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Title:
COMPOUND FOR USE AGAINST PATHOGENIC NEISSERIA AND HAEMOPHILUS SPECIES AND MORAXELLA CATARRHALIS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/121392
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a compound, which can be used in the prevention and treatment of infections with pathogenic Neisseria species, in particular N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis (the gonococcus and the meningococcus, respectively), and other pathogenic bacteria ( e.g. Haemophilus species or Moraxella catarrhalis), and which can be used for disinfecting a substrate from said bacteria. Moreover, the present invention relates to a corresponding pharmaceutical composition comprising said compound.

Inventors:
BÖTTCHER, Thomas (Banater Strasse 5, Konstanz, 78467, DE)
SZAMOSVARI, David (Bücklestrasse 74, Konstanz, 78467, DE)
HAUCK, Christof (Oberdorfstrasse 16B, Konstanz, 78465, DE)
SCHUHMACHER, Tamara (Seehang 21, Konstanz, 78465, DE)
MUENZNER-VOIGT, Petra (Schneckenburgstrasse 50, Konstanz, 78467, DE)
Application Number:
EP2018/084954
Publication Date:
June 27, 2019
Filing Date:
December 14, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
UNIVERSITÄT KONSTANZ (Universitätsstrasse 10, Konstanz, 78464, DE)
International Classes:
C07D215/233; A61K31/37; A61P31/04; C07D215/58
Domestic Patent References:
WO2008060865A22008-05-22
Other References:
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SAMRA KAPI ET AL: "Synthesis of macrolones with central piperazine ring in the linker and its influence on antibacterial activity", BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, PERGAMON, GB, vol. 19, no. 23, 8 July 2011 (2011-07-08), pages 7281 - 7298, XP028104557, ISSN: 0968-0896, [retrieved on 20110721], DOI: 10.1016/J.BMC.2011.07.010
A. GALES ET AL: "Activities of BMS 284756 (T-3811) against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program Medical Centers in Latin America (1999)", ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY, vol. 45, no. 5, 1 May 2001 (2001-05-01), pages 1463 - 1466, XP055451325, ISSN: 0066-4804, DOI: 10.1128/AAC.45.5.1463-1466.2001
MASAHIRO TAKAHATA: "In Vitro and In Vivo Antimicrobial Activities of T-3811ME, a Novel Des-F(6)-Quinolone", ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY, vol. 43, no. 5, 1 January 1999 (1999-01-01), pages 1077 - 1084, XP055157504
BRAVENY ET AL, ARZNEIMITTEL FORSCHUNG. DRUG RESEARCH, ECV EDITIO CANTOR VERLAG, AULENDORF, DE, vol. 30, no. 9, 1 January 1980 (1980-01-01), pages 1476 - 1478, XP009503496, ISSN: 0004-4172
JALAL A ZAHRA ET AL: "Heterocycles [h]-Fused to 4-Oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic Acid. Part IX. Synthesis of 2,6-Dioxotetrahydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,2-h]quinoline-7-carboxylic Acid", HETEROCYCLES COMMUNICATION | SPECIAL ISSUE, JAPAN INSTITUTE OF HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY, JP, vol. 83, no. 9, 1 January 2011 (2011-01-01), pages 2165 - 2175, XP009503501, ISSN: 0385-5414, [retrieved on 20110720], DOI: 10.3987/COM-11-12274
KAZUYA HAYASHI ET AL: "Synthesis, Antibacterial Activity, and Toxicity of 7-(Isoindolin-5-yl)-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic Acids Discovery of the novel Des-F(6)-quinolone antibacterial agent garenoxacin (T-3811 or BMS-284756)", ARZNEIMITTEL FORSCHUNG. DRUG RESEARCH, ECV EDITIO CANTOR VERLAG, AULENDORF, DE, vol. 52, no. 12, 1 December 2002 (2002-12-01), pages 903 - 913, XP009503500, ISSN: 0004-4172, [retrieved on 20111226], DOI: 10.1055/S-0031-1299988
WUBE A A ET AL: "Design, synthesis and antimycobacterial activities of 1-methyl-2-alkenyl-4(1H)-quinolones", BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, PERGAMON, GB, vol. 19, no. 1, 1 January 2011 (2011-01-01), pages 567 - 579, XP027577793, ISSN: 0968-0896, [retrieved on 20101103]
WOLF-RAINER ABRAHAM: "Going beyond the Control of Quorum-Sensing to Combat Biofilm Infections", ANTIBIOTICS, vol. 5, no. 3, 1 January 2016 (2016-01-01), pages 1 - 16, XP055451004, DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics5010003
ABRAHAM A WUBE ET AL: "Synthesis of-substituted 2-[(1)-alkenyl]-4-(1)-quinolone derivatives as antimycobacterial agents against non-tubercular mycobacteria", EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, EDITIONS SCIENTIFIQUE ELSEVIER, PARIS, FR, vol. 46, no. 6, 24 February 2011 (2011-02-24), pages 2091 - 2101, XP028199995, ISSN: 0223-5234, [retrieved on 20110303], DOI: 10.1016/J.EJMECH.2011.02.062
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Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MÜLLER-BORÉ & PARTNER PATENTANWÄLTE PARTG MBB (Friedenheimer Brücke 21, München, 80639, DE)
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Claims:
Claims

1. A compound for use in the prevention and treatment of infections with a pathogen selected from Neisseria species, Haemophilus species and Moraxella catarrhalis, wherein the compound is represented by the general Formula (1 ) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof

(Formula (1 )), wherein

R1 is selected from the group consisting of a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group having from 3 to 20 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group having from 4 to 12 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group having from 3 to 20 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group having from 4 to 12 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group having from 3 to 20 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group, and - OA, wherein A is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group;

R2 is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group, a halogen atom, -NZ1Z2, -NO2, -CN, -OZ3, -C(0)Z4, -C(0)NZ5Z6, -COOZ7, and - SO3Z8, wherein Z1 to Z6 and Z8 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group and Z7 is selected from the group consisting of a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group;

X1 to X4 are each independently selected from a carbon atom and a nitrogen atom with the proviso that the respective R3 to R6 is absent, when the corresponding X1 to X4 is a nitrogen atom; and

R3 to R6, when present, are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group, a halogen atom, -NE1E2, -NO2, - CN, -OE3, -C(0)E4, -C(0)NE5E6, -COOE7, and -SO3E8, wherein E1 to E8 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group.

2. The compound for use according to claim 1 , wherein R1 is selected from the group consisting of a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group having from 3 to 20 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group having from 3 to 20 carbon atoms, and a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group having from 3 to 20 carbon atoms.

3. The compound for use according to claim 2, wherein R1 is a nonyl group or a nonenyl group.

4. The compound for use according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein R2 is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group having 2 to 4 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group having 2 to 4 carbon atoms, a halogen atom, -CF3, -NH2, and -OH.

5. The compound for use according to claim 4, wherein R2 is a hydrogen atom.

6. The compound for use according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein X1 to X4 are each a carbon atom.

7. The compound for use according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein R3 to R6, when present, are each a hydrogen atom.

8. The compound for use according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein R7 is a hydrogen atom or OH.

9. The compound for use according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the compound is selected from the group consisting of the compounds represented by the following Formulas (2) to (7), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

Formula (2), .

10. The compound for use according to any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the Neisseria species are selected from the group consisting of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Neisseria lactamica.

11 . The compound for use according to claim 10, wherein the Neisseria species are pathogenic multidrug-resistant Neisseria species. 12. The compound for use according to any one of claims 1 to 11 , wherein the compound is used in the treatment of an infection in a mammal.

13. The compound for use according to claim 12, wherein the mammal is a human.

14. A pharmaceutical composition for use in the prevention and treatment of infections with a pathogen selected from Neisseria species, Haemophilus species and Moraxella catarrhalis, comprising the compound for use according to any one of claims 1 to 13 in a pharmaceutically active amount, and optionally a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, excipient or diluent.

15. Use of a compound for disinfecting a substrate from a pathogen selected from Neisseria species, Haemophilus species and Moraxella catarrhalis, wherein the compound is represented by the general Formula (1 ) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof

(Formula (1 )), wherein

R1 is selected from the group consisting of a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group having from 3 to 20 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group having from 4 to 12 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group having from 3 to 20 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group having from 4 to 12 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group having from 3 to 20 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalky! group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group, and - OA, wherein A is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group;

R2 is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group, a halogen atom, -NZ1Z2, -NO2, -CN, -OZ3, -C(0)Z4, -C(0)NZ5Z6, -COOZ7, and - SO3Z8, wherein Z1 to Z6 and Z8 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group and Z7 is selected from the group consisting of a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group; X1 to X4 are each independently selected from a carbon atom and a nitrogen atom with the proviso that the respective R3 to R6 is absent, when the corresponding X1 to X4 is a nitrogen atom; and

R3 to R6, when present, are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group, a halogen atom, -NE1E2, -NO2, - CN, -OE3, -C(0)E4, -C(0)NE5E6, -COOE7, and -SO3E8, wherein E1 to E8 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group; and the substrate is selected from the group consisting of medical tools, medical equipment, floor, linen, paper, and medical and industrial surfaces.

Description:
Compound for use against pathogenic Neisseria and Haemophilus species and

Moraxella catarrhalis

Description

The present invention relates to a compound, which can be used in the prevention and treatment of infections with pathogenic Neisseria species, in particular N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis (the gonococcus and the meningococcus, respectively), and other pathogenic bacteria (e.g. Haemophilus species or Moraxella catarrhalis), and which can be used for disinfecting a substrate from said bacteria. Moreover, the present invention relates to a corresponding pharmaceutical composition comprising said compound.

The enormous power of antibiotics in combating infectious diseases has sustained unprecedented advances in medicine and contributed to the increases in life expectancy and overall quality of life of the human population. However, there are alarming signs that the protection afforded by antibiotics is on the decline. This is particularly true for a growing number of bacterial pathogens, which have become resistant to the majority of antimicrobial drugs. Some strains even have acquired resistances against all available antibiotics rendering infections by these "super-bugs" virtually untreatable. While antibiotic resistance is on the rise, the number of newly approved antibiotics has continuously declined and the industrial pipeline is by and large empty. Two facts contribute to this shortage: First, the majority of existing antibiotics target only very few cellular targets. Second, the existing antibiotics belong to a small number of distinct chemical classes. Consequently, resistance development is fast, cross-resistances are common, and evolved resistance genes can be mobilized by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) to additional bacterial species. Discovering both new antibiotic classes and new cellular targets is thus a prime goal for the future treatment of bacterial infections.

Based on the global disease burden and the associated societal and economic costs, the world health organization WHO has released a priority list of bacterial pathogens, where there is an urgent need of novel treatment options. These species require particular attention due to the lack of available vaccines and the increasing occurrence of multi-drug resistant strains and thus should be in the focus of current national and international efforts to device and further develop novel ways of protection and/or treatment.

One pathogen, which the WHO has identified as high priority, is Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of the genital tract infection gonorrhoea. With an estimated 80 million affected people annually, gonorrhoea is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Caused by the human-restricted pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae, infections cannot only trigger an acute inflammatory response in the genital tract, but can lead to disseminated disease and infertility in both sexes. Furthermore, gonococcal infections promote the spread of HIV.

N. meningitidis is a closely related pathogen, which is the causative agent of bacterial meningitis. Meningococcal meningitis is a severe, life-threatening disease, which belongs to the reportable infectious diseases. In Germany, the annual incidence ranges below 0.5 cases 1 100.000 people, while annual meningococcal epidemics are known from the sub-Saharan“meningitis belt” in Africa with approximately 30.000 cases annually. Fortunately, N. meningitidis infections can be prevented by vaccination.

In contrast, a vaccine against N. gonorrhoeae is not available and the gonococcus has already developed resistances against most antibiotics including ciprofloxacin. The only remaining treatment options for gonococcal infections are based on ceftriaxone, an extended-spectrum cephalosporin requiring intravenous application. However, also first resistances against this current last-resort antibiotic have been reported and the complete lack of additional treatment options poses an imminent threat. Thus, novel antibiotics against N. gonorrhoeae are urgently required. Preferably, such compounds should be also effective against multi-resistant N. gonorrhoeae and against the closely related pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, but should not affect non-pathogenic, commensal Neisseriae. Such a species-selective antibiotic compound could for example reduce the risk of fast resistance development in commensal non-target species and the transfer via HGT to the pathogenic Neisseriae species, the gonococcus and the meningococcus. Since N. gonorrhoeae is associated with a defined clinical picture and can be readily diagnosed, a species-specific antibiotic could be of enormous value in this indication and reduce the risk of resistance development in commensal non-target species.

Thus, the technical problem underlying the present invention is to provide a compound, which can be used in the prevention and treatment of infections with pathogenic Neisseria species and/or other pathogenic bacteria such as Haemophilus species or Moraxella catarrhalis, preferably in the treatment of infections with pathogenic and/or multi-resistant species, as well as a corresponding pharmaceutical composition. The solution to the above technical problem is achieved by the embodiments characterized in the claims.

In particular, the present invention relates to a compound for use in the prevention and treatment of infections with pathogenic Neisseria species, for example N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis, and/or other pathogenic bacteria (e.g. Haemophilus species or Moraxella catarrhalis), wherein the compound is represented by the general Formula (1 ) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof

(Formula (1 )), wherein

R 1 is selected from the group consisting of a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group having from 3 to 20 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group having from 4 to 12 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group having from 3 to 20 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group having from 4 to 12 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group having from 3 to 20 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group;

R 7 is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group, and -OA, wherein A is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group;

R 2 is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group, a halogen atom, -NZ 1 Z 2 , -NO 2 , -CN, - OZ 3 , -C(0)Z 4 , -C(0)NZ 5 Z 6 , -COOZ 7 , and -SO3Z 8 , wherein Z 1 to Z 6 and Z 8 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group and Z 7 is selected from the group consisting of a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group;

X 1 to X 4 are each independently selected from a carbon atom and a nitrogen atom with the proviso that the respective R 3 to R 6 is absent, when the corresponding X 1 to X 4 is a nitrogen atom; and

R 3 to R 6 , when present, are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group, a halogen atom, -NE 1 E 2 , -NO2, -CN, -OE 3 , -C(0)E 4 , -C(0)NE 5 E 6 , - COOE 7 , and -SO3E 8 , wherein E 1 to E 8 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group.

The compound for use according to the present invention may also be present in the corresponding tautomeric form (e.g. in the form of 4-hydroxyquinolines), if applicable.

If not stated otherwise, such as for example partially for the residue R 1 , the following definitions apply to the terms“halogen”, “alkyl group", “cycloalkyl group”, “alkenyl group", “cycloalkenyl group”, “alkynyl group”, “aryl group”, and “heteroaryl group”. Herein the term“halogen” refers particularly to fluorine atoms, chlorine atoms, bromine atoms, and iodine atoms, preferably fluorine atoms and chlorine atoms, most preferably fluorine atoms. The term "alkyl group” refers particularly to a branched or linear alkyl group having 1 to 20, preferably 1 to 12, more preferably 1 to 6, and most preferably 1 to 4 carbon atoms, which can be substituted or unsubstituted. Examples of alkyl groups represent methyl groups, ethyl groups, propyl groups, isopropyl groups, butyl groups, isobutyl groups, tert-butyl groups, pentyl groups, hexyl groups, and heptyl groups. The term’’cycloalkyl group” refers particularly to a cycloalkyl group having 3 to 10, preferably 4 to 8, more preferably 5 or 6, and most preferably 6 carbon atoms, which can be substituted or unsubstituted. Examples of cycloalkyl groups represent cyclobutyl groups, cyclopentyl groups, and cyclohexyl groups. The term ’’alkenyl group” refers particularly to a branched or linear alkenyl group having 2 to 20, preferably 2 to 12, more preferably 2 to 6, and most preferably 2 to 4 carbon atoms, which can be substituted or unsubstituted. Examples of alkenyl groups represent vinyl groups, allyl groups, 1-heptenyl groups, 2,6-dimethylhept-5-enyl groups, and crotyl groups. The term’’cycloalkenyl group” refers particularly to a cycloalkenyl group having 4 to 10, preferably 5 to 8, more preferably 5 or 6, and most preferably 6 carbon atoms, which can be substituted or unsubstituted. Examples of cycloalkenyl groups represent cyclopentenyl groups, cyclopentadienyl groups, cyclohexyl groups, and cyclohexadienyl groups. The term’’alkynyl group” refers particularly to a branched or linear alkynyl group having 2 to 20, preferably 2 to 12, more preferably 2 to 6, and most preferably 2 to 4 carbon atoms, which can be substituted or unsubstituted. Examples of alkynyl groups represent ethynyl groups, 1 -propynyl groups, and propargyl groups. The term“aryl group" refers particularly to an aryl group consisting of 1 to 6, preferably 1 to 4, more preferably 1 to 3 aromatic rings, and most preferably 1 ring, which can be substituted or unsubstituted. Examples of aryl groups represent phenyl groups, anthracenyl or naphthyl groups. The term’’heteroaryl group" refers particularly to a heteroaryl group consisting of 1 to 6, preferably 1 to 4, more preferably 1 to 3 aromatic rings including heteroatoms, which can be substituted or unsubstituted. Heteroatoms, which are present in heteroaryl groups are for example N, O and S. Examples of heteroaryl groups represent pyridyl groups, pyrimidinyl groups, thienyl groups, fury I groups or pyrrolyl groups.

According to the present invention, the alkyl groups, the cycloalkyl groups, the alkenyl groups, the cycloalkenyl groups, the alkynyl groups, the aryl groups and the heteroaryl groups may be substituted or unsubstituted. The potential substituents are not specifically limited. Accordingly, instead of hydrogen atoms any substituent known in the prior art can be bonded to the further positions of the corresponding groups. For example, the potential substituents may be selected from the group consisting of a branched or linear alkyl group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, a cycloalkyl group having 4 to 8 carbon atoms, a branched or linear alkenyl group having 2 to 6 carbon atoms, a cycloalkenyl group having 4 to 8 carbon atoms, a branched or linear alkynyl group having 2 to 6 carbon atoms, an aryl group having 1 to 3 aromatic rings, a heteroaryl group having 1 to 3 aromatic rings including heteroatoms, a halogen atom, -NL 1 L 2 , -NO2, -CN, -OL 3 , -C(0)L 4 , -C(0)NL 5 L 6 , -COOL 7 , and -SOsL 8 , wherein L 1 to L 8 are each independently selected from a hydrogen atom, a branched or linear alkyl group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, a cycloalkyl group having 4 to 8 carbon atoms, a branched or linear alkenyl group having 2 to 6 carbon atoms, a cycloalkenyl group having 4 to 8 carbon atoms, a branched or linear alkynyl group having 2 to 6 carbon atoms, an aryl group having 1 to 3 aromatic rings, a heteroaryl group having 1 to 3 aromatic rings including heteroatoms. Accordingly, examples of substituted alkyl groups are aralkyl groups or alkyl groups substituted with e.g. halogen atoms, such as e.g. a trifluoromethyl group or a trichloromethyl group, or any other of the above-mentioned substituents. The term’’aralkyl group" refers particularly to an alkyl group wherein one or more hydrogen atoms, preferably terminal hydrogen atoms of the alkyl chain, are replaced by aryl or heteroaryl groups. Examples of aralkyl groups represent benzyl groups or 1- or 2-phenylethyl groups. Preferably, the potential substituents are selected from the group consisting of a branched or linear alkyl group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, a branched or linear alkenyl group having 2 to 6 carbon atoms, a branched or linear alkynyl group having 2 to 6 carbon atoms, a halogen atom, -NH2, - NHCHs, -N(CH 3 )2, -NO2, -OH, -OCH3, -OEt, -C(0)H, -C(0)CH 3 , -C(0)Et, and -COOH. Moreover, one or more tetravalent carbon atoms (together with the hydrogen atoms bonded thereto), when present, in each of the alkyl groups, the cycloalkyl groups, the alkenyl groups, the cycloalkenyl groups, and the alkynyl groups may each independently be substituted by a member selected from the group consisting of O, (OCH 2 CH2)nO, S, (SCH 2 CH2)mS, C(O), 0(0)0, NR 8 , and C(0)NR 9 , preferably O, (OCH 2 CH2)nO, 0(0)0, and C(0)NR 9 , wherein n and m are each independently an integer from 1 to 6. Accordingly, for example an alkyl group may be interrupted by e.g. one or more PEG linkers and/or amide bonds. The way the groups are introduced instead of a carbon atom is not specifically limited. For example, a carbon atom may be substituted by 0(0)0 in the sense of -0(0)0- or -00(0)- and by C(0)NR 9 in the sense of -C(0)NR 9 - or -NR 9 C(0)-. According to the present invention, R 8 and R 9 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a branched or linear alkyl group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, a cycloalkyl group having 4 to 8 carbon atoms, a branched or linear alkenyl group having 2 to 6 carbon atoms, a cycloalkenyl group having 4 to 8 carbon atoms, a branched or linear alkynyl group having 2 to 6 carbon atoms, an aryl group having 1 to 3 aromatic rings, a heteroaryl group having 1 to 3 aromatic rings including heteroatoms, -OG 1 , -C(0)G 2 , -C(0)NG 3 G 4 , -COOG 5 , and -SO2G 6 . In a preferred embodiment, R 8 and R 9 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a nydrogen atom, a branched or linear alkyl group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, an aryl group having 1 to 3 aromatic rings, -C(0)G 2 , and -SO2G 6 . Most preferably, R 8 and R 9 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom and a branched or linear alkyl group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms. According to the present invention, G 1 to G 6 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a branched or linear alkyl group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, a cycloalkyl group having 4 to 8 carbon atoms, a branched or linear alkenyl group having 2 to 6 carbon atoms, a cycloalkenyl group having 4 to 8 carbon atoms, a branched or linear alkynyl group having 2 to 6 carbon atoms, an aryl group having 1 to 3 aromatic rings, a heteroaryl group having 1 to 3 aromatic rings including heteroatoms. In a preferred embodiment, G 1 to G 6 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a branched or linear alkyl group having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, an aryl group having 1 to 3 aromatic rings.

Most preferably, the alkyl groups, the cycloalkyl groups, the alkenyl groups, the cycloalkenyl groups, the alkynyl groups, the aryl groups and the heteroaryl groups are unsubstituted. Moreover, in a preferred embodiment the alkyl groups, the alkenyl groups, and the alkynyl groups are linear.

The alkenyl groups, the cycloalkenyl groups and the alkynyl groups may possess multiple unsaturated bonds, which may be conjugated or unconjugated. Preferably, the alkenyl groups, the cycloalkenyl groups and the alkynyl groups each possess at least one unsaturated bond, preferably in D 1 position (i.e. including the proximal carbon atom of the group to which the rest of the compound is attached). Compounds having an unsaturated bond in D 1 position are advantageously highly active against the target bacteria. More preferably, the alkenyl groups, the cycloalkenyl groups and the alkynyl groups each possess only one unsaturated bond, preferably in D 1 position.

The unsaturated bonds in the alkenyl groups and the cycloalkenyl groups may independently have c/s- and/or trans-configuration. Preferably, the unsaturated bonds in the alkenyl groups have trans-configuration . Most preferably, the alkenyl groups possess one unsaturated bond with trans-configuration, preferably in D 1 position.

The compound according to the present invention may be the compound represented by the general Formula (1 ) as described above or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In case the compound of the present invention is a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound according to general Formula (1 ), the salt can be formed with inorganic or organic acids or bases. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable salts comprise, without limitation, non-toxic inorganic or organic salts such as acetate derived from acetic acid, aconitate derived from aconitic acid, ascorbate derived from ascorbic acid, benzoate derived from benzoic acid, cinnamate derived from cinnamic acid, citrate derived from citric acid, embonate derived from embonic acid, enantate derived from heptanoic acid, formiate derived from formic acid, fumarate derived from fu marie acid, glutamate derived from glutamic acid, glycolate derived from glycolic acid, chloride derived from hydrochloric acid, bromide derived from hydrobromic acid, lactate derived from lactic acid, maleate derived from maleic acid, malonate derived from malonic acid, mandelate derived from mandelic acid, methanesulfonate derived from methanesulfonic acid, naphtaline-2-sulfonate derived from naphtaline-2-sulfonic acid, nitrate derived from nitric acid, perchlorate derived from perchloric acid, phosphate derived from phosphoric acid, phthalate derived from phthalic acid, salicylate derived from salicylic acid, sorbate derived from sorbic acid, stearate derived from stearic acid, succinate derived from succinic acid, sulphate derived from sulphuric acid, tartrate derived from tartaric acid, toluene-p-sulfonate derived from p-toluenesulfonic acid, sodium salts, potassium salts, magnesium salts, calcium salts, iron salts, zinc salts, aluminum salts, ammonium salts, and others. Such salts can be readily produced by methods known to a person skilled in the art.

Other salts like oxalate derived from oxalic acid, which is not considered as pharmaceutically acceptable, can be appropriately used as intermediates for the production of the compound of the general Formula (1 ) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or physiologically functional derivative or a stereoisomer thereof.

According to the present invention, R 1 is selected from the group consisting of a substituted or unsubstituted, branched or linear alkyl group having from 3 to 20, preferably 4 to 1 1 , more preferably 6 to 10, most preferably 9 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group having from 4 to 12, preferably 6 to 9, most preferably 7 or 8 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted, branched or linear alkenyl group having from 3 to 20, preferably 4 to 11 , more preferably 6 to 10, most preferably 9 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group having from 4 to 12, preferably 6 to 9, most preferably 7 or 8 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted, branched or linear alkynyl group having from 3 to 20, preferably 4 to 11 , more preferably 6 to 10, most preferably 9 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group. In a preferred embodiment, R 1 is selected from the group consisting of substituted or unsubstituted, branched or linear alkyl group having from 3 to 20, preferably 4 to 1 1 , more preferably 6 to 10, most preferably 9 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted, branched or linear alkenyl group having from 3 to 20, preferably 4 to 11 , more preferably 6 to 10, most preferably 9 carbon atoms, and a substituted or unsubstituted, branched or linear alkynyl group having from 3 to 20, preferably 4 to 1 1 , more preferably 6 to 10, most preferably 9 carbon atoms. More preferably, R 1 is a substituted or unsubstituted, branched or linear alkyl group having 6 to 10, even more preferably 9 carbon atoms or a substituted or unsubstituted, branched or linear alkenyl group having 6 to 10, even more preferably 9 carbon atoms. More preferably R 1 is a heptyl, octyl, nonyl, heptenyl, octenyl, or nonenyl group. Most preferably R 1 is a nonyl or nonenyl group. Preferably, the nonenyl group is a frans-A 1 -nonenyl group.

According to the present invention, R 7 is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group, and -OA. Moreover, A is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group, preferably A is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group. Most preferably, A is hydrogen. Preferably, R 7 is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and -OA. More preferably, R 7 is a hydrogen atom or OH.

According to the present invention, R 2 is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group, a halogen atom, NZ 1 Z 2 , -NO2, -CN, -OZ 3 , -C(0)Z 4 , -C(0)NZ 5 Z 6 , - COOZ 7 , and -SO3Z 8 . Z 1 to Z 6 and Z 8 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group, preferably Z 1 to Z 6 and Z 8 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, most preferably Z 1 to Z 6 and Z 8 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom and a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group. Z 7 is selected from the group consisting of a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group, preferably Z 7 is selected from the group consisting of a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group and a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, most preferably Z 7 is a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group. Preferably, R 2 is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group having 2 to 4 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group having 2 to 4 carbon atoms, a halogen atom, -CF3, -NH2, and -OH. Most preferably, R 2 is a hydrogen atom.

According to the present invention, X 1 to X 4 are each independently selected from a carbon atom and a nitrogen atom with the proviso that the respective R 3 to R 6 is absent, when the corresponding X 1 to X 4 is a nitrogen atom (for example, R 3 is absent, when X 1 is a nitrogen atom). Preferably, at most 2, more preferably at most 1 , of X 1 to X 4 are/is a nitrogen atom. Most preferably, none of X 1 to X 4 is a nitrogen atom, i.e. each of X 1 to X 4 is a carbon atom.

According to the present invention, R 3 to R 6 , when present, are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group, a halogen atom, -NE 1 E 2 , -NO2, -CN, -OE 3 , -C(0)E 4 , -C(0)NE 5 E 6 , -COOE 7 , and -SO3E 8 . E 1 to E 8 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl group, preferably E 1 to E 8 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, and a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, most preferably E 1 to E 8 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom and a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group. Preferably, R 3 to R 6 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, a halogen atom, -NE 1 E 2 , -NO2, -OE 3 , - C(0)E 4 , and -COOE 7 . More preferably, R 3 to R 6 are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group, and a halogen atom. Most preferably, each of R 3 to R 6 is hydrogen.

In one preferred embodiment of the present invention, R 7 is H. In this embodiment, it is particularly preferred that R 1 is a substituted or unsubstituted, branched or linear alkyl group having from 3 to 20 carbon atoms, more preferably 4 to 11 carbon atoms, most preferably 9 carbon atoms, or a substituted or unsubstituted, branched or linear alkenyl group having from 3 to 20 carbon atoms, more preferably 4 to 1 1 carbon atoms, most preferably 9 carbon atoms. Preferably, R 2 is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group having 2 to 4 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group having 2 to 4 carbon atoms, a halogen atom, -CF3, -NH2, and -OH, and more preferably R 2 is a hydrogen atom. Furthermore, at most 1 of X 1 to X 4 is preferably a nitrogen atom, most preferably each of X 1 to X 4 is a carbon atom. Moreover, it is preferred in this embodiment that R 3 to R 6 , when present, are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, and a trifluoromethyl group, more preferably each of R 3 to R 6 , when present, is a hydrogen atom. In this embodiment, as examples, the present invention more preferably relates to a compound selected from the group consisting of the compound represented by the Formula (2) (i.e. HHQ), the compound represented by the Formula (4) (i.e. NQ), and the compound represented by the Formula (6) (i.e. frans-D 1 - NQ), more preferably to the compounds represented by the Formulas (4) and (6), and most preferably to the compound represented by the Formula (4), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention, R 7 is -OA, and most preferably R 7 is -OH. In this embodiment, it is particularly preferred that R 1 is a substituted or unsubstituted, branched or linear alkyl group having from 3 to 20 carbon atoms, more preferably 4 to 11 carbon atoms, most preferably 9 carbon atoms, or a substituted or unsubstituted, branched or linear alkenyl group having from 3 to 20 carbon atoms, more preferably 4 to 11 carbon atoms, most preferably 9 carbon atoms. Preferably, R 2 is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted alkenyl group having 2 to 4 carbon atoms, a substituted or unsubstituted alkynyl group having 2 to 4 carbon atoms, a halogen atom, -CF3, -NH2, and -OH, and more preferably R 2 is a hydrogen atom. Furthermore, at most 1 of X 1 to X 4 is preferably a nitrogen atom, most preferably each of X 1 to X 4 is a carbon atom. Moreover, it is preferred in this embodiment that R 3 to R 6 , when present, are each independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, and a trifluoromethyl group, more preferably each of R 3 to R 6 , when present, is a hydrogen atom. In this embodiment, as examples, the present invention more preferably relates to a compound selected from the group consisting of the compound represented by the Formula (3) (i.e. HQNO), the compound represented by the Formula (5) (i.e. NQNO), and the compound represented by the Formula (7) (i.e. frans-A 1 -NQNO), more preferably to the compounds represented by the Formulas (5) and (7), and most preferably to the compound represented by the Formula (5), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

The above embodiments can be combined with each other without any particular limitation. The above statements and definitions given with respect to the specific embodiments analogously apply to each respective embodiment when combined with the other embodiments. In this embodiment, as examples, the present invention more preferably relates to a compound selected from the group consisting of the compounds represented by the Formulas (2) to (7), more preferably to the compounds represented by the Formulas (4) and (5), or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

The pathogenic bacteria, which can be treated with the compound for use according to the present invention, are not particularly limited. For example, the pathogenic microbes may be selected from the genera Neisseria, Haemophilus, or Moraxella. Specifically, examples of (human) pathogens that can be treated with the compound for use according to the present invention are Neisseria gonorrhoea, Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria iactamica, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Furthermore, the compound for use according to the present invention can also be effective against other bacteria and fungi. Preferably, the compound for use according to the present invention only affects pathogenic species and e.g. not commensal nontarget species, such as commensal members of the normal human mucosal flora. This can reduce the risk of resistance development in commensal non-target species. Examples of commensal non-target species are represented by, but are not limited to commensal Neisseriae, Candida albicans, Lactobacillus crispatus, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Lactobacillus brevis, preferably Candida albicans and Lactobacillus brevis. Preferably, the treatable pathogenic bacteria are selected from the group consisting of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria Iactamica, and Moraxella catarrhalis, more preferably from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis. Most preferably, the treatable pathogenic bacteria are Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

In a further preferred embodiment, the treatable bacteria are multi-resistant bacteria, more preferably multi-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis, more preferably multi-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Examples of multi-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains are represented by, but are not limited to, Neisseria gonorrhoeae multidrug-resistant isolate from Slovenia (Unemo M, Golparian D, Potocnik M, Jeverica S. T reatment failure of pharyngeal gonorrhoea with internationally recommended first-line ceftriaxone verified in Slovenia, September 2011. Euro Surveill. 2012; 17(25):pii=20200) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae multidrug- resistant isolate from Austria (Unemo M, Golparian D, Stary A, Eigentler A. 201 1. First Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain with resistance to cefixime causing gonorrhoea treatment failure in Austria, 201 1. Euro Surveill. 16(43). pii: 19998).

In a preferred embodiment, the compound for use according to the present invention has a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against pathogenic bacteria species, preferably pathogenic Neisseria species, more preferably Neisseria gonorrhoeae, even more preferably multi-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains, of 50 pg/mL or less, more preferably 40 pg/mL or less, more preferably 30 pg/mL or less, more preferably 20 pg/mL or less, more preferably 15 pg/mL or less, most preferably 10 pg/mL or less. The lower limit of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is generally not specifically limited. For example, the lower limit of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) may be 0.01 ng/mL.

In a further preferred embodiment, the compound for use according to the present invention leads to a growth reduction of pathogenic bacteria species, preferably pathogenic Neisseria species, more preferably Neisseria gonorrhoeae, even more preferably multi-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains, of at least 50%, more preferably at least 60%, more preferably at least 70%, more preferably at least 80%, more preferably at least 85%, more preferably at least 90%, more preferably at least 95%, more preferably at least 98%, most preferably 100% (i.e. complete inhibition), when compared to the corresponding untreated case. Said growth reduction can e.g. be achieved when the compound for use according to the present invention is applied in a dosage (e.g. in vivo ) or concentration (e.g. in vitro) as indicated below.

The dosage of the compound for use according to the present application can vary within wide limits and is to be suited to the individual conditions in each individual case. For the above uses the appropriate dosage will vary depending on the mode of administration, the particular condition to be treated and the effect desired. In general, however, satisfactory results are achieved at dosage rates of about 1 pg/kg/day to 100 mg/kg/day animal body weight preferably 5 pg/kg/day to 50 mg/kg/day. Suitable dosage rates for larger mammals, for example humans, are of the order of from about 1 mg to 4 g/day, conveniently administered once, in divided doses such as e.g. 2 to 4 times a day, or in sustained release form. Moreover, the compound for use according to the present application can be applied topically to a locally defined site of infection, including but not limited to the urogenital tract, vaginal mucosa, or the nasopharynx. In these cases, different dosages may be applied directly to the site of infection ranging from 1 ng/application to 5 g/application, preferably 1 ng/application to 1 g/application, more preferably 1 ng/application to 100 mg/application. Applications may vary from a single dose application or one application per day or one application every second day, to several applications per day such as two, three, four or five applications/day.

The compound for use according to the present invention can be used in the prevention and treatment of an infection with pathogenic bacteria species, preferably pathogenic Neisseria species, more preferably Neisseria gonorrhoeae, even more preferably multi-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains, in mammals, and particularly preferably in humans.

In another aspect, the present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising the compound for use according to the present invention in a pharmaceutically active amount, and optionally a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, excipient or diluent. The above statements and definitions analogously apply to this aspect of the present invention. The compound of the present invention can be administered per se or in the form of pharmaceutical preparations.

The term "medicament" as used herein relates to any pharmaceutical composition comprising at least the compound according to the present invention in a pharmaceutically active amount.

According to the present invention, the medicament may be administered by any administration route known in the art being suitable for delivering a medicament to a mammal. The route of administration does not exhibit particular limitations and includes for example oral application, topic application, intravenous application and intraperitoneal application. The compound also may be administered topically as ointment, by powders, drops or transdermal patch, or as an oral or nasal spray.

The concentration of the compound of the present invention in the pharmaceutical composition of the present invention is not particularly limited. Preferably, the concentration of the compound of the present invention in the pharmaceutical composition is from 0.1 mM to 5 M, more preferably from 5 mM to 5 M, and most preferably from 10 mM to 100 mM.

In another aspect, the present invention relates to the use of the compound used in the present invention for disinfecting a substrate from pathogenic Neisseria species, for example N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis, and/or other pathogenic bacteria (e.g. Haemophilus species or Moraxella catarrhalis), wherein the substrate is selected from the group consisting of medical tools, medical equipment, floor, linen, paper, and medical and industrial surfaces. The above statements and definitions analogously apply to this aspect of the present invention. Preferably, the disinfection is not carried out at a human or animal body, i.e. is carried out in vitro.

The applied amount of the compound for disinfection is not particularly limited. For example, the compound may be applied in solution in a concentration of from 0.1 pM to 5 M, more preferably from 10 pM to 1 M, and most preferably from 10 pM to 100 mM. Solvents used for preparing corresponding solutions are not particularly limited and may e.g. be selected from the group consisting of DMSO, acetonitrile, /V-methyl- 2-pyrrolidone, cyclohexane, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, 1 ,2-dichloroethene, dichloromethane, xylene, and alcohols, such as methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, phenethyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol. Also liposome preparations may be used for formulation of the compound for disinfection.

The compound used in the present invention can selectively kill pathogenic Neisseria species, for example N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis, and/or other pathogenic bacteria (e.g. Haemophilus species or Moraxella catarrhalis), preferably pathogenic Neisseria gonorrhoeae species, and has unprecedented efficacy. For example, growth of N. gonorrhoeae can, preferably completely, be inhibited in vitro and colonization of humanized mice can preferably be prevented, thereby preferably not affecting closely related Neisseria or beneficial bacteria. Moreover, at low micromolar concentrations pathogenic Neisseriae can e.g. selectively be killed, without harming commensal members of the normal human mucosal flora. Furthermore, no cytotoxicity in e.g. HeLa cells is preferably observed. In vivo application of the compound used in the present invention to the genital tract is e.g. well tolerated and prohibits colonization with Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a humanized mouse model. Moreover, topical administration of the compound at bactericidal concentrations to the mucosal surface of the genital tract of female mice does preferably not result in tissue damage, demonstrating that the compound is well tolerated and does not harm eukaryotic cells or tissue. Most commensal Neisseria are preferably not affected by the compound used in the present invention and the beneficial human microbiota are preferably not harmed by treatment with the compound. Nevertheless, with said compound it is even possible to treat infections based on multi-resistant Neisseria species, such as multi-resistant N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis. Therefore, the compound used in the present invention shows unique activity, which suggests a novel mode of action. Thereby, it is for example possible to inhibit the promotion of HIV spread associated with N. gonorrhoeae.

The figures show:

Figures 1 to 4: Growth curves of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains, Neisseria macacae, and Lactobacillus brevis in the presence of different concentrations of NQNO (control: treatment with DMSO).

Figure 5: Determination of the inhibitory effect of the compounds represented by the Formulas (4) to (7) against various bacterial species. Effective inhibition of growth >60% (values 0.0 to 0.4) is indicated by black shading. Values represent integrals of growth curves relative to a control (1.0).

Figure 6: Evaluation of potential cytotoxicity of NQNO towards human cells (HeLa cells).

Figure 7: Topical administration of NQNO completely blocks vaginal colonization by Neisseria gonorrhoeae in genetically modified mice (CEAtg) expressing human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a receptor for the gonococcal Opa-adhesin, on their mucosal surface.

Figure 8: Immunofluorescence staining of tissue sections obtained from the upper vaginal tract of infected CEAtg animals being treated with NQNO (50 mM dissolved in DMSO) or with solvent (DMSO) only. The genital tract was excised and cryosections were stained for cell nuclei (Hoechst), human CEA, and N. gonorrhoeae (Ngo, arrows).

Figure 9: Immunofluorescence staining of tissue sections obtained from the upper vaginal tract of infected CEAtg animals being treated with NQNO (50 mM dissolved in DMSO) or with solvent (DMSO) only. The genital tract was excised and cryosections were stained for cell nuclei (Hoechst), collagen in the connective tissue, and N. gonorrhoeae (Ngo, arrows).

Figure 10: Haematoxilin/Eosin (HE) staining of tissue sections obtained from the upper vaginal tract of CEAtg animals being treated with NQNO (50 mM dissolved in DMSO) or with solvent (DMSO) only. The genital tract was excised, fixed, paraffin embedded and sections were stained to reveal the overall integrity of the epithelial and subepithelial tissue.

Figure 1 1 : Growth curves of Lactobacillus brevis and Candida albicans incubated with 5, 10, 25, and 50 pM of NQ, frans-A 1 -NQ, NQNO, and frans-A 1 -NQNO (compounds represented by the Formulas (4), (6), (5), and (7)) for the indicated time in liquid culture. Optical density at 600 nm was determined every 30 minutes. Growth curves are displayed in comparison to cultures receiving solvent only (DMSO).

Figure 12: Measurement of metabolic activity of HeLa cells upon treatment with 0.5, 1 , 2.5, 5, and 10 pM NQNO for 1 or 2 days respectively. Samples were normalized to solvent (DMSO) treated cells. Assay was performed in technical triplicates. * p<0.05,

** p<0.01 , *** p<0.001.

Figure 13: Metabolic activity of MS74 cells upon treatment for 2 days with the indicated concentrations of NQNO was determined as in Figure 12. Data show mean ± SEM from three independent experiments; * p<0.05.

Figure 14: Microscopic evaluation of MS74 cells treated for two days with the indicated concentrations of NQNO compared to DMSO control. Figure 15: Wildtype or CEAtg female mice were infected with OpaCEA-expressing gonococci for 1 h, before they were treated with 10 pi of 25 mM or 50 mM NQNO. Controls received solvent (DMSO). After 24 hours, bacteria colonizing the genital tract were collected by a cotton swap and plated on agar. Data show bacterial colonies isolated from individual mice from two independent experiments. Mean values ± SEM are indicated by horizontal bars. Differences between groups were determined by Mann Whitney test: ** p<0.01 , * * * p<0.001.

Figures 16 and 17: Proton NMR spectra showing the stability of NQNO in deuterated methanol at a final concentration of 25 mM. Samples were incubated for 28 days at 25°C or 37°C respectively. A spectrum was measured every seventh day and compared with the previous measurements.

Figures 18 and 19: Stability of 100 mM NQNO in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. Samples were incubated at 24°C and 37°C, respectively, for 4 days. Samples were taken at day 0 and every second day. Samples were analysed by LC-MS and the integrals of the detected NQNO (by using extracted ion chromatograms) compared to the integral of the control (100 mM NQNO in H2O) which was set to 100%.

Figure 20: Quantification of the results of Figures 18 and 19, normalized to control levels.

The present invention will be further illustrated in the following examples without being limited thereto.

Experimental procedures:

General

Chemicals and solvents for the synthesis were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, Acros Organics, Carl Roth or VWR Chemicals and were used without further purification. For Silica gel chromatography, distilled technical grade solvents and silica gel 60 A (Carl Roth) was used. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was performed using aluminum sheets“TLC Silica gel 60 F254“ from Merck Millipore ® and analyzed with UV-light or by permanganate staining. NMR spectra were obtained with Bruker Avance-lll 400 and Bruker Avance-lll 600 NMR spectrometers at ambient temperature. Multiplicities are given as follows: s - singlet, d - doublet, t - triplet, q - quartet, quint. - quintet, m - multiple! Chemical shifts (d) are given in parts per million (ppm) relative to the solvent residual signal with CDC 5H = 7.26 ppm and do = 77.16 ppm, DMSO-d6 dp = 2.50 ppm and do = 39.52 ppm, MeOD-d4 6H = 3.31 ppm and 5c = 49.00 ppm. The obtained data were processed and analyzed with Bruker Topspin 3.5 software. Mass spectrometry data were obtained by ESI-TOF (Bruker Daltonics amicroTOFII) equipped with a Chromolith FastGaradient RP18e 50 x 2 mm (Merck) column or ESI- IT (Bruker Daltonics Esquire 3000plus) equipped with a Nucleoshell 50 x 2 mm RP-18 2.7 pm (Macherey-Nagel).

Synthesis Examples

Synthesis of HHQ and NQ (Compounds represented by the Formulas (2) and (4)) as well as HQNO and NQNO (Compounds represented by the Formulas (3) and (5))

General synthesis of B-keto-methyl esters:

o 1. Meldrums acid, pyridine O o

2,2-DimethyM ,3-dioxane-4,6-dione (Meldrum’s acid) (37.0 mmol, 1 eq.) was dissolved in 50 ml DCM and cooled to 0°C. Pyridine (74.0 mmol, 2 eq.) was added and the reaction stirred for 20 min at 0°C. Acid chloride (37 mmol, 1 eq.) was added dropwise and the resulting orange/red solution was allowed to stir at 0°C for 1 h and at room temperature for 1 h. After the reaction time, the mixture was washed with 5% HCI (3 x 60 ml) and the organic phases washed with brine (2 x 60 ml), dried over anhydrous MgS04 , filtered and the solvent evaporated. The remaining brown oil was dissolved in 100 ml MeOH and refluxed for 5 h. The solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by column chromatography with silica gel 60 and hexane/ethyl acetate 4:1. The products were obtained as colorless oils.

Methyl-3-oxodecanoate: 64 %. Rf = 0.6 (hexane/ethyl acetate 4:1 ). 1 H-NMR (CDCta 400.13 MHz) d (ppm): 0.87 (m, 3H, -CHs), 1.24-1 .32 (m, 8H, -(CH^-CHs), 1 .59 (m, 2H, -CO-CH 2 -CH 2 -), 2.52 (t, 2H, J=7.4 Hz, -CO-CH 2 -CH 2 -), 3.44 (s, 2H, COOMe-CH 2 - CO-), 3.73 (s, 3H, -COOMe). 13 C-NMR (CDCIs 100.62 MHz) d (ppm): 14.1 (-CHs), 22.6,

23.5, 28.9, 29.1 , 31 .7, 43.1 (-(CH 2 )6-CH 3 ), 49.0 (COOMe-CH 2 -CO), 52.4 (-COOMe) 167.7 (-COOMe), 202.9 (-CO).

Methyl-3-oxododecanoate: 34 %. Rf= 0.65 (hexane/ethyl acetate 4:1 ). 1 H-NMR (CDCb 400.13 MHz) d (ppm): 0.88 (m, 3H, -CHs), 1.21-1.37 (m, 12H, -(CH 2 ) 6 -CH 3 ), 1.63 (m, 2H, -CO-CH 2 -CH 2 -), 2.52 (t, 2H, J = 7.4 Hz, -CO-CH 2 -CH 2 -), 3.44 (s, 2H, COOMe-CH 2 - CO-), 3.74 (s, 3H, -COOMe). 13 C-NMR (CDCIs 100.62 MHz) d (ppm): 14.2 (-CHs), 22.8,

23.6, 29.2, 29.4, 29.5, 29.5, 32.0, 43.2 (-(CH 2 ) 8 -CH 3 ), 49.2 (COOMe-CH 2 -CO), 52.4 (- COOMe) 167.8 (-COOMe), 203.0 (-CO).

General synthesis of methyl-3-phenylamino-2-enoates:

Aniline, p-TsOH

n-hexane, reflux, 12h

The b-keto-methyl ester was dissolved in 150 ml n-hexane with 1 eq. aniline and 2 mol% p-TsOH. 2 g molecular sieves 4A was added and the mixture refluxed for 12 h. After the reaction reach room temperature, the solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by column chromatography with silica gel 60 and hexane/ethyl acetate 9:1 . The products were obtained as yellow oils.

Methyl (Z)-3-(phenylamino)dec-2-enoate: 69.5 %. Rf = 0.7 (hexane/ethyl acetate 9:1 ). 1 H-NMR (CDCIs 400.13 MHz ) d (ppm): 0.84 (m, 3H, -CH 3 ), 1.09-1.30 (m, 8H, -(CH 2 ) 4 - CH 3 ), 1 .41 (m, 2H, =CN-CH 2 -CH 2 -), 2.29 (t, 2H, J = 7.6 Hz, =CN-CH 2 -CH 2 -), 3.69 (s, 3H, -COOMe), 4.74 (s, 1 H, COOMe-CH=CN-), 7.09 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.17 (m, 1 H, Ar), 7.33 (m, 2H, Ar), 10.29 (s, 1 H, -NH-). 13 C-NMR (CDCb 100.62 MHz) d (ppm): 13.8 (-CHs), 22.3, 27.8, 28.6, 28.8, 31 .3, 32.0 (-(CH 2 )6-CH 3 ), 50.1 (COOMe), 84.3 (COOMe- CH=CN-), 124.9 (2C, Ar), 125.0 (Ar), 128.8 (2C, Ar), 139.1 (Ar), 163.6 (=CN-), 170.8 (COOMe).

Methyl (Z)-3-(phenylamino)dodec-2-enoate: 52 %. Rf= 0.75 (hexane/ethyl acetate 9:1 ). 1H-NMR (CDCb 400.13 MHz ) d (ppm): 0.87 (m, 3H, -CHs), 1 .12-1.31 (m, 12H, -(CH 2 )e- CHs), 1.41 (m, 2H, =CN-CH 2 -CH 2 -), 2.28 (m, 2H, =CN-CH 2 -CH 2 -), 3.69 (s, 3H, - COOMe), 4.73 (s, 1 H, COOMe-CH=CN-), 7.09 (m, 2H, Ar), 7.17 (m, 1 H, Ar), 7.32 (m, 2H, Ar), 10.29 (s, 1 H, -NH-). 13 C-NMR (CDCb 100.62 MHz) d (ppm): 14.2 (-CHs), 22.7, 28.1 , 29.2, 29.27, 29.34, 29.5, 32.0, 32.4 (-(CH 2 ) 8 -CH 3 ), 50.4 (COOMe), 84.7 (COOMe-CH=CN-), 125.2 (2C, Ar), 125.4 (Ar), 129.2 (2C, Ar), 139.4 (Ar), 163.9 (=CN-), 171.1 (COOMe).

General synthesis of quinolin-4-ones (Compounds represented by the Formulas (2) and (4)):

The methyl-3-pheny!amino-2-enoate was dissolved in diphenyl ether (10 ml / 1 g educt) and refluxed for 4 h. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool and dropwise added to n-hexane. The precipitate was filtered and washed with n-hexane. The products were obtained as white solids.

2-Heptylquinolin-4-one (2): 81 %. 1 H-NMR (DMSO-de 400.13 MHz ) d (ppm): 0.86 (m, 3H, H-15), 1.20-1.37 (m, 6H, H-12-14), 1.67 (m, 2H, H-10), 2.58 (t, 2H, J = 7.4 Hz, H- 9), 5.91 (s, 1 H, H-3), 7.26 (m, 1 H, H-6), 7.51 (d, 1 H, J = 8.1 Hz, H-8), 7.60 (m, 1 H , H- 7), 8.03 (dd, 1 H, J = 8.1 Hz, J = 1.2 Hz, H-5), 11.43 (s, 1 H, NH). 13 C-NMR (DMSO-de 100.62 MHz) d (ppm): 13.9 (C-15), 22.0, 28.3 (2C), 28.4, 31.1 (C-10-14), 33.2 (C-9), 107.6 (C-3), 117.8 (C-8), 122.6 (C-6), 124.6 (C-4a), 124.7 ( C-5), 131 .4 (C-7), 140.1 (C-8a), 153.8 (C-2), 176.8 (C-4). TOF-HRMS: m/z = 244.1693 [M+H] + , calc, for CieH 2i NO + H + = 244.1701 ; 487.3303 [2M+H] + , calc, for C32H42N2O2 + H + = 487.3325. 2-Nonylquinolin-4-one (4): 83 %. 1 H-NMR (DMSO-de 400.13 MHz ) d (ppm): 0.84 (m, 3H, H-17), 1.18-1.36 (m, 12H, H-11-16), 1.66 (m, 2H, H-10), 2.57 (t, 2H, J = 7.4 Hz, H- 9), 5.91 (s, 1 H, H-3), 7.26 (m, 1 H, H-6), 7.52 (d, 1 H, J = 8.1 Hz, H-8), 7.60 (m, 1 H , H- 7), 8.03 (dd, 1 H, J = 8.1 Hz, J = 1.0 Hz, H-5), 11.43 (s, 1 H, NH). 13 C-NMR (DMSO-de 100.62 MHz) d (ppm): 13.9 (C-17), 22.0, 28.3, 28.4, 28.6, 28.7, 28.8, 31.2 (C-10-16), 33.2 (C-9), 107.6 (C-3), 117.8 (C-8), 122.6 (C-6), 124.6 (C-4a), 124.7 ( C-5), 131.4 (C- 7), 140.1 (C-8a), 153.5 (C-2), 176.8 (C-4). TOF-HRMS: m/z = 272.2003 [M+Hf, calc for C18H25NO + H + = 272.2014; 543.3971 [2M+H] + , calc for C36H50N2O2 + H + = 543.3951.

General synthesis of ethyl carbonates: t-BuOK, ethyl chloroformate

THF, 2h, rt

2-Alkyl-4-quinolones were dissolved in THF (10 ml / 0.4 g 2-Alkyl-4-quinolones) together with 1.25 eq. t-BuOK. The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. Ethyl chloroformate (2.15 eq.) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The reaction was quenched by the addition of H2O and the THF was evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was diluted with H2O and extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic phases were dried with MgS0 4 , filtered and evaporated to yield the pure compound. If traces of educt or byproducts were visible on TLC, the residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel using petrol ether/ethyl acetate 7:3. The products were received as slightly yellow oils.

Ethyl (2-heptylquinolin-4-yl) carbonate: 96 %. Rf = 0.8 (petrol ether/ethyl acetate 7:3). 1 H-NMR (CDC 399.79 MHz ) d (ppm): 0.87 (m, 3H, H-15), 1.23-1.48 (m, 8H, H-11- 14), 1.45 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H, CH3-CH2-O), 1.82 (m, 2H, H-10), 2.97 (m, 2H, H-9), 4.40 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H, CH3-CH2-O), 7.31 (s, 1 H, H-3), 7.51 (m, 1 H, H-6), 7.71 (m, 1 H, H- 7), 7.99 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 8.06 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1 H, H-8). 13 C-NMR (CDCIs 100.52 MHz) d (ppm): 14.2 (C-15), 14.3 (CH3-CH2-O), 22.8, 29.3, 29.6, 31.9 (C-11 , C-12, C- 13, C-14), 30.0 (C-10), 39.7 (C-9), 65.6 (CH3-CH2-O), 112.0 (C-3), 120.6 (C-4a), 121.1 (C-5), 126.2 (C-6), 128.9 (C-8), 130.2 (C-7), 149.6 (C-8a), 152.5 (-OCOO), 154.5 (C- 4), 164.2 (C-2). Ethyl (2-nonylquinolin-4-yl) carbonate: 95 %. Rf = 0.9 (petrol ether/ethyl acetate 7:3). 1 H-NMR (CDCb 399.79 MHz ) d (ppm): 0.87 (m, 3H, H-17), 1 .24-1.47 (m, 12H » H-1 1- 16), 1.44 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H, CH3-CH2-O), 1.81 (m, 2H, H-10), 2.97 (m, 2H, H-9), 4.40 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H, CH3-CH2-O), 7.31 (s, 1 H, H-3), 7.50 (m, 1 H, H-6), 7.70 (m, 1 H, H- 7), 7.99 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 8.06 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1 H, H-8). 13 C-NMR (CDCb 100.52 MHz) d (ppm): 14.2 (C-17), 14.3 (CH3-CH2-O), 22.8, 29.4, 29.61 (2C), 29.64, 29.9, 32.0 (C-10-16), 39.7 (C-9), 65.6 (CH3-CH2-O), 1 12.0 (C-3), 120.6 (C-4a), 121.1 (C-5), 126.2 (C-6), 129.0 (C-8), 130.1 (C-7), 149.6 (C-8a), 152.5 (-OCOO), 154.4 (C-4), 164.2 (C-2).

General synthesis of ethyl carbonate N-oxides:

Ethyl carbonates were dissolved in DCM (10 ml / 250 mg) together with 1.1 eq. mCPBA. The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 3 h. The solution was washed twice with aqueous 0.5 M Na2C03 solution and once with H2O. The organic phases were dried with MgS0 4 , filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel using ethyl acetate. The products were received as colorless oils.

4-(( Ethoxyca rbo nyl)oxy)-2-heptylq ui no I i ne 1 -oxide: 86 %. Rf = 0.6 (ethyl acetate). 1 H- NMR (CDC 399.79 MHz ) d (ppm): 0.87 (m, 3H, H-15), 1 .25-1.51 (m, 8H, H-1 1-14), 1.43 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H, CH3-CH2-O), 1.81 (m, 2H, H-10), 3.12 (m, 2H, H-9), 4.39 (q, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H, CH3-CH2-O), 7.34 (s, 1 H, H-3), 7.62 (m, 1 H, H-6), 7.78 (m, 1 H, H-7), 7.98 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 8.78 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1 H, H-8). 13 C-NMR (CDCb 100.52 MHz) d (ppm): 14.2 (C-15), 14.3 (CH3-CH2-O), 26.1 (C-10), 22.7, 29.2, 29.7 (C-11-14), 31.83 (C-1 1 -14 or C-9), 31.85 (C-1 1 -14 or C-9), 65.9 (CH3-CH2-O), 1 13.4 (C-3), 120.3 (C-8), 121.9 (C-5), 122.7 (C-4a), 128.2 (C-6), 131.0 (C-7), 142.4 (C-8a), 143.8 (C-4), 149.7 (C-2), 152.5 (-OCOO). 4-((Ethoxycarbonyl)oxy)-2-nonylquinoline 1 -oxide: 89 %. Rf = 0.7 (ethyl acetate). 1 H- NMR (CDC 399.79 MHz ) d (ppm): 0.87 (m, 3H, H-17), 1 .22-1.52 (m, 12H, H-1 1 -16), 1.45 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H, CH3-CH2-O), 1.82 (m, 2H, H-10), 3.13 (m, 2H, H-9), 4.40 (q, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H, CH3-CH2-O), 7.35 (s, 1 H, H-3), 7.63 (m, 1 H, H-6), 7.79 (m, 1 H, H-7), 8.00 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 8.79 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1 H, H-8). 13 C-NMR (CDCb 100.52 MHz)

6 (ppm): 14.2 (C-17), 14.3 (CH3-CH2-O), 26.2 (C-10), 22.8, 29.4, 29.5, 29.6, 29.7, 31 .9, 32.0 (C-9, C-11-16), 65.9 (CH3-CH2-O), 1 13.4 (C-3), 120.3 (C-8), 122.0 (C-5), 122.7 (C-4a), 128.2 (C-6), 131.1 (C-7), 142.5 (C-8a), 144.0 (C-4), 149.9 (C-2), 152.5 (- OCOO).

General synthesis of 1 -hydroxy-chinolin-4-ones (Compounds represented by the Formulas (3) and (5)):

Ethyl-carbonate-N-oxides were dissolved in EtOH (10 ml / 300 mg) and 17 eq. aqueous 5 M KOH solution was added. The reaction became yellow and was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. H2O was added and the pH adjusted to 1 -2 with cone. HCI, whereupon a milky suspension formed which soon crystallized. The product was collected by filtration and washed with H2O, The product was received as a white crystalline solid.

1 -Hydroxy-2-heptylquinolin-4(1 H)-one (3): 74.5 %. 1 H-NMR (MeOD-d 4 399.79 MHz ) d (ppm): 0.91 (m, 3H, H-15), 1.27-1.51 (m, 8H, H-11-14), 1 .78 (m, 2H, H-10), 2.93 (m, 2H, H-9), 6.34 (s, 1 H, H-3), 7.51 (m, 1 H, H-6), 7.81 (m, 1 H, H-7), 8.09 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H, H-8), 8.26 (d , J = 8.2 Hz, 1 H, H-5). 13 C-NMR (MeOD-d 4 100.52 MHz) d (ppm): 14.4 (C-15), 28.9 (C-10), 23.7, 30.1 , 30.4, 32.9 (C-1 1-14), 32.5 (C-9), 107.5 (C-3), 116.8 (C-8), 125.3 (C-4a), 125.9 (C-5), 126.0 (C-6), 133.7 (C-7), 142.0 (C-8a), 156.4 (C-2), 174.0 (C-4, only in HMBC). TOF-HRMS: m/z = 260.1638 [M+H] + , calc, for C16H21NO2 + H + = 260.1651 ; 519.3199 [2M+H] + , calc, for C32H42N2O4 + H + = 519.3223. 1 -Hydroxy-2-nonylquinolin-4(1 H)-one (5): 87 %. 1 H-NMR (MeOD-d 4 399.79 MHz ) d (ppm): 0.90 (m, 3H, H-17), 1.24-1 .51 (m, 12H, H-1 1-16), 1.79 (m, 2H, H-10), 2.93 (m, 2H, H-9), 6.34 (s, 1 H, H-3), 7.51 (m, 1 H, H-6), 7.82 (m, 1 H, H-7), 8.09 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H, H-8), 8.26 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1 H, H-5). 13 C-NMR (MeOD-d 4 100.95 MHz) d (ppm): 14.4 (C-17), 28.9 (C-10), 23.7, 30.4 (3C), 30.6, 33.0 (C-1 1 -16), 32.6 (C-9), 107.5 (C-3),

116.8 (C-8), 125.3 (C-4a), 125.9 (C-5), 126.1 (C-6), 133.7 (C-7), 142.0 (C-8a), 156.5 (C-2), 173.9 (C-4, only in HMBC). TOF-HRMS: m/z = 288.1951 [M+Hf, calc for C18H25NO2 + H + = 288.1964; 575.3833 [2M+H] + , calc for C36H 5 oN 2 0 4 + H + = 575.3849.

Synthesis of fra/is-A 1 -NQ and trans- A 1 -NQNQ (Compounds represented by the

Synthesis of ( E)-dec-2-enoic acid:

malonic acid, pyrrolidine 0

Malonic acid (2.5 g, 24 mmol) was dissolved in 10 ml dry pyridine and 3.75 ml octanal (24 mmol) and 250 pi pyrrolidine was added. The mixture warmed up and the development of gas was observed. The mixture was stirred at room temperatures for 20 h and was then poured in ice water and acidified with cone. HCI. The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate and the combined organic phases washed with brine, dried with MgS0 4 , filtered and the solvent was evaporated. The product was purified by column chromatography using petrol ether/ethyl acetate 5:1 . The product was obtained as colorless oil (m = 2.97 mg, 72.7%). Rf = 0.175 (ether/ethyl acetate 5:1 ). 1 H-NMR (CDC 399.79 MHz ) d (ppm): 0.89 (m, 3H, -CH2-CH3), 1.18-1.39 (m, 12H, -(CH 2 ) 4 - CHs), 1 .47 (m, 2H, -CH 2 -(CH 2 ) 4 -CH 3 ), 2.23 (m, 1 H, =CH-CH 2 -), 5.82 (dt, J = 15.6 Hz, J = 1 .5 Hz, 1 H, HOOC-CH=), 7.08 (dt, J = 15.6 Hz, J = 7.08 Hz, 1 H, =CH-CH 2 -). 13 C- NMR (CDCb 100.53 MHz) d (ppm): 14.2 (-CH2-CH3), 22.8, 29.18, 29.25, 31.9 (-(CH 2 ) 4 - CHs), 28.0 (-CH 2 -(CH 2 )4-CH 3 ), 32.5 (=CH-CH 2 -), 120.6 (HOOC-CH=), 152.6 (=CH- CH 2 -), 171 .7 (HOOC-).

Synthesis of ( E)-N-(2-acetylphenyl¾dec-2-enamide: , , r

2-Decenoic acid (1.0 g, 5.875 mmol) was dissolved in 22 ml dry DCM and 5.9 ml oxalyl chloride (2M in DCM, 1 1.8 mmol) was added. Three drops of DMF were added and the reaction stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue dissolved in 13 ml dry THF and added to a stirring mixture of 715 pi 2 ' -Aminoacetophenone (5.875 mmol) and 820 pi TEA (5.875 mmol) in 18 ml dry THF at room temperature. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 h in which a large amount of precipitate was observed and the color changed to yellow. Water was added and extracted with DCM. The combined organic phases were washed with brine, dried with MgS04, filtered and the solvent was evaporated. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica 60 with DCM/petrol ether 2:1. The product was obtained as yellow oil (m = 827 mg, 49 %). Rf= 0.4 (DCM/petrol ether 2:1 ). Rf = 0.4 (DCM/petrol ether 2:1 ). 1 H-NMR (CDCb 400.13 MHz) d (ppm): 0.89 (m, 3H, -CH 2 -CH 3 ), 1 .23-1.38 (m, 8H, -(CH 2 )4-CH 3 ), 1.50 (m, 2H, -CH=CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -), 2.25 (m, 2H, -CH=CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -), 2.67 (s, 3H, -CO-CHa), 5.99 (dt, 1 H, J = 15.4 Hz, J = 1 .5 Hz, -CH=CH-CH 2 -), 6.98 (dt, 1 H, J= 15.4 Hz, J = 7.0 Hz, -CH=CH-CH 2 -), 7.1 1 (m, 1 H, H-4), 7.56 (m, 1 H, H-5), 7.90 (dd, 1 H, J = 8.0 Hz, J = 1.4 Hz, H-3), 8.85 (dd, 1 H , J = 8.6 Hz, J = 0.8 Hz, H-6), 11.82 (s, 1 H, -NH). 13 C-NMR (CDCb 100.62 MHz) d (ppm): 14.2 (-CH3), 22.8, 29.2, 29.3, 31.9 (-(CH 2 )4-CH 3 ), 28.4 (-CH=CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -), 28.7 (- CO-CHs), 32.4 (-CH=CH-CH 2 -CH 2 -), 121.1 (C-6), 121.9 (C-2), 122.3 (C-4), 125.4 (- CH=CH-CH 2 -), 131.8 (C-3), 135.3 (C-5), 141.6 (C-1 ), 146.6 (-CH=CH-CH 2 -), 165.3 (NH-CO-), 203.0 (-CO-CHs).

Synthesis f E)-2-( non-1 -en-1 -yl )quinolin-4-one (Compound represented by the Formula i

The amide 2e (170 mg, 0.59 mmol) and 80 mg crushed NaOH (2 mmol) were dissolved in 20 ml dry 1 ,4-dioxan and refluxed for 2 h. The reaction was cooled to room temperature and the solvent evaporated under reduced pressure. To the residue was added 10 ml water and 100 ml n-hexane and the mixture sonicated for 2 min. The aqueous phase was neutralized with 1 M HCI and saturated NaHC03 and the precipitate collected by filtration. The filter cake was washed with hexane and dissolved in ethanol. The ethanol was evaporated and 10 ml ethyl acetate was added to the residue. The white precipitate was collected by filtration, washed with 5 ml ethyl acetate and dried under vacuum. The pure product was obtained as white solid (m = 93 mg, 58.5 %). 1 H-NMR (DMSO-de 399.79 MHz ) d (ppm): 0.87 (m, 3H, H-17), 1.23-1.37 (m, 8H, H-13-16), 1.48 (m, 2H, H-12), 2.26 (m, H-1 1 ), 6.12 (s, 1 H, H-3), 6.30 (dt, 1 H , J = 16.0 Hz, J = 1.1 Hz, H-9), 6.78 (dt, 1 H, J = 16.0 Hz, J = 6.8 Hz, H-10), 7.26 (m, 1 H, H- 6), 7.58 - 7.65 (m, 2H, H-7 and H-8), 8.02 (m, 1 H, H-5), 11.34 (s, br, 1 H, -NH). 13 C- NMR (DMSO-de 100.52 MHz) d (ppm): 13.9 (C-17), 22.0, 28.46, 28.51 , 31.2 (C-13-16), 28.1 (C-12), 32.3 (C-1 1 ), 106.1 (C-3), 118.3 (C-8), 122.7 (C-6), 124.1 (C-9), 124.6 (C- 5), 125.0 (C-4a), 131 .5 (C-7), 138.6 (C-10), 140.3 (C-8a), 147.2 (C-2), 176.8 (C-4). TOF-HRMS: m/z = 270.1846 [M+H] + , calc for CieHasNO + H + = 270.1858; 539.3613 [2M+H] + , calc for C36H46N2O2 + H + = 539.3638.

Synthesis of (E)-ethyl (2-i non-1 -en-1 -yl)quinolin-4-yl) carbonate:

trans-A^ NQ (366 mg, 1 .36 mmol) was dissolved in 10 ml THF by the addition of 191 mg t-BuOK (1.7 mmol, 1 .25 eq.). The mixture was stirred for 1 h at room temperature. Ethyl chloroformate (280 pi, 2.92 mmol, 2.15 eq.) was added and the mixture stirred for 1 h at room temperature. The reaction was quenched by the addition of H2O and the THF evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was diluted with H2O and extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic phases were dried with MgS0 4 , filtered and evaporated to yield the pure compound as colorless oil (460 mg, 99 %). Rf = 0.78 (petrol ether/ethyl acetate 7:3). 1 H-NMR (CDCb 399.79 MHz ) d (ppm): 0.89 (m, 3H, H-17), 1.25-1.39 (m, 8H, H-13-16), 1.44 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H, CH3-CH2-O), 1.54 (m, 2H, H-12), 2.32 (m, 2H, H-11 ), 4.40 (q, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H, CH3-CH2-O), 6.70 (dt, 1 H, J = 15.9 Hz, J = 0.9 Hz, -CH=CH-CH 2 -), 6.82 (dt, 1 H, J = 15.9 Hz, J = 6.7 Hz, -CH=CH- CH2-), 7.49 (m, 1 H, H-6), 7.52 (s, 1 H, H-3), 7.70 (m, 1 H, H-7), 7.96 (m, 1 H, H-5), 8.05 (m, 1 H, H-8). 13 C-NMR (CDCb 100.52 MHz) d (ppm): 14.2 (C-17), 14.3 (CH3-CH2-O), 22.8, 29.3, 29.4, 31.9 (C-13-16), 29.0 (C-12), 33.2 (C-1 1 ), 65.6 (CH3-CH2-O), 109.4 (C-3), 121.0 (C-4a), 121.1 (C-5), 126.4 (C-6), 129.2 (C-8), 130.4 (C-7), 130.8 (C-9), 139.2 (C-10), 149.8 (C-8a), 152.7 (-OCOO), 154.6 (C-4), 157.7 (C-2).

Synthesis c · ;thoxycarbonyl)o . , - non-1-en-1 -yl)quinoline 1 -oxide:

Protected trans- 1 NQ (460 mg, 1.35 mmol) was dissolved in 20 ml DCM and 330 mg mCPBA (77%, 1.1 eq.) was added. The mixture was stirred for 3 h at room temperature. The solution was washed twice with aqueous 0.5 M Na2C03 solution and once with H2O. The organic phases were dried with MgS04, filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel using petrol ether/ethyl acetate (1 :1 ). The product was collected as second of two fractions as yellow oil (405 mg, 84 %). Rf = 0.45 (PE/EE 1 :1 ). 1 H-NMR (CDCb 399.79 MHz ) d (ppm): 0.88 (m, 3H, H- 17), 1 .26-1.41 (m, 8H, H-13-16), 1.44 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H, CH3-CH2-O), 1.54 (m, 2H, H- 12), 2.38 (m, 2H, H-1 1 ), 4.40 (q, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H, CH3-CH2-O), 6.79 (dt, 1 H , J = 16.2 Hz, J = 7.1 Hz, -CH=CH-CH 2 -), 7.37 (dt, 1 H, J = 16.2 Hz, J = 1.5 Hz, -CH=CH-CH 2 -), 7.55 (s, 1 H, H-3), 7.61 (m, 1 H, H-6), 7.77 (m, 1 H, H-7), 7.95 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1 H, H-5), 8.78 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1 H, H-8). 13 C-NMR (CDCb 100.52 MHz) d (ppm): 14.2 (C-17), 14.3 (CH3-CH2-O), 28.9 (C-12), 22.8, 29.3, 29.4, 31.9 (C-13-16), 33.9 (C-11 ), 65.9 (CHs- CH2-O), 1 10.5 (C-3), 120.7 (C-8), 121 .8 (C-9), 121.9 (C-5), 122.8 (C-4a), 128.4 (C-6), 131 .1 (C-7), 142.0 (C-10), 142.6 (C-8a), 143.8 (C-4), 144.4 (C-2), 152.6 (-OCOO).

Synthesis of ( E )-1 -hydroxy-2-f non-1 -en-1 -yl )quinolin-4-one (Compound represented by the Formula (7)):

Protected trans-A^ NQNO (342 mg, 0.957 mmol) was dissolved in 10 ml ethanol and 3 ml aqueous 5 M KOH solution was added. The reaction turned yellow and was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. H2O was added and the pH adjusted to 1-2 with cone. HCI, whereupon a milky suspension formed which soon crystallized. The product was collected by filtration and washed with H2O. The product was received as a yellow solid (230 mg, 84 %). 1 H-NMR (MeOD-d 4 399.79 MHz ) d (ppm): 0.92 (m, 3H, H-17), 1.29- 1.46 (m, 8H, H-13-16), 1.57 (m, 2H, H-12), 2.38 (m, 2H, H-11 ), 6.71 (s, 1 H, H-3), 6.80 (dt, 1 H, J = 16.0 Hz, J = 6.9 Hz, -CH=CH-CH 2 -), 7.04 (dt, 1 H, J = 16.0 Hz, J = 1.6 Hz, -CH=CH-CH 2 -), 7.55 (m, 1 H, H-6), 7.83 (m, 1 H, H-7), 8.21 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1 H, H-8), 8.26 (dd, J = 8.2 Hz, J = 1 .4 Hz, 1 H, H-5). 13 C-NMR (MeOD-d 4 100.53 MHz) d (ppm): 14.4 (C-17), 23.7, 30.2, 30.3, 33.0 (C-13-16), 29.7 (C-12), 34.5 (C-1 1 ), 103.2 (C-3), 1 17.7 (C-8), 121.5 (C-9), 125.0 (C-4a), 125.5 (C-5), 126.7 (C-6), 133.7 (C-7), 141.8 (C-8a), 144.6 (C-10), 150.6 (C-2), 169.7 (C-4, only in HMBC). TOF-HRMS: m/z = 286.1794 [M+H] + , calc for C18H23NO2 + H + = 286.1807; 571.3514 [2M+H] + , calc for C 36 H 46 N 2 Q 4 + H + = 571.3536.

Example 1 : Determination of the inhibitory effect of NQNO (Compound represented by the Formula (5)) against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria macacae, and Lactobacillus brevis by measuring growth curves in comparison to a DMSO treated control.

Growth experiments with NQNO were conducted against Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain MS1 1 (Edwards, M., et al., Antigenic analysis of gonococcal pili using monoclonal antibodies, J Exp Med, 1984. 160(6): p. 1782-91 ) and a multidrug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae isolate from Slovenia (Unemo M, Golparian D, Potocnik M, Jeverica S. Treatment failure of pharyngeal gonorrhoea with internationally recommended first-line ceftriaxone verified in Slovenia, September 201 1. Euro Surveill. 2012;17(25):pii=20200), Neisseria macacae, and Lactobacillus brevis. The bacteria were inoculated in GC (DifcoTM GC medium Ref. 228950, BD Becton Dickinson) and PPM broth (15g/L Proteon Pepton, 1 g/L soluble starch, 5g/L NaCI, 4g/L KH2PO4, 1 g/L K2HPO4, pH 7.5) (Neisseriae) or TSB (BBL™ T rypticase Soy Broth Ref 21 1768, BD Becton Dickinson) (Lactobacillus) supplemented with solvent (DMSO) or the indicated concentrations of NQNO (5 - 50 mM) and their growth at 37°C was monitored over the course of 10h by optical density readings in 30 minute intervals.

In particular, the growth of the bacteria in this and the following Examples (if not stated otherwise) has been conducted as follows:

Neisseria strains were cultured in PPM medium (15 g/l Proteon Pepton, 1 g/l soluble starch, 5 g/l NaCI, 4 g/l KH2PO4, 1 g/l K2HPO4, pH 7.5) for liquid culture and on GC plates (BD DifcoTM GC Medium Base) supplemented with 1 % vitamin mix (100 g/l glucose, 10 g/l glutamine, 26 g/l L-cystein, 100 mg/I carboxylase, 250 mg/I NAD, 500 mI/l Fe(N03)3, 150 mg/I arginine, 3 mg/I thiamine-HCI, 10 mg/I vitamine B12, 13 mg/I p- amino benzoic acid, 1.1 g/l L-cystin, 1 g/l adenine, 500 mg/I uracil, 30 mg/I guanine). Strains were either cultivated at 37°C and 220 rpm (liquid medium) or at 37°C and 5% CO2 (solid medium).

Haemophilus influenzae was grown in BHI medium (BD Difco Brain Heart Infusion) supplemented with 20 pg/ml Haemin, 20 pg/ml NAD and 15 g/l agar for plates.

Escherichia coli strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae were cultured in LB medium (10 g/l tryptone, 5 g/l yeast extract, 5 g/l NaCI, 15 g/l agar for plates; pH 7.0). P. aeruginosa PA01 mutants were obtained from Colin Manoil (University of Washington, Genome Sciences, Seattle, WA).

Lactobacillus strains were grown in TSB medium as stated above or in 5 ml PYG medium (5 g/l trypticase peptone, 5 g/l peptone, 10 g/l yeast extract, 5 g/l beef extract, 5 g/l glucose, 2 g/l K2HPO4, 1 ml/I Tween 80, 0.5 g/l cysteine-HCI x H2O, 1 mg/I resazurin, 40 ml/l salt solution (0.25 g/l CaCk x 2 H2O, 0.5 g/l MgSC x 7 H2O, 1 g/l K2HPO4, 1 g/l KH2PO4, 10 g/l NaHC03, 2 g/l NaCI in MiliQ), 10 ml/I haemin solution (500 mg/I haemin, 10 ml/l 1 N NaOH in MiliQ), 0.2 ml/I vitamin K1 solution (5 ml/l vitamin K1 in 95% ethanol), 950 ml/l distilled water, pH 7.2) overnight at 30°C at 200 rpm.

For Candida albicans cultivation YPG medium (10 g/l yeast extract, 20 g/l peptone, 20 g/l glucose in MiliQ) was used. The yeast was incubated overnight at 30°C and 100 rpm. Before every experiment, bacteria were pre-cultured in 5 ml liquid medium for at least 2 hours then harvested and resuspended in PBS (phosphate buffered saline). Optical density (OD) was determined and a volume equal to an OD of 0.2 was inoculated into 5 ml of the respective medium. NQNO was added at the indicated amounts (5-50 mM). DMSO level was adjusted to 1 % of final concentration. Samples were incubated for either 10.5 hours, until they reached stationary phase (three measured values in stationary phase) or until they reached an OD of 2.5. Optical density was determined every 0.5 h.

The growth experiments with NQNO demonstrated that said compound is an extremely potent antibiotic against the gram-negative pathogen N. gonorrhoeae. Concentrations as low as 5 mM (<1.4 pg/mL) led to a complete abrogation of gonococcal growth in vitro (Figures 1 and 2), including complete growth inhibition of the multidrug-resistant isolate from Slovenia (Figure 2). Surprisingly, NQNO did not compromise the growth of non- pathogenic neisserial species such as Neisseria macacae (Figure 3) or the growth of commensal members of the human vaginal flora such as the gram-positive Lactobacillus brevis (Figure 4).

Example 2: Determination of the inhibitory effect of the compounds represented by the Formulas (4) to (7) against various bacteria

Growth experiments with the compounds represented by the Formulas (4) to (7) were conducted against various bacteria, including clinical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae including high priority St* 1 generation cephalosporin/fluoroquinolone-resistant strains, strains isolated from disseminated disease settings, and commensal Neisseria and other commensal bacteria and evaluated (Figures 5 and 11 ). Growth of the indicated bacteria was measured as described in Example 1. Growth inhibition was quantified by measuring the "area under the curve" in the presence of the indicated concentrations of the respective compound (5 - 50 pM) relative to growth in the presence of the solvent only. Black areas indicate growth inhibition with <30% growth compared to control. Commensal Neisseria are not compromised by NQNO, whereas all N. gonorrhoeae strains show either severe or complete growth inhibition in the presence of the compounds represented by the Formulas (4) to (7). Example 3: Cytotoxicity test with NQNO (Compound represented by the Formula (5)) and HeLa cells as well as primary human vaginal epithelial cells

Preliminary experiments with HeLa cells

HeLa cells in 24-well plate were incubated for 24h with concentrations of 0.5 to 10 mM NQNO or solvent (DMSO) as a control. Metabolic activity as a measure of mitochondrial respiration was recorded using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazoiiumbromid (MTT) as reporting agent. Activity was measured with a plate reader at 550 nm. (Figure 6). Shown are mean values +/ S.D. of four replicate wells. T reatment with 10 mM NQNO up to 24h does not lead to cytotoxicity in HeLa cells.

Cultivation of eukaryotic cells

HeLa S3 cells were cultivated in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and passaged every 2-3 days. Primary human vaginal epithelial cells (hVEC / MS74) were obtained from A.J. Schaeffer (Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL) and are derived from vaginal tissue of a post-menopausal woman. The cell line was created through immortalization of these cells with human papilloma virus 16, E6 and E7 genes according to literature (N. Rajan et at., Characterization of an immortalized human vaginal epithelial cell line. J Urol 163, 616-622 (2000)). MS74 were cultured on gelatine-coated cell culture dished using Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) medium (biochrom) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, 1 % non-essential amino acids and 1 % pyruvate at 37°C in 5% CO2 and subcultured when half confluency was reached.

MTT assay with eukaryotic cells

All plates were coated overnight at 4°C with 0.1 % gelatine in PBS before use. 2 x 10 4 HeLa S3 or MS74 cells were incubated with the mentioned concentrations of NQNO in 100 pi of their respective medium and incubated for 2 days at 37°C and 5% CO2. 10 pi of MTT solution (12 mM in PBS, sterile filtered with 0.2 pM filter) were added. The cells were subsequently incubated for 2 h at 37°C. Afterwards growth medium was removed and 100 mI isopropanol was added to each well. Formazan was allowed to dissolve overnight in a humidified chamber at room temperature. OD550 was measured using a Thermo Fisher Varioskan Flash spectrophotometer.

At concentrations up to 10 mM NQNO, cervical epithelial carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) did not exhibit signs of cytotoxicity over the course of 48h (Fig. 12). Similarly, immortalized human vaginal epithelial cells (MS74 cells) were also not harmed by concentrations of up to 25 mM NQNO and showed only slightly reduced metabolic activity when incubated for two days with 50 mM NQNO (Fig. 13). In a microscopic analysis, the morphology and overall phenotype of MS47 cells did not change upon treatment with up to 50 pM NQNO over the course of 2 days (Fig. 14).

Example 4: Investigation concerning the effect of the compound used in the present invention in an animal model of gonococcal infection in female mice

By using genetically modified mice (CEA-transgenic; CEAtg mice), which express a human receptor for the gonococcal Opa-adhesin on their mucosal surface, it is possible to study the initial colonization of the upper genital tract by N. gonorrhoeae and to re-isolate these pathogens after intra-vaginal challenge (Figure 7). 6 to 8 week old, female wildtype (black) or CEA-transgenic (CEAtg, red) mice were infected with N. gonorrhoeae. 2h after infection, the animals were treated with 20 pi buffer containing solvent (DMSO) or 50 pM NQNO (Compound represented by the Formula (5)). 20h later, vaginal swaps were taken and plated on selective agar. Each dot refers to bacteria isolated from an individual animal (n>5) (cf. Figure 7). Re-isolated gonococcal colonies from control DMSO-treated animals confirm, that gonococci hardly colonize wildtype female mice, whereas approx. 30-fold higher numbers are found in CEAtg mice (cf. Figure 7, left part). T reatment with NQNO significantly (* * *; p<0.001 ) reduces the number of re-isolated gonococci (Figure 7). Thus, topical application of NQNO inhibited the ability of N. gonorrhoeae to colonize the genital tract.

In a further experiment, experimental vaginal infection of female mice with N. gonorrhoeae was performed as previously described in the literature (P. Muenzner, V. Bachmann, J. Hentschel, W. Zimmermann, C. R. Hauck, Human-restricted bacterial pathogens block shedding of epithelial cells by stimulating integrin activation. Science 329, 1197-1201 (2010)). Briefly, CEAtg mice were subcutaneously injected with 17- /3 -estradiol 4 days prior to infection. The drinking water was supplemented with trimethoprim sulphate (40 mg / 100 ml) to reduce the overgrowth of commensal bacteria during hormone treatment. Mice were inoculated intravaginally with 10 8 CFU (colony forming units) of OpaCEA expressing gonococci suspended in 20 m[_ of PBS. 1 h after infection, 10 m I of 25 mM or 50 mM NQNO (in PBS/1 % DMSO) was applied intravaginally. Control mice received 10 pi PBS/1 % DMSO only. 24 h later, the mucosa-associated bacteria were re-isolated by cotton swaps. Serial dilutions of reisolated bacteria were plated on GC agar containing chloramphenicol (10 pg/ml) and erythromycin (7 pg/ml) and the colonies were counted after 20 h of incubation at 37°C, 5% C0 2 .

Only low numbers of gonococci could be re-isolated from wildtype animals, whereas 50-100 fold more bacteria were recovered from the genital tract of CEAtg mice receiving solvent (Fig. 15). Importantly, when CEAtg mice were treated with NQNO, hardly any gonococci could be re-isolated (Fig. 15).

Example 5: Immunofluorescence staining of tissue sections obtained from the upper vaginal tract of infected treated/untreated CEAtg animals

6 to 8 week old, female CEA-transgenic mice were infected with N. gonorrhoeae. 2h after infection, the animals were treated with 20 pi buffer containing solvent (DMSO) or 50 pM NQNO (Compound represented by the Formula (5)). 20h later, the genital tract was excised and cryosections were stained for cell nuclei (Hoechst; blue), human CEA (red) and N. gonorrhoeae (gonococci, green) (Figure 8). Fluorescence microscopy (Muenzner P, Bachmann V, Zimmermann W, Hentschel J, Hauck CR. (2010) Human-restricted bacterial pathogens block shedding of epithelial cells by stimulating integrin activation. Science. 329(5996): 1197-201 ) revealed numerous gonococci on the mucosal surface of DMSO-treated animals (Figure 8; arrows), while hardly any gonococci could be detected in NQNO-treated animals. In both samples, staining of human CEA, which is expressed by the upper epithelial cell layers in the urogenital tract of the transgenic animals, shows a continuous and unaltered mucosal surface (Figure 8) and, thus, demonstrates the integrity of the epithelial cell layer after infection and NQNO-treatment.

Additional cryosections from the same samples were stained for cell nuclei (Hoechst; blue), human collagen (red) and N. gonorrhoeae (gonococci, green) (Figure 9). Fluorescence microscopy again demonstrated numerous gonococci on the mucosal surface of DMSO-treated animals (Figure 9; arrows), while no gonococci could be detected in NQNO-treated animals. Moreover, collagen staining reveals the intact subepitheial tissue without signs of tissue destruction by the application of NQNO indicating that topical administration of NQNO does not damage the mucosal surface.

In particular, in the above experiments the genital tract of infected mice was excised and immediately fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for at least 24 h. The fixed tissue was sequentially transferred to 10% sucrose, 0.05% cacodylic acid for 1 h at 4°C, to 20% sucrose for 1 h at 4°C, and then into 30% sucrose at 4°C overnight. Organs were mounted in the embedding medium (Cryo-M-Bed; Bright Instrument, Huntingdon, UK) and frozen at -20°C. 10 pm thick sections were cut at -20°C using a cryostat (Vacutom HM500, Microm, Germany). Sections were stained with a mouse monoclonal antibody against collagen type IV (clone M3F7; dilution 1 :200) together with a polyclonal rabbit antibody against N. gonorrhoeae (dilution 1 :100). Detection of the primary antibodies was done with a combination of Cy5-conjugated goat-anti-rabbit antibody (1 :250) and Cy3-conjugated goat-anti mouse antibody (1 :250). Cell nuclei were visualized by the addition of Hoechst 33342 (1 :30,000; Life Technologies, Darmstadt, Germany) in the final staining step.

Example 6: Histological examination of tissue sections obtained from the upper vaginal tract of treated/untreated CEAtg animals

6 to 8 week old, female CEA-transgenic mice were treated with 20 pi buffer containing solvent (DMSO) or 50 pM NQNO (Compound represented by the Formula (5)). 20h later, the genital tract was excised, fixed, paraffin embedded and tissue sections were stained with HE (Haematoxilin/Eosin) solution. Microscopic examination reveals an intact striated epithelium of the vaginal tract in both the DMSO as well as the NQNO- treated animals. In particular, in the above experiment the genital tract of infected and NQNO/DMSO or DMSO treated animals was excised and placed in 4% neutral buffer containing formalin overnight followed by 0.4% PFA (paraformaldehyde) treatment. The tissue was then dehydrated and embedded in paraffin. 10 pm serial sections were cut, deparaffinized and rehydrated in a graded series (100% to 75%) of ethanol. Sections were serially stained with Hematoxilin solution according to Mayer (Sigma) and 0.5% Eosin G solution (Roth).

Together, the findings presented in Examples 4-6 not only corroborate the strong reduction in bacterial burden upon NQNO treatment in vivo, but also demonstrate that the epithelial surface is not damaged or compromised by the topical application of NQNO at bactericidal concentrations. The macroscopic observation of treated animals as well as the histological analysis of paraffin sections of the infected tissue also indicate that topical application of the compounds is well tolerated and does not result in damage of the female vaginal epithelium (Figure 10). Furthermore, all mice receiving NQNO did not show any signs of discomfort, demonstrating that a single topical application of this compound is well tolerated and is sufficient to eliminate gonococci from the vaginal tract. These results demonstrate that the compound of the present invention can be used for treating infections with pathogenic Neisseria species, preferably N. gonorrhoeae, e.g. by use as gonococcicidal therapeutics.

Example 7: Stability of NQNO in solvent

Two samples of NQNO were dissolved in deuterated methanol (CD3OD) to reach a final concentration of 25 mM. Samples were kept at 25°C or 37°C for 28 days and proton NMR spectra were measured with the same acquisition parameters every week and the spectra compared with the ones from day 0. The results are given in Figures 16 and 17 and show that NQNO is stable at 37°C in deuterated methanol for at least one month.

Example 8: Stability of NQNO in cell culture medium Stability of 100 mM NQNO in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum at 24°C and 37°C was evaluated over a period of 4 days. Samples were taken at the beginning (day 0) and every second day. Samples were analyzed by LC-MS and the integrals of the detected NQNO (by using extracted ion chromatograms) compared to the integral of the control (100 mM NQNO in H2O) which was set to 100%. The results are given in Figures 18 to 20 and show that NQNO is stable in serum-containing cell culture medium for at least 4 days.