92 92 CDR-L3 K K K K K Table 6 2H8r light chains

2H8r 2H8r Hu Parent 2H8r Hu v2 2H8r Hu v3 v4 (F71Y, mouse 2H8r Hu (P44I, (F71Y, F73L, mAb vl (F71Y) F71Y) F73L) Y87F)

Kabat Linear SEQ ID NO. SEQ ID SEQ ID NO. SEQ ID NO. SEQ ID residue # residue # F or CD 12 NO. 13 14 15 NO. 16

93 93 CDR-L3 T T T T T

94 94 CDR-L3 L L L L L

95 95 CDR-L3 P P P P P

95A CDR-L3

95B CDR-L3

95C CDR-L3

95D CDR-L3

95E CDR-L3

95F CDR-L3

96 96 CDR-L3 R R R R R

97 97 CDR-L3 T T T T T

98 98 Fr4 F F F F F

99 99 Fr4 G G G G G

100 100 Fr4 G G G G G

101 101 Fr4 G G G G G

102 102 Fr4 T T T T T

103 103 Fr4 K K K K K

104 104 Fr4 L V V V V

105 105 Fr4 E E E E E

106 106 Fr4 1 1 1 1 1

107 107 Fr4 K K K K K

108 108 Fr4 R R R R R

Table 7 5D2 light chains

5D2 Parent mouse 5D2 Hu vl (Y36F,

Kabat Linear mAb Y49S, T69K, F71Y, V104L) residue # residue # F or CD SEQ ID NO. 17 SEQ ID NO. 18

3 3 Frl Q Q

4 4 Frl M M

5 5 Frl T T

6 6 Frl Q Q

7 7 Frl S S

8 8 Frl S P

9 9 Frl S S

10 10 Frl S S

11 11 Frl F L

12 12 Frl S S

13 13 Frl V A

14 14 Frl F S

15 15 Frl L V

16 16 Frl G G

17 17 Frl D D

18 18 Frl R R

19 19 Frl 1 V

20 20 Frl T T

21 21 Frl 1 1

22 22 Frl T T

23 23 Frl c c

24 24 CDR-L1 R R

25 25 CDR-L1 A A

26 26 CDR-L1 S S

27 27 CDR-L1 V V

A CDR-L1

B CDR-L1

C CDR-L1

D CDR-L1

E CDR-L1

F CDR-L1

28 28 CDR-L1 D D

29 29 CDR-L1 1 1

30 30 CDR-L1 Y Y

31 31 CDR-L1 N N Table 7 5D2 light chains

5D2 Parent mouse 5D2 Hu vl (Y36F,

Kabat Linear mAb Y49S, T69K, F71Y, V104L) residue # residue # F or CD SEQ ID NO. 17 SEQ ID NO. 18

32 32 CDR-L1 R R

33 33 CDR-L1 L L

34 34 CDR-L1 A A

35 35 Fr2 W W

*

36 36 Fr2 F F

37 37 Fr2 Q Q

38 38 Fr2 Q Q

39 39 Fr2 K K

40 40 Fr2 P P

41 41 Fr2 G G

42 42 Fr2 N K

43 43 Fr2 A A

44 44 Fr2 P P

45 45 Fr2 R K

46 46 Fr2 L L

47 47 Fr2 L L

48 48 Fr2 1 1

*

49 49 Fr2 S S

50 50 CDR-L2 G G

51 51 CDR-L2 A A

52 52 CDR-L2 T T

53 53 CDR-L2 s s

54 54 CDR-L2 L L

55 55 CDR-L2 A A

56 56 CDR-L2 T T

57 57 Fr3 G G

58 58 Fr3 V V

59 59 Fr3 P P

60 60 Fr3 S S

61 61 Fr3 R R

62 62 Fr3 F F

63 63 Fr3 S S

64 64 Fr3 G G

65 65 Fr3 S S

66 66 Fr3 G G Table 7 5D2 light chains

5D2 Parent mouse 5D2 Hu vl (Y36F,

Kabat Linear mAb Y49S, T69K, F71Y, V104L) residue # residue # F or CD SEQ ID NO. 17 SEQ ID NO. 18

67 67 Fr3 S S

68 68 Fr3 G G

*

69 69 Fr3 K K

70 70 Fr3 D D

*

71 71 Fr3 Y Y

72 72 Fr3 T T

73 73 Fr3 L L

74 74 Fr3 S T

75 75 Fr3 1 1

76 76 Fr3 T s

77 77 Fr3 s s

78 78 Fr3 L L

79 79 Fr3 Q Q

80 80 Fr3 T P

81 81 Fr3 E E

82 82 Fr3 D D

83 83 Fr3 V F

84 84 Fr3 T A

85 85 Fr3 1 T

86 86 Fr3 Y Y

87 87 Fr3 Y Y

88 88 Fr3 c c

89 89 CDR-L3 Q Q

90 90 CDR-L3 Q Q

91 91 CDR-L3 Y Y

92 92 CDR-L3 W W

93 93 CDR-L3 S S

94 94 CDR-L3 T T

95 95 CDR-L3 P P

A CDR-L3

B CDR-L3

C CDR-L3

D CDR-L3

E CDR-L3

F CDR-L3 Table 7 5D2 light chains

5D2 Parent mouse 5D2 Hu vl (Y36F,

Kabat Linear mAb Y49S, T69K, F71Y, V104L) residue # residue # F or CD SEQ ID NO. 17 SEQ ID NO. 18

96 96 CDR-L3 W W

97 97 CDR-L3 T T

98 98 Fr4 F F

99 99 Fr4 G G

100 100 Fr4 G G

101 101 Fr4 G G

102 102 Fr4 T T

103 103 Fr4 K K

*

104 104 Fr4 L L

105 105 Fr4 E E

106 106 Fr4 1 1

107 107 Fr4 K K

108 108 Fr4 R R

Table 8 6G1 heavy chains

6G1 6G1 Hu v3 6G1 Hu v4

Parent 6G1 Hu vl 6G1 Hu (R38K, (G44D, mouse (E46K, v2 G44D, E46K, mAb V89T) (V89T) E46K, V89T) V89T)

Kabat Linear SEQ ID SEQ ID SEQ ID SEQ ID NO. SEQ ID residue # residue # F or CD NO. 19 NO.20 NO. 21 22 NO. 23

11 11 Frl L L L L L

12 12 Frl K K K K K

13 13 Frl K K K K K

14 14 Frl P P P P P

15 15 Frl G G G G G

16 16 Frl E A A A A

17 17 Frl T S S S S

18 18 Frl V V V V V

19 19 Frl K K K K K

20 20 Frl 1 V V V V

21 21 Frl s S S S S

22 22 Frl c C C C C

23 23 Frl K K K K K

24 24 Frl A A A A A

25 25 Frl S S S S S

26 26 Frl G G G G G

27 27 Frl Y Y Y Y Y

28 28 Frl T T T T T

29 29 Frl F F F F F

30 30 Frl T T T T T

31 31 CDR-H1 N N N N N

32 32 CDR-H1 Y Y Y Y Y

33 33 CDR-H1 G G G G G

34 34 CDR-H1 M M M M M

35 35 CDR-H1 N N N N N5A CDR-H1

5B CDR-H1

36 36 Fr2 W W W W W

37 37 Fr2 V V V V V

*

38 38 Fr2 K R R K R

39 39 Fr2 Q Q Q Q Q

40 40 Fr2 A A A A A Table 8 6G1 heavy chains

6G1 6G1 Hu v3 6G1 Hu v4

Parent 6G1 Hu vl 6G1 Hu (R38K, (G44D, mouse (E46K, v2 G44D, E46K, mAb V89T) (V89T) E46K, V89T) V89T)

Kabat Linear SEQ ID SEQ ID SEQ ID SEQ ID NO. SEQ ID residue # residue # F or CD NO. 19 NO.20 NO. 21 22 NO. 23

41 41 Fr2 P P P P P

42 42 Fr2 G G G G G

43 43 Fr2 K Q Q Q Q

* *

44 44 Fr2 D G G D D

45 45 Fr2 L L L L L

* * *

46 46 Fr2 K K E K K

47 47 Fr2 W w W W W

48 48 Fr2 M M M M M

49 49 Fr2 G G G G G

50 50 CDR-H2 W W W W W

51 51 CDR-H2 1 1 1 1 1

52 52 CDR-H2 N N N N N2A 53 CDR-H2 T T T T T2B CDR-H2

2C CDR-H2

53 54 CDR-H2 Y Y Y Y Y

54 55 CDR-H2 T T T T T

55 56 CDR-H2 G G G G G

56 57 CDR-H2 E E E E E

57 58 CDR-H2 P P P P P

58 59 CDR-H2 R R R R R

59 60 CDR-H2 Y Y Y Y Y

60 61 CDR-H2 A A A A A

61 62 CDR-H2 D D D D D

62 63 CDR-H2 E E E E E

63 64 CDR-H2 F F F F F

64 65 CDR-H2 K K K K K

65 66 CDR-H2 G G G G G

66 67 Fr3 R R R R R

67 68 Fr3 F F F F F

68 69 Fr3 A V V V V

69 70 Fr3 F F F F F

70 71 Fr3 S S S S S Table 8 6G1 heavy chains

6G1 6G1 Hu v3 6G1 Hu v4

Parent 6G1 Hu vl 6G1 Hu (R38K, (G44D, mouse (E46K, v2 G44D, E46K, mAb V89T) (V89T) E46K, V89T) V89T)

Kabat Linear SEQ ID SEQ ID SEQ ID SEQ ID NO. SEQ ID residue # residue # F or CD NO. 19 NO.20 NO. 21 22 NO. 23

71 72 Fr3 L L L L L

72 73 Fr3 E D D D D

73 74 Fr3 T T T T T

74 75 Fr3 s s s s s

75 76 Fr3 A V V V V

76 77 Fr3 S s s s s

77 78 Fr3 T T T T T

78 79 Fr3 A A A A A

79 80 Fr3 Y Y Y Y Y

80 81 Fr3 L L L L L

81 82 Fr3 Q Q Q Q Q

82 83 Fr3 1 1 1 1 1

82A 84 Fr3 N S S S S

82B 85 Fr3 N S S S S

82C 86 Fr3 L L L L L

83 87 Fr3 K K K K K

84 88 Fr3 N A A A A

85 89 Fr3 E E E E E

86 90 Fr3 D D D D D

87 91 Fr3 M T T T T

88 92 Fr3 A A A A A

* * * *

89 93 Fr3 T T T T T

90 94 Fr3 Y Y Y Y Y

91 95 Fr3 F Y Y Y Y

92 96 Fr3 C c c c c

93 97 Fr3 A A A A A

94 98 Fr3 K R R R R

95 99 CDR-H3 G G G G G

96 100 CDR-H3 G G G G G

97 101 CDR-H3 Y Y Y Y Y

98 102 CDR-H3 P P P P P

99 103 CDR-H3 H H H H H Table 8 6G1 heavy chains

6G1 6G1 Hu v3 6G1 Hu v4

Parent 6G1 Hu vl 6G1 Hu (R38K, (G44D, mouse (E46K, v2 G44D, E46K, mAb V89T) (V89T) E46K, V89T) V89T)

Kabat Linear SEQ ID SEQ ID SEQ ID SEQ ID NO. SEQ ID residue # residue # F or CD NO. 19 NO.20 NO. 21 22 NO. 23

100 104 CDR-H3 Y Y Y Y Y

100A 105 CDR-H3 Y Y Y Y Y

100B 106 CDR-H3 S S S S S lOOC 107 CDR-H3 M M M M M

100D CDR-H3

100E CDR-H3

100F CDR-H3

100G CDR-H3

100H CDR-H3

1001 CDR-H3

100J CDR-H3

100K CDR-H3

101 108 CDR-H3 D D D D D

102 109 CDR-H3 Y Y Y Y Y

103 110 Fr4 W W W W W

104 111 Fr4 G G G G G

105 112 Fr4 Q Q Q Q Q

106 113 Fr4 G G G G G

107 114 Fr4 T T T T T

108 115 Fr4 s T T T T

109 116 Fr4 V V V V V

110 117 Fr4 T T T T T

111 118 Fr4 V V V V V

112 119 Fr4 s s s s s

113 120 Fr4 s s s s s Table 9 2H8r heavy chains

2H8r Hu v3

2H8r Parent 2H8r Hu vl 2H8r Hu v2 (R38K, E46K,

Kabat Linear mouse mAb (E46K, V89T) (V89T) V89T) residue # residue # F or CD SEQ ID NO. 24 SEQ ID NO. 25 SEQ ID NO. 26 SEQ ID NO. 27

1 1 Frl Q Q Q Q

2 2 Frl 1 V V V

3 3 Frl Q Q Q Q

4 4 Frl L L L L

5 5 Frl V V V V

6 6 Frl Q Q Q Q

7 7 Frl S S S S

8 8 Frl G G G G

9 9 Frl P S S S

10 10 Frl E E E E

11 11 Frl L L L L

12 12 Frl K K K K

13 13 Frl K K K K

14 14 Frl P P P P

15 15 Frl G G G G

16 16 Frl E A A A

17 17 Frl T S S S

18 18 Frl V V V V

19 19 Frl K K K K

20 20 Frl 1 V V V

21 21 Frl s S S S

22 22 Frl c C C C

23 23 Frl K K K K

24 24 Frl A A A A

25 25 Frl S S S S

26 26 Frl G G G G

27 27 Frl Y Y Y Y

28 28 Frl T T T T

29 29 Frl F F F F

30 30 Frl T T T T

31 31 CDR-H1 N N N N

32 32 CDR-H1 Y Y Y Y Table 9 2H8r heavy chains

2H8r Hu v3

2H8r Parent 2H8r Hu vl 2H8r Hu v2 (R38K, E46K,

Kabat Linear mouse mAb (E46K, V89T) (V89T) V89T) residue # residue # F or CD SEQ ID NO. 24 SEQ ID NO. 25 SEQ ID NO. 26 SEQ ID NO. 27

33 33 CDR-H1 G G G G

34 34 CDR-H1 M M M M

35 35 CDR-H1 N N N N

5A CDR-H1

5B CDR-H1

36 36 Fr2 W W W W

37 37 Fr2 V V V V

*

38 38 Fr2 K R R K

39 39 Fr2 Q Q Q Q

40 40 Fr2 A A A A

41 41 Fr2 P P P P

42 42 Fr2 G G G G

43 43 Fr2 K Q Q Q

44 44 Fr2 G G G G

45 45 Fr2 L L L L

* *

46 46 Fr2 K K E K

47 47 Fr2 W W W w

48 48 Fr2 M M M M

49 49 Fr2 G G G G

50 50 CDR-H2 W W W W

51 51 CDR-H2 1 1 1 1

52 52 CDR-H2 N N N N

2A 53 CDR-H2 T T T T

2B CDR-H2

2C CDR-H2

53 54 CDR-H2 Y Y Y Y

54 55 CDR-H2 T T T T

55 56 CDR-H2 G G G G

56 57 CDR-H2 E E E E

57 58 CDR-H2 P P P P

58 59 CDR-H2 T T T T

59 60 CDR-H2 Y Y Y Y

60 61 CDR-H2 A A A A Table 9 2H8r heavy chains

2H8r Hu v3

2H8r Parent 2H8r Hu vl 2H8r Hu v2 (R38K, E46K,

Kabat Linear mouse mAb (E46K, V89T) (V89T) V89T) residue # residue # F or CD SEQ ID NO. 24 SEQ ID NO. 25 SEQ ID NO. 26 SEQ ID NO. 27

61 62 CDR-H2 D D D D

62 63 CDR-H2 D D D D

63 64 CDR-H2 F F F F

64 65 CDR-H2 K K K K

65 66 CDR-H2 G G G G

66 67 Fr3 R R R R

67 68 Fr3 F F F F

68 69 Fr3 A V V V

69 70 Fr3 F F F F

70 71 Fr3 S S S S

71 72 Fr3 L L L L

72 73 Fr3 E D D D

73 74 Fr3 T T T T

74 75 Fr3 s s s s

75 76 Fr3 A V V V

76 77 Fr3 S s s s

77 78 Fr3 T T T T

78 79 Fr3 A A A A

79 80 Fr3 Y Y Y Y

80 81 Fr3 L L L L

81 82 Fr3 Q Q Q Q

82 83 Fr3 1 1 1 1

2A 84 Fr3 N S S S

2B 85 Fr3 N S S S

2C 86 Fr3 L L L L

83 87 Fr3 K K K K

84 88 Fr3 N A A A

85 89 Fr3 E E E E

86 90 Fr3 D D D D

87 91 Fr3 M T T T

88 92 Fr3 A A A A

* * *

89 93 Fr3 T T T T

90 94 Fr3 Y Y Y Y Table 9 2H8r heavy chains

2H8r Hu v3

2H8r Parent 2H8r Hu vl 2H8r Hu v2 (R38K, E46K,

Kabat Linear mouse mAb (E46K, V89T) (V89T) V89T) residue # residue # F or CD SEQ ID NO. 24 SEQ ID NO. 25 SEQ ID NO. 26 SEQ ID NO. 27

91 95 Fr3 F Y Y Y

92 96 Fr3 C C C C

93 97 Fr3 A A A A

94 98 Fr3 K R R R

95 99 CDR-H3 G G G G

96 100 CDR-H3 G G G G

97 101 CDR-H3 Y Y Y Y

98 102 CDR-H3 P P P P

99 103 CDR-H3 H H H H

100 104 CDR-H3 Y Y Y Y

100A 105 CDR-H3 Y Y Y Y

100B 106 CDR-H3 S S S S

lOOC 107 CDR-H3 M M M M

100D CDR-H3

100E CDR-H3

100F CDR-H3

100G CDR-H3

100H CDR-H3

1001 CDR-H3

100J CDR-H3

100K CDR-H3

101 108 CDR-H3 D D D D

102 109 CDR-H3 Y Y Y Y

103 110 Fr4 W W W W

104 111 Fr4 G G G G

105 112 Fr4 Q Q Q Q

106 113 Fr4 G G G G

107 114 Fr4 T T T T

108 115 Fr4 s T T T

109 116 Fr4 V V V V

110 117 Fr4 T T T T

111 118 Fr4 V V V V

112 119 Fr4 s s s s Table 9 2H8r heavy chains

2H8rHuv3

2H8r Parent 2H8r Hu vl 2H8r Hu v2 (R38K, E46K,

Kabat Linear mouse mAb (E46K, V89T) (V89T) V89T) residue # residue # F orCD SEQID NO.24 SEQID NO.25 SEQID NO.26 SEQID NO.27

113 120 Fr4 S S S S

Table 10: 5D2 heavy chains

5D2 Hu vl

5D2 Parent mouse (_1E, V5Q, G44S, 5D2 Hu v2 (_1E,

Kabat Linear mAb I69L, V89L) V5Q, G44S) residue # residue # F or CD SEQ ID NO. 28 SEQ ID NO. 29 SEQ ID NO. 30

24 24 Frl A A A

25 25 Frl S S S

26 26 Frl G G G

27 27 Frl Y Y Y

28 28 Frl T T T

29 29 Frl F F F

30 30 Frl T T T

31 31 CDR-H1 D D D

32 32 CDR-H1 N N N

33 33 CDR-H1 Y Y Y

34 34 CDR-H1 Y Y Y

35 35 CDR-H1 M M M

5A CDR-H1 N N N

5B CDR-H1

36 36 Fr2 W W W

37 37 Fr2 V V V

38 38 Fr2 K R R

39 39 Fr2 Q Q Q

40 40 Fr2 S A A

41 41 Fr2 H P P

42 42 Fr2 G G G

43 43 Fr2 K Q Q

* *

44 44 Fr2 S S S

45 45 Fr2 L L L

46 46 Fr2 E E E

47 47 Fr2 W W W

48 48 Fr2 1 M M

49 49 Fr2 G G G

50 50 CDR-H2 H H H

51 51 CDR-H2 1 1 1

52 52 CDR-H2 Y Y Y

2A 53 CDR-H2 P P P

2B CDR-H2

2C CDR-H2

53 54 CDR-H2 N N N

54 55 CDR-H2 N N N Table 10: 5D2 heavy chains

5D2 Hu vl

5D2 Parent mouse (_1E, V5Q, G44S, 5D2 Hu v2 (_1E,

Kabat Linear mAb I69L, V89L) V5Q, G44S) residue # residue # F or CD SEQ ID NO. 28 SEQ ID NO. 29 SEQ ID NO. 30

55 56 CDR-H2 G G G

56 57 CDR-H2 V V V

57 58 CDR-H2 T T T

58 59 CDR-H2 s s s

59 60 CDR-H2 Y Y Y

60 61 CDR-H2 N N N

61 62 CDR-H2 Q Q Q

62 63 CDR-H2 K K K

63 64 CDR-H2 F F F

64 65 CDR-H2 R R R

65 66 CDR-H2 G G G

66 67 Fr3 K R R

67 68 Fr3 A V V

68 69 Fr3 T T T

*

69 70 Fr3 L L 1

70 71 Fr3 T T T

71 72 Fr3 V R R

72 73 Fr3 D D D

73 74 Fr3 K K K

74 75 Fr3 S S S

75 76 Fr3 S 1 1

76 77 Fr3 N N N

77 78 Fr3 S T T

78 79 Fr3 A A A

79 80 Fr3 Y Y Y

80 81 Fr3 M M M

81 82 Fr3 E E E

82 83 Fr3 L L L

2A 84 Fr3 R S S

2B 85 Fr3 S S S

2C 86 Fr3 L L L

83 87 Fr3 T T T

84 88 Fr3 s s s

85 89 Fr3 E E E

86 90 Fr3 D D D Table 10: 5D2 heavy chains

5D2 Hu vl

5D2 Parent mouse (_1E, V5Q, G44S, 5D2 Hu v2 (_1E,

Kabat Linear mAb I69L, V89L) V5Q, G44S) residue # residue # F or CD SEQ ID NO. 28 SEQ ID NO. 29 SEQ ID NO. 30

87 91 Fr3 S T T

88 92 Fr3 A A A

*

89 93 Fr3 L L V

90 94 Fr3 Y Y Y

91 95 Fr3 Y Y Y

92 96 Fr3 C C C

93 97 Fr3 A A A

94 98 Fr3 R R R

95 99 CDR-H3 N N N

96 100 CDR-H3 K K K

97 101 CDR-H3 L L L

98 102 CDR-H3 L L L

99 103 CDR-H3 S S S

100 104 CDR-H3 L L L

100A 105 CDR-H3

100B 106 CDR-H3

lOOC 107 CDR-H3

100D CDR-H3

100E CDR-H3

100F CDR-H3

100G CDR-H3

100H CDR-H3 Y Y Y

1001 CDR-H3 W W W

100J CDR-H3 Y Y Y

100K CDR-H3 F F F

101 108 CDR-H3 D D D

102 109 CDR-H3 V V V

103 110 Fr4 W W W

104 111 Fr4 G G G

105 112 Fr4 T Q Q

106 113 Fr4 G G G

107 114 Fr4 T T T

108 115 Fr4 s L L

109 116 Fr4 V V V

110 117 Fr4 T T T

111 118 Fr4 V V V Table 10: 5D2 heavy chains

5D2 Hu vl

5D2 Parent mouse (_1E, V5Q, G44S, 5D2Huv2 (_1E,

Kabat Linear mAb I69L, V89L) V5Q, G44S) residue # residue # F orCD SEQID NO.28 SEQID NO.29 SEQID NO.30

112 119 Fr4 S S S

113 120 Fr4 S S S

Table 11 Human acceptor light chains

Hu VL Acceptor Fr - 6G1, 2H8r Hu VL Acceptor Fr - 5D2

Kabat residue # SEQ ID NO. 31 SEQ ID NO. 32

27 Q Q

ABCDE

F

28 D S

29 1 1

30 N S

31 N S

32 Y Y

33 L L

34 N N

35 W W

36 Y Y

37 Q Q

38 Q Q

39 K K

40 P P

41 G G

42 K K

43 T A

44 P P

45 K K

46 L L

47 L L

48 1 1

49 Y Y

50 G A

51 A A

52 S S

53 N S

54 L L

55 E Q Table 11 Human acceptor light chains

Hu VL Acceptor Fr - 6G1, 2H8r Hu VL Acceptor Fr - 5D2

Kabat residue # SEQ ID NO. 31 SEQ ID NO. 32

56 T S

57 G G

58 V V

59 P P

60 S S

61 R

62 F F

63 S S

64 G G

65 S S

66 G G

67 S S

68 G G

69 T T

70 D D

71 F F

72 1 T

73 F L

74 T T

75 1 1

76 s s

77 s s

78 L L

79 Q Q

80 P P

81 E E

82 D D

83 1 F

84 A A

85 T T

86 Y Y

87 Y Y

88 c c

89 Q Q

90 Q Q

91 Y S Table 11 Human acceptor light chains

Hu VL Acceptor Fr - 6G1, 2H8r Hu VL Acceptor Fr - 5D2

Kabat residue # SEQ ID NO. 31 SEQ ID NO. 32

92 D Y

93 N S

94 L T

95 P P

95A

95B

95C

95D

95E

95F

96 L P

97 T T

98 F F

99 G G

100 G G

101 G G

102 T T

103 K K

104 V V

105 E E

106 1 1

106A K K

107 R

Table 12 Human acceptor heavy chains

Hu VH Acceptor Fr-6G1, HuVH Acceptor FR-5D2 Hu VH Acceptor Fr-5D2

Kabat residue 2H8r SEQID NO.34 SEQID NO.35 # SEQID NO.33

7 S S S

8 G G G

9 S A A

10 E E E

11 L V V

12 K K K

13 K K K

14 P P P

15 G G G

16 A A S

17 S S S

18 V V V

19 K K K

20 V V V

21 S S S

22 C C C

23 K K K

24 A A A

25 S S S

26 G G G

27 Y Y G

28 T T T

29 F F F

30 T T S

31 s D S

32 Y

33 A Y Y

34 M Y A

35 N V 1

5A Q S

5B

36 W w w

37 V V V

38 R R R

39 Q Q Q Table 12 Human acceptor heavy chains

Hu VH Acceptor Fr-6G1, HuVH Acceptor FR-5D2 Hu VH Acceptor Fr-5D2

Kabat residue 2H8r SEQID NO.34 SEQID NO.35 # SEQID NO.33

40 A A A

41 P P P

42 G G G

43 Q Q Q

44 G G G

45 L L L

46 E E A

47 W W W

48 M M M

49 G G G

50 W R R

51 1 M V

52 N N 1

2A T P P

2B

2C

53 N N 1

54 T T L

55 G G G

56 N G 1

57 P T A

58 M N N

59 Y Y Y

60 G A A

61 Q Q Q

62 G K K

63 Y F F

64 T Q Q

65 G G G

66 R R R

67 F V V

68 V T T

69 F M 1

70 S T T

71 L R A Table 12 Human acceptor heavy chains

Hu VH Acceptor Fr-6G1, HuVH Acceptor FR-5D2 Hu VH Acceptor Fr-5D2

Kabat residue 2H8r SEQID NO.34 SEQID NO.35 # SEQID NO.33

72 D D D

73 T T K

74 s s S

75 V 1 T

76 s s N

77 T T T

78 A A A

79 Y Y Y

80 L M M

81 Q E E

82 1 L L

82A S S S

82B S R S

82C L L L

83 K T R

84 A s S

85 E D E

86 D D D

87 T T T

88 A A A

89 V V V

90 Y Y Y

91 Y Y Y

92 C C C

93 A A A

94 R R R

95 - Y D

96 G D G

97 Y H

98 A D

99 P A S

100 G F S

100A G

100B Y

lOOC G Table 12 Human acceptor heavy chains

Hu VH Acceptor Fr-6G1, HuVH Acceptor FR-5D2 Hu VH Acceptor Fr-5D2

Kabat residue 2H8r SEQID NO.34 SEQID NO.35 # SEQID NO.33

100D M

100E

100F

100G

100H E G

1001 W Y

100J Y Y

100K F F

101 D D D

102 V L Y

103 W W W

104 G G G

105 Q R Q

106 G G G

107 T T T

108 T L L

109 V V V

110 T T T

111 V V V

112 s s s

113 s s s