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Title:
COMPOUNDS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR INTRACELLULAR DELIVERY OF THERAPEUTIC AGENTS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/170306
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The disclosure features novel lipids and compositions involving the same. Nanoparticle compositions include a novel lipid as well as additional lipids such as phospholipids, structural lipids, and PEG lipids. Nanoparticle compositions further including therapeutic and/or prophylactics such as RNA are useful in the delivery of therapeutic and/or prophylactics to mammalian cells or organs to, for example, regulate polypeptide, protein, or gene expression.

Inventors:
BENENATO, Kerry E. (ModernaTX, Inc.200 Technology Squar, Cambridge Massachusetts, 02139, US)
KUMARASINGHE, Ellalahewage Sathyajith (ModernaTX, Inc.200 Technology Squar, Cambridge Massachusetts, 02139, US)
CORNEBISE, Mark (ModernaTX, Inc.200 Technology Squar, Cambridge Massachusetts, 02139, US)
Application Number:
US2018/022717
Publication Date:
September 20, 2018
Filing Date:
March 15, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
MODERNATX, INC. (200 Technology Square, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02139, US)
International Classes:
C07C229/16; A61K9/127; A61K9/51; A61K47/14; A61K47/24; A61K47/28; C07C233/36; C07C259/06; C07C275/14; C07C279/28; C07C307/06; C07C311/05; C07C335/08; C07D233/61; C07D239/46; C07D249/04; C07D295/13; C07D473/00
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Attorney, Agent or Firm:
PEMBERTON, Christine C. et al. (Cooley LLP, 1299 Pennsylvania Avenue NW,Suite 70, Washington District of Columbia, 20004-2400, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A compound of Formula (I):

(I) or its N-oxide, or a salt or isomer thereof, wherein

Ri is selected from the group consisting of C5-30 alkyl, C5-20 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R' M'R';

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R*OR", or R> and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle;

R4 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C3-6

carbocycle, -(CH2)nQ, -(CH2)nCHQR, -(CH2)oC(Rio)2(CH2)n-oQ,

-CHQR, -CQ(R)2, and unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, where Q is selected from a carbocycle, heterocycle, -OR, -0(CH2)nN(R)2, -C(0)OR, -OC(0)R, -CX3, -CX2H, -CXH2, -CN, -N(R)2, -C(0)N(R)2, -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0)2R, -N(R)C(0)N(R)2, -N(R)C(S)N(R)2,

N(R)Rs, -N(R)S(0)2R8, -0(CH2)nOR, -N(R)C(=NR9)N(R)2, -N(R)C(=CHR9)N(R)2,

-OC(0)N(R)2, -N(R)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)R, -N(OR)S(0)2R, -N(OR)C(0)OR,

-N(OR)C(0)N(R)2, -N(OR)C(S)N(R)2, -N(OR)C(=NR9)N(R)2, -N(OR)C(=CHR9)N(R)2, -C(=NR9)N(R)2, -C(=NR9)R, -C(0)N(R)OR, and -C(R)N(R)2C(0)OR, each o is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5;

each R5 is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each Re is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

M and M' are independently selected from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R')-, -N(R')C(0)-, -C(O)-, -C(S)-, -C(S)S-, -SC(S)-, -CH(OH)-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S(0)2-, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group, in which M" is a bond, Ci-13 alkyl or C2-13 alkenyl;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

Rs is selected from the group consisting of C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle; R9 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, NO2, Ci-6 alkyl, -OR, -S(0)2R, -S(0)2N(R)2, C2-6 alkenyl, C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

Rio is selected from the group consisting of H, C1-3 alkyl, and C2-3 alkenyl;

each R is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, (CH2)qOR*, and H,

and each q is independently selected from 1, 2, and 3;

each R' is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-18 alkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and H;

each R" is independently selected from the group consisting of C3-15 alkyl and

C3-15 alkenyl;

each R* is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-12 alkyl and

C2-12 alkenyl;

each Y is independently a C3-6 carbocycle;

each X is independently selected from the group consisting of F, CI, Br, and I; and m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1, 12, and 13; and wherein when R4

is -(CH2)nQ, -(CH2)nCHQR, -CHQR, or -CQ(R)2, then (i) Q is not -N(R)2 when n is 1, 2, 3, 4 or

5, or (ii) Q is not 5, 6, or 7-membered heterocycloalkyl when n is 1 or 2.

2. A compound of Formula (III) :

or a salt or isomer thereof, wherein

or a salt or isomer thereof, wherein

Ri is selected from the group consisting of C5-30 alkyl, C5-20 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R' M'R' ;

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R* OR", or R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle;

R4 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C3-6

carbocycle, -(CH2)nQ, -(CH2)nCHQR, -(CH2)oC(Rio)2(CH2)n-oQ, -CHQR, -CQ(R)2, and unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, where Q is selected from a carbocycle, heterocycle, -OR, -0(CH2)nN(R)2, -C(0)OR, -OC(0)R, -CX3, -CXiH, -CXH2, -CN, -N(R)2, -C(0)N(R)2, -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0)2R, -N(R)C(0)N(R)2, -N(R)C(S)N(R)2,

N(R)Rs, -N(R)S(0)2Rs, -0(CH2)nOR, -N(R)C(=NR9)N(R)2, -N(R)C(=CHR9)N(R)2,

-OC(0)N(R)2, -N(R)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)R, -N(OR)S(0)2R, -N(OR)C(0)OR,

-N(OR)C(0)N(R)2, -N(OR)C(S)N(R)2, -N(OR)C(=NR9)N(R)2, -N(OR)C(=CHR9)N(R)2, -C(=NR9)N(R)2, -C(=NR9)R, -C(0)N(R)OR, and -C(R)N(R)2C(0)OR, each o is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5;

Rx is selected from the group consisting of Ci-6 alkyl, Ci-e alkenyl, -(CH2)rOH,

wherein r is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6;

each R5 is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each Re is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

M and M' are independently selected from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R')-, -N(R')C(0)-, -C(O)-, -C(S)-, -C(S)S-, -SC(S)-, -CH(OH)-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S(0)2-, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group, in which M" is a bond, Ci-13 alkyl or C2-13 alkenyl;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

Rs is selected from the group consisting of C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

R9 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, N02, Ci-6 alkyl, -OR, -S(0)2R, -S(0)2N(R)2, C2-6 alkenyl, C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

Rio is selected from the group consisting of H, C1-3 alkyl, and C2-3 alkenyl;

each R is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, (CH2)qOR* , and H;

and each q is independently selected from 1, 2, and 3.

each R' is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-18 alkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and H;

each R" is independently selected from the group consisting of C3-15 alkyl and C3-15 alkenyl;

each R* is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-i2 alkyl and

C2-12 alkenyl;

each Y is independently a C3-6 carbocycle;

each X is independently selected from the group consisting of F, CI, Br, and I; and m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13

3. The compound of claim 2, wherein Rx is methyl.

4. The compound of claim 2 or 3, wherein the compound further comprises an anion.

The compound of claim 3, wherein the anion is selected from chloride, bromide, iodide, fluoride, acetate, formate, trifluoroacetate, difluoroacetate, trichloroacetate and phosphate.

The compound of any one of the preceeding claims, wherein at least one of M and M' is -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-.

7. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein at least one of M and M' is -OC(O)-.

8. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein M is -OC(O)- and M' is -C(0)0-.

9. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein M is -C(0)0- and M' is -OC(O)-.

10. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein M and M' are each -OC(O)-.

11. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein M and M' are each -C(0)O.

The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the compound is of Formula (IA):

or its N-oxide, or a salt or isomer thereof, wherein

1 is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5;

m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9;

R4 is hydrogen, unsubstituted C1-3 alkyl, -(CH2)oC(Rio)2(CH2)n-oQ, or -(CH2)nQ, in which Q is OH, -NHC(S)N(R)2, -NHC(0)N(R)2, -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0)2R, -N(R)Rs, -N(R)S(0)2R8, -NHC(=NR9)N(R)2, -NHC(=CHR9)N(R)2, -OC(0)N(R)2, -N(R)C(0)OR,

-N(OR)C(0)R, -N(OR)S(0)2R, -N(OR)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)N(R)2, -N(OR)C(S)N(R)2, -N(OR)C(=NR9)N(R)2, -N(OR)C(=CHR9)N(R)2, heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl;

M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R')-, -P(0)(OR')0-,

-S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group; and

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, and C2- 14 alkenyl.

13. A compound of claim 1, wherein the com ound is of Formula (IB):

(IB) or its N-oxide,

or a salt or isomer thereof.

14. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein m is 5, 7, or 9.

The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the compound is of Formula

or its N-oxide, or a salt or isomer thereof, wherein

1 is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5;

R4 is hydrogen, unsubstituted C1-3 alkyl, -(CH2)oC(Rio)2(CH2)n-oQ, or -(CH2)nQ, in n is 2, 3, or 4 and Q is OH, -NHC(S)N(R)2, -NHC(0)N(R)2, -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0)2R, N(R)Rs, -N(R)S(0)2Rs,

-NHC(=CHR9)N(R)2, -OC(0)N(R)2, -N(R)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)R, -N(OR)S(0)2R, -N(OR)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)N(R)2, -N(OR)C(S)N(R)2, -N(OR)C(=NR9)N(R)2, -N(OR)C(=CHR9)N(R)2, heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl;

M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R')-, -P(0)(OR')0-,

-S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group; and

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, and C2- 14 alkenyl.

16. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R4 is hydrogen.

17. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R4 is not hydrogen.

18. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is

OH, -NHC(S)N(R)2, -NHC(0)N(R)2, -N(R)C(0)R, or -N(R)S(0)2R.

19. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -N(R)Rs,

-NHC(=NR9)N(R)2, -NHC(=CHR9)N(R)2, -OC(0)N(R)2, or -N(R)C(0)OR.

20. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q

is -N(OR)C(0)R, -N(OR)S(0)2R, -N(OR)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)N(R)2, -N(OR)C(S)N(R)2, -N(OR)C(=NR9)N(R)2, or -N(OR)C(=CHR9)N(R)2.

21. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -N(R)C(0)R, in which R is Ci-3 alkyl optionally substituted with C1-3 alkoxyl, or S(0)tCi-3 alkyl, in which t is 0, 1, or 2.

22. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is a heteroaryl.

23. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is a heterocycloalkyl and n is 3, 4, or 5.

24. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R is Ci-6 alkyl substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkoxyl, amino, and Ci- C3 dialkylamino.

25. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Rs is a 4-membered carbocycle.

26. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Rs is a 4-membered carbocycle.

27. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Rs is a 4-membered carbocycle, wherein the carbocycle is substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of oxo, thio, amino, C1-C3 alkylamino, C1-C3 dialkylamino, C1-C3 alkoxyalkylamino, C1-C3 dialkoxyalkylamino, C1-C3 alkoxyalkyl, and 5 or 6-membered heterocycloalkyl.

28. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Mi is M' .

29. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein M and M' are independently -C(0)0- or -OC(O)-.

30. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein at least one of M and M' is -S-S-.

31. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein one of M and M' is -S-S-, and the other is -C(0)0- or -OC(O)-.

32. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein 1 is 1, 3, or 5.

33. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R4 is unsubstituted methyl or -(CH2)nQ, in which Q is OH, -NHC(S)N(CH3)2, or -NHC(0)N(CH3)2.

34. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Mi is absent.

35. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R' is Ci-is alkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -R*YR", or -YR".

36. The compound of an}7 one of the preceding claims, wherein R2 and R3 are independently C3- 14 alkyl or C3-14 alkenyl.

37. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Ri is selected from the group consisting of C5-20 alkyl and C5-20 alkenyl.

38. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Ri is selected from the group consisting of -R*YR", -YR". and -R' M'R' .

39. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Ri is C5-20 alkyl.

40. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Ri is Ce alkyl, Cs alkyl, C9 alkyl, C14 alkyl or Cis alkyl.

41. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Ri is C5-20 alkenyl.

42. The compound of an}7 one of the preceding claims, wherein Ri is Cis alkenyl.

43. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Ri is linoleyl.

44. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Ri is -R"M'R' .

45. The compound of an}7 one of the preceding claims, wherein Ri is different from -

46. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R' is selected from -R*YR" and -YR".

47. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Y is a cyclopropyl group.

48. The compound of an}7 one of the preceding claims wherein R" adjacent to Y is Ci alkyl.

49. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R' is selected from C4 alkyl, C4 alkenyl, C5 alkyl, C5 alkenyl, Ce alkyl, Ce alkenyl, C7 alkyl, C7 alkenyl, C9 alkyl, C9 alkenyl, Cn alkyl, Cn alkenyl, Cn alkyl, Cn alkenyl, Cis alkyl, and Cis alkenyl, each of which is either linear or branched.

50. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R" is C3 alkyl.

51. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R" is C5 alkyl.

52. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R" is C7 alkyl.

53. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Ri is C5-20 alkyl substituted with hydroxyl.

54. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein M' is -C(0)O, -OC(O)-, or -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, in which M" is CM alkyl or C2-4 alkenyl.

55. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein M' is an aryl group or a heteroaryl group.

56. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein M' is selected from the group consisting of phenyl, oxazole, and thiazole.

57. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Ri is selected from -R*YR" and -YR".

58. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Y is a cyclopropyl group.

59. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R* is Cs alkyl.

60. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R* is Ci-12 alkyl substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of amino, C1-C6 alkylamino, and C1-C6 dialkylamino.

61. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R" is C3-12 alkyl.

62. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R" is Cs alkyl

63. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein each R5 is H.

64. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein at least one R5 is hydroxyl.

65. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein each Re is H.

66. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein at least one Re is hydroxyl.

67. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R*OR", or R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle.

68. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R2 and R3 are the same.

69. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R2 and R3 are Cs alkyl.

70. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R2 and R3 are C2 alkyl.

71. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R2 and R3 are C3 alkyl.

72. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R2 and R3 are C4 alkyl.

73. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R2 and R3 are C5 alkyl.

74. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R2 and R3 are Ce alkyl.

75. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R2 and R3 are C7 alkyl.

76. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R2 and R3 are different.

77. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R2 is Cs alkyl.

78. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R3 is Ci alkyl.

79. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R3 is C2 alkyl.

80. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R3 is C3 alkyl.

81. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R3 is C4 alkyl.

82. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R3 is C5 alkyl.

83. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R3 is CG alkyl.

84. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R3 is C7 alkyl.

85. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R3 is C9 alkyl.

86. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle.

87. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a carbocycle.

88. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the carbocycle is a CG carbocycle.

89. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the carbocycle is a phenyl group.

90. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the carbocycle is a cyclohexyl group.

91. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the heterocycle or carbocycle formed by R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, is substituted with one or more alkyl groups.

92. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein M is -C(0)0-

93. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein M is -OC(O)-.

94. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein M is -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, in which M" is Ci-6 alkyl or C2-6 alkenyl.

95. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein M is -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, in which M" is C1-4 alkyl or C2-4 alkenyl.

96. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein M is an aryl group or a heteroaryl group.

97. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein M is selected from the group consisting of phenyl, oxazole, and thiazole.

98. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein m is 5.

99. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein m is 7.

100. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein m is 9.

101. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R4 is unsubstituted Ci-4 alkyl.

102. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R4 is unsubstituted methyl.

103. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R4 is selected from the group consisting of a C3-6 carbocycle, -(CH2)nQ, -(CH2)nCHQR, -CHQR, and -CQ(R)2, where Q is selected from a C3-6 carbocycle, 5- to 14- membered aromatic or non-aromatic heterocycle having one or more heteroatoms selected from N, O, S, and P, -OR, -0(CH2)nN(R)2, -C(0)OR, -OC(0)R, -CX3, -CX2H, -CXH2, -CN, -N(R)2, -C(0)N(R)2, -N(R)S(0)2R8, -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0)2R, -N(R)C(0)N(R)2, -N(R)C(S)N(R)2, and -C(R)N(R)2C(0)OR, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

104. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R4 is selected from the group consisting of a C3-6 carbocycle, -(CH2)nQ, -(CH2)nCHQR, -CHQR, and -CQ(R)2, where Q is selected from a C3-6 carbocycle, a 5- to 14-membered heteroaryl having one or more

heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, -OR, -0(CH2)nN(R)2, -C(0)OR,

-OC(0)R, -CX3, -CX2H, -CXH2, -CN, -C(0)N(R)2, -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0)2R,

-N(R)S(0)2Rs, -N(R)C(0)N(R)2, -N(R)C(S)N(R)2, -C(R)N(R)2C(0)OR, and a 5- to 14- membered heterocycloalkyl having one or more heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S which is substituted with one or more substituents selected from oxo (=0), OH, amino, and C1-3 alkyl, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

105. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R4 is selected from the group consisting of a C3-6 carbocycle, -(CH2)nQ, -(CH2)nCHQR, -CHQR, and -CQ(R)2, where Q is selected from a C3-6 carbocycle, a 5- to 14-membered heterocycle having one or more heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, -OR, -0(CH2)nN(R)2, -C(0)OR, -OC(0)R, -CX3, -CX2H, -CXH2, -CN, -C(0)N(R)2, -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0)2R, -N(R)S(0)2Rs,-N(R)C(0)N(R)2, -N(R)C(S)N(R)2, -C(R)N(R)2C(0)OR, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5; and when Q is a 5 - to 14-membered heterocycle and (i) R4 is -(CH2)nQ in which n is 1 or 2, or (ii) R4 is -(CH2)nCHQR in which n is 1, or (iii) R4 is -CHQR, and -CQ(R)2, then Q is either a 5- to 14-membered heteroaryl or 8- to 14-membered heterocycloalkyl.

106. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R4 is selected from the group consisting of a C3-6 carbocycle, -(CH2)nQ, -(CH2)nCHQR, -CHQR, and -CQ(R)2, where Q is selected from a C3-6 carbocycle, a 5- to 14-membered heteroaryl having one or more

heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, -OR, -0(CH2)nN(R)2, -C(0)OR, -

OC(0)R, -CX3, -CX2H, -CXH2, -CN, -C(0)N(R)2, -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0)2R, -N(R)S(0)2R8, -N(R)C(0)N(R)2, -N(R)C(S)N(R)2, -C(R)N(R)2C(0)OR, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

107. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R4 is selected from -(CH2)nQ and -(CH2)nCHQR.

108. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -OR.

109. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -OH.

110. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -0(CH2)nN(R)2.

111. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -OC(0)R.

112. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -CX3.

113. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -CN.

114. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -N(R)C(0)R or -N(R)S(0)2R

115. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -N(H)C(0)R or -N(H)S(0)2R.

116. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -N(R)C(0)N(R)2.

117. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -N(H)C(0)N(R)2.

118. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -N(H)C(0)N(H)(R).

119. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -N(R)C(S)N(R)2.

120. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -N(H)C(S)N(R)2.

121. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -N(H)C(S)N(H)(R).

122. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -C(R)N(R)2C(0)OR.

123. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -N(R)S(0)2Rs.

124. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -NHRs, in which Rs is a C3-6 cycloalkyl optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from oxo (=0), amino (NH2), mono- or di-alkylamino, C1-3 alkyl and halo.

125. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -NHC(=NR9)N(R)2 in which R9 is CN, Ci-6 alkyl, or H.

126. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -NHC(=CHR9)N(R)2, in which R9 is NO2, Ci-6 alkyl, or H.

127. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is -OC(0)N(R)2

or -N(R)C(0)OR.

128. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is selected from the group consisting of a triazole, an imidazole, a pyrimidine, and a purine.

129. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is a 5- or 6-membered heterocycloalkyl containing at least one nitrogen ring atom and is optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from oxo (=0), amino (NH2), mono- or di-alkylamino, halo, and Ci-3 alkyl.

130. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein n is 1.

131. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein n is 2.

132. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein n is 3.

133. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein n is 4.

134. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R7 is H.

The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R7 is selected from Ci

136. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R3 and R7 are H.

137. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R2 is H.

138. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein at least one occurrence of R5 and Re is methyl.

139. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the compound is selected from the group consisting of Compounds 1-8 and 31, and salts and isomers thereof.

140. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the compound is selected from the group consisting of Compounds 9-30, 32-36, and 47-61 and salts and isomers thereof.

141. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the compound is selected from the group consisting of Compounds 65-75, 79-81, 94, 101, 103, 108-1 16, and 1 18-135, and salts and isomers thereof.

142. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the compound is selected from Compounds 136-232 and salts and isomers thereof.

143. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the compound is selected from Compounds 233-235, 236, 238-244, 246-252, 254, 259-261, and 263-280, and salts and isomers thereof.

144. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the compound is selected from Compounds 256 and 257, and salts and isomers thereof.

145. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the compound is selected from Compounds 281-339, and salts and isomers thereof.

146. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the compound is of the Formula (Ha), (Ila), or its N-oxide, or a salt or isomer thereof.

147. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the compound is of the

thereof.

148. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the compound is of the Formula (lie) or (He),

or its N-oxide, or a salt or isomer thereof.

149. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R4 is selected from -(CH2)nQ and -(CH2)nCHQR.

150. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein Q is selected from the group consisting of -OR, -OH, -0(CH2)nN(R)2, -OC(0)R, -CX3, -CN, -N(R)C(0)R, -N(H)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0)2R, -N(H)S(0)2R, -N(R)C(0)N(R)2, -N(H)C(0)N(R)2, -N(H)C(0)N(H)(R), -N(R)C(S)N(R)2, -N(H)C(S)N(R)2, -N(H)C(S)N(H)(R), -N(R)S(0)2Rs, and a heterocycle.

151. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein n is 1, 2, or 3.

152. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the compound is of the

(lid) or its N-oxide, or a salt or isomer thereof,

wherein R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of C5-14 alkyl and C5-14 alkenyl, and n is selected from 2, 3, and 4.

153. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the compound i

Formula (Ilf),

(Ilf) or its N-oxide, or a salt or isomer thereof, wherein M is -C(0)0- or -OC(O)-, M" is Ci-6 alkyl or C2-6 alkenyl, R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of C5-14 alkyl and C5-14 alkenyl, and n is selected from 2, 3, and 4.

The compound of cl is of Formula (Ilg):

(Ilg), or its N-oxide, or a salt or isomer thereof, wherein

1 is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5;

m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9;

M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R')-, -P(0)(OR')0-,

-S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group;

and R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, and C2-14 alkenyl.

155. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R2 is Cs alkyl.

156. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R3 is C5 alkyl, Ce alkyl, or C7 alkyl.

157. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R3 is Cs alkyl.

158. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein R3 is C9 alkyl.

159. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein m is 5.

160. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein m is 7.

161. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein m is 9.

162. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein each R5 is H.

163. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, wherein each Re is H.

164. The

8).

165. A nanoparticle composition comprising a lipid component comprising a compound according to any one of the preceding claims.

166. The nanoparticle composition of claim 165, wherein the lipid component further comprises a phospholipid.

167. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the phospholipid is selected from the group consisting of

1 ,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3 -phosphocholine (DLPC),

1 ,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1 ,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3 -phosphocholine (DOPC), l,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC),

l,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3 -phosphocholine (DSPC),

1 ,2-diundecanoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (DUPC),

l-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3 -phosphocholine (POPC),

l,2-di-0-octadecenyl-5«-glycero-3 -phosphocholine (18:0 Diether PC),

l-oleoyl-2-cholesterylhemisuccinoyl-5«-glycero-3-phosphocholine (OChemsPC),

l-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3 -phosphocholine (C16 Lyso PC),

1 ,2-dilinolenoyl-sn-glycero-3 -phosphocholine,

l,2-diarachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3 -phosphocholine,

l,2-didocosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine,l,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanol amine (DOPE), l,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (ME 16.0 PE), l,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine,

1 ,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3 -phosphoethanolamine,

l,2-dilinolenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine,

l,2-diarachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3 -phosphoethanolamine,

l,2-didocosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine,

l,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-(l -glycerol) sodium salt (DOPG),

dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG), palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (POPE), distearoyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (DSPE), dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DPPE), dimyristoylphosphoethanolamine (DMPE), 1 -stearoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidyethanolamine (SOPE), l-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (SOPC), sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidic acid, palmitoyloleoyl phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), and mixtures thereof.

168. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the phospholipid is DOPE.

169. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the phospholipid is DSPC.

170. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the lipid component further comprises a structural lipid.

171. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the structural lipid is selected from the group consisting of cholesterol, fecosterol, sitosterol, ergosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, brassicasterol, tomatidine, ursolic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and mixtures thereof.

172. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the structural lipid is cholesterol.

173. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the lipid component further comprises a PEG lipid.

174. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the PEG lipid is selected from the group consisting of a PEG-modified phosphatidylethanolamine, a PEG- modified phosphatidic acid, a PEG-modified ceramide, a PEG-modified dialkylamine, a PEG- modified diacylglycerol, a PEG-modified dialkylglycerol, and mixtures thereof.

175. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the PEG lipid includes a PEG moiety having a size of from about 1000 Da to about 20 kDa.

176. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the PEG lipid is selected from WO 2018/170306

wherein p is from 1 to 40.

177. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the lipid component further comprises a cationic and/or ionizable lipid selected from the group consisting of 3-(didodecylamino)-Nl,Nl,4-tridodecyl-l-piperazineethanamine (KL10), N 1 -[2-(didodecylamino)ethyl] -N 1 ,N4,N4-tridodecyl- 1 ,4-piperazinediethanamine (KL22), 14,25-ditridecyl- 15,18,21 ,24-tetraaza-octatriacontane (KL25),

1 ,2-dilinoleyloxy-N,N-dimethylaminopropane (DLin-DMA),

2,2-dilinoleyl-4-dimethylaminomethyl-[l,3]-dioxolane (DLin-K-DMA),

heptatriaconta-6,9,28,3 l-tetraen-19-yl 4-(dimethylamino)butanoate (DLin-MC3-DMA), 2,2-dilinoleyl-4-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-[l,3]-dioxolane (DLin-KC2-DMA),

1 ,2-dioleyloxy-N,N-dimethylaminopropane (DODMA),

2-({8-[(3 )-cholest-5-en-3-yloxy]octyl}oxy)-N,N-dimethyl-3-[(9Z, 12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dien-l-y loxy]propan- 1 -amine (Octyl-CLinDMA), (2R)-2-({8-[(3 )-cholest-5-en-3-yloxy]octyl}oxy)-N,N-dimethyl-3-[(9Z, 12Z)-octadeca-9, 12-die n-l-yloxy]propan-l -amine (Octyl-CLinDMA (2R)), and

(2S)-2-({8-[(3 )-cholest-5-en-3-yloxy]octyl}oxy)-N,N-dimethyl-3-[(9Z, 12Z)-octadeca-9, 12-die n-l-yloxy]propan-l -amine (Octyl-CLinDMA (2S)).

178. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the lipid component further comprises a phospholipid, a structural lipid, and a PEG lipid.

179. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the lipid component comprises about 30 mol % to about 60 mol % said compound, about 0 mol % to about 30 mol % phospholipid, about 18.5 mol % to about 48.5 mol % structural lipid, and about 0 mol % to about 10 mol % PEG lipid.

180. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the lipid component comprises about 50 mol % said compound, about 10 mol % phospholipid, about 38.5 mol % structural lipid, and about 1.5 mol % PEG lipid.

181. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, further comprising a therapeutic and/or prophylactic agent.

182. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the therapeutic and/or prophylactic agent is a vaccine or a compound capable of eliciting an immune response.

183. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the therapeutic and/or prophylactic agent is a nucleic acid.

184. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the therapeutic and/or prophylactic agent is a ribonucleic acid (RNA).

185. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the RNA is selected from the group consisting of a small interfering RNA (siRNA), an asymmetrical interfering RNA (aiRNA), a microRNA (miRNA), a Dicer-substrate RNA (dsRNA), a small hairpin RNA (shRNA), a messenger RNA (mRNA), and mixtures thereof.

186. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the RNA is an mRNA.

187. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the mRNA includes one or more of a stem loop, a chain terminating nucleoside, a polyA sequence, a polyadenylation signal, and/or a 5 ' cap structure.

188. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the encapsulation efficiency of the therapeutic and/or prophylactic agent is at least 50%.

189. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the encapsulation efficiency of the therapeutic and/or prophylactic agent is at least 80%.

190. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the encapsulation efficiency of the therapeutic and/or prophylactic agent is at least 90%.

191. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the wt/wt ratio of the lipid component to the therapeutic and/or prophylactic agent is from about 10: 1 to about 60: 1.

192. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the wt/wt ratio of the lipid component to the therapeutic and/or prophylactic agent is about 20: 1.

193. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the N:P ratio is from about 2: 1 to about 30: 1.

194. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the N:P ratio is about 5.67: 1.

195. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the mean size of the nanoparticle composition is from about 70 nm to about 100 nm.

196. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the polydispersity index of the nanoparticle composition is from about 0.10 to about 0.20.

197. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the nanoparticle composition has a zeta potential of about -10 mV to about +20 mV.

198. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the nanoparticle has a surface pKa of about 6.6.

199. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the nanoparticle has an endosomal escape efficiency of about 15%.

200. A pharmaceutical composition comprising the nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

201. A method of delivering a therapeutic and/or prophylactic agent to a mammalian cell, the method comprising administering to a subject the nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, said administering comprising contacting the cell with the nanoparticle composition, whereby the therapeutic and/or prophylactic agent is delivered to the cell.

202. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the mammalian cell is in a mammal.

203. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the mammal is a human.

204. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the nanoparticle composition is administered intravenously, intramuscularly, intradermally, subcutaneously, intranasally, or by inhalation.

205. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein a dose of about 0.01 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg of the therapeutic and/or prophylactic agent is administered to the mammal.

206. A method of producing a polypeptide of interest in a mammalian cell, the method comprising contacting the cell with the nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the therapeutic and/or prophylactic agent is an mRNA, and wherein the mRNA encodes the polypeptide of interest, whereby the mRNA is capable of being translated in the cell to produce the polypeptide of interest.

207. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the mammalian cell is in a mammal.

208. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the mammal is a human.

209. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the nanoparticle composition is administered intravenously, intramuscularly, intradermally, subcutaneously, intranasally, or by inhalation.

210. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein a dose of about 0.001 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg of the mRNA is administered to the mammal.

211. A method of treating a disease or disorder in a mammal in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective amount of the nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims.

212. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, for use in the treatment of a disease or disorder in a mammal in need thereof.

213. The nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, for use as a medicament for the treatment of a disease or disorder in a mammal in need thereof.

214. The use of a nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of a disease or disorder in a mammal in need thereof.

215. The method, use, or nanoparticle composition for use of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the disease or disorder is characterized by dysfunctional or aberrant protein or polypeptide activity.

216. The method, use, or nanoparticle composition for use of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the disease or disorder is selected from the group consisting of infectious diseases, cancer and proliferative diseases, genetic diseases, autoimmune diseases, diabetes,

neurodegenerative diseases, cardio- and reno-vascular diseases, and metabolic diseases.

217. The method, use, or nanoparticle composition for use of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the mammal is a human.

218. The method, use, or nanoparticle composition for use of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the nanoparticle composition is administered intravenously, intramuscularly, intradermally, subcutaneously, intranasally, or by inhalation.

219. The method, use, or nanoparticle composition for use of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the nanoparticle composition is administered subcutaneously.

220. The method, use, or nanoparticle composition for use of any one of the preceding claims, wherein a dose of about 0.001 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg of the therapeutic and/or prophylactic agent is administered to the mammal, or wherein the medicament comprises 0.001 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg of the therapeutic and/or prophylactic agent.

221. A method of specifically delivering a therapeutic and/or prophylactic agent to a mammalian organ, the method comprising administering to a mammal the nanoparticle composition of any one of the preceding claims, said administering comprising contacting the mammalian organ with the nanoparticle composition, whereby the therapeutic and/or prophylactic agent is delivered to the organ.

222. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the mammal is a human.

223. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the nanoparticle composition is administered intravenously, intramuscularly, intradermally, subcutaneously, intranasally, or by inhalation.

224. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein a dose of about 0.001 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg of the therapeutic and/or prophylactic agent is administered to the mammal.

225. The method of any one of the preceding claims, further comprising, prior to the contacting or administering step, pretreating said mammal with one or more additional compounds, wherein pretreating comprises administering said one or more additional compounds to said mammal.

226. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein said mammal is pretreated two weeks or fewer, one week or fewer, 24 or fewer hours prior to the contacting or administering step.

227. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein said mammal is pretreated about one hour prior to the contacting or administering step.

228. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein said one or more additional compounds are selected from the group consisting of anti-inflammatory compounds, steroids, statins, estradiols, BTK inhibitors, S lPl agonists, glucocorticoid receptor modulators (GRMs), and anti-histamines.

229. The method of any one of the preceding claims, wherein said one or more additional compounds are selected from the group consisting of dexamethasone, methotrexate, acetaminophen, an HI receptor blocker, and an H2 receptor blocker.

Description:
COMPOUNDS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR INTRACELLULAR

DELIVERY OF THERAPEUTIC AGENTS

Related Applications

[0001] This application claims priority to, and the benefit of, U.S. Provisional Application Nos. 62/471,937, filed March 15, 2017; and 62/475, 140, filed March 22, 2017; the entire contents of each of which are incorporated herein by reference.

Incorporation-bv-Reference of Sequence Listing

[0002] The present application is being filed along with a Sequence Listing in electronic format. The Sequence Listing is provided as a file entitled

"MRNA032001WOSequenceListing.txt" created on February 26, 2018, which is 715 bytes in size. The information in the electronic format of the sequence listing is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

Field of Disclosure

[0003] The present disclosure provides novel compounds, compositions comprising such compounds, and methods involving lipid nanoparticle compositions to deliver one or more therapeutic and/or prophylactics to and/or produce polypeptides in mammalian cells or organs. In addition to a novel lipid, lipid nanoparticle compositions of the disclosure may include one or more cationic and/or ionizable amino lipids, phospholipids including polyunsaturated lipids, PEG lipids, structural lipids, and/or therapeutic and/or prophylactics in specific fractions.

Background of the Disclosure

[0004] The effective targeted delivery of biologically active substances such as small molecule drugs, proteins, and nucleic acids represents a continuing medical challenge. In particular, the delivery of nucleic acids to cells is made difficult by the relative instability and low cell permeability of such species. Thus, there exists a need to develop methods and compositions to facilitate the delivery of therapeutic and/or prophylactics such as nucleic acids to cells.

[0005] Lipid-containing nanoparticle compositions, liposomes, and lipoplexes have proven effective as transport vehicles into cells and/or intracellular compartments for biologically active substances such as small molecule drugs, proteins, and nucleic acids. Such compositions generally include one or more "cationic" and/or amino (ionizable) lipids, phospholipids including polyunsaturated lipids, structural lipids (e.g., sterols), and/or lipids containing polyethylene glycol (PEG lipids). Cationic and/or ionizable lipids include, for example, amine- containing lipids that can be readily protonated. Though a variety of such lipid-containing nanoparticle compositions have been demonstrated, improvements in safety, efficacy, and specificity are still lacking.

Summary of the Disclosure

[0006] The present disclosure provides novel compounds and compositions and methods involving the same.

[0007] A first aspect of the disclosure relates to compounds of Formula (I):

(I) or its N-oxide,

or a salt or isomer thereof, wherein:

Ri is selected from the group consisting of C5-30 alkyl, C5-20 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R' M'R';

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R*OR", or R> and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle;

R4 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C3-6

carbocycle, -(CH 2 )nQ, -(CH 2 )nCHQR, -(CH2)oC(Rio)2(CH 2 )n-oQ,

-CHQR, -CQ(R)2, and unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, where Q is selected from a carbocycle, heterocycle, -OR, -0(CH 2 )nN(R) 2 , -C(0)OR, -OC(0)R, -CX3, -CX2H, -CXH 2 , -CN, -N(R) 2 , -C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(S)N(R) 2 , -N(R)Rs, -N(R)S(0) 2 R8, -0(CH 2 )nOR, -N(R)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -OC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)R, -N(OR)S(0) 2 R, -N(OR)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)N(R) 2 ,

-N(OR)C(S)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -C(=NR 9 )R, -C(0)N(R)OR, and -C(R)N(R) 2 C(0)OR, each o is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5;

each R5 is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each Re is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H; M and M' are independently selected from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R')-, -N(R')C(0)-, -C(O)-, -C(S)-, -C(S)S-, -SC(S)-, -CH(OH)-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S(0) 2 -, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group, in which M" is a bond, Ci-13 alkyl or C2-13 alkenyl;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

Rs is selected from the group consisting of C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

R9 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, NO2, Ci-6 alkyl, -OR, -S(0)2R, -S(0)2N(R)2, C2-6 alkenyl, C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

Rio is selected from the group consisting of H, OH, C1-3 alkyl, and C2-3 alkenyl;

each R is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each R' is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-18 alkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", (CH 2 ) q OR*, and H,

and each q is independently selected from 1, 2, and 3;

each R" is independently selected from the group consisting of C3-15 alkyl and C3-15 alkenyl;

each R* is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-12 alkyl and C2-12 alkenyl;

each Y is independently a C3-6 carbocycle;

each X is independently selected from the group consisting of F, CI, Br, and I; and m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13.

[0008] Another aspe a (III):

or a salt or isomer thereof, wherein

Ri is selected from the group consisting of C5-30 alkyl, C5-20 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R' M'R';

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R*OR", or R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle;

R4 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C3-6

carbocycle, -(CH 2 )nQ, -(CH 2 )nCHQR, -(CH 2 )oC(Rio)2(CH 2 )n-oQ, -CHQR, -CQ(R)2, and unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, where Q is selected from a carbocycle, heterocycle, -OR, -0(CH 2 )nN(R) 2 , -C(0)OR, -OC(0)R, -CX 3 , -CXiH, -CXH 2 , -CN, -N(R) 2 , -C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(S)N(R) 2 ,

N(R)Rs, -N(R)S(0) 2 Rs, -0(CH 2 ) n OR, -N(R)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 ,

-OC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)R, -N(OR)S(0) 2 R, -N(OR)C(0)OR,

-N(OR)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(S)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -C(=NR 9 )R, -C(0)N(R)OR, and -C(R)N(R) 2 C(0)OR, each o is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5;

Rx is selected from the group consisting of Ci-6 alkyl, Ci-e alkenyl, -(CH 2 )rOH,

wherein r is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6;

each R5 is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each Re is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

M and M' are independently selected from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R')-, -N(R')C(0)-, -C(O)-, -C(S)-, -C(S)S-, -SC(S)-, -CH(OH)-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S(0) 2 -, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group, in which M" is a bond, Ci-13 alkyl or C2-13 alkenyl;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C 2 -3 alkenyl, and H;

Rs is selected from the group consisting of C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, N0 2 , Ci-6 alkyl, -OR, -S(0) 2 R, -S(0) 2 N(R) 2 , C 2 -6 alkenyl, C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

Rio is selected from the group consisting of H, OH, C1-3 alkyl, and C 2 -3 alkenyl;

each R is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C 2 -3 alkenyl, (CH 2 )qOR*, and H,

and each q is independently selected from 1, 2, and 3;

each R' is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-18 alkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and H;

each R" is independently selected from the group consisting of C3-15 alkyl and C3-15 alkenyl;

each R* is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-i 2 alkyl and

C2-12 alkenyl;

each Y is independently a C3-6 carbocycle;

each X is independently selected from the group consisting of F, CI, Br, and I; and m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13.

[0009] In some embodiments, a subset of compounds of Formula (I) includes those in which when R 4 is -(CH 2 )nQ, -(CH 2 )nCHQR, -CHQR, or -CQ(R) 2 , then (i) Q is not -N(R) 2 when n is 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5, or (ii) Q is not 5, 6, or 7-membered heterocycloalkyl when n is 1 or 2.

[0010] For example, when R 4 is -(CH 2 ) n Q, -(CH 2 ) n CHQR, -(CH 2 ) 0 C(Rio) 2 (CH 2 ) n -oQ, -CHQR, or -CQ(R) 2 , then (i) Q is not -N(R) 2 when n is 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5, or (ii) Q is not 5, 6, or 7-membered heterocycloalkyl when n is 1 or 2.

[0011] In another embodiments, another subset of compounds of Formula (I) includes those in which

Ri is selected from the group consisting of C5-30 alkyl, Cs- 2 o alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R' M'R' ;

R 2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R* OR", or R 2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle;

R4 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C3-6

carbocycle, -(CH 2 ) n Q, -(CH 2 ) n CHQR, -(CH 2 ) 0 C(Rio) 2 (CH 2 ) n -oQ,

-CHQR, -CQ(R) 2 , and unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, where Q is selected from a C3-6 carbocycle, a 5- to 14-membered heteroaryl having one or more heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, -OR, -0(CH 2 ) n N(R) 2 , -C(0)OR, -OC(0)R, -CX3, -CX 2 H, -CXH 2 , -CN, -C(0)N(R) 2 ,

-N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(S)N(R) 2 , -CRN(R) 2 C(0)OR,

-N(R)R 8 , -N(R)S(0) 2 Rs, -0(CH 2 ) n OR, -N(R)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 ,

-OC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)R, -N(OR)S(0) 2 R, -N(OR)C(0)OR,

-N(OR)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(S)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -C(=NR 9 )R, -C(0)N(R)OR, and a 5- to 14-membered heterocycloalkyl having one or more heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S which is substituted with one or more substituents selected from oxo (=0), OH, amino, mono- or di-alkylamino, and C1-3 alkyl, each o is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5;

each R5 is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C 2 -3 alkenyl, and H;

each Re is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C 2 -3 alkenyl, and H;

M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R , -N(R')C(0)-, -C(O)-, -C(S)-, -C(S)S-, -SC(S)-, -CH(OH)-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S(0) 2 -, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group, in which M" is a bond, Ci-13 alkyl or C2-13 alkenyl;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

Rs is selected from the group consisting of C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

R9 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, NO2, Ci-6 alkyl, -OR, -S(0)2R, -S(0)2N(R)2, C2-6 alkenyl, C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

Rio is selected from the group consisting of H, OH, C1-3 alkyl, and C2-3 alkenyl;

each R is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, (CH 2 ) q OR* , and H;

each R' is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-18 alkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and H,

and each q is independently selected from 1, 2, and 3;

each R" is independently selected from the group consisting of C3-15 alkyl and C3-15 alkenyl;

each R* is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-12 alkyl and C2-12 alkenyl;

each Y is independently a C3-6 carbocycle;

each X is independently selected from the group consisting of F, CI, Br, and I; and m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13,

or their N-oxides, or salts or isomers thereof.

[0012] In yet another embodiments, another subset of compounds of Formula (I) includes those in which

Ri is selected from the group consisting of C5-30 alkyl, C5-20 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R' M'R' ;

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R* OR", or R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle;

R4 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C3-6

carbocycle, -(CH 2 )nQ, -(CH 2 )nCHQR, -(CH 2 )oC(Rio)2(CH 2 )n-oQ,

-CHQR, -CQ(R)2, and unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, where Q is selected from a C3-6 carbocycle, a 5- to 14-membered heterocycle having one or more heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, -OR, -0(CH 2 )nN(R) 2 , -C(0)OR, -OC(0)R, -CX 3 , -CX2H, -CXH 2 , -CN, -C(0)N(R) 2 ,

-N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(S)N(R) 2 , -CRN(R) 2 C(0)OR, -N(R)R 8 , -N(R)S(0) 2 R8, -0(CH 2 )nOR, -N(R)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -OC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)R, -N(OR)S(0) 2 R, -N(OR)C(0)OR,

-N(OR)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(S)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -C(=NR 9 )R, -C(0)N(R)OR, and -C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , each o is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5; and when Q is a 5- to 14- membered heterocycle and (i) R4 is -(CH 2 ) n Q in which n is 1 or 2, or (ii) R4 is -(CH 2 ) n CHQR in which n is 1, or (iii) R4 is -CHQR, and -CQ(R) 2 , then Q is either a 5- to 14-membered heteroaryl or 8- to 14-membered heterocycloalkyl;

each R5 is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each Re is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R')-,

-N(R')C(0)-, -C(O)-, -C(S)-, -C(S)S-, -SC(S)-, -CH(OH)-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S(0) 2 -, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group, in which M" is a bond, Ci-13 alkyl or C2-13 alkenyl;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C 2 -3 alkenyl, and H;

Rs is selected from the group consisting of C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, N0 2 , Ci-6 alkyl, -OR, -S(0) 2 R, -S(0) 2 N(R) 2 , C2-6 alkenyl, C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

Rio is selected from the group consisting of H, OH, C1-3 alkyl, and C 2 -3 alkenyl;

each R is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C 2 -3 alkenyl, (CH 2 )qOR*, and H,

and each q is independently selected from 1, 2, and 3;

each R' is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-is alkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and H;

each R" is independently selected from the group consisting of C3-15 alkyl and C3-15 alkenyl;

each R* is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-i 2 alkyl and C2-12 alkenyl;

each Y is independently a C3-6 carbocycle;

each X is independently selected from the group consisting of F, CI, Br, and I; and m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13,

or their N-oxides, or salts or isomers thereof. [0013] In still another embodiments, another subset of compounds of Formula (I) includes those in which

Ri is selected from the group consisting of C5-30 alkyl, C5-20 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R' M'R';

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R*OR", or R> and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle;

R4 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C3-6

carbocycle, -(CH 2 )nQ, -(CH 2 )nCHQR, -(CH2)oC(Rio)2(CH 2 )n-oQ,

-CHQR, -CQ(R)2, and unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, where Q is selected from a C3-6 carbocycle, a 5- to 14-membered heteroaryl having one or more heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, -OR, -0(CH 2 )nN(R) 2 , -C(0)OR, -OC(0)R, -CX3, -CX2H, -CXH 2 , -CN, -C(0)N(R) 2 ,

-N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(S)N(R) 2 , -CRN(R) 2 C(0)OR, -N(R)R 8 , -N(R)S(0) 2 R8, -0(CH 2 )nOR, -N(R)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -OC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)R, -N(OR)S(0) 2 R, -N(OR)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)N(R) 2 ,

-N(OR)C(S)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -C(=NR 9 )R,

-C(0)N(R)OR, each o is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4, and -C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5;

each R5 is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each Re is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R ,

-N(R')C(0)-, -C(O)-, -C(S)-, -C(S)S-, -SC(S)-, -CH(OH)-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S(0) 2 -, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group, in which M" is a bond, Ci-13 alkyl or C2-13 alkenyl;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

Rs is selected from the group consisting of C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, NO2, Ci-6 alkyl, -OR, -S(0)2R, -S(0)2N(R)2, C2-6 alkenyl, C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

Rio is selected from the group consisting of H, OH, C1-3 alkyl, and C2-3 alkenyl, each R is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, (CH 2 )qOR*, and H,

and each q is independently selected from 1, 2, and 3; each R' is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-is alkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and H;

each R" is independently selected from the group consisting of C3-15 alkyl and C3-15 alkenyl;

each R* is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-12 alkyl and C2-12 alkenyl;

each Y is independently a C3-6 carbocycle;

each X is independently selected from the group consisting of F, CI, Br, and I; and m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13,

or their N-oxides, or salts or isomers thereof.

[0014] In still another embodiments, another subset of compounds of Formula (I) includes those in which

Ri is selected from the group consisting of C5-30 alkyl, C5-20 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R' M'R' ;

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R* OR", or R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle;

R4 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C3-6

carbocycle, -(CH 2 )nQ, -(CH 2 )nCHQR, -(CH 2 )oC(Rio)2(CH 2 )n-oQ,

-CHQR, -CQ(R)2, and unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, where Q is selected from a carbocycle, -OR, - 0(CH 2 )nN(R) 2 , -C(0)OR, -OC(0)R, -CX 3 , -CX2H, -CXH 2 , -CN,

-C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(S)N(R) 2 ,

N(R)Rs, -N(R)S(0) 2 R 8 , -0(CH 2 )nOR, -N(R)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 ,

-OC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)R, -N(OR)S(0) 2 R, -N(OR)C(0)OR,

-N(OR)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(S)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -C(=NR 9 )R, -C(0)N(R)OR, and -C(R)N(R) 2 C(0)OR, each o is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5;

each R5 is independently selected from the group consisting of OH,Ci-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each Re is independently selected from the group consisting of OH,Ci-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

M and M' are independently selected from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R')-, -N(R')C(0)-, -C(O)-, -C(S)-, -C(S)S-, -SC(S)-, -CH(OH)-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S(0) 2 -, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group, in which M" is a bond, Ci-13 alkyl or C2-13 alkenyl; R7 is selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

Rs is selected from the group consisting of C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

R9 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, NO2, Ci-6 alkyl, -OR, -S(0)2R,

-S(0)2N(R)2, C2-6 alkenyl, C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

Rio is selected from the group consisting of H, OH, C1-3 alkyl, and C2-3 alkenyl;

each R is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each R' is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-18 alkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", (CH2) q OR*, and H,

and each q is independently selected from 1, 2, and 3;

each R" is independently selected from the group consisting of C3-15 alkyl and C3-15 alkenyl;

each R* is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-12 alkyl and C2-12 alkenyl;

each Y is independently a C3-6 carbocycle;

each X is independently selected from the group consisting of F, CI, Br, and I; and m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13.

[0015] In yet another embodiments, another subset of compounds of Formula (I) includes those in which

Ri is selected from the group consisting of C5-30 alkyl, C5-20 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R' M'R';

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, C2-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R*OR", or R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle;

R4 is -(CH2)nQ or -(CH2)nCHQR, where Q is -N(R)2, and n is selected from 3, 4, and 5; each R5 is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each Re is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R ,

-N(R')C(0)-, -C(O)-, -C(S)-, -C(S)S-, -SC(S)-, -CH(OH)-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S(0) 2 -, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group, in which M" is a bond, Ci-13 alkyl or C2-13 alkenyl;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H; each R is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each R' is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-is alkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and H;

each R" is independently selected from the group consisting of C3-15 alkyl and C3- i5alkenyl;

each R* is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-12 alkyl and Ci-12 alkenyl;

each Y is independently a C3-6 carbocycle;

each X is independently selected from the group consisting of F, CI, Br, and I; and m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13,

or their N-oxides, or salts or isomers thereof.

[0016] In still another embodiments, another subset of compounds of Formula (I) includes those in which

Ri is selected from the group consisting of C5-30 alkyl, C5-20 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R' M'R' ;

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R* OR", or R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle;

R4 is selected from the group consisting of -(CH2)nQ, -(CH2)nCHQR, -CHQR, and -CQ(R)2, where Q is -N(R)2, and n is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5;

each R5 is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each Re is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R ,

-N(R')C(0)-, -C(O)-, -C(S)-, -C(S)S-, -SC(S)-, -CH(OH)-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S(0) 2 -, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group, in which M" is a bond, Ci-13 alkyl or C2-13 alkenyl;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each R is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each R' is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-is alkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and H; each R" is independently selected from the group consisting of C3-15 alkyl and C3-15 alkenyl;

each R* is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-12 alkyl and Ci-12 alkenyl;

each Y is independently a C3-6 carbocycle;

each X is independently selected from the group consisting of F, CI, Br, and I; and m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1, 12, and 13,

or their N-oxides, or salts or isomers thereof.

[0017] In some embodiments, a subset of compounds of Formula (III) includes those in which, when R 4 is -(CH 2 )nQ, -(CH 2 )nCHQR, -CHQR, or -CQ(R) 2 , then (i) Q is not -N(R) 2 when n is 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5, or (ii) Q is not 5, 6, or 7-membered heterocycloalkyl when n is 1 or 2.

[0018] In another embodiments, another subset of compounds of Formula (III) includes those in which

Ri is selected from the group consisting of C5-30 alkyl, C5-20 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R' M'R' ;

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R* OR", or R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle;

R4 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C3-6

carbocycle, -(CH 2 )nQ, -(CH 2 )nCHQR, -(CH 2 )oC(Rio)2(CH 2 )n-oQ,

-CHQR, -CQ(R)2, and unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, where Q is selected from a C3-6 carbocycle, a 5- to 14-membered heteroaryl having one or more heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, -OR, -0(CH 2 )nN(R) 2 , -C(0)OR, -OC(0)R, -CX 3 , -CX2H, -CXH 2 , -CN, -C(0)N(R) 2 ,

-N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(S)N(R) 2 , -CRN(R) 2 C(0)OR,

-N(R)R 8 , -N(R)S(0) 2 Rs, -0(CH 2 )nOR, -N(R)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 ,

-OC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)R, -N(OR)S(0) 2 R, -N(OR)C(0)OR,

-N(OR)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(S)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=NR9)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -C(=NR 9 )R, -C(0)N(R)OR, and a 5- to 14-membered heterocycloalkyl having one or more heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S which is substituted with one or more substituents selected from oxo (=0), OH, amino, mono- or di-alkylamino, and C1-3 alkyl, each o is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5;

Rx is selected from the group consisting of Ci-6 alkyl, C2-6 alkenyl, -(Ο¾)Γ0Η, wherein r is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6;

each R5 is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each Re is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R ,

-N(R')C(0)-, -C(O)-, -C(S)-, -C(S)S-, -SC(S)-, -CH(OH)-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S(0) 2 -, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group, in which M" is a bond, Ci-13 alkyl or C2-13 alkenyl;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

Rs is selected from the group consisting of C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

R9 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, NO2, Ci-6 alkyl, -OR, -S(0)2R, -S(0)2N(R)2, C2-6 alkenyl, C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

Rio is selected from the group consisting of H, OH, C1-3 alkyl, and C2-3 alkenyl;

each R is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, (CH 2 ) q OR*, and H;

each R' is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-18 alkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and H,

and each q is independently selected from 1, 2, and 3;

each R" is independently selected from the group consisting of C3-15 alkyl and C3-15 alkenyl;

each R* is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-12 alkyl and C2-12 alkenyl;

each Y is independently a C3-6 carbocycle;

each X is independently selected from the group consisting of F, CI, Br, and I; and m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1, 12, and 13,

or their N-oxides, or salts or isomers thereof.

[0019] In yet another embodiments, another subset of compounds of Formula (III) includes those in which

Ri is selected from the group consisting of C5-30 alkyl, C5-20 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R' M'R';

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R*OR", or R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle; R4 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C3-6

carbocycle, -(CH 2 )nQ, -(CH 2 )nCHQR, -(CH 2 )oC(Rio)2(CH 2 )n-oQ,

-CHQR, -CQ(R)2, and unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, where Q is selected from a C3-6 carbocycle, a 5- to 14-membered heterocycle having one or more heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, -OR, -0(CH 2 )nN(R) 2 , -C(0)OR, -OC(0)R, -CX3, -CX 2 H, -CXH 2 , -CN, -C(0)N(R) 2 ,

-N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(S)N(R) 2 , -CRN(R) 2 C(0)OR, -N(R)R 8 , -N(R)S(0) 2 Rs, -0(CH 2 )nOR, -N(R)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 ,

-OC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)R, -N(OR)S(0) 2 R, -N(OR)C(0)OR,

-N(OR)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(S)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=NR9)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -C(=NR9)R, -C(0)N(R)OR, and -C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , each o is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5; and when Q is a 5- to 14- membered heterocycle and (i) R4 is -(CH 2 ) n Q in which n is 1 or 2, or (ii) R4 is -(CH 2 ) n CHQR in which n is 1, or (iii) R4 is -CHQR, and -CQ(R) 2 , then Q is either a 5- to 14-membered heteroaryl or 8- to 14-membered heterocycloalkyl;

Rx is selected from the group consisting of Ci-6 alkyl, C 2 -6 alkenyl, -(CH 2 ) r OH,

wherein r is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6;

each R5 is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C 2 -3 alkenyl, and H;

each Re is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C 2 -3 alkenyl, and H;

M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R')-,

-N(R')C(0)-, -C(O)-, -C(S)-, -C(S)S-, -SC(S)-, -CH(OH)-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S(0) 2 -, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group, in which M" is a bond, Ci-13 alkyl or C2-13 alkenyl;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C 2 -3 alkenyl, and H;

Rs is selected from the group consisting of C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, N0 2 , Ci-6 alkyl, -OR, -S(0) 2 R, -S(0) 2 N(R) 2 , C 2 -6 alkenyl, C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

Rio is selected from the group consisting of H, OH, C1-3 alkyl, and C 2 -3 alkenyl;

each R is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C 2 -3 alkenyl, (CH 2 )qOR*, and H,

and each q is independently selected from 1, 2, and 3; each R' is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-is alkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and H;

each R" is independently selected from the group consisting of C3-15 alkyl and C3-15 alkenyl;

each R* is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-12 alkyl and C2-12 alkenyl;

each Y is independently a C3-6 carbocycle;

each X is independently selected from the group consisting of F, CI, Br, and I; and m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1, 12, and 13,

or their N-oxides, or salts or isomers thereof.

[0020] In still another embodiments, another subset of compounds of Formula (III) includes those in which

Ri is selected from the group consisting of C5-30 alkyl, C5-20 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R' M'R' ;

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R* OR", or R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle;

R4 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C3-6

carbocycle, -(CH 2 )nQ, -(CH 2 )nCHQR, -(CH 2 )oC(Rio)2(CH 2 )n-oQ,

-CHQR, -CQ(R)2, and unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, where Q is selected from a C3-6 carbocycle, a 5- to 14-membered heteroaryl having one or more heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, -OR, -0(CH 2 )nN(R) 2 , -C(0)OR, -OC(0)R, -CX 3 , -CX2H, -CXH 2 , -CN, -C(0)N(R) 2 ,

-N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(S)N(R) 2 , -CRN(R) 2 C(0)OR, -N(R)R 8 , -N(R)S(0) 2 R8, -0(CH 2 )nOR, -N(R)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -OC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)R, -N(OR)S(0) 2 R, -N(OR)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)N(R) 2 ,

-N(OR)C(S)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -C(=NR 9 )R,

-C(0)N(R)OR, each o is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4, and each o is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5;

Rx is selected from the group consisting of Ci-6 alkyl, C2-6 alkenyl, -(Ο¾)Γ0Η,

wherein r is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6;

each R5 is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H; each Re is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R ,

-N(R')C(0)-, -C(O)-, -C(S)-, -C(S)S-, -SC(S)-, -CH(OH)-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S(0) 2 -, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group, in which M" is a bond, Ci-13 alkyl or C2-13 alkenyl;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

Rs is selected from the group consisting of C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

R9 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, NO2, Ci-6 alkyl, -OR, -S(0)2R, -S(0)2N(R)2, C2-6 alkenyl, C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

Rio is selected from the group consisting of H, OH, C1-3 alkyl, and C2-3 alkenyl;

each R is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, (CH 2 )qOR*, and H,

and each q is independently selected from 1, 2, and 3;

each R' is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-18 alkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and H;

each R" is independently selected from the group consisting of C3-15 alkyl and C3-15 alkenyl;

each R* is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-12 alkyl and C2-12 alkenyl;

each Y is independently a C3-6 carbocycle;

each X is independently selected from the group consisting of F, CI, Br, and I; and m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13,

or their N-oxides, or salts or isomers thereof.

[0021] In still another embodiments, another subset of compounds of Formula (III) includes those in which

Ri is selected from the group consisting of C5-30 alkyl, C5-20 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R' M'R';

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R*OR", or R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle;

R4 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C3-6

carbocycle, -(CH 2 )nQ, -(CH 2 )nCHQR, -(CH 2 )oC(Rio)2(CH 2 )n-oQ, -CHQR, -CQ(R)2, and unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, where Q is selected from a carbocycle, -OR, - 0(CH 2 )nN(R) 2 , -C(0)OR, -OC(0)R, -CX 3 , -CXiH, -CXH 2 , -CN,

-C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(S)N(R) 2 ,

N(R)Rs, -N(R)S(0) 2 Rs, -0(CH 2 ) n OR, -N(R)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 ,

-OC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)R, -N(OR)S(0) 2 R, -N(OR)C(0)OR,

-N(OR)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(S)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -C(=NR 9 )R, -C(0)N(R)OR, and -C(R)N(R) 2 C(0)OR, each o is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5;

Rx is selected from the group consisting of Ci-6 alkyl, Ci-e alkenyl, -(CH 2 )rOH,

wherein r is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6;

each R5 is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each Re is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

M and M' are independently selected from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R')-, -N(R')C(0)-, -C(O)-, -C(S)-, -C(S)S-, -SC(S)-, -CH(OH)-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S(0) 2 -, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group, in which M" is a bond, Ci-13 alkyl or C2-13 alkenyl;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C 2 -3 alkenyl, and H;

Rs is selected from the group consisting of C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, N0 2 , Ci-6 alkyl, -OR, -S(0) 2 R, -S(0) 2 N(R) 2 , C 2 -6 alkenyl, C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

Rio is selected from the group consisting of H, OH, C1-3 alkyl, and C 2 -3 alkenyl;

each R is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C 2 -3 alkenyl, and H;

each R' is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-18 alkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", (CH 2 ) q OR*, and H,

and each q is independently selected from 1, 2, and 3;

each R" is independently selected from the group consisting of C3-15 alkyl and C3-15 alkenyl;

each R* is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-i 2 alkyl and C2-12 alkenyl;

each Y is independently a C3-6 carbocycle;

each X is independently selected from the group consisting of F, CI, Br, and I; and m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1, 12, and 13.

[0022] In yet another embodiments, another subset of compounds of Formula (III) includes those in which

Ri is selected from the group consisting of C5-30 alkyl, C5-20 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R' M'R' ;

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, C2-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R* OR", or R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle;

R4 is -(CH2)nQ or -(CH2)nCHQR, where Q is -N(R)2, and n is selected from 3, 4, and 5;

Rx is selected from the group consisting of Ci-6 alkyl, C2-6 alkenyl, -(CH2)rOH,

wherein r is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6;

each R5 is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each Re is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R ,

-N(R')C(0)-, -C(O)-, -C(S)-, -C(S)S-, -SC(S)-, -CH(OH)-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S(0) 2 -, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group, in which M" is a bond, Ci-13 alkyl or C2-13 alkenyl;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each R is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each R' is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-18 alkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and H;

each R" is independently selected from the group consisting of C3-15 alkyl and C3- i5alkenyl;

each R* is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-12 alkyl and Ci-12 alkenyl;

each Y is independently a C3-6 carbocycle;

each X is independently selected from the group consisting of F, CI, Br, and I; and m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1, 12, and 13,

or their N-oxides, or salts or isomers thereof. [0023] In still another embodiments, another subset of compounds of Formula (III) includes those in which

Ri is selected from the group consisting of C5-30 alkyl, C5-20 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R' M'R' ;

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R* OR", or R> and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle;

R4 is selected from the group consisting of -(CH2)nQ, -(CH2)nCHQR, -CHQR, and -CQ(R)2, where Q is -N(R)2, and n is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5;

Rx is selected from the group consisting of Ci-6 alkyl, C2-6 alkenyl, -(CH2)rOH,

wherein r is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6;

each R5 is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each Re is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R ,

-N(R')C(0)-, -C(O)-, -C(S)-, -C(S)S-, -SC(S)-, -CH(OH)-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S(0) 2 -, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group, in which M" is a bond, Ci-13 alkyl or C2-13 alkenyl;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each R is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each R' is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-18 alkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and H;

each R" is independently selected from the group consisting of C3-15 alkyl and C3-15 alkenyl;

each R* is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-12 alkyl and Ci-12 alkenyl;

each Y is independently a C3-6 carbocycle;

each X is independently selected from the group consisting of F, CI, Br, and I; and m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1, 12, and 13,

or their N-oxides, or salts or isomers thereof. In certain embodiments, a subset of compounds of Formula (I) includes those of

or its N-oxide, or a salt or isomer thereof, wherein 1 is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5; m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9; Mi is a bond or M'; R is hydrogen, unsubstituted C1-3 alkyl, -(CH2)oC(Rio)2(CH 2 )n-oQ, or -(CH 2 )nQ, in which Q is

OH, -NHC(S)N(R) 2 , -NHC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)R 8 ,

-NHC(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -NHC(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -OC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)OR,

heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl; M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R')-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group; and R 2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, and C2-14 alkenyl. For example, m is 5, 7, or 9. For example, Q is OH, -NHC(S)N(R) 2 , or -NHC(0)N(R) 2 . For example, Q is -N(R)C(0)R, or -N(R)S(0) 2 R.

[0025] In certain embodiments, a subset of compounds of Formula (I) includes those of

(IB), or its N-oxide, or a salt or isomer thereof in which all variables are as defined herein. For example, m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9; M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R , -P(0)(OR')0-,

group, and a heteroaryl group; and R 2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, and C2-14 alkenyl. For example, m is 5, 7, or 9.

[0026] In certain embodiments, a subset of compounds of Formula (I) includes those of Formula (II): (II) or its N-oxide, or a salt or isomer thereof, wherein 1 is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5; Mi is a bond or M' ; R4 is hydrogen, unsubstituted Ci- 3 alkyl, -(CH2)oC(Rio)2(CH2)n-oQ, or -(CH2)nQ, in which n is 2, 3, or 4, and Q is

OH, -NHC(S)N(R) 2 , -NHC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)R 8 ,

-NHC(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -NHC(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -OC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)OR, heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl; M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R , -P(0)(OR')0-, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group; and R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, C1-1 alkyl, and C2-14 alkenyl.

[0027] In certain embodiments, a subset of compounds of Formula (I) includes those of

-oxide, or a salt or isomer thereof, wherein R4 is as described herein. [0028] In certain embodiments, a subset of compounds of Formula (I) includes those of

or its N-oxide, or a salt or isomer thereof, wherein n is 2, 3, or 4; and m, R', R", and R2 through Re are as described herein. For example, each of R2 and R3 may be independently selected from the group consisting of C5-14 alkyl and C5-14 alkenyl.

[0029] In another embodiment, a subset of compounds of Formula (I) includes those of Formula (Ilf):

or its N-oxide, or a salt or isomer thereof, wherein n is 2, 3, or 4; and m, M, M", R', R", and R2 through Re are as described herein. For example, each of R2 and R3 may be independently selected from the group consisting of C5-14 alkyl and C5-14 alkenyl, and n is selected from 2, 3, and 4.

[0030] In another embodiment, a subset of compounds of Formula (I) includes those of Formula (Iig):

[0031] or its N-oxide, or a salt or isomer thereof, wherein 1, m, M, Mi, R', R2 and R3 are as described herein. For example, each of R2 and R3 may be independently selected from the group consisting of C5-14 alkyl and C5-14 alkenyl, 1 is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 and m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. In another aspect, the disclosure features a nanoparticle composition including a lipid component comprising a compound as described herein (e.g., a compound according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III)).

[0032] In yet another aspect, the disclosure features a pharmaceutical composition comprising a nanoparticle composition according to the preceding aspects and a

pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. For example, the pharmaceutical composition is refrigerated or frozen for storage and/or shipment (e.g., being stored at a temperature of 4 °C or lower, such as a temperature between about -150 °C and about 0 °C or between about -80 °C and about -20 °C (e.g., about -5 °C, -10 °C, -15 °C, -20 °C, -25 °C, -30 °C, -40 °C, -50 °C, -60 °C, -70 °C, -80 °C, -90 °C, - 130 °C or -150 °C). For example, the pharmaceutical composition is a solution that is refrigerated for storage and/or shipment at, for example, about -20° C, -30 °C, - 40 °C, -50 °C, -60 °C, -70 °C, or -80 °C.

[0033] In another aspect, the disclosure provides a method of delivering a therapeutic and/or prophylactic (e.g., an mRNA) to a cell (e.g. , a mammalian cell). This method includes the step of administering to a subject (e.g. , a mammal, such as a human) a nanoparticle composition including (i) a lipid component including a phospholipid (such as a polyunsaturated lipid), a PEG lipid, a structural lipid, and a compound of Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (He), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) and (ii) a therapeutic and/or prophylactic, in which administering involves contacting the cell with the nanoparticle composition, whereby the therapeutic and/or prophylactic is delivered to the cell.

[0034] In another aspect, the disclosure provides a method of producing a polypeptide of interest in a cell (e.g., a mammalian cell). The method includes the step of contacting the cell with a nanoparticle composition including (i) a lipid component including a phospholipid (such as a polyunsaturated lipid), a PEG lipid, a structural lipid, and a compound of Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) and (ii) an mRNA encoding the polypeptide of interest, whereby the mRNA is capable of being translated in the cell to produce the polypeptide.

[0035] In another aspect, the disclosure provides a method of treating a disease or disorder in a mammal (e.g., a human) in need thereof. The method includes the step of administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective amount of a nanoparticle composition including (i) a lipid component including a phospholipid (such as a polyunsaturated lipid), a PEG lipid, a structural lipid, and a compound of Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) and (ii) a therapeutic and/or prophylactic (e.g. , an mRNA). In some embodiments, the disease or disorder is characterized by dysfunctional or aberrant protein or polypeptide activity. For example, the disease or disorder is selected from the group consisting of rare diseases, infectious diseases, cancer and proliferative diseases, genetic diseases (e.g. , cystic fibrosis), autoimmune diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cardio- and renovascular diseases, and metabolic diseases.

[0036] In another aspect, the disclosure provides a nanoparticle composition for use in the treatment of a disease or disorder in a mammal (e.g. , a human) in need thereof. The nanoparticle composition includes (i) a lipid component including a phospholipid (such as a polyunsaturated lipid), a PEG lipid, a structural lipid, and a compound of Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) and (ii) a therapeutic and/or prophylactic (e.g. , an mR A). In some embodiments, the disease or disorder is characterized by dysfunctional or aberrant protein or polypeptide activity. For example, the disease or disorder is selected from the group consisting of rare diseases, infectious diseases, cancer and proliferative diseases, genetic diseases (e.g. , cystic fibrosis), autoimmune diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cardio- and reno-vascular diseases, and metabolic diseases.

[0037] In another aspect, the disclosure provides a nanoparticle composition for use in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of a disease or disorder in a mammal (e.g. , a human) in need thereof. The nanoparticle composition includes (i) a lipid component including a phospholipid (such as a polyunsaturated lipid), a PEG lipid, a structural lipid, and a compound of Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (lie), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) and (ii) a therapeutic and/or prophylactic (e.g. , an mRNA). In some embodiments, the disease or disorder is characterized by dysfunctional or aberrant protein or polypeptide activity. For example, the disease or disorder is selected from the group consisting of rare diseases, infectious diseases, cancer and proliferative diseases, genetic diseases (e.g. , cystic fibrosis), autoimmune diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cardio- and reno-vascular diseases, and metabolic diseases.

[0038] In another aspect, the disclosure provides the use of a nanoparticle composition in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment a disease or disorder in a mammal (e.g. , a human) in need thereof. The nanoparticle composition includes (i) a lipid component including a phospholipid (such as a polyunsaturated lipid), a PEG lipid, a structural lipid, and a compound of Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (lie), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) and (ii) a therapeutic and/or prophylactic (e.g. , an mRNA). In some embodiments, the disease or disorder is characterized by dysfunctional or aberrant protein or polypeptide activity. For example, the disease or disorder is selected from the group consisting of rare diseases, infectious diseases, cancer and proliferative diseases, genetic diseases (e.g. , cystic fibrosis), autoimmune diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cardio- and reno-vascular diseases, and metabolic diseases.

[0039] In another aspect, the disclosure provides a method of delivering (e.g. , specifically delivering) a therapeutic and/or prophylactic to a mammalian organ (e.g. , a liver, spleen, lung, or femur). This method includes the step of administering to a subject (e.g. , a mammal) a nanoparticle composition including (i) a lipid component including a phospholipid, a PEG lipid, a structural lipid, and a compound of Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) and (ii) a therapeutic and/or prophylactic (e.g. , an mRNA), in which administering involves contacting the cell with the nanoparticle composition, whereby the therapeutic and/or prophylactic is delivered to the target organ (e.g. , a liver, spleen, lung, or femur).

[0040] In another aspect, the disclosure features a method for the enhanced delivery of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic (e.g. , an mRNA) to a target tissue (e.g. , a liver, spleen, lung, or femur). This method includes administering to a subject (e.g. , a mammal) a nanoparticle composition, the composition including (i) a lipid component including a compound of Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III), a phospholipid, a structural lipid, and a PEG lipid; and (ii) a therapeutic and/or prophylactic, the administering including contacting the target tissue with the nanoparticle composition, whereby the therapeutic and/or prophylactic is delivered to the target tissue.

[0041] In yet another aspect, the disclosure features a method of lowering immunogenicity comprising introducing the nanoparticle composition of the disclosure into cells, wherein the nanoparticle composition reduces the induction of the cellular immune response of the cells to the nanoparticle composition, as compared to the induction of the cellular immune response in cells induced by a reference composition which comprises a reference lipid instead of a compound of Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (lie), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III). For example, the cellular immune response is an innate immune response, an adaptive immune response, or both.

[0042] The disclosure also includes methods of synthesizing a compound of Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) and methods of making a nanoparticle composition including a lipid component comprising the compound of Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Brief Description of the Drawings [0043] Figure 1 shows the results of pretreating non-human primates with methotrexate or dexamethasone prior to administration of a nanoparticle composition including MC3.

[0044] Figure 2 shows the hEPO mRNA expression measured after intravenous administration of various nanoparticle compositions at a 0.01 mpk dose with 60 minutes infusion to naive cynomolgus monkeys.

[0045] Figures 3-6 respectively shows the results of hEPO expression measured upon intravenous administration of various nanoparticle compositions including Compounds 26, 18, 25, and MC3 to rat at various doses.

[0046] Figure 7 shows the area under the curve (AUC) for nanoparticle compositions including Compounds 18, 25, and 26 and MC3 at various doses between 0.005 mpk and 2 mpk.

[0047] Figure 8 shows the results of luciferase expression measured upon intramuscular administration of various nanoparticle compositions including MC3, Compounds 168-170, and 173- 175 to mice at 0.01 mpk at various time points: 3 hr (left block), 6 hr (middle block) and 24 hr (right block). The numbers 1-7 in this figure correspond to MC3, Compounds 168-170, and 173- 175 respectively.

[0048] Figure 9 shows the results of hEPO expression measured upon intramuscular administration of various nanoparticle compositions including MC3, Compounds 18, 25, 30, 108- 112, 60, and 122 to mice at 0.01 mpk at various time points: 3 hr (left block), 6 hr (middle block) and 24 hr (right block). The numbers 1-1 1 in this figure correspond to MC3, Compounds 18, 25, 30, 108-1 12, 60, and 122 respectively.

[0049] Figure 10 shows the results of luciferase expression (total flux) measured upon intravenous administration of various nanoparticle compositions including MC3 or various compounds disclosed herein. The numbers 1-12 in this figure correspond to Compound 18, MC3, Compounds 48-50, 54, 1 1 1, 60, 75, 68, 66, 128, 65, 130, 133-135, 147, 96, and 151 respectively.

[0050] Figures 1 1A and 1 IB show the results of anti-HA (anti-hemagglutinin) antibody expression measured after intravenous administration of various nanoparticle compositions including MC3 and Compound 18 at a 0.1 mpk (Figure 11 A) or 0.3 mpk (Figure 1 IB) dose with 60 minutes infusion to naive cynomolgus monkeys.

[0051] Figures 12A-12C are a series of graphs summarizing luciferase expression levels at (Figure 12A) 3h, (Figure 12B) 6h and (Figure 12C) 24h after intravenous administration of nanoparticle compositions containing compounds of the disclosure to mice. Total light flux values were acquired via body luminescent imaging (BLI). In the Figures, the numbers 1-14 refer to the compositions containing Compounds 160, 98, 161-165, 171, 172, 183-186, and MC3 respectively.

[0052] Figures 13A-13C is a series of graphs summarizing luciferase expression levels at (Figure 13 A) 3h, (Figure 13B) 6h, and (Figure 13C) 24h after intravenous administration of nanoparticle compositions containing compounds of the disclosure to mice. Total light flux values were acquired via body luminescent imaging (BLI). PBS (phosphate buffered saline) was used as a control. The results are presented on a logarithmic scale. In these Figures, the numbers 1-15 refer to the compositions containing MC3, Compounds 18, 1 1 1, 168-170, 174, 175, 178, 179, 181, 182, 218, 198, and PBS respectively.

[0053] Figures 14A-14C is a series of graphs summarizing luciferase expression levels in (Figure 14A) liver (Figure 14B) spleen, and (Figure 14C) kidney, ex vivo, 6h after intravenous administration of nanoparticle compositions containing compounds of the disclosure to mice. Total light flux values were acquired via body luminescent imaging (BLI). PBS (phosphate buffered saline) was used as a control. In these Figures, the numbers 1-15 refer to the compositions containing MC3, Compounds 18, 1 1 1, 168-170, 174, 175, 178, 179, 181, 182, 218, 198, and PBS respectively.

[0054] Figures 15A and 15B is a pair of graphs showing activated B-cell frequencies in the spleens of CD-I mice dosed with compounds of the disclosure, compared to MC3, and compared to mice not having received any treatment (naive test subject). PBS is used as control. Figure 15A shows the percentage of CD 19+ cells. Figure 15B shows the percentage of CD 19+ CD69+ CD86+ cells. Numbers 1-16 refer to compositions containing an mRNA expressing luciferase the following: 1 : MC3, 2: Compound 18, 3 : Compound 1 1 1 ; 4: Compound 168; 5 : Compound 169; 6: Compound 170; 7: Compound 174; 8: Compound 175; 9: Compound 178; 10: Compound 179; 1 1 : Compound 181 ; 12: Compound 182; 13 : Compound 218; 14:

Compound 198; 15 : PBS; 16: treatment naive subject.

[0055] Figures 16A and 16B are a pair of graphs showing activated B-cell frequencies in the spleens of CD-I mice dosed with compounds of the disclosure, compared to MC3, and compared to mice not having received any treatment (naive test subject). PBS is used as control. Figure 16A shows the percentage of CD 19+ cells. Figure 16B shows the percentage of CD 19+ CD69+ CD86+ cells. Numbers 1-14 refer to compositions containing an mRNA expressing luciferase and the following: 1 : Compound 147, 2: Compound 184, 3 : Compound 232; 4:

Compound 189; 5 : Compound 200; 6: Compound 233; 7: Compound 234; 8: Compound 235; 9: Compound 237; 10: Compound 239; 11 : Compound 243; 12: MC3; 13 : PBS; 14: treatment naive subject. [0056] Figure 17 is a graph showing the hEPO mRNA expression in CD 1 -mice measured 3h (left block), 6h (middle block) and 24h (right block) after intravenous administration of various nanoparticle compositions. Numbers 1-13 refer to compositions containing an mRNA expressing hEPO and the following: 1 : Compound 147, 2: Compound 184, 3 : Compound 232; 4: Compound 189; 5 : Compound 200; 6: Compound 233; 7: Compound 234; 8: Compound 235; 9: Compound 237; 10: Compound 239; 11 : Compound 243; 12: MC3; 13 : PBS.

[0057] Figures 18A and 18B show the results of luciferase expression measured upon intramuscular administration of various nanoparticle compositions to CD-I mice at 0.01 mpk. Figure 18A is a bar graph showing total flux at 6 hr after administration. The numbers above each bar indicate the expression ratio relative to MC3. Figure 18B shows the total flux at 3h, 6h, and 24h after administration. Numbers 1-1 1 in the Figures refer to compositions containing the following: 1 : MC3, 2: Compound 143, 3 : Compound 49; 4: Compound 1 13; 5 : Compound 61 ; 6: Compound 72; 7: Compound 75; 8: Compound 71 ; 9: Compound 128; 10: Compound 156; 1 1 : Compound 157.

[0058] Figures 19A and 19B show the results of luciferase expression measured upon subcutaneous administration of various nanoparticle compositions to CD-I mice at 0.05 mpk. Figure 19A is a bar graph showing total flux at 6 hr after administration. The numbers above each bar indicate the expression ratio relative to MC3. Figure 19B shows the total flux at 3h, 6h, and 24h after administration. Numbers 1-12 in the Figures refer to compositions containing the following: 1 : PBS, 2: MC3, 3 : Compound 25; 4: Compound 30; 5 : Compound 20; 6: Compound 110; 7: Compound 1 12; 8: Compound 1 13; 9: Compound 72; 10: Compound 75; 1 1 : Compound 122, 12: Compound 24.

[0059] Figures 20A-20C is a series of graphs summarizing luciferase expression levels in (Figure 20A) spleen (Figure 20B) liver, and (Figure 20C) at the injection site, ex vivo, 24h after administration of nanoparticle compositions containing compounds of the disclosure to CD-I mice. Total light flux values were acquired via body luminescent imaging (BLI). PBS

(phosphate buffered saline) was used as a control. Numbers 1-12 in the Figures refer to compositions containing the following: 1 : PBS, 2: MC3, 3 : Compound 25; 4: Compound 30; 5 : Compound 20; 6: Compound 1 10; 7: Compound 1 12; 8: Compound 1 13; 9: Compound 72; 10: Compound 75; 1 1 : Compound 122, 12: Compound 24.

[0060] Figures 21A-21J is a series of graphs illustrating the cytokine expression induced by compositions comprising lipids of the disclosure. Figure 21A: G-CSF (12); Figure 21B: IFN- gamma (38); Figure 21C: MCP-1 (51); Figure 21D: IFN-alpha (30); Figure 21E: IL-6 (28); Figure 21F: IL-12p70 (39); Figure 21G: IL-10 (22); Figure 21H: MIP-1 beta (72); Figure 211: TNF-alpha (45); Figure 21 J: RANTES (44). Numbers 1-12 in the Figures refer to compositions containing the following: 1 : PBS, 2: MC3, 3 : Compound 25; 4: Compound 30; 5: Compound 20; 6: Compound 1 10; 7: Compound 1 12; 8: Compound 113; 9: Compound 72; 10: Compound 75; 1 1 : Compound 122, 12: Compound 24.

[0061] Figures 22A-22C are a series of graphs summarizing luciferase expression levels at (Figure 22A) 3h, (Figure 22B) 6h, and (Figure 22C) 24h after subcutaneous administration of nanoparticle compositions containing compounds of the disclosure to mice. Total light flux values were acquired via body luminescent imaging (BLI). PBS (phosphate buffered saline) was used as a control. Numbers 1-12 in the Figures refer to compositions containing the following: 1 : PBS, 2: MC3, 3 : Compound 168; 4: Compound 23; 5 : Compound 19; 6: Compound 108; 7: Compound 109; 8: Compound 1 1 1; 9: Compound 60; 10: Compound 61 ; 1 1 : Compound 69, 12: Compound 128.

[0062] Figure 23 shows the results of hEPO expression measured upon subcutaneous administration of various nanoparticle compositions including compounds of the disclosure to mice at 0.05 mpk at various time points: 3 hr (left block), 6 hr (middle block) and 24 hr (right block). The numbers 1-1 1 in this figure correspond to MC3, PBS, and Compounds 18, 25, 48, 49, 1 1 1, 60, 168, 207, and 233, respectively.

[0063] Figure 24 shows the results of luciferase expression measured upon intramuscular administration of various nanoparticle compositions including compounds of the disclosure to mice at 0.01 mpk at various time points: 3 hr (left block), 6 hr (middle block) and 24 hr (right block). The numbers 1-9 in this figure correspond to MC3, and Compounds 178, 181, 182, 218, 198, 200, 233, and 239, respectively.

[0064] Figure 25 shows the results of hEPO expression measured upon intravenous administration of nanoparticle compositions containing Compound 18, or MC3, and modified mRNAs wherein each uridine was replaced with Nl -methyl pseudouridine or wherein each uridine was replaced with 5-methoxy uridine, to CD-I mice at 0.5 mpk at 3h, 6h, and 24h after administration. The numbers 1-4 in the Figure refer to compositions containing the following: 1 : A modified mRNAs wherein each uridine was replaced with 5-methoxy uridine, and MC3; 2: A modified mRNAs wherein each uridine was replaced with N l -methyl pseudouridine, and MC3; 3 : A modified mRNAs wherein each uridine was replaced with 5-methoxy uridine, and

Compound 18; 4: A modified mRNAs wherein each uridine was replaced with Nl -methyl pseudouridine, and Compound 18.

[0065] Figure 26 is graph showing B-cell activation in mouse splenocytes dosed with nanoparticle compositions containing Compound 18, or MC3, and modified mRNAs wherein each uridine was replaced with Nl -methyl pseudouridine or wherein each uridine was replaced with 5-methoxy uridine. PBS is used as control. The numbers 1-5 in the Figure refer to compositions containing the following: 1 : A modified mR As wherein each uridine was replaced with 5-methoxy uridine, and MC3; 2: A modified mRNAs wherein each uridine was replaced with Nl -methyl pseudouridine, and MC3; 3 : A modified mRNAs wherein each uridine was replaced with 5-methoxy uridine, and Compound 18; 4: A modified mRNAs wherein each uridine was replaced with Nl -methyl pseudouridine, and Compound 18; 5: PBS.

[0066] Figure 27 is a graph showing the hEPO mRNA expression in CD 1 -mice measured 3h (left block), 6h (middle block) and 24h (right block) after subcutaneous administration of various nanoparticle compositions at 0.5 mpk. Numbers 1-9 refer to compositions containing an mRNA expressing hEPO and the following: 1 : PBS, 2: Compound 18, 3 : Compound 30; 4: Compound 96; 5 : Compound 151 ; 6: Compound 98; 7: Compound 163; 8: Compound 164; 9: Compound 165.

[0067] Figures 28A-28J are a series of graphs illustrating the cytokine expression induced by compositions comprising lipids of the disclosure and a modified mRNA expressing hEPO, wherein each uridine was replaced with Nl -methyl pseudouridine, measured 6h after subcutaneous administration to CD-I mice. Figure 28A: G-CSF; Figure 28B: IFN-gamma; Figure 28C: IFN-alpha; Figure 28D: IL-12p70; Figure 28E: IP-10; F: IL-6; Figure 28G: MCP-1 ; Figure 28H: MIP-lbeta; Figure 281: RANTES; Figure 28J: TNF-alpha. Numbers 1-9 in the Figure refer to compositions containing the following: 1 : PBS, 2: Compound 18, 3 : Compound 30; 4: Compound 96; 5 : Compound 151; 6: Compound 98; 7: Compound 163; 8: Compound 164; 9: Compound 165

[0068] Figures 29A - 29C are a series of graphs illustrating the optimization of the efficiency and clearance of amino lipids. Figure 29A is a whole body luciferase

bioluminescence of novel LNPs versus MC3 LNPs, measured in CD-I mice (n = 6), 6h after intravenous administration of a 0.5 mg/kg hEPO mRNA in lipid. The graph shows the serum hEPO concentrations; error bars indicate standard deviation of the ratio of novel lipid expression versus MC3 expression. * p < 0.05, * * p < 0.01, * * *p < 0.001, n.s. = not statistically significant. Numbers 1-9 refer to compositions containing: 1 : Compound 281 ; 2: Compound 138; 3 : Compound 136; 4: Compound 6; 5 : Compound 18; 6: Compound 29; 7: Compound 14; 8: Compound 25; and 9: Compound 26. Figure 29B summarizes the levels of compound 18 and compound 25, compared to MC3, measured in liver tissue from Sprague Dawley rats (n = 3 per time point) administered with a 0.2 mg/kg dose of an LNP containing hEPO mRNA. p < 0.05 for Compound 18 and Compound 25 AUC relative to MC3. Figure 29C is a graph showing hEPO expression in Sprague Dawley rats. The hEPO serum concentrations were measured following intravenous administration of a 1 mg/kg dose of an LNP containing compound 18, compound 25, compound 26 or MC3, and a hEPO mRNA (n =3).

[0069] Figures 30A-30C are a series of graphs showing the pharmacokinetic and expression profile of Compound 18 after multiple doses. Figure 30A is a comparison of the tissue distribution of MC3 and Compound 18 after intravenous administration of three bolus doses containing 0.05 mg/kg mRNA to CD- I mice (n = 3 per timepoint), dosed weekly. Figure 30B shows the hEPO serum concentration 6 h after intravenous administration of bolus doses containing 0.5 mg/kg of an LNP containing hEPO mRNA to CD-I mice (n = 8), weekly dosing. Figure 30C illustrates liver tissue clearance of compound 18 and its primary metabolite, compound 166, after administration of doses containing 0.25 mg/kg of mRNA, to CD-I mice (n = 3 per timepoint), weekly dosing.

[0070] Figures 31A-31C is a series of graphs illustrating the expression profile for lipid nanoparticles of the disclosure in a cynomolgus money study. Figure 31 A illustrates hEPO serum concentrations after delivery of 0.01 mg/kg hEPO mRNA in MC3 or Compound 18. The liquid nanoparticles were administered intravenously, via a 60 min. infusion (n = 3). p < 0.05 for Compound 18 AUC relative to MC3. Figure 3 IB shows Human IgG influenza A antibody serum concentrations after delivery of 0.3 mg/kg antibody mRNA in MC3 or Compound 18 LNPs, administered intravenously, via a 60 min. infusion (n = 3), p < 0.05 for Compound 18 AUC relative to MC3. Figure 31C shows hEPO serum concentrations after delivery of 0.2 mg/kg hEPO mRNA in Compound 18 LNPs, weekly dosing, administered intravenously, via a 60 min. infusion (n =4).

[0071] Figures 32A-32C are a series of graphs summarizing the results of a one month toxicology evaluation in rat and non-human primate. PBS (phosphate buffered saline) was used as a control. Figure 32A shows the serum alanine aminotransferase levels in a Sprague Dawley rat, administered intravenously via a 10 min. infusion, dosed weekly for 5 weeks. The serum levels were measured 24 h post fifth dose (n = 10) No statistical difference between PBS and each dose level was observed. Figure 32B shows the serum aspartate aminotransferase levels in a Sprague Dawley rat, administered intravenously via a 10 min. infusion, dosed weekly for 5 weeks. The serum levels were measured 24 h post fifth dose (n = 10). * p < 0.05, no statistical difference between PBS and 0.05 and 2.0 mg/kg dose. Figure 32C shows the serum alanine aminotransferase levels in cynomolgus monkeys, administered with 1 mg/kg mRNA, intravenously by 60 min infusion, dosed weekly. The serum levels were measured 24 post fifth dose (n = 4). No statistical difference between PBS pre-dose and day 30 levels with Compound 18 was observed. Figure 32D shows the serum aspartate aminotransferase levels in cynomolgus monkeys, administered with 1 mg/kg mRNA, intravenously by 60 min infusion, dosed weekly. The serum levels were measured 24 post fifth dose (n = 4). No statistical difference between PBS pre-dose and day 30 levels with Compound 18 was observed.

[0072] Figures 33A and 33B are a pair of graphs summarizing the results of a one month toxicology evaluation in rats and non-human primates. Figure 33A shows the C5b9 serum concentration in cynomolgus monkeys administered with 1 mg/kg mRNA, on day 1 and day 29 (n = 4). No statistical difference was observed between PBS and Compound 18 at all timepoints. Figure 33B shows the MCP-1 serum concentration in cynomolgus monkeys administered with 1 mg/kg mRNA, on day 1 and day 29. n = 4, * p < 0.05, no statistical difference between PBS and Compound 18 at any other timepoint.

[0073] Figures 34A-34C are a series of fixed cell images of the endosomal escape efficiency of lipid nanoparticles of the disclosure. He La cells were transfected with Rhodamine labeled MC3 and Compound 18 LNPs encapsulating Luciferase mRNA, and processed for single molecule FISH (smFISH, red) after 4 h incubation, alongside cells electroporated with unformulated mRNA. The mRNA molecules that egressed the endocytic organelles into the cytosol are shown in green (image analysis overlay). Endosomal escape efficiency was evaluated by computing the ratio between the number of cytosolic mRNA and the number of internalized LNPs per cell. Figure 34A is an image showing the electroporated HeLa cells. Figure 34B is an image showing MC3 treated HeLa cells. Figure 34C is an image showing Compound 18 treated HeLa cells.

[0074] Figures 35A and 35B are a pair of graphs comparing the tissue distribution of MC3 and compound 18. Figure 35 A shows the tissue distribution of MC3 and compound 18 after three intravenous 0.05 mg/kg of mRNA administered to CD-I mice (n = 3 per timepoint).

Figure 35B shows the tissue distribution of MC3 and compound 18, 12 h after administration of 0.2 mg/kg mRNA to cynomolgus monkeys (n = 2).

[0075] Figure 36 is a graph illustrating Human IgG expression in a cynomolgus monkey administered with 0.1 mg/kg human IgG mRNA in a composition comprising MC3 or compound 18, intravenously via a 60 min. infusion (n = 3).

[0076] Figure 37 is a series of graphs illustrating MC3 single cell necrosis in rat liver and liver enzyme. The top row is a pair of images of livers of rats administered with 0.3 mg/kg of a liquid nanoparticle (LNP) not containing an mRNA (right) and PBS (phosphate buffered saline) as a control (left). The bottom row is a pair of graphs showing expression of ALT (left) and AST(right) in the liver following administration of a 0.3 mg/kg of a MC3 -based LNP containing an mPvNA. ALT and AST were elevated and pathology showed evidence of necrosis.

[0077] Figure 38 is a graph showing mRNA levels in NHP after repeat dosing over the course of 29 days.

[0078] Figures 39A and 39B are a pair of graphs showing hEPO expression in ApoE knockout mice and LDLr knockout mice administered with compound 18 based LNPs. Figure 39A shows hEPO expression in ApoE knockout mice. Figure 39B shows hEPO expression in LDLr knockout mice

Detailed Description

[0079] The disclosure relates to novel lipids and lipid nanoparticle compositions including a novel lipid. The disclosure also provides methods of delivering a therapeutic and/or prophylactic to a mammalian cell, specifically delivering a therapeutic and/or prophylactic to a mammalian organ, producing a polypeptide of interest in a mammalian cell, and treating a disease or disorder in a mammal in need thereof. For example, a method of producing a polypeptide of interest in a cell involves contacting a nanoparticle composition comprising an mRNA with a mammalian cell, whereby the mRNA may be translated to produce the polypeptide of interest. A method of delivering a therapeutic and/or prophylactic to a mammalian cell or organ may involve administration of a nanoparticle composition including the therapeutic and/or prophylactic to a subject, in which the administration involves contacting the cell or organ with the composition, whereby the therapeutic and/or prophylactic is delivered to the cell or organ.

Lipids

[0080] The present disclosure provides lipids including a central amine moiety and at least one biodegradable group. The lipids described herein may be advantageously used in lipid nanoparticle compositions for the delivery of therapeutic and/or prophylactics to mammalian cells or organs. For example, the lipids described herein have little or no immunogenicity. For example, the lipid compound of any of Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) has a lower immunogenicity as compared to a reference lipid (e.g., MC3, KC2, or DLinDMA). For example, a formulation comprising a lipid disclosed herein and a therapeutic or prophylactic agent has an increased therapeutic index as compared to a corresponding formulation which comprise a reference lipid (e.g., MC3, KC2, or DLinDMA) and the same therapeutic or prophylactic agent.

[0081] In a first aspect of the invention, the compounds described herein are of Formula (I):

or their N-oxides, or salts or isomers thereof, wherein:

Ri is selected from the group consisting of C5-30 alkyl, C5-20 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R' M'R' ;

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R* OR", or R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle;

R4 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C3-6

carbocycle, -(CH 2 )nQ, -(CH 2 )nCHQR, -(CH 2 )oC(Rio)2(CH 2 )n-oQ,

-CHQR, -CQ(R)2, and unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, where Q is selected from a carbocycle, heterocycle, -OR, -0(CH 2 )nN(R) 2 , -C(0)OR, -OC(0)R, -CX3, -CX2H, -CXH 2 , -CN,

-N(R) 2 , -C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(S)N(R) 2 , -N(R)Rs, -N(R)S(0) 2 R8, -0(CH 2 )nOR, -N(R)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -OC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)R, -N(OR)S(0) 2 R, -N(OR)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)N(R) 2 ,

-N(OR)C(S)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -C(=NR 9 )R, -C(0)N(R)OR, and -C(R)N(R) 2 C(0)OR, each o is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5;

each R5 is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each Re is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R')-,

-N(R')C(0)-, -C(O)-, -C(S)-, -C(S)S-, -SC(S)-, -CH(OH)-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S(0) 2 -, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group, in which M" is a bond, Ci-13 alkyl or C2-13 alkenyl;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

Rs is selected from the group consisting of C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, NO2, Ci-6 alkyl, -OR, -S(0)2R, -S(0)2N(R)2, C2-6 alkenyl, C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

Rio is selected from the group consisting of H, OH, C1-3 alkyl, and C2-3 alkenyl; each R is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, (CH 2 )qOR*, and H,

and each q is independently selected from 1, 2, and 3;

each R' is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-18 alkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and H;

each R" is independently selected from the group consisting of C3-15 alkyl and

C3-15 alkenyl;

each R* is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-12 alkyl and

C2-12 alkenyl;

each Y is independently a C3-6 carbocycle;

each X is independently selected from the group consisting of F, CI, Br, and I; and m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1, 12, and 13; and wherein when R4

is -(CH 2 )nQ, -(CH 2 )nCHQR, -CHQR, or -CQ(R) 2 , then (i) Q is not -N(R) 2 when n is 1, 2, 3, 4 or

5, or (ii) Q is not 5, 6, or 7-membered heterocycloalkyl when n is 1 or 2.

[0082] Another aspe a (III):

or a salt or isomer thereof, wherein

or a salt or isomer thereof, wherein

Ri is selected from the group consisting of C5-30 alkyl, C5-20 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R' M'R';

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R*OR", or R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle;

R4 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C3-6

carbocycle, -(CH 2 )nQ, -(CH 2 )nCHQR, -(CH 2 )oC(Rio)2(CH 2 )n-oQ,

-CHQR, -CQ(R)2, and unsubstituted Ci-6 alkyl, where Q is selected from a carbocycle, heterocycle, -OR, -0(CH 2 )nN(R) 2 , -C(0)OR, -OC(0)R, -CX 3 , -CX2H, -CXH 2 , -CN, -N(R) 2 , -C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(S)N(R) 2 ,

N(R)Rs, -N(R)S(0) 2 R8, -0(CH 2 )nOR, -N(R)C(=NR 9 )N(R)2, -N(R)C(=CHR9)N(R) 2 ,

-OC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)R, -N(OR)S(0) 2 R, -N(OR)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(S)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -C(=NR 9 )R, -C(0)N(R)OR, and -C(R)N(R) 2 C(0)OR, each o is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5;

Rx is selected from the group consisting of Ci-6 alkyl, C 2 -6 alkenyl, -(CH 2 ) r OH,

wherein r is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6;

each R5 is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

each Re is independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-3 alkyl, C2-3 alkenyl, and H;

M and M' are independently selected from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R')-, -N(R')C(0)-, -C(O)-, -C(S)-, -C(S)S-, -SC(S)-, -CH(OH)-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S(0) 2 -, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group, in which M" is a bond, Ci-13 alkyl or C2-13 alkenyl;

R7 is selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C 2 -3 alkenyl, and H;

Rs is selected from the group consisting of C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, CN, N0 2 , Ci-6 alkyl, -OR, -S(0) 2 R, -S(0) 2 N(R) 2 , C2-6 alkenyl, C3-6 carbocycle and heterocycle;

Rio is selected from the group consisting of H, OH, C1-3 alkyl, and C 2 -3 alkenyl;

each R is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-3 alkyl, C 2 -3 alkenyl, (CH 2 )qOR*, and H,

and each q is independently selected from 1, 2, and 3;

each R' is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-18 alkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and H;

each R" is independently selected from the group consisting of C3-15 alkyl and

C3-15 alkenyl;

each R* is independently selected from the group consisting of Ci-i 2 alkyl and

C2-12 alkenyl;

each Y is independently a C3-6 carbocycle;

each X is independently selected from the group consisting of F, CI, Br, and I; and m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13.

[0083] In certain embodiments, a subset of compounds of Formula (I) includes those of Formula (IA):

or its N-oxide, or a salt or isomer thereof, wherein 1 is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5; m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9; Mi is a bond or M'; R4 is hydrogen, unsubstituted C1-3 alkyl, -(CH 2 )oC(Rio)2(CH 2 )n-oQ, or -(CH 2 )nQ, in which Q is

OH, -NHC(S)N(R) 2 , -NHC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)R 8 ,

-NHC(=NR9)N(R) 2 , -NHC(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -OC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)OR,

heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl; M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R')-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group,; and R 2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, and C2-14 alkenyl. For example, m is 5, 7, or 9. For example, Q is OH, -NHC(S)N(R) 2 , or -NHC(0)N(R) 2 . For example, Q is -N(R)C(0)R, or -N(R)S(0) 2 R.

[0084] In certain embodiments, a subset of compounds of Formula (I) includes those of

(IB), or its N-oxide, or a salt or isomer thereof in which all variables are as defined herein. For example, m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9; M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R , -P(0)(OR')0-,

group, and a heteroaryl group; and R 2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, and C2-14 alkenyl. For example, m is 5, 7, or 9. In certain

s of Formula (I) includes those of Formula (II):

(II), or its N-oxide, or a salt or isomer thereof, wherein 1 is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5; Mi is a bond or M'; R4 is hydrogen, unsubstituted Ci- 3 alkyl, -(CH 2 ) 0 C(Rio) 2 (CH 2 ) n -oQ, or -(CH 2 ) n Q, in which n is 2, 3, or 4, and Q is OH, -NHC(S)N(R) 2 , -NHC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)R 8 ,

-NHC(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , -NHC(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -OC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)OR,

heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl; M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R')-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group; and R 2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, and C2-14 alkenyl.

[0085] The compounds of any one of formula (I) or (IA) include one or more of the following features when applicable.

[0086] In some embodiments, Mi is M' .

[0087] In some embodiments, M and M' are independently -C(0)0- or -OC(O)-.

[0088] In some embodiments, at least one of M and M' is -C(0)0- or -OC(O)-.

[0089] In certain embodiments, at least one of M and M' is -OC(O)-.

[0090] In certain embodiments, M is -OC(O)- and M' is -C(0)O. In some embodiments, M is -C(0)0- and M' is -OC(O)-. In certain embodiments, M and M' are each -OC(O)-. In some embodiments, M and M' are each -C(0)O.

[0091] In certain embodiments, at least one of M and M' is -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-.

[0092] In some embodiments, M and M' are independently -S-S-.

[0093] In some embodiments, at least one of M and M' is -S-S.

[0094] In some embodiments, one of M and M' is -C(0)0- or -OC(O)- and the other is -S-S-. For example, M is -C(0)0- or -OC(O)- and M' is -S-S- or M'

is -C(0)0- or -OC(O)- and M is -S-S-

[0095] In some embodiments, one of M and M' is -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, in which M" is a bond, Ci-13 alkyl or C2-13 alkenyl. In other embodiments, M" is Ci-6 alkyl or C2-6 alkenyl. In certain embodiments, M" is Ci-4 alkyl or C 2 -4 alkenyl.

[0096] In some embodiments, 1 is 1, 3, or 5.

[0097] In some embodiments, R4 is hydrogen.

[0098] In some embodiments, R4 is not hydrogen.

[0099] In some embodiments, R4 is unsubstituted methyl or -(CH 2 ) n Q, in which Q is

OH, -NHC(S)N(R) 2 , -NHC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)R, or -N(R)S(0) 2 R.

[00100] In some embodiments, Q is OH.

[00101] In some embodiments, Q is -NHC(S)N(R) 2 .

[00102] In some embodiments, Q is -NHC(0)N(R) 2 .

[00103] In some embodiments, Q is -N(R)C(0)R.

[00104] In some embodiments, Q is -N(R)S(0) 2 R. [00105] In some embodiments, Q is -0(CH 2 )nN(R) 2 .

[00106] In some embodiments, Q is -0(CH 2 )nOR.

[00107] In some embodiments, Q is -N(R)Rs.

[00108] In some embodiments, Q is -NHC(=NR 9 )N(R)2.

[00109] In some embodiments, Q is -NHC(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 .

[00110] In some embodiments, Q is -OC(0)N(R) 2 .

[00111] In some embodiments, Q is -N(R)C(0)OR.

[00112] In some embodiments, n is 2.

[00113] In some embodiments, n is 3.

[00114] In some embodiments, n is 4.

[00115] In some embodiments, Mi is absent.

[00116] In some embodiments, at least one R5 is hydroxyl. For example, one R5 is hydroxyl.

[00117] In some embodiments, at least one R6 is hydroxyl. For example, one Re is hydroxyl.

[00118] In some embodiments one of R5 and Re is hydroxyl. For example, one R5 is hydroxyl and each R6 is hydrogen. For example, one Re is hydroxyl and each R5 is hydrogen.

[00119] In some embodiments, Rx is Ci-6 alkyl. In some embodiments, Rx is C1-3 alkyl. For example, R x is methyl. For example, Rx is ethyl. For example, Rx is propyl.

[00120] In some embodiments, Rx is -(CH 2 ) r OH and, r is 1, 2 or 3. For example, Rx is methanoyl. For example, Rx is ethanoyl. For example, R x is propanoyl.

[00121] In some embodiments, Rx is -(CH 2 ) r NR 2 , r is 1, 2 or 3 and each R is H or methyl.

For example, R x is methanamino, methylmethanamino, or dimethylmethanamino. For example,

Rx is aminomethanyl, methylaminomethanyl, or dimethylaminomethanyl. For example, R x is aminoethanyl, methylaminoethanyl, or dimethylaminoethanyl. For example, Rx is

aminopropanyl, methylaminopropanyl, or dimethylaminopropanyl.

[00122] In some embodiments, R' is Ci-is alkyl, C2-18 alkenyl, -R*YR", or -YR".

[00123] In some embodiments, R 2 and R3 are independently C3-14 alkyl or C3-14 alkenyl.

[00124] In one a (Ha),

or their N-oxides, or salts or isomers thereof, wherein R4 is as described herein.

[00125] In another embodiment, the compounds of Formula (I) are of Formula (lib),

or their N-oxides, or salts or isomers thereof, wherein R4 is as described herein.

):

(lie) (He) or their N-oxides, or salts or isomers thereof, wherein R4 is as described herein.

[00127] In another embodiment, the compounds of Formula (I) are of Formula (Ilf) :

(Ilf) or their N-oxides, or salts or isomers thereof, wherein M is -C(0)0- or -OC(O)-, M" is Ci-6 alkyl or C2-6 alkenyl, R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of C5-14 alkyl and C5-14 alkenyl, and n is selected from 2, 3, and 4.

[00128] In a further embodiment, the compounds of Formula (I) are of Formula (lid),

or their N-oxides, or salts or isomers thereof, wherein n is 2, 3, or 4; and m, R', R", and R2 through R6 are as described herein. For example, each of R2 and R3 may be independently selected from the group consisting of C5-14 alkyl and C5-14 alkenyl.

[00129] In a further embodiment, the compounds of Formula (I) are of Formula (Ilg),

selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5; m is selected from 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9; Mi is a bond or M'; M and M' are independently selected

from -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-, -C(0)N(R , -P(0)(OR')0-, -S-S-, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group; and R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-14 alkyl, and C2-14 alkenyl. For example, M" is Ci-6 alkyl (e.g., Ci-4 alkyl) or C2-6 alkenyl (e.g. C2-4 alkenyl). For example, R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of C5-14 alkyl and C5-14 alkenyl.

[00130] The compounds of any one of formulae (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), and (Ill)include one or more of the following features when applicable.

[00131] In some embodiments, R4 is selected from the group consisting of a C3-6 carbocycle, -(CH 2 )nQ, -(CH 2 )nCHQR, -(CH2)oC(Rio)2(CH 2 )n-oQ, -CHQR, and -CQ(R) 2 , where Q is selected from a

C3-6 carbocycle, 5- to 14- membered aromatic or non-aromatic heterocycle having one or more heteroatoms selected from N, O, S, and P, -OR, -0(CH 2 )nN(R) 2 , -C(0)OR, -OC(0)R, -CX3, -CX2H, -CXH2, -CN, -N(R) 2 , -N(R)S(0) 2 Rs, -C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)C( 0)N(R) 2 ,

-N(R)C(S)N(R) 2 , and -C(R)N(R) 2 C(0)OR, each o is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

[00132] In another embodiment, R4 is selected from the group consisting of a C3-6 carbocycle, -(CH 2 )nQ, -(CH 2 )nCHQR, -(CH 2 )oC(Rio)2(CH 2 )n-oQ, -CHQR, and -CQ(R) 2 , where Q is selected from a C3-6 carbocycle, a 5 - to 14-membered heteroaryl having one or more heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, -OR, -0(CH 2 )nN(R) 2 , -C(0)OR, - OC(0)R, -CX3, -CX2H, -CXH2, -CN,

-C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)S(0) 2 Rs, -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(S)N(R) 2 , -C(R)N(R)2C(0)OR, and a 5- to 14-membered heterocycloalkyl having one or more heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S which is substituted with one or more substituents selected from oxo (=0), OH, amino, and C1-3 alkyl, each o is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. [00133] In another embodiment, R4 is selected from the group consisting of a C3-6 carbocycle, -(CH 2 )nQ, -(CH 2 )nCHQR, -(CH 2 )oC(Rio)2(CH 2 )n-oQ, -CHQR, and -CQ(R) 2 , where Q is selected from a C3-6 carbocycle, a 5 - to 14-membered heterocycle having one or more heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, -OR, -0(CH 2 ) n N(R) 2 , -C(0)OR, - OC(0)R, -CX3, -CX 2 H, -CXH 2 , -CN,

-C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)S(0) 2 R 8 , -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(S)N(R) 2 , -C(R)N(R) 2 C(0)OR, each o is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5; and when Q is a 5- to 14-membered heterocycle and (i) R4 is -(CH 2 ) n Q in which n is 1 or 2, or (ii) R4 is -(CH 2 )nCHQR in which n is 1, or (iii) R4 is -CHQR, and -CQ(R) 2 , then Q is either a 5- to 14-membered heteroaryl or 8- to 14-membered heterocycloalkyl.

[00134] In another embodiment, R4 is selected from the group consisting of a C3-6 carbocycle, -(CH 2 ) n Q, -(CH 2 ) n CHQR, -(CH 2 ) 0 C(Rio) 2 (CH 2 ) n -oQ, -CHQR, and -CQ(R) 2 , where Q is selected from a C3-6 carbocycle, a 5- to 14-membered heteroaryl having one or more heteroatoms selected from N, O, and S, -OR, -0(CH 2 ) n N(R) 2 , -C(0)OR, - OC(0)R, -CX3, -CX 2 H, -CXH 2 , -CN,

-C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)S(0) 2 R 8 , -N(R)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(S)N(R) 2 , -C(R)N(R) 2 C(0)OR, each o is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4, and each n is independently selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

[00135] In another embodiment, R4 is -(CH 2 ) n Q, where Q is -N(R)S(0) 2 Rs and n is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. In a further embodiment, R4 is -(CH 2 ) n Q, where Q is -N(R)S(0) 2 Rs, in which Rs is a C3-6 carbocycle such as C3-6 cycloalkyl, and n is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. For example, R4 is -(CH 2 )3NHS(0) 2 Rs and Rs is cyclopropyl.

[00136] In another embodiment, R 4 is -(CH 2 ) 0 C(Rio) 2 (CH 2 ) n -oQ, where Q is -N(R)C(0)R, n is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, and o is selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4. In a further embodiment, R4 is -(CH 2 )oC(Rio) 2 (CH 2 ) n -oQ, where Q is -N(R)C(0)R, wherein R is C1-C3 alkyl and n is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, and o is selected from 1, 2, 3, and 4. In a another embodiment, R4 is is -(CH 2 )oC(Rio) 2 (CH 2 ) n -oQ, where Q is -N(R)C(0)R, wherein R is C1-C3 alkyl, n is 3, and o is 1. In some embodiments, Rio is H, OH, C1-3 alkyl, or C 2 -3 alkenyl. For example, R4 1S 3-acetamido- 2,2-dimethylpropyl.

[00137] In some embodiments, one Rio is H and one Rio is C1-3 alkyl or C 2 -3 alkenyl. In another embodiment, each Rio is is C1-3 alkyl or C 2 -3 alkenyl. In another embodiment, each Rio is is Ci-3 alkyl (e.g. methyl, ethyl or propyl). For example, one Rio is methyl and one Rio is ethyl or propyl. For example, one Rio is ethyl and one Rio is methyl or propyl. For example, one Rio is propyl and one Rio is methyl or ethyl. For example, each Rio is methyl. For example, each Rio is ethyl. For example, each Rio is propyl.

[00138] In some embodiments, one Rio is H and one Rio is OH. In another embodiment, each

[00139] In another embodiment, R4 is unsubstituted Ci-4 alkyl, e.g., unsubstituted methyl.

[00140] In another embodiment, R4 is hydrogen.

[00141] In certain embodiments, the disclosure provides a compound having the Formula (I), wherein R4 is -(CH2)nQ or -(CH2)nCHQR, where Q is -N(R)2, and n is selected from 3, 4, and 5.

[00142] In certain embodiments, the disclosure provides a compound having the Formula (I), wherein R4 is selected from the group consisting of -(CH2)nQ, -(CH2)nCHQR, -CHQR, and -CQ(R)2, where Q is -N(R)2, and n is selected from 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

[00143] In certain embodiments, the disclosure provides a compound having the Formula (I), wherein R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of C2-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R*OR", or R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle, and R4 is -(CH2)nQ or -(CH2)nCHQR, where Q is -N(R)2, and n is selected from 3, 4, and 5.

[00144] In certain embodiments, R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of C2-14 alkyl, C2-14 alkenyl, -R*YR", -YR", and -R*OR", or R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle.

[00145] In some embodiments, Ri is selected from the group consisting of C5-20 alkyl and C5- 20 alkenyl.

[00146] In other embodiments, Ri is selected from the group consisting of -R*YR", -YR", and -R"M'R\

[00147] In certain embodiments, Ri is selected from -R*YR" and -YR". In some embodiments, Y is a cyclopropyl group. In some embodiments, R* is Cs alkyl or Cs alkenyl. In certain embodiments, R" is C3-12 alkyl. For example, R" may be C3 alkyl. For example, R" may be C4-8 alkyl (e.g., C4, Cs, Ce, d, or Cs alkyl).

[00148] In some embodiments, R is (CH2)qOR*, q is selected from 1, 2, and 3, and R* is Ci-12 alkyl substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of amino, Ci- C6 alkylamino, and C1-C6 dialkylamino. For example, R is (CH2)qOR*, q is selected from 1, 2, and 3 and R* is Ci-12 alkyl substituted with C1-C6 dialkylamino. For example, R is (CH2)qOR*, q is selected from 1, 2, and 3 and R* is C1-3 alkyl substituted with C1-C6 dialkylamino. For example, R is (CH2)qOR*, q is selected from 1, 2, and 3 and R* is C1-3 alkyl substituted with dimethylamino (e.g., dimethylaminoethanyl). [00149] In some embodiments, Ri is C5-20 alkyl. In some embodiments, Ri is Ce alkyl. In some embodiments, Ri is Cs alkyl. In other embodiments, Ri is C9 alkyl. In certain

embodiments, Ri is C14 alkyl. In other embodiments, Ri is Cis alkyl.

[00150] In some embodiments, Ri is C21-30 alkyl. In some embodiments, Ri is C26 alkyl. In l. In certain embodiments, Ri is

[00151] In some embodiments, Ri is C5-20 alkenyl. In certain embodiments, Ri is Cis alkenyl. In some embodiments, Ri is linoleyl.

[00152] In certain embodiments, Ri is branched (e.g., decan-2-yl, undecan-3-yl, dodecan-4- yl, tridecan-5-yl, tetradecan-6-yl, 2-methylundecan-3-yl, 2-methyldecan-2-yl, 3-methylundecan- -yl, 4-methyldodecan-4-yl, or heptadeca-9-yl). In certain embodiments, Ri is

[00153] In certain embodiments, Ri is unsubstituted C5-20 alkyl or C5-20 alkenyl. In certain embodiments, R' is substituted C5-20 alkyl or C5-20 alkenyl (e.g., substituted with a C3-6 carbocycle such as 1-cyclopropylnonyl or substituted with OH or alkoxy). For example, Ri is

[00154] In other embodiments, Ri is -R"M'R' . In certain embodiments, M'

is -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-. For example, Ri is wherein x is an integer between 1 and 13 (e.g., selected from 3, 4, 5, and 6), s is an integer between 1 and 13 (e.g., selected from 1, 2, and 3), and t is an integer between 2 and 14 (e.g., selected from 4, 5, and 6). For example, x is selected from 3, 4, 5, and 6, s is selected from 1, 2, and 3, and t is selected from 4, 5, and 6.

[00155] In other embodiments, Ri is different from -(CHR5R6)m-M-CR2R3R7.

[00156] In some embodiments, R' is selected from -R*YR" and -YR". In some

embodiments, Y is C3-8 cycloalkyl. In some embodiments, Y is C6-10 aryl. In some embodiments, Y is a cyclopropyl group. In some embodiments, Y is a cyclohexyl group. In certain embodiments, R* is Ci alkyl. [00157] In some embodiments, R" is selected from the group consisting of C3-12 alkyl and C3- 12 alkenyl. In some embodiments, R" adjacent to Y is Ci alkyl. In some embodiments, R" adjacent to Y is C4-9 alkyl (e.g. , C 4 , C5, CG, C7 or Cs or C9 alkyl).

[00158] In some embodiments, " is substituted C3-12 (e.g., C3-12 alkyl substituted with, e.g., an hydroxyl). For example, R" is

[00159] In some embodiments, R' is selected from C4 alkyl and C4 alkenyl. In certain embodiments, R' is selected from C5 alkyl and C5 alkenyl. In some embodiments, R' is selected from Ce alkyl and Ce alkenyl. In some embodiments, R' is selected from C7 alkyl and C7 alkenyl. In some embodiments, R' is selected from C9 alk l and C9 alken l.

[00160] In some In some embodiments, R' is . In other

embodiments, R' is \ or ^ v ^ ^ ^ and M' is -C(0)0-.

[00161] In other embodiments, R' is selected from C11 alkyl and C11 alkenyl. In other embodiments, R' is selected from C12 alkyl, C12 alkenyl, C13 alkyl, C13 alkenyl, C14 alkyl, C14 alkenyl, C15 alkyl, C15 alkenyl, Ci6 alkyl, Ci6 alkenyl, C17 alkyl, C17 alkenyl, Cis alkyl, and Cis alkenyl. In certain embodiments, R' is linear C4-18 alkyl or C4-18 alkenyl. In certain

embodiments, R' is branched (e.g., decan-2-yl, undecan-3-yl, dodecan-4-yl, tridecan-5-yl, tetradecan-6-yl, 2-methylundecan-3-yl, 2-methyldecan-2-yl, 3-methyl 4- methyldodecan-4-yl or heptadeca-9-yl). In certain embodiments, R' is

[00162] In certain embodiments, R' is unsubstituted C1-18 alkyl. In certain embodiments, R' is substituted C1-18 alkyl (e.g., Ci-15 alkyl substituted with, e.g., an alkoxy such as methoxy, or a C3-6 carbocycle such as 1-cyclopropylnonyl, or C(0)0-alkyl or OC(0)-alkyl such as C(0)OCH3

bodiments, R' is branched Ci-is alkyl. For example, R' is

[00164] In some embodiments, R" is selected from the group consisting of C3-15 alkyl and C3- 15 alkenyl. In some embodiments, R" is C3 alkyl, C4 alkyl, C5 alkyl, CG alkyl, C7 alkyl, or Cs alkyl. In some embodiments, R" is C9 alkyl, C10 alkyl, C11 alkyl, C12 alkyl, C13 alkyl, C14 alkyl, or Ci5 alkyl.

[00165] In some embodiments, M' is -C(0)O. In some embodiments, M' is -OC(O)-. In some embodiments, M' is -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-.

[00166] In other embodiments, M' is an aryl group or heteroaryl group. For example, M' may be selected from the group consisting of phenyl, oxazole, and thiazole.

[00167] In some embodiments, M is -C(0)O. In some embodiments, M is -OC(O)-. In some embodiments, M is -C(0)N(R')-. In some embodiments, M is -P(0)(OR')0-. In some embodiments, M is -OC(0)-M"-C(0)0-.

[00168] In other embodiments, M is an aryl group or heteroaryl group. For example, M may be selected from the group consisting of phenyl, oxazole, and thiazole.

[00169] In some embodiments, M is the same as M' . In other embodiments, M is different from M' .

[00170] In some embodiments, M" is a bond. In some embodiments, M" is Ci-13 alkyl or C2- 13 alkenyl. In some embodiments, M" is Ci-6 alkyl or C2-6 alkenyl. In certain embodiments, M" is linear alkyl or alkenyl. In certain embodiments, M" is branched, e.g., -CH(CH3)CH2-.

[00171] In some embodiments, each R5 is H. In certain such embodiments, each Re is also H.

[00172] In some embodiments, R7 is H. In other embodiments, R7 is C1-3 alkyl (e.g. , methyl, ethyl, propyl, or i-propyl).

[00173] In some embodiments, R2 and R3 are independently C5-14 alkyl or C5-14 alkenyl.

[00174] In some embodiments, R2 and R3 are the same. In some embodiments, R2 and R3 are Cs alkyl. In certain embodiments, R2 and R3 are C2 alkyl. In other embodiments, R2 and R3 are C3 alkyl. In some embodiments, R2 and R3 are C4 alkyl. In certain embodiments, R2 and R3 are C5 alkyl. In other embodiments, R2 and R3 are CG alkyl. In some embodiments, R2 and R3 are C7 alkyl.

[00175] In other embodiments, R2 and R3 are different. In certain embodiments, R2 is Cs alkyl. In some embodiments, R3 is C1-7 (e.g., Ci, C2, C3, C4, Cs, Ce, or C7 alkyl) or C9 alkyl.

[00176] In some embodiments, R7 and R3 are H. [00177] In certain embodiments, R2 is H.

[00178] In some embodiments, m is 5, 7, or 9.

[00179] In some embodiments, R4 is selected from -(CH 2 ) n Q and -(CH2)nCHQR.

[00180] In some embodiments, Q is selected from the group consisting

of -OR, -OH, -0(CH 2 )nN(R) 2 , -OC(0)R, -CX3, -CN, -N(R)C(0)R, -N(H)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R,

-N(H)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(H)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(H)C(0)N(H)(R), -N(R)C(S)N(R) 2 ,

-N(H)C(S)N(R) 2 , -N(H)C(S)N(H)(R), -C(R)N(R) 2 C(0)OR, -N(R)S(0) 2 Rs, a carbocycle, and a heterocycle.

[00181] In certain embodiments, Q is -N(R)Rs, -N(R)S(0) 2 Rs,

-0(CH 2 )nOR, -N(R)C(=NR9)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , -OC(0)N(R) 2 , or -N(R)C(0)OR.

[00182] In certain embodiments, Q is -N(OR)C(0)R, -N(OR)S(0) 2 R,

-N(OR)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(S)N(R) 2 , -N(OR)C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 ,

or -N(OR)C(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 .

[00183] In certain embodiments, Q is thiourea or an isostere thereof, e.g.,

or -NHC(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 .

[00184] In certain embodiments, Q is -C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 . For example, when Q

is -C(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 , n is 4 or 5. For example, R 9 is -S(0) 2 N(R) 2 .

[00185] In certain embodiments, Q is -C(=NR 9 )R or -C(0)N(R)OR, e.g., -CH(=N- OCH3), -C(0)NH-OH, -C(0)NH-OCH 3 , -C(0)N(CH 3 )-OH, or -C(0)N(CH 3 )-OCH 3 .

[00186] In certain embodiments, Q is -OH.

[00187] In certain embodiments, Q is a substituted or unsubstituted 5- to 10- membered heteroaryl, e.g. , Q is a triazole, an imidazole, a pyrimidine, a purine, 2-amino-l,9-dihydro-6H- purin-6-one-9-yl (or guanin-9-yl), adenin-9-yl, cytosin-l-yl, or uracil- 1-yl, each of which is optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from alkyl, ΟΗ, alkoxy, -alkyl-OH, -alkyl-O-alkyl, and the substituent can be further substituted. In certain embodiments, Q is a substituted 5- to 14-membered heterocycloalkyl, e.g., substituted with one or more substituents selected from oxo (=0), OH, amino, mono- or di-alkylamino, and Ci- 3 alkyl. For example, Q is 4-methylpiperazinyl, 4-(4-methoxybenzyl)piperazinyl, isoindolin-2-yl-l,3-dione, pyrrolidin-1- yl-2,5-dione, or imidazolidin-3-yl-2,4-dione.

[00188] In certain embodiments, Q is -NHRs, in which Rs is a C 3 -6 cycloalkyl optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from oxo (=0), amino (NH 2 ), mono- or di- alkylamino, Ci-3 alkyl and halo. For example, Rs is cyclobutenyl, e.g., 3-(dimethylamino)- cyclobut-3-ene-4-yl-l,2-dione. In further embodiments, Rs is a C3-6 cycloalkyl optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from oxo (=0), thio (=S), amino (NH2), mono- or di-alkylamino, C1-3 alkyl, heterocycloalkyl, and halo, wherein the mono- or dialkylamino, Ci-3 alkyl, and heterocycloalkyl are further substituted. For example Rs is cyclobutenyl substituted with one or more of oxo, amino, and alkylamino, wherein the alkylamino is further substituted, e.g., with one or more of C1-3 alkoxy, amino, mono- or dialkylamino, and halo. For example, Rs is 3-(((dimethylamino)ethyl)amino)cyclobut-3-enyl-l,2- dione. For example Rs is cyclobutenyl substituted with one or more of oxo, and alkylamino. For example, Rs is 3-(ethylamino)cyclobut-3-ene-l,2-dione. For example Rs is cyclobutenyl substituted with one or more of oxo, thio, and alkylamino. For example Rs is 3-(ethylamino)-4- thioxocyclobut-2-en-l-one or 2-(ethylamino)-4-thioxocyclobut-2-en-l-one. For example Rs is cyclobutenyl substituted with one or more of thio, and alkylamino. For example Rs is 3- (ethylamino)cyclobut-3-ene-l,2-dithione. For example Rs is cyclobutenyl substituted with one or more of oxo and dialkylamino. For example Rs is 3-(diethylamino)cyclobut-3-ene-l,2-dione. For example, Rs is cyclobutenyl substituted with one or more of oxo, thio, and dialkylamino. For example, Rs is 2-(diethylamino)-4-thioxocyclobut-2-en-l-one or 3-(diethylamino)-4- thioxocyclobut-2-en-l-one. For example, Rs is cyclobutenyl substituted with one or more of thio, and dialkylamino. For example, Rs is 3-(diethylamino)cyclobut-3-ene-l,2-dithione. For example, Rs is cyclobutenyl substituted with one or more of oxo and alkylamino or

dialkylamino, wherein alkylamino or dialkylamino is further substituted, e.g. with one or more alkoxy. For example, Rs is 3-(bis(2-methoxyethyl)amino)cyclobut-3-ene-l,2-dione. For example, Rs is cyclobutenyl substituted with one or more of oxo, and heterocycloalkyl. For example, Rs is cyclobutenyl substituted with one or more of oxo, and piperidinyl, piperazinyl, or morpholinyl. For example, Rs is cyclobutenyl substituted with one or more of oxo, and heterocycloalkyl, wherein heterocycloalkyl is further substituted, e.g., with one or more C1-3 alkyl. For example, Rs is cyclobutenyl substituted with one or more of oxo, and

heterocycloalkyl, wherein heterocycloalkyl (e.g., piperidinyl, piperazinyl, or morpholinyl) is further substituted with methyl.

[00189] In certain embodiments, Q is -NHRs, in which Rs is a heteroaryl optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from amino (NH2), mono- or di-alkylamino, Ci-3 alkyl and halo. For example, Rs is thiazole or imidazole.

[00190] In certain embodiments, Q is -NHC(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 in which R 9 is CN, Ci-e alkyl, NO2, -S(0) 2 N(R) 2 , -OR, -S(0) 2 R, or H. For example, Q is -NHC(=NR 9 )N(CH 3 )2,

-NHC(=NR 9 )NHCH 3 , -NHC(=NR 9 )NH 2 . In some embodiments, Q is -NHC(=NR 9 )N(R) 2 in which R9 is CN and R is C1-3 alkyl substituted with mono- or di-alkylamino, e.g., R is

((dimethylamino)ethyl)amino. In some embodiments, Q is -NHC(=NR9)N(R)2 in which R9 is Ci- 6 alkyl, NO2, -S(0)2N(R) 2 , -OR, -S(0)2R, or H and R is C1-3 alkyl substituted with mono- or di- alkylamino, e.g., R is ((dimethylamino)ethyl)amino.

[00191] In certain embodiments, Q is -NHC(=CHR 9 )N(R) 2 , in which R 9 is NO2, CN, Ci-e alkyl, -S(0) 2 N(R) 2 , -OR, -S(0) 2 R, or H. For example, Q is -NHC(=CHR 9 )N(CH 3 )2,

-NHC(=CHR 9 )NHCH 3 , or -NHC(=CHR 9 )NH 2 .

[00192] In certain embodiments, Q is -OC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)OR, -N(OR)C(0)OR, such as -OC(0)NHCH 3 , -N(OH)C(0)OCH 3 , -N(OH)C(0)CH 3 , -N(OCH 3 )C(0)OCH 3 ,

-N(OCH 3 )C(0)CH 3 , -N(OH)S(0) 2 CH 3 , or -NHC(0)OCH 3 .

[00193] In certain embodiments, Q is -N(R)C(0)R, in which R is alkyl optionally substituted with Ci-3 alkoxyl or S(0)tCi- 3 alkyl, in which t is 0, 1, or 2.

[00194] In certain embodiments, Q is an unsubstituted or substituted C6-10 aryl (such as phenyl) or C 3 -6 cycloalkyl.

[00195] In some embodiments, n is 1. In other embodiments, n is 2. In further embodiments, n is 3. In certain other embodiments, n is 4. For example, R4 may be -(CFh^OH. For example, R4 may be -(CH2) 3 OH. For example, R4 may be -(CFh^OH. For example, R4 may be benzyl. For example, R4 may be 4-methoxybenzyl.

[00196] In some embodiments, R4 is a C 3 -6 carbocycle. In some embodiments, R4 is a C 3 -6 cycloalkyl. For example, R4 may be cyclohexyl optionally substituted with e.g., OH, halo, Ci-6 alkyl, etc. For example, R4 may be 2-hydroxycyclohexyl.

[00197] In some embodiments, R is H.

[00198] In some embodiments, R is Ci- 3 alkyl substituted with mono- or di-alkylamino, e.g., R is ((dimethylamino)ethyl)amino.

[00199] In some embodiments, R is Ci-6 alkyl substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of Ci- 3 alkoxyl, amino, and Ci-C 3 dialkylamino.

[00200] In some embodiments, R is unsubstituted C1-3 alkyl or unsubstituted C2- 3 alkenyl. For example, R 4 may be -CH 2 CH(OH)CH , -CH(CH )CH 2 OH, or -CH 2 CH(OH)CH 2 CH .

[00201] In some embodiments, R is substituted Ci- 3 alkyl, e.g., CH2OH. For example, R4 may be -CH 2 CH(OH)CH 2 OH, -(CH 2 ) 3 NHC(0)CH 2 OH, -

(CH 2 ) 3 NHC(0)CH 2 OBn, -(CH 2 )20(CH 2 )20H, -(CH 2 ) 3 NHCH 2 OCH , -(CH 2 ) 3 NHCH 2 OCH 2 CH ,

CH 2 SCH , CH 2 S(0)CH , CH 2 S(0) 2 CH , or -CH(CH 2 OH) 2 .

[00202] In some embodiments, R4 is selected from any of the following groups:

50

^O^ O^ ,0.

N N N N

H 2 N^N^^ < ^ ^N N^N H H H H

V O H

53

54 [00204] In some embodiments, a compound of Formula (III) further comprises an anion. As described herein, and anion can be any anion capable of reacting with an amine to form an ammonium salt. Examples include, but are not limited to, chloride, bromide, iodide, fluoride, acetate, formate, trifiuoroaceiaie, difluoroacetate, trichloroacetate, and phosphate,

[00205] In some embodiments the compound of any of the formulae described herein is suitable for making a nanoparticle composition for intramuscular administration.

[00206] In some embodiments, R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle. In some embodiments, R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a 5- to 14- membered aromatic or non-aromatic heterocycle having one or more heteroatoms selected from N, O, S, and P. In some embodiments, R2 and Pv3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form an optionally substituted C3-20 carbocycle (e.g., C3-18 carbocycle, C3-15 carbocycle, C3-12 carbocycle, or C3-10 carbocycle), either aromatic or non-aromatic. In some embodiments, R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a C3-6 carbocycle. In other embodiments, R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a CG carbocycle, such as a cyclohexyl or phenyl group. In certain embodiments, the heterocycle or C3-6 carbocycle is substituted with one or more alkyl groups (e.g., at the same ring atom or at adjacent or non-adjacent ring atoms). For example, R2 and Pv3, together with the atom to which they are attached, may form a cyclohexyl or phenyl group bearing one or more C5 alkyl substitutions. In certain embodiments, the heterocycle or C3- 6 carbocycle formed by R2 and R3, is substituted with a carbocycle groups. For example, R2 and Pv3, together with the atom to which they are attached, may form a cyclohexyl or phenyl group that is substituted with cyclohexyl. In some embodiments, R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a C7-15 carbocycle, such as a cycloheptyl, cyclopentadecanyl, or naphthyl group.

[00207] In some embodiments, R4 is selected from -(CH2)nQ and -(CH2)nCHQR. In some embodiments, Q is selected from the group consisting of -OR, -OH, -0(CH2)nN(R)2, -OC(0)R, -CX3, -CN, -N(R)C(0)R, -N(H)C(0)R, -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(H)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)C(0)N(R) 2 , -N(H)C( 0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)S(0) 2 R8, -N(H)C(0)N(H)(R), -N(R)C(S)N(R) 2 , -N(H)C(S)N(R) 2 , -N(H)C(S)N( H)(R), and a heterocycle. In other embodiments, Q is selected from the group consisting of an imidazole, a pyrimidine, and a purine.

[00208] In some embodiments, R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a heterocycle or carbocycle. In some embodiments, R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, form a C3-6 carbocycle, such as a phenyl group. In certain

embodiments, the heterocycle or C3-6 carbocycle is substituted with one or more alkyl groups (e.g. , at the same ring atom or at adjacent or non-adjacent ring atoms). For example, R2 and R3, together with the atom to which they are attached, may form a phenyl group bearing one or more C5 alkyl substitutions.

[00209] In some embodiments, at least one occurrence of R5 and Re is C1-3 alkyl, e.g., methyl. In some embodiments, one of the R5 and R6 adjacent to M is C1-3 alkyl, e.g., methyl, and the other is H. In some embodiments, one of the R5 and Re adjacent to M is C1-3 alkyl, e.g., methyl and the other is H, and M is -OC(O)- or -C(0)0-.

[00210] In some embodiments, at most one occurrence of R5 and Re is C1-3 alkyl, e.g., methyl.

In some embodiments, one of the R5 and R6 adjacent to M is C1-3 alkyl, e.g., methyl, and the other is H. In some embodiments, one of the R5 and Re adjacent to M is C1-3 alkyl, e.g., methyl and the other is H, and M is -OC(O)- or -C(0)0-.

[00211] In some embodiments, each occurrence of R5 and Re is H.

[00212] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (I) is selected from the group

pound 7),

(Compound 8), Compound 9), ound 10), und 11), und 12), pound 13), mpound 14). und 15),

pound 16),

(Compound 17), ound 18), pound 19), ompound 20),

CT Ό (Compound 21), ound 22),

(Compound 23), mpound 24), mpound 25), mpound 26), mpound 27), ompound 28), pound 37), mpound 38), ompound 39), ompound 40), ompound 41), ompound 42), ompound 43), (Compound 44), (Compound 45),

(Compound 60), and

(Compound 61).

[00213] In further embodiments, the compound of Formula (I) is selected from the group

(Compound 62),

(Compound 63), and

(Compound 64).

[00214] In some embodiments, the compound of Formula (I) is selected from the group (Compound 65), ompound 66), pound 67), pound 68),

(Compound 69), mpound 70), mpound 71), mpound 72), mpound 73), pound 74).

pound 75), pound 76), pound 77),

(Compound 78),

(Compound 79),

(Compound 80), (Compound 81), (Compound 106), pound 107), ompound 108), ompound 109),

(Compound 110), (Compound 111), mpound 112).

mpound 113), ompound 114),

(Compound 115), (Compound 116), pound 1 19), pound 120),

(Compound 121), (Compound 122), (Compound 123),

124), ompound 125), ompoimd 127), pound 128), nd 129), ound 130), pound 131), pound 132), (Compound 133), 3),

4), 5), (Compound 168), (Compound 169), ompound 170), ), pound 176),

(Compound 177), (Compound 178), 81), (Compound 182), (Compound 191), 93), 94). . und 197), pound 199), pound 200), mpound 201), Compound 202), ound 203), mpound 204),

(Compound 205), (Compound 206),

(Compound 212), (Compound 213), 14), 15),

6), mpound 218), Compound 219), Compound 220). (Compound 221), Compound 222), ompound 223), ompound 224),

(Compound 225),

(Compound 226),

(Compound 227),

(Compound 228), (Compound 229), Compound 230). Compound 231), (Compound 232),

(Compound 238), (Compound 240).

(Compound 241),

(Compound 242). ompound 243), (Compound 244), (Compound 245),

mpound 247), (Compound 248), , , (Compound 252),

(Compound 261),

pound 262), ompound 263),

(Compound 264), ompound 265), (Compound 266), (Compound 267),

(Compound 268), mpound 269),

mpound 276), (Compound 277),

ound 278), (Compound 279), (Compound 280), (Compound 281).

282),

(Compound 284), (Compound 287),

ompound 293), ompound 294),

(Compound 295), (Compound 296),

97 (Compound 307), (Compound 309), (Compound 310), (Compound 311),

(Compound 320),

321), 2), (Compound 323),

(Compound 325),

(Compound 328),

(Compound 329),

102 (Compound 338),

(Compound 339),

and their N-oxides, salts and isomers thereof.

ound 340: .

[00216] The central amine moiety of a lipid according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (He), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) may be protonated at a physiological pH. Thus, a lipid may have a positive or partial positive charge at physiological pH. Such lipids may be referred to as cationic or ionizable (amino)lipids. Lipids may also be zwitterionic, i.e., neutral molecules having both a positive and a negative charge.

[00217] As used herein, the term "alkyl" or "alkyl group" means a linear or branched, saturated hydrocarbon including one or more carbon atoms (e.g., one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen, twenty, or more carbon atoms), which is optionally substituted. The notation "Ci-i4 alkyl" means an optionally substituted linear or branched, saturated hydrocarbon including 1-14 carbon atoms. Unless otherwise specified, an alkyl group described herein refers to both unsubstituted and substituted alkyl groups.

[00218] As used herein, the term "alkenyl" or "alkenyl group" means a linear or branched hydrocarbon including two or more carbon atoms (e.g., two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen, twenty, or more carbon atoms) and at least one double bond, which is optionally substituted. The notation "C2-14 alkenyl" means an optionally substituted linear or branched hydrocarbon including 2-14 carbon atoms and at least one carbon-carbon double bond. An alkenyl group may include one, two, three, four, or more carbon-carbon double bonds. For example, Cis alkenyl may include one or more double bonds. A Cis alkenyl group including two double bonds may be a linoleyl group. Unless otherwise specified, an alkenyl group described herein refers to both unsubstituted and substituted alkenyl groups.

[00219] As used herein, the term "alkynyl" or "alkynyl group" means a linear or branched hydrocarbon including two or more carbon atoms (e.g., two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen, twenty, or more carbon atoms) and at least one carbon-carbon triple bond, which is optionally substituted. The notation "C2-14 alkynyl" means an optionally substituted linear or branched hydrocarbon including 2-14 carbon atoms and at least one carbon-carbon triple bond. An alkynyl group may include one, two, three, four, or more carbon-carbon triple bonds. For example, Cis alkynyl may include one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds. Unless otherwise specified, an alkynyl group described herein refers to both unsubstituted and substituted alkynyl groups.

[00220] As used herein, the term "carbocycle" or "carbocyclic group" means an optionally substituted mono- or multi-cyclic system including one or more rings of carbon atoms. Rings may be three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen, or twenty membered rings. The notation "C3-6 carbocycle" means a carbocycle including a single ring having 3-6 carbon atoms. Carbocycles may include one or more carbon-carbon double or triple bonds and may be non-aromatic or aromatic (e.g., cycloalkyl or aryl groups). Examples of carbocycles include cyclopropyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, phenyl, naphthyl, and 1,2-dihydronaphthyl groups. The term

"cycloalkyl" as used herein means a non-aromatic carbocycle and may or may not include any double or triple bond. Unless otherwise specified, carbocycles described herein refers to both unsubstituted and substituted carbocycle groups, i.e., optionally substituted carbocycles.

[00221] As used herein, the term "heterocycle" or "heterocyclic group" means an optionally substituted mono- or multi-cyclic system including one or more rings, where at least one ring includes at least one heteroatom. Heteroatoms may be, for example, nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur atoms. Rings may be three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, or fourteen membered rings. Heterocycles may include one or more double or triple bonds and may be non-aromatic or aromatic (e.g. , heterocycloalkyl or heteroaryl groups). Examples of heterocycles include imidazolyl, imidazolidinyl, oxazolyl, oxazolidinyl, thiazolyl, thiazolidinyl, pyrazolidinyl, pyrazolyl, isoxazolidinyl, isoxazolyl, isothiazolidinyl, isothiazolyl, morpholinyl, pyrrolyl, pyrrolidinyl, furyl, tetrahydrofuryl, thiophenyl, pyridinyl, piperidinyl, quinolyl, and isoquinolyl groups. The term "heterocycloalkyl" as used herein means a non-aromatic heterocycle and may or may not include any double or triple bond. Unless otherwise specified, heterocycles described herein refers to both unsubstituted and substituted heterocycle groups, i.e., optionally substituted heterocycles.

[00222] As used herein, a "biodegradable group" is a group that may facilitate faster metabolism of a lipid in a mammalian entity. A biodegradable group may be selected from the group consisting of, but is not limited to, -C(0)0-, -OC(O)-, -C(0)N(R')-, -N(R')C(0)-, -C(O)-, -C(S)-, -C(S)S-, -SC(S)-, -CH(OH)-, -P(0)(OR')0-, -S(0) 2 -, an aryl group, and a heteroaryl group. As used herein, an "aryl group" is an optionally substituted carbocyclic group including one or more aromatic rings. Examples of aryl groups include phenyl and naphthyl groups. As used herein, a "heteroaryl group" is an optionally substituted heterocyclic group including one or more aromatic rings. Examples of heteroaryl groups include pyrrolyl, furyl, thiophenyl, imidazolyl, oxazolyl, and thiazolyl. Both aryl and heteroaryl groups may be optionally substituted. For example, M and M' can be selected from the non-limiting group consisting of optionally substituted phenyl, oxazole, and thiazole. In the formulas herein, M and M' can be independently selected from the list of biodegradable groups above. Unless otherwise specified, aryl or heteroaryl groups described herein refers to both unsubstituted and substituted groups, i.e., optionally substituted aryl or heteroaryl groups.

[00223] Alkyl, alkenyl, and cyclyl (e.g. , carbocyclyl and heterocyclyl) groups may be optionally substituted unless otherwise specified. Optional substituents may be selected from the group consisting of, but are not limited to, a halogen atom (e.g. , a chloride, bromide, fluoride, or iodide group), a carboxylic acid (e.g., -C(O)OH), an alcohol (e.g., a hydroxyl, -OH), an ester (e.g., -C(0)OR or -OC(O)R), an aldehyde (e.g. ,-C(0)H), a carbonyl (e.g. , -C(0)R, alternatively represented by C=0), an acyl halide (e.g. ,-C(0)X, in which X is a halide selected from bromide, fluoride, chloride, and iodide), a carbonate (e.g. , -OC(O)OR), an alkoxy

(e.g. , -OR), an acetal (e.g. ,-C(OR) 2 R"", in which each OR are alkoxy groups that can be the same or different and R"" is an alkyl or alkenyl group), a phosphate (e.g., P(0)4 3" ), a thiol (e.g. , -SH), a sulfoxide (e.g., -S(O)R), a sulfinic acid (e.g. , -S(O)OH), a sulfonic acid

(e.g. , -S(0) 2 OH), a thial (e.g., -C(S)H), a sulfate (e.g., S(0)4 2" ), a sulfonyl (e.g. , -S(O)i-), an amide (e.g. , -C(0)NR2, or -N(R)C(0)R), an azido (e.g., -N3), a nitro (e.g., -NO2), a cyano (e.g. , -CN), an isocyano (e.g. , -NC), an acyloxy (e.g. ,-OC(0)R), an amino (e.g., -NR2, -NRH, or -NH2), a carbamoyl (e.g., -OC(0)NR2, -OC(0)NRH, or -OC(0)NH 2 ), a sulfonamide (e.g. , -S(0) 2 NR 2 , -S(0) 2 NRH, -S(0) 2 NH 2 , -N(R)S(0) 2 R, -N(H)S(0) 2 R, -N(R)S(0) 2 H, or -N(H)S(0) 2 H), an alkyl group, an alkenyl group, and a cyclyl (e.g., carbocyclyl or heterocyclyl) group. In any of the preceding, R is an alkyl or alkenyl group, as defined herein. In some embodiments, the substituent groups themselves may be further substituted with, for example, one, two, three, four, five, or six substituents as defined herein. For example, a Ci-6 alkyl group may be further substituted with one, two, three, four, five, or six substituents as described herein.

[00224] Compounds of the disclosure that contain nitrogens can be converted to N-oxides by treatment with an oxidizing agent (e.g. , 3-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (raCPBA) and/or hydrogen peroxides) to afford other compounds of the disclosure. Thus, all shown and claimed nitrogen- containing compounds are considered, when allowed by valency and structure, to include both the compound as shown and its N-oxide derivative (which can be designated as N→0 or N + -0 " ). Furthermore, in other instances, the nitrogens in the compounds of the disclosure can be converted to N-hydroxy or N-alkoxy compounds. For example, N-hydroxy compounds can be prepared by oxidation of the parent amine by an oxidizing agent such as ra-CPBA. All shown and claimed nitrogen-containing compounds are also considered, when allowed by valency and structure, to cover both the compound as shown and its N-hydroxy (i.e. , N-OH) and N-alkoxy (i.e. , N-OR, wherein R is substituted or unsubstituted Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C6 alkenyl, Ci-C6 alkynyl, 3-14-membered carbocycle or 3- 14-membered heterocycle) derivatives.

[00225] About, Approximately: As used herein, the terms "approximately" and "about," as applied to one or more values of interest, refer to a value that is similar to a stated reference value. In certain embodiments, the term "approximately" or "about" refers to a range of values that fall within 25%, 20%, 19%, 18%, 17%, 16%, 15%, 14%, 13%, 12%, 1 1%, 10%, 9%, 8%, 7%, 6%, 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1%, or less in either direction (greater than or less than) of the stated reference value unless otherwise stated or otherwise evident from the context (except where such number would exceed 100% of a possible value). For example, when used in the context of an amount of a given compound in a lipid component of a nanoparticle composition, "about" may mean +/- 10% of the recited value. For instance, a nanoparticle composition including a lipid component having about 40% of a given compound may include 30-50% of the compound.

[00226] As used herein, the term "compound," is meant to include all isomers and isotopes of the structure depicted. "Isotopes" refers to atoms having the same atomic number but different mass numbers resulting from a different number of neutrons in the nuclei. For example, isotopes of hydrogen include tritium and deuterium. Further, a compound, salt, or complex of the present disclosure can be prepared in combination with solvent or water molecules to form solvates and hydrates by routine methods.

[00227] As used herein, the term "contacting" means establishing a physical connection between two or more entities. For example, contacting a mammalian cell with a nanoparticle composition means that the mammalian cell and a nanoparticle are made to share a physical connection. Methods of contacting cells with external entities both in vivo and ex vivo are well known in the biological arts. For example, contacting a nanoparticle composition and a mammalian cell disposed within a mammal may be performed by varied routes of administration (e.g. , intravenous, intramuscular, intradermal, and subcutaneous) and may involve varied amounts of nanoparticle compositions. Moreover, more than one mammalian cell may be contacted by a nanoparticle composition.

[00228] As used herein, the term "delivering" means providing an entity to a destination. For example, delivering a therapeutic and/or prophylactic to a subject may involve administering a nanoparticle composition including the therapeutic and/or prophylactic to the subject (e.g., by an intravenous, intramuscular, intradermal, or subcutaneous route). Administration of a nanoparticle composition to a mammal or mammalian cell may involve contacting one or more cells with the nanoparticle composition.

[00229] As used herein, the term "enhanced delivery" means delivery of more (e.g. , at least 1.5 fold more, at least 2-fold more, at least 3-fold more, at least 4-fold more, at least 5-fold more, at least 6-fold more, at least 7-fold more, at least 8-fold more, at least 9-fold more, at least 10-fold more) of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic by a nanoparticle to a target tissue of interest (e.g. , mammalian liver) compared to the level of delivery of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic by a control nanoparticle to a target tissue of interest (e.g., MC3, KC2, or DLinDMA). The level of delivery of a nanoparticle to a particular tissue may be measured by comparing the amount of protein produced in a tissue to the weight of said tissue, comparing the amount of therapeutic and/or prophylactic in a tissue to the weight of said tissue, comparing the amount of protein produced in a tissue to the amount of total protein in said tissue, or comparing the amount of therapeutic and/or prophylactic in a tissue to the amount of total therapeutic and/or prophylactic in said tissue. It will be understood that the enhanced delivery of a nanoparticle to a target tissue need not be determined in a subject being treated, it may be determined in a surrogate such as an animal model (e.g., a rat model). In certain embodiments, a nanoparticle composition including a compound according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) has substantively the same level of delivery enhancement regardless of administration routes. For example, certain compounds disclosed herein exhibit similar delivery enhancement when they are used for delivering a therapeutic and/or prophylactic either intravenously or intramuscularly. In other embodiments, certain compounds disclosed herein (e.g. , a compound of Formula (IA) or (II), such as Compound 18, 25, 30, 60, 108-1 12, or 122) exhibit a higher level of delivery enhancement when they are used for delivering a therapeutic and/or prophylactic intramuscularly than intravenously. [00230] As used herein, the term "specific delivery," "specifically deliver," or "specifically delivering" means delivery of more (e.g. , at least 1.5 fold more, at least 2-fold more, at least 3- fold more, at least 4-fold more, at least 5-fold more, at least 6-fold more, at least 7-fold more, at least 8-fold more, at least 9-fold more, at least 10-fold more) of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic by a nanoparticle to a target tissue of interest (e.g. , mammalian liver) compared to an off-target tissue (e.g., mammalian spleen). The level of delivery of a nanoparticle to a particular tissue may be measured by comparing the amount of protein produced in a tissue to the weight of said tissue, comparing the amount of therapeutic and/or prophylactic in a tissue to the weight of said tissue, comparing the amount of protein produced in a tissue to the amount of total protein in said tissue, or comparing the amount of therapeutic and/or prophylactic in a tissue to the amount of total therapeutic and/or prophylactic in said tissue. For example, for renovascular targeting, a therapeutic and/or prophylactic is specifically provided to a mammalian kidney as compared to the liver and spleen if 1.5, 2-fold, 3-fold, 5-fold, 10-fold, 15 fold, or 20 fold more therapeutic and/or prophylactic per 1 g of tissue is delivered to a kidney compared to that delivered to the liver or spleen following systemic administration of the therapeutic and/or prophylactic. It will be understood that the ability of a nanoparticle to specifically deliver to a target tissue need not be determined in a subject being treated, it may be determined in a surrogate such as an animal model (e.g. , a rat model).

[00231] As used herein, "encapsulation efficiency" refers to the amount of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic that becomes part of a nanoparticle composition, relative to the initial total amount of therapeutic and/or prophylactic used in the preparation of a nanoparticle composition. For example, if 97 mg of therapeutic and/or prophylactic are encapsulated in a nanoparticle composition out of a total 100 mg of therapeutic and/or prophylactic initially provided to the composition, the encapsulation efficiency may be given as 97%. As used herein,

"encapsulation" may refer to complete, substantial, or partial enclosure, confinement, surrounding, or encasement.

[00232] As used herein, "expression" of a nucleic acid sequence refers to translation of an mPvNA into a polypeptide or protein and/or post-translational modification of a polypeptide or protein.

[00233] As used herein, the term "in vitro" refers to events that occur in an artificial environment, e.g. , in a test tube or reaction vessel, in cell culture, in a Petri dish, etc., rather than within an organism (e.g., animal, plant, or microbe).

[00234] As used herein, the term "in vivo" refers to events that occur within an organism (e.g. , animal, plant, or microbe or cell or tissue thereof). [00235] As used herein, the term "ex vivo" refers to events that occur outside of an organism (e.g. , animal, plant, or microbe or cell or tissue thereof). Ex vivo events may take place in an environment minimally altered from a natural (e.g. , in vivo) environment.

[00236] As used herein, the term "isomer" means any geometric isomer, tautomer, zwitterion, stereoisomer, enantiomer, or diastereomer of a compound. Compounds may include one or more chiral centers and/or double bonds and may thus exist as stereoisomers, such as double- bond isomers (i.e., geometric E/Z isomers) or diastereomers (e.g. , enantiomers (i.e., (+) or (-)) or cis I trans isomers). The present disclosure encompasses any and all isomers of the compounds described herein, including stereomerically pure forms (e.g. , geometrically pure,

enantiomerically pure, or diastereomerically pure) and enantiomeric and stereoisomeric mixtures, e.g. , racemates. Enantiomeric and stereomeric mixtures of compounds and means of resolving them into their component enantiomers or stereoisomers are well-known.

[00237] "Tautomer" is one of two or more structural isomers that exist in equilibrium and is readily converted from one isomeric form to another. This conversion results in the formal migration of a hydrogen atom accompanied by a switch of adjacent conjugated double bonds. Tautomers exist as a mixture of a tautomeric set in solution. In solutions where tautomerization is possible, a chemical equilibrium of the tautomers will be reached. The exact ratio of the tautomers depends on several factors, including temperature, solvent and pH. The concept of tautomers that are interconvertible by tautomerization is called tautomerism.

[00238] Of the various types of tautomerism that are possible, two are commonly observed. In keto-enol tautomerism a simultaneous shift of electrons and a hydrogen atom occurs. Ring- chain tautomerism arises as a result of the aldehyde group (-CHO) in a sugar chain molecule reacting with one of the hydroxy groups (-OH) in the same molecule to give it a cyclic (ring- shaped) form as exhibited by glucose.

[00239] Common tautomeric pairs are: ketone-enol, amide-nitrile, lactam-lactim, amide- imidic acid tautomerism in heterocyclic rings (e.g. , in nucleobases such as guanine, thymine and cytosine), imine-enamine and enamine-enamine. An example of tautomerism in di-substituted guanidine is shown below.

[00240] It is to be understood that the compounds of the disclosure may be depicted as different tautomers. It should also be understood that when compounds have tautomeric forms, all tautomeric forms are intended to be included in the scope of the disclosure, and the naming of the compounds does not exclude any tautomer form.

[00241] As used herein, a "lipid component" is that component of a nanoparticle composition that includes one or more lipids. For example, the lipid component may include one or more cationic/ionizable, PEGylated, structural, or other lipids, such as phospholipids.

[00242] As used herein, a "linker" is a moiety connecting two moieties, for example, the connection between two nucleosides of a cap species. A linker may include one or more groups including but not limited to phosphate groups (e.g. , phosphates, boranophosphates,

thiophosphates, selenophosphates, and phosphonates), alkyl groups, amidates, or glycerols. For example, two nucleosides of a cap analog may be linked at their 5 ' positions by a triphosphate group or by a chain including two phosphate moieties and a boranophosphate moiety.

[00243] As used herein, "methods of administration" may include intravenous, intramuscular, intradermal, subcutaneous, or other methods of delivering a composition to a subject. A method of administration may be selected to target delivery (e.g., to specifically deliver) to a specific region or system of a body.

[00244] As used herein, "modified" means non-natural. For example, an R A may be a modified RNA. That is, an RNA may include one or more nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides, or linkers that are non-naturally occurring. A "modified" species may also be referred to herein as an "altered" species. Species may be modified or altered chemically, structurally, or functionally. For example, a modified nucleobase species may include one or more substitutions that are not naturally occurring.

[00245] As used herein, the "N:P ratio" is the molar ratio of ionizable (in the physiological pH range) nitrogen atoms in a lipid to phosphate groups in an RNA, e.g. , in a nanoparticle composition including a lipid component and an RNA.

[00246] As used herein, a "nanoparticle composition" is a composition comprising one or more lipids. Nanoparticle compositions are typically sized on the order of micrometers or smaller and may include a lipid bilayer. Nanoparticle compositions encompass lipid nanoparticles (LNPs), liposomes (e.g., lipid vesicles), and lipoplexes. For example, a nanoparticle composition may be a liposome having a lipid bilayer with a diameter of 500 nm or less.

[00247] As used herein, "naturally occurring" means existing in nature without artificial aid.

[00248] As used herein, "patient" refers to a subject who may seek or be in need of treatment, requires treatment, is receiving treatment, will receive treatment, or a subject who is under care by a trained professional for a particular disease or condition. [00249] As used herein, a "PEG lipid" or "PEGylated lipid" refers to a lipid comprising a polyethylene glycol component.

[00250] The phrase "pharmaceutically acceptable" is used herein to refer to those compounds, materials, compositions, and/or dosage forms which are, within the scope of sound medical judgment, suitable for use in contact with the tissues of human beings and animals without excessive toxicity, irritation, allergic response, or other problem or complication, commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio.

[00251] The phrase "pharmaceutically acceptable excipient," as used herein, refers to any ingredient other than the compounds described herein (for example, a vehicle capable of suspending, complexing, or dissolving the active compound) and having the properties of being substantially nontoxic and non-inflammatory in a patient. Excipients may include, for example: anti-adherents, antioxidants, binders, coatings, compression aids, disintegrants, dyes (colors), emollients, emulsifiers, fillers (diluents), film formers or coatings, flavors, fragrances, glidants (flow enhancers), lubricants, preservatives, printing inks, sorbents, suspending or dispersing agents, sweeteners, and waters of hydration. Exemplary excipients include, but are not limited to: butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate (dibasic), calcium stearate, croscarmellose, cross-linked polyvinyl pyrrolidone, citric acid, crospovidone, cysteine, ethylcellulose, gelatin, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, lactose, magnesium stearate, maltitol, mannitol, methionine, methylcellulose, methyl paraben, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, povidone, pregelatinized starch, propyl paraben, retinyl palmitate, shellac, silicon dioxide, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium citrate, sodium starch glycolate, sorbitol, starch (corn), stearic acid, sucrose, talc, titanium dioxide, vitamin A, vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), vitamin C, xylitol, and other species disclosed herein.

[00252] In the present specification, the structural formula of the compound represents a certain isomer for convenience in some cases, but the present disclosure includes all isomers, such as geometrical isomers, optical isomers based on an asymmetrical carbon, stereoisomers, tautomers, and the like, it being understood that not all isomers may have the same level of activity. In addition, a crystal polymorphism may be present for the compounds represented by the formula. It is noted that any crystal form, crystal form mixture, or anhydride or hydrate thereof is included in the scope of the present disclosure.

[00253] The term "crystal polymorphs", "polymorphs" or "crystal forms" means crystal structures in which a compound (or a salt or solvate thereof) can crystallize in different crystal packing arrangements, all of which have the same elemental composition. Different crystal forms usually have different X-ray diffraction patterns, infrared spectral, melting points, density hardness, crystal shape, optical and electrical properties, stability and solubility.

Recrystallization solvent, rate of crystallization, storage temperature, and other factors may cause one crystal form to dominate. Crystal polymorphs of the compounds can be prepared by crystallization under different conditions.

[00254] Compositions may also include salts of one or more compounds. Salts may be pharmaceutically acceptable salts. As used herein, "pharmaceutically acceptable salts" refers to derivatives of the disclosed compounds wherein the parent compound is altered by converting an existing acid or base moiety to its salt form (e.g., by reacting a free base group with a suitable organic acid). Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable salts include, but are not limited to, mineral or organic acid salts of basic residues such as amines; alkali or organic salts of acidic residues such as carboxylic acids; and the like. Representative acid addition salts include acetate, adipate, alginate, ascorbate, aspartate, benzenesulfonate, benzoate, bisulfate, borate, butyrate, camphorate, camphorsulfonate, citrate, cyclopentanepropionate, digluconate, dodecylsulfate, ethanesulfonate, fumarate, glucoheptonate, glycerophosphate, hemisulfate, heptonate, hexanoate, hydrobromide, hydrochloride, hydroiodide, 2-hydroxy-ethanesulfonate, lactobionate, lactate, laurate, lauryl sulfate, malate, maleate, malonate, methanesulfonate, 2- naphthalenesulfonate, nicotinate, nitrate, oleate, oxalate, palmitate, pamoate, pectinate, persulfate, 3-phenylpropionate, phosphate, picrate, pivalate, propionate, stearate, succinate, sulfate, tartrate, thiocyanate, toluenesulfonate, undecanoate, valerate salts, and the like.

Representative alkali or alkaline earth metal salts include sodium, lithium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and the like, as well as nontoxic ammonium, quaternary ammonium, and amine cations, including, but not limited to ammonium, tetramethylammonium, tetraethylammonium, methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, triethylamine, ethylamine, and the like. The pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the present disclosure include the conventional non-toxic salts of the parent compound formed, for example, from non-toxic inorganic or organic acids. The pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the present disclosure can be synthesized from the parent compound which contains a basic or acidic moiety by conventional chemical methods. Generally, such salts can be prepared by reacting the free acid or base forms of these compounds with a stoichiometric amount of the appropriate base or acid in water or in an organic solvent, or in a mixture of the two; generally, nonaqueous media like ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, isopropanol, or acetonitrile are preferred. Lists of suitable salts are found in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 17 th ed., Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pa., 1985, p. 1418, Pharmaceutical Salts: Properties, Selection, and Use, P.H. Stahl and C.G. Wermuth (eds.), Wiley-VCH, 2008, and Berge et al, Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 66, 1-19 ( 1977), each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[00255] As used herein, a "phospholipid" is a lipid that includes a phosphate moiety and one or more carbon chains, such as unsaturated fatty acid chains. A phospholipid may include one or more multiple (e.g. , double or triple) bonds (e.g., one or more unsaturations). Particular phospholipids may facilitate fusion to a membrane. For example, a cationic phospholipid may interact with one or more negatively charged phospholipids of a membrane (e.g. , a cellular or intracellular membrane). Fusion of a phospholipid to a membrane may allow one or more elements of a lipid-containing composition to pass through the membrane permitting, e.g., delivery of the one or more elements to a cell.

[00256] As used herein, the "polydispersity index" is a ratio that describes the homogeneity of the particle size distribution of a system. A small value, e.g. , less than 0.3, indicates a narrow particle size distribution.

[00257] As used herein, the term "polypeptide" or "polypeptide of interest" refers to a polymer of amino acid residues typically joined by peptide bonds that can be produced naturally (e.g. , isolated or purified) or synthetically.

[00258] As used herein, an "RNA" refers to a ribonucleic acid that may be naturally or non- naturally occurring. For example, an RNA may include modified and/or non-naturally occurring components such as one or more nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides, or linkers. An RNA may include a cap structure, a chain terminating nucleoside, a stem loop, a polyA sequence, and/or a polyadenylation signal. An RNA may have a nucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide of interest. For example, an RNA may be a messenger RNA (mRNA). Translation of an mRNA encoding a particular polypeptide, for example, in vivo translation of an mRNA inside a mammalian cell, may produce the encoded polypeptide. RNAs may be selected from the non-liming group consisting of small interfering RNA (siRNA), asymmetrical interfering RNA (aiRNA), microRNA (miRNA), Dicer-substrate RNA (dsRNA), small hairpin RNA (shRNA), mRNA, single-guide RNA (sgRNA), cas9 mRNA, and mixtures thereof

[00259] As used herein, a "single unit dose" is a dose of any therapeutic administered in one dose/at one time/single route/single point of contact, i.e., single administration event.

[00260] As used herein, a "split dose" is the division of single unit dose or total daily dose into two or more doses.

[00261] As used herein, a "total daily dose" is an amount given or prescribed in 24 hour period. It may be administered as a single unit dose. [00262] As used herein, "size" or "mean size" in the context of nanoparticle compositions refers to the mean diameter of a nanoparticle composition.

[00263] As used herein, the term "subject" or "patient" refers to any organism to which a composition in accordance with the disclosure may be administered, e.g. , for experimental, diagnostic, prophylactic, and/or therapeutic purposes. Typical subjects include animals (e.g. , mammals such as mice, rats, rabbits, non-human primates, and humans) and/or plants.

[00264] As used herein, "targeted cells" refers to any one or more cells of interest. The cells may be found in vitro, in vivo, in situ, or in the tissue or organ of an organism. The organism may be an animal, preferably a mammal, more preferably a human and most preferably a patient.

[00265] As used herein "target tissue" refers to any one or more tissue types of interest in which the delivery of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic would result in a desired biological and/or pharmacological effect. Examples of target tissues of interest include specific tissues, organs, and systems or groups thereof. In particular applications, a target tissue may be a kidney, a lung, a spleen, vascular endothelium in vessels (e.g. , intra-coronary or intra-femoral), or tumor tissue (e.g., via intratumoral injection). An "off-target tissue" refers to any one or more tissue types in which the expression of the encoded protein does not result in a desired biological and/or pharmacological effect. In particular applications, off-target tissues may include the liver and the spleen.

[00266] The term "therapeutic agent" or "prophylactic agent" refers to any agent that, when administered to a subject, has a therapeutic, diagnostic, and/or prophylactic effect and/or elicits a desired biological and/or pharmacological effect. Therapeutic agents are also referred to as "actives" or "active agents." Such agents include, but are not limited to, cytotoxins, radioactive ions, chemotherapeutic agents, small molecule drugs, proteins, and nucleic acids.

[00267] As used herein, the term "therapeutically effective amount" means an amount of an agent to be delivered (e.g., nucleic acid, drug, composition, therapeutic agent, diagnostic agent, prophylactic agent, etc.) that is sufficient, when administered to a subject suffering from or susceptible to an infection, disease, disorder, and/or condition, to treat, improve symptoms of, diagnose, prevent, and/or delay the onset of the infection, disease, disorder, and/or condition.

[00268] As used herein, "transfection" refers to the introduction of a species (e.g. , an R A) into a cell. Transfection may occur, for example, in vitro, ex vivo, or in vivo.

[00269] As used herein, the term "treating" refers to partially or completely alleviating, ameliorating, improving, relieving, delaying onset of, inhibiting progression of, reducing severity of, and/or reducing incidence of one or more symptoms or features of a particular infection, disease, disorder, and/or condition. For example, "treating" cancer may refer to inhibiting survival, growth, and/or spread of a tumor. Treatment may be administered to a subject who does not exhibit signs of a disease, disorder, and/or condition and/or to a subject who exhibits only early signs of a disease, disorder, and/or condition for the purpose of decreasing the risk of developing pathology associated with the disease, disorder, and/or condition.

[00270] As used herein, the "zeta potential" is the electrokinetic potential of a lipid, e.g. , in a particle composition.

Nanoparticle compositions

[00271] The disclosure also features nanoparticle compositions comprising a lipid component comprising a compound according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (He), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) as described herein.

[00272] In some embodiments, the largest dimension of a nanoparticle composition is 1 μιη or shorter (e.g. , 1 μιη, 900 nm, 800 nm, 700 nm, 600 nm, 500 nm, 400 nm, 300 nm, 200 nm, 175 nm, 150 nm, 125 nm, 100 nm, 75 nm, 50 nm, or shorter), e.g. , when measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, or another method. Nanoparticle compositions include, for example, lipid nanoparticles (LNPs), liposomes, lipid vesicles, and lipoplexes. In some embodiments, nanoparticle compositions are vesicles including one or more lipid bilayers. In certain embodiments, a nanoparticle composition includes two or more concentric bilayers separated by aqueous compartments. Lipid bilayers may be functionalized and/or cross-linked to one another. Lipid bilayers may include one or more ligands, proteins, or channels.

[00273] Nanoparticle compositions comprise a lipid component including at least one compound according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III). For example, the lipid component of a nanoparticle composition may include one or more of Compounds 1-280. Nanoparticle compositions may also include a variety of other components. For example, the lipid component of a nanoparticle composition may include one or more other lipids in addition to a lipid according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Cationic/ionizable lipids

[00274] A nanoparticle composition may include one or more cationic and/or ionizable lipids (e.g. , lipids that may have a positive or partial positive charge at physiological pH) in addition to a lipid according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III). Cationic and/or ionizable lipids may be selected from the non-limiting group consisting of 3 -(didodecylamino)-N 1 ,N 1 ,4-tridodecyl- 1 -piperazineethanamine (KL 10),

N 1 -[2-(didodecylamino)ethyl] -N 1 ,N4,N4-tridodecyl- 1 ,4-piperazinediethanamine (KL22), 14,25-ditridecyl- 15, 18,21 ,24-tetraaza-octatriacontane (KL25),

1 ,2-dilinoleyloxy-N,N-dimethylaminopropane (DLin-DMA),

2,2-dilinoleyl-4-dimethylaminomethyl-[l,3]-dioxolane (DLin-K-DMA),

heptatriaconta-6,9,28,3 l-tetraen- 19-yl 4-(dimethylamino)butanoate (DLin-MC3-DMA), 2,2-dilinoleyl-4-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-[l,3]-dioxolane (DLin-KC2-DMA),

1 ,2-dioleyloxy-N,N-dimethylaminopropane (DODMA),

2-({8-[(3 )-cholest-5-en-3-yloxy]octyl}oxy)-N,N-dimethyl-3-[(9Z, 12Z)-octadeca-9, 12-dien-l-y loxy]propan- 1 -amine (Octyl-CLinDMA),

(2R)-2-({8-[(3 )-cholest-5-en-3-yloxy]octyl}oxy)-N,N-dimethyl-3-[(9Z, 12Z)-octadeca-9, 12-die n-l-yloxy]propan-l -amine (Octyl-CLinDMA (2R)), and

(2S)-2-({8-[(3 )-cholest-5-en-3-yloxy]octyl}oxy)-N,N-dimethyl-3-[(9Z, 12Z)-octadeca-9, 12-die n-l-yloxy]propan-l -amine (Octyl-CLinDMA (2S)). In addition to these, a cationic lipid may also be a lipid including a cyclic amine group.

PEG lipids

[00275] The lipid component of a nanoparticle composition may include one or more PEG or PEG-modified lipids. Such species may be alternately referred to as PEGylated lipids. A PEG lipid is a lipid modified with polyethylene glycol. A PEG lipid may be selected from the non- limiting group consisting of PEG-modified phosphatidylethanolamines, PEG-modified phosphatidic acids, PEG-modified ceramides (PEG-CER), PEG-modified dialkylamines, PEG- modified diacylglycerols (PEG-DEG), PEG-modified dialkylglycerols, and mixtures thereof. For example, a PEG lipid may be PEG-c-DOMG, PEG-DMG, PEG-DLPE, PEG-DMPE, PEG- DPPC, or a PEG-DSPE lipid.

Structural lipids

[00276] The lipid component of a nanoparticle composition may include one or more structural lipids. Structural lipids can be selected from the group consisting of, but are not limited to, cholesterol, fecosterol, sitosterol, ergosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, brassicasterol, tomatidine, tomatine, ursolic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and mixtures thereof. In some

embodiments, the structural lipid is cholesterol. In some embodiments, the structural lipid includes cholesterol and a corticosteroid (such as prednisolone, dexamethasone, prednisone, and hydrocortisone), or a combination thereof.

Phospholipids [00277] The lipid component of a nanoparticle composition may include one or more phospholipids, such as one or more (poly)unsaturated lipids. Phospholipids may assemble into one or more lipid bilayers. In general, phospholipids may include a phospholipid moiety and one or more fatty acid moieties. For example, a phospholipid may be a lipid according to Formula (IV):

in which Rp represents a phospholipid moiety and Ri and R2 represent fatty acid moieties with or without unsaturation that may be the same or different. A phospholipid moiety may be selected from the non-limiting group consisting of phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl serine, phosphatidic acid, 2-lysophosphatidyl choline, and a sphingomyelin. A fatty acid moiety may be selected from the non-limiting group consisting of lauric acid, myristic acid, myristoleic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, erucic acid, phytanic acid, arachidic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, behenic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. Non-natural species including natural species with modifications and substitutions including branching, oxidation, cyclization, and alkynes are also contemplated. For example, a phospholipid may be functionalized with or cross-linked to one or more alkynes (e.g. , an alkenyl group in which one or more double bonds is replaced with a triple bond). Under appropriate reaction conditions, an alkyne group may undergo a copper-catalyzed cycloaddition upon exposure to an azide. Such reactions may be useful in functionalizing a lipid bilayer of a nanoparticle composition to facilitate membrane permeation or cellular recognition or in conjugating a nanoparticle composition to a useful component such as a targeting or imaging moiety (e.g., a dye).

[00278] Phospholipids useful in the compositions and methods may be selected from the non- limiting group consisting of l,2-distearoyl-s«-glycero-3 -phosphocholine (DSPC),

1 ,2-dioleoyl-s«-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE),

1 ,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3 -phosphocholine (DLPC),

1 ,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1 ,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3 -phosphocholine

(DOPC), l,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC),

1 ,2-diundecanoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (DUPC), l-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC),

l,2-di-0-octadecenyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (18:0 Diether PC),

1 -oleoyl-2-cholesterylhemisuccinoyl-sn-glycero-3 -phosphocholine (OChemsPC),

l-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (C16 Lyso PC),

1 ,2-dilinolenoyl-sn-glycero-3 -phosphocholine,

l,2-diarachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3 -phosphocholine,

l,2-didocosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine,

l,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (ME 16.0 PE),

l,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine,

1 ,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3 -phosphoethanolamine,

l,2-dilinolenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine,

l,2-diarachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3 -phosphoethanolamine,

l,2-didocosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine,

l,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-(l -glycerol) sodium salt (DOPG),

dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG), palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (POPE), distearoyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (DSPE), dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DPPE), dimyristoylphosphoethanolamine (DMPE), 1 -stearoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidyethanolamine (SOPE), l-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (SOPC), sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidic acid, palmitoyloleoyl phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), and mixtures thereof. In some embodiments, a nanoparticle composition includes DSPC. In certain embodiments, a nanoparticle composition includes DOPE. In some embodiments, a nanoparticle composition includes both DSPC and DOPE.

Adjuvants

[00279] In some embodiments, a nanoparticle composition that includes one or more lipids described herein may further include one or more adjuvants, e.g., Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant (GLA), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (e.g., Class A or B), poly(LC), aluminum hydroxide, and Pam3CSK4.

Therapeutic agents

[00280] Nanoparticle compositions may include one or more therapeutic and/or

prophylactics. The disclosure features methods of delivering a therapeutic and/or prophylactic to a mammalian cell or organ, producing a polypeptide of interest in a mammalian cell, and treating a disease or disorder in a mammal in need thereof comprising administering to a mammal and/or contacting a mammalian cell with a nanoparticle composition including a therapeutic and/or prophylactic.

[00281] Therapeutic and/or prophylactics include biologically active substances and are alternately referred to as "active agents." A therapeutic and/or prophylactic may be a substance that, once delivered to a cell or organ, brings about a desirable change in the cell, organ, or other bodily tissue or system. Such species may be useful in the treatment of one or more diseases, disorders, or conditions. In some embodiments, a therapeutic and/or prophylactic is a small molecule drug useful in the treatment of a particular disease, disorder, or condition. Examples of drugs useful in the nanoparticle compositions include, but are not limited to, antineoplastic agents (e.g., vincristine, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, camptothecin, cisplatin, bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and streptozotocin), antitumor agents (e.g. , actinomycin D, vincristine, vinblastine, cytosine arabinoside, anthracyclines, alkylating agents, platinum compounds, antimetabolites, and nucleoside analogs, such as methotrexate and purine and pyrimidine analogs), anti -infective agents, local anesthetics (e.g., dibucaine and

chlorpromazine), beta-adrenergic blockers (e.g., propranolol, timolol, and labetalol), antihypertensive agents (e.g., clonidine and hydralazine), anti-depressants (e.g., imipramine, amitriptyline, and doxepin), anti-convulsants (e.g. , phenytoin), antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine, chlorpheniramine, and promethazine), antibiotic/antibacterial agents (e.g. , gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, and cefoxitin), antifungal agents (e.g., miconazole, terconazole, econazole, isoconazole, butaconazole, clotrimazole, itraconazole, nystatin, naftifine, and amphotericin B), antiparasitic agents, hormones, hormone antagonists, immunomodulators, neurotransmitter antagonists, antiglaucoma agents, vitamins, narcotics, and imaging agents.

[00282] In some embodiments, a therapeutic and/or prophylactic is a cytotoxin, a radioactive ion, a chemotherapeutic, a vaccine, a compound that elicits an immune response, and/or another therapeutic and/or prophylactic. A cytotoxin or cytotoxic agent includes any agent that may be detrimental to cells. Examples include, but are not limited to, taxol, cytochalasin B, gramicidin D, ethidium bromide, emetine, mitomycin, etoposide, teniposide, vincristine, vinblastine, colchicine, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, dihydroxyanthracinedione, mitoxantrone, mithramycin, actinomycin D, 1-dehydrotestosterone, glucocorticoids, procaine, tetracaine, lidocaine, propranolol, puromycin, maytansinoids, e.g. , maytansinol, rachelmycin (CC-1065), and analogs or homologs thereof. Radioactive ions include, but are not limited to iodine (e.g. , iodine 125 or iodine 131), strontium 89, phosphorous, palladium, cesium, iridium, phosphate, cobalt, yttrium 90, samarium 153, and praseodymium. Vaccines include compounds and preparations that are capable of providing immunity against one or more conditions related to infectious diseases such as influenza, measles, human papillomavirus (HPV), rabies, meningitis, whooping cough, tetanus, plague, hepatitis, and tuberculosis and can include mRNAs encoding infectious disease derived antigens and/or epitopes. Vaccines also include compounds and preparations that direct an immune response against cancer cells and can include mRNAs encoding tumor cell derived antigens, epitopes, and/or neoepitopes. Compounds eliciting immune responses may include vaccines, corticosteroids (e.g. , dexamethasone), and other species. In some embodiments, a vaccine and/or a compound capable of eliciting an immune response is administered intramuscularly via a composition including a compound according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) (e.g. , Compound 3, 18, 20, 25, 26, 29, 30, 60, 108-1 12, or 122). Other therapeutic and/or prophylactics include, but are not limited to, antimetabolites (e.g. , methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, cytarabine, 5-fluorouracil dacarbazine), alkylating agents (e.g. , mechlorethamine, thiotepa chlorambucil, rachelmycin (CC-1065), melphalan, carmustine (BSNU), lomustine (CCNU), cyclophosphamide, busulfan, dibromomannitol, streptozotocin, mitomycin C, and cis-dichlorodiamine platinum (II) (DDP) cisplatin), anthracyclines (e.g. , daunorubicin (formerly daunomycin) and doxorubicin), antibiotics (e.g. , dactinomycin (formerly actinomycin), bleomycin, mithramycin, and anthramycin (AMC)), and anti-mitotic agents (e.g. , vincristine, vinblastine, taxol and maytansinoids).

[00283] In other embodiments, a therapeutic and/or prophylactic is a protein. Therapeutic proteins useful in the nanoparticles in the disclosure include, but are not limited to, gentamycin, amikacin, insulin, erythropoietin (EPO), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte -macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), Factor VIR, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs, interferons, heparin, Hepatitis B surface antigen, typhoid vaccine, and cholera vaccine.

Polynucleotides and nucleic acids

[00284] In some embodiments, a therapeutic agent is a polynucleotide or nucleic acid (e.g. , ribonucleic acid or deoxyribonucleic acid). The term "polynucleotide," in its broadest sense, includes any compound and/or substance that is or can be incorporated into an oligonucleotide chain. Exemplary polynucleotides for use in accordance with the present disclosure include, but are not limited to, one or more of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA) including messenger mRNA (mRNA), hybrids thereof, RNAi-inducing agents, RNAi agents, siRNAs, shRNAs, miRNAs, antisense RNAs, ribozymes, catalytic DNA, RNAs that induce triple helix formation, aptamers, vectors, etc. In some embodiments, a therapeutic and/or prophylactic is an RNA. RNAs useful in the compositions and methods described herein can be selected from the group consisting of, but are not limited to, shortmers, antagomirs, antisense, ribozymes, small interfering RNA (siRNA), asymmetrical interfering RNA (aiRNA), microRNA (miRNA), Dicer-substrate RNA (dsRNA), small hairpin RNA (shRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), and mixtures thereof. In certain embodiments, the RNA is an mRNA.

[00285] In certain embodiments, a therapeutic and/or prophylactic is an mRNA. An mRNA may encode any polypeptide of interest, including any naturally or non-naturally occurring or otherwise modified polypeptide. A polypeptide encoded by an mRNA may be of any size and may have any secondary structure or activity. In some embodiments, a polypeptide encoded by an mRNA may have a therapeutic effect when expressed in a cell.

[00286] In other embodiments, a therapeutic and/or prophylactic is an siRNA. An siRNA may be capable of selectively knocking down or down regulating expression of a gene of interest. For example, an siRNA could be selected to silence a gene associated with a particular disease, disorder, or condition upon administration to a subject in need thereof of a nanoparticle composition including the siRNA. An siRNA may comprise a sequence that is complementary to an mRNA sequence that encodes a gene or protein of interest. In some embodiments, the siRNA may be an immunomodulatory siRNA.

[00287] In certain embodiments, a therapeutic and/or prophylactic is an sgRNA and/or cas9 mRNA. sgRNA and/or cas9 mRNA can be used as gene editing tools. For example, an sgRNA- cas9 complex can affect mRNA translation of cellular genes.

[00288] In some embodiments, a therapeutic and/or prophylactic is an shRNA or a vector or plasmid encoding the same. An shRNA may be produced inside a target cell upon delivery of an appropriate construct to the nucleus. Constructs and mechanisms relating to shRNA are well known in the relevant arts.

[00289] Nucleic acids and polynucleotides useful in the disclosure typically include a first region of linked nucleosides encoding a polypeptide of interest (e.g., a coding region), a first flanking region located at the 5 ' -terminus of the first region (e.g. , a 5 -UTR), a second flanking region located at the 3 ' -terminus of the first region (e.g., a 3 -UTR), at least one 5 ' -cap region, and a 3 -stabilizing region. In some embodiments, a nucleic acid or polynucleotide further includes a poly-A region or a Kozak sequence (e.g. , in the 5 ' -UTR). In some cases, polynucleotides may contain one or more intronic nucleotide sequences capable of being excised from the polynucleotide. In some embodiments, a polynucleotide or nucleic acid (e.g., an mRNA) may include a 5 ' cap structure, a chain terminating nucleotide, a stem loop, a polyA sequence, and/or a polyadenylation signal. Any one of the regions of a nucleic acid may include one or more alternative components (e.g., an alternative nucleoside). For example, the

3 ' -stabilizing region may contain an alternative nucleoside such as an L-nucleoside, an inverted thymidine, or a 2 -O-methyl nucleoside and/or the coding region, 5 -UTR, 3 -UTR, or cap region may include an alternative nucleoside such as a 5-substituted uridine (e.g. , 5- methoxyuridine), a 1 -substituted pseudouridine (e.g. , 1-methyl-pseudouridine or 1-ethyl- pseudouridine), and/or a 5-substituted cytidine (e.g. , 5-methyl-cytidine).

[00290] Generally, the shortest length of a polynucleotide can be the length of the polynucleotide sequence that is sufficient to encode for a dipeptide. In another embodiment, the length of the polynucleotide sequence is sufficient to encode for a tripeptide. In another embodiment, the length of the polynucleotide sequence is sufficient to encode for a tetrapeptide. In another embodiment, the length of the polynucleotide sequence is sufficient to encode for a pentapeptide. In another embodiment, the length of the polynucleotide sequence is sufficient to encode for a hexapeptide. In another embodiment, the length of the polynucleotide sequence is sufficient to encode for a heptapeptide. In another embodiment, the length of the polynucleotide sequence is sufficient to encode for an octapeptide. In another embodiment, the length of the polynucleotide sequence is sufficient to encode for a nonapeptide. In another embodiment, the length of the polynucleotide sequence is sufficient to encode for a decapeptide.

[00291] Examples of dipeptides that the alternative polynucleotide sequences can encode for include, but are not limited to, carnosine and anserine.

[00292] In some cases, a polynucleotide is greater than 30 nucleotides in length. In another embodiment, the polynucleotide molecule is greater than 35 nucleotides in length. In another embodiment, the length is at least 40 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 45 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 55 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 50 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 60 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 80 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 90 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 100 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 120 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 140 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 160 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 180 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 200 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 250 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 300 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 350 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 400 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 450 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 500 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 600 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 700 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 800 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 900 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 1000 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 1 100 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 1200 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 1300 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 1400 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 1500 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 1600 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 1800 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 2000 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 2500 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 3000 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 4000 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 5000 nucleotides, or greater than 5000 nucleotides.

[00293] Nucleic acids and polynucleotides may include one or more naturally occurring components, including any of the canonical nucleotides A (adenosine), G (guanosine), C (cytosine), U (uridine), or T (thymidine). In one embodiment, all or substantially all of the nucleotides comprising (a) the 5 '-UTR, (b) the open reading frame (ORF), (c) the 3 '-UTR, (d) the poly A tail, and any combination of (a, b, c, or d above) comprise naturally occurring canonical nucleotides A (adenosine), G (guanosine), C (cytosine), U (uridine), or T (thymidine).

[00294] Nucleic acids and polynucleotides may include one or more alternative components, as described herein, which impart useful properties including increased stability and/or the lack of a substantial induction of the innate immune response of a cell into which the polynucleotide is introduced. For example, an alternative polynucleotide or nucleic acid exhibits reduced degradation in a cell into which the polynucleotide or nucleic acid is introduced, relative to a corresponding unaltered polynucleotide or nucleic acid. These alternative species may enhance the efficiency of protein production, intracellular retention of the polynucleotides, and/or viability of contacted cells, as well as possess reduced immunogenicity.

[00295] Polynucleotides and nucleic acids may be naturally or non-naturally occurring. Polynucleotides and nucleic acids may include one or more modified (e.g., altered or alternative) nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides, or combinations thereof. The nucleic acids and polynucleotides useful in a nanoparticle composition can include any useful modification or alteration, such as to the nucleobase, the sugar, or the internucleoside linkage (e.g., to a linking phosphate / to a phosphodiester linkage / to the phosphodiester backbone). In certain embodiments, alterations (e.g., one or more alterations) are present in each of the nucleobase, the sugar, and the internucleoside linkage. Alterations according to the present disclosure may be alterations of ribonucleic acids (R As) to deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs), e.g., the substitution of the 2 -OH of the ribofuranosyl ring to 2 -H, threose nucleic acids (TNAs), glycol nucleic acids (GNAs), peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), locked nucleic acids (LNAs), or hybrids thereof. Additional alterations are described herein.

[00296] Polynucleotides and nucleic acids may or may not be uniformly altered along the entire length of the molecule. For example, one or more or all types of nucleotide (e.g., purine or pyrimidine, or any one or more or all of A, G, U, C) may or may not be uniformly altered in a polynucleotide or nucleic acid, or in a given predetermined sequence region thereof. In some instances, all nucleotides X in a polynucleotide (or in a given sequence region thereof) are altered, wherein X may any one of nucleotides A, G, U, C, or any one of the combinations A+G, A+U, A+C, G+U, G+C, U+C, A+G+U, A+G+C, G+U+C or A+G+C.

[00297] Different sugar alterations and/or internucleoside linkages (e.g. , backbone structures) may exist at various positions in a polynucleotide. One of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that the nucleotide analogs or other alteration(s) may be located at any position(s) of a polynucleotide such that the function of the polynucleotide is not substantially decreased. An alteration may also be a 5 - or 3 -terminal alteration. In some embodiments, the polynucleotide includes an alteration at the 3 -terminus. The polynucleotide may contain from about 1% to about 100% alternative nucleotides (either in relation to overall nucleotide content, or in relation to one or more types of nucleotide, i.e., any one or more of A, G, U or C) or any intervening percentage (e.g., from l% to 20%, from l% to 25%, from l% to 50%, from l% to 60%, from 1% to 70%, from 1% to 80%, from 1% to 90%, from 1% to 95%, from 10% to 20%, from 10% to 25%, from 10% to 50%, from 10% to 60%, from 10% to 70%, from 10% to 80%, from 10% to 90%, from 10% to 95%, from 10% to 100%, from 20% to 25%, from 20% to 50%, from 20% to 60%, from 20% to 70%, from 20% to 80%, from 20% to 90%, from 20% to 95%, from 20% to 100%, from 50% to 60%, from 50% to 70%, from 50% to 80%, from 50% to 90%, from 50% to 95%, from 50% to 100%, from 70% to 80%, from 70% to 90%, from 70% to 95%, from 70% to 100%, from 80% to 90%, from 80% to 95%, from 80% to 100%, from 90% to 95%, from 90% to 100%, and from 95% to 100%). It will be understood that any remaining percentage is accounted for by the presence of a canonical nucleotide (e.g. , A, G, U, or C).

[00298] Polynucleotides may contain at a minimum zero and at maximum 100% alternative nucleotides, or any intervening percentage, such as at least 5% alternative nucleotides, at least 10% alternative nucleotides, at least 25% alternative nucleotides, at least 50% alternative nucleotides, at least 80% alternative nucleotides, or at least 90% alternative nucleotides. For example, polynucleotides may contain an alternative pyrimidine such as an alternative uracil or cytosine. In some embodiments, at least 5%, at least 10%, at least 25%, at least 50%, at least 80%, at least 90% or 100% of the uracil in a polynucleotide is replaced with an alternative uracil (e.g. , a 5 -substituted uracil). The alternative uracil can be replaced by a compound having a single unique structure, or can be replaced by a plurality of compounds having different structures (e.g. , 2, 3, 4 or more unique structures). In some instances, at least 5%, at least 10%, at least 25%, at least 50%, at least 80%, at least 90% or 100% of the cytosine in the

polynucleotide is replaced with an alternative cytosine (e.g. , a 5-substituted cytosine). The alternative cytosine can be replaced by a compound having a single unique structure, or can be replaced by a plurality of compounds having different structures (e.g. , 2, 3, 4 or more unique structures).

[00299] In some instances, nucleic acids do not substantially induce an innate immune response of a cell into which the polynucleotide (e.g. , mRNA) is introduced. Features of an induced innate immune response include 1) increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, 2) activation of intracellular PRRs (RIG-I, MDA5, etc., and/or 3) termination or reduction in protein translation.

[00300] The nucleic acids can optionally include other agents (e.g. , R Ai-inducing agents, RNAi agents, siRNAs, shRNAs, miRNAs, antisense RNAs, ribozymes, catalytic DNA, tRNA, RNAs that induce triple helix formation, aptamers, and vectors). In some embodiments, the nucleic acids may include one or more messenger RNAs (mRNAs) having one or more alternative nucleoside or nucleotides (i.e., alternative mRNA molecules).

[00301] In some embodiments, a nucleic acid (e.g. mRNA) molecule, formula, composition or method associated therewith comprises one or more polynucleotides comprising features as described in WO2002/098443, WO2003/051401, WO2008/052770, WO2009127230,

WO2006122828, WO2008/083949, WO2010088927, WO2010/037539, WO2004/004743, WO2005/016376, WO2006/024518, WO2007/095976, WO2008/014979, WO2008/077592, WO2009/030481, WO2009/095226, WO2011069586, WO201 1026641, WO201 1/144358, WO2012019780, WO2012013326, WO2012089338, WO20121 13513, WO20121 16811, WO20121 16810, WO20131 13502, WO20131 13501, WO20131 13736, WO2013143698, WO2013143699, WO2013143700, WO2013/120626, WO2013120627, WO2013120628, WO2013120629, WO2013174409, WO2014127917, WO2015/024669, WO2015/024668, WO2015/024667, WO2015/024665, WO2015/024666, WO2015/024664, WO2015101415, WO2015101414, WO2015024667, WO2015062738, WO2015101416, all of which are incorporated by reference herein.

Nucleobase alternatives [00302] The alternative nucleosides and nucleotides can include an alternative nucleobase. A nucleobase of a nucleic acid is an organic base such as a purine or pyrimidine or a derivative thereof. A nucleobase may be a canonical base (e.g. , adenine, guanine, uracil, thymine, and cytosine). These nucleobases can be altered or wholly replaced to provide polynucleotide molecules having enhanced properties, e.g., increased stability such as resistance to nucleases. Non-canonical or modified bases may include, for example, one or more substitutions or modifications including but not limited to alkyl, aryl, halo, oxo, hydroxyl, alkyloxy, and/or thio substitutions; one or more fused or open rings; oxidation; and/or reduction.

[00303] Alternative nucleotide base pairing encompasses not only the standard adenine- thymine, adenine-uracil, or guanine-cytosine base pairs, but also base pairs formed between nucleotides and/or alternative nucleotides including non-standard or alternative bases, wherein the arrangement of hydrogen bond donors and hydrogen bond acceptors permits hydrogen bonding between a non-standard base and a standard base or between two complementary nonstandard base structures. One example of such non-standard base pairing is the base pairing between the alternative nucleotide inosine and adenine, cytosine, or uracil.

[00304] In some embodiments, the nucleobase is an alternative uracil. Exemplary nucleobases and nucleosides having an alternative uracil include pseudouridine (ψ), pyridin-4- one ribonucleoside, 5-aza-uracil, 6-aza-uracil, 2-thio-5-aza-uracil, 2-thio-uracil (s 2 U), 4-thio- uracil (s 4 U), 4-thio-pseudouridine, 2-thio-pseudouridine, 5 -hydroxy-uracil (ho 5 U), 5-aminoallyl- uracil, 5-halo-uracil (e.g., 5-iodo-uracil or 5-bromo-uracil), 3-methyl-uracil (m 3 U), 5-methoxy- uracil (mo 5 U), uracil 5-oxyacetic acid (cmo 5 U), uracil 5-oxyacetic acid methyl ester (mcmo 5 U), 5 -carboxymethyl -uracil (cm 5 U), 1-carboxymethyl -pseudouridine, 5-carboxyhydroxymethyl- uracil (chm 5 U), 5 -carboxyhydroxymethyl -uracil methyl ester (mchm 5 U),

5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-uracil (mcm 5 U), 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thio-uracil (mcm 5 s 2 U), 5-aminomethyl-2-thio-uracil (nm 5 s 2 U), 5-methylaminomethyl-uracil (mnm 5 U),

5-methylaminomethyl-2-thio-uracil (mnm 5 s 2 U), 5-methylaminomethyl-2-seleno-uracil (mnm 5 se 2 U), 5 -carbamoylmethyl -uracil (ncm 5 U), 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl-uracil (cmnm 5 U), 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl-2-thio-uracil (cmnm 5 s 2 U), 5 -propynyl -uracil, 1- propynyl-pseudouracil, 5 -taurinomethyl -uracil (Tm 5 U), 1-taurinomethyl -pseudouridine, 5- taurinomethyl-2-thio-uracil(Tm 5 s 2 U), 1 -taurinomethyl -4-thio-pseudouridine, 5 -methyl -uracil (m 5 U, i.e., having the nucleobase deoxythymine), 1 -methyl -pseudouridine (ιη'ψ), 1-ethyl- pseudouridine (Et 5 -methyl -2-thio-uracil (m 5 s 2 U), l-methyl-4-thio-pseudouridine (m 1 s 4 ψ), 4-thio-l-methyl-pseudouridine, 3 -methyl -pseudouridine (m 3 \|/), 2-thio-l-methyl-pseudouridine, 1 -methyl- 1-deaza-pseudouridine, 2-thio- l -methyl- 1-deaza-pseudouridine, dihydrouracil (D), dihydropseudouridine, 5,6-dihydrouracil, 5-methyl-dihydrouracil (m 5 D), 2-thio-dihydrouracil, 2-thio-dihydropseudouridine, 2-methoxy-uracil, 2-methoxy-4-thio-uracil, 4-methoxy- pseudouridine, 4-methoxy-2-thio-pseudouridine, Nl -methyl -pseudouridine, 3-(3-amino-3- carboxypropyl)uracil (acp 3 U), l-methyl-3-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)pseudouridine (acp 3 ψ), 5- (isopentenylaminomethyl)uracil (inm 5 U), 5-(isopentenylaminomethyl)-2-thio-uracil (inm 5 s 2 U), 5,2'-0-dimethyl-uridine (m 5 Um), 2-thio-2'-0_methyl-uridine (s 2 Um), 5- methoxycarbonylmethyl-2'-0-methyl-uridine (mcm 5 Um), 5-carbamoylmethyl-2'-0-methyl- uridine (ncm 5 Um), 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl-2'-0-methyl-uridine (cmnm 5 Um), 3,2'-0- dimethyl-uridine (m 3 Um), and 5-(isopentenylaminomethyl)-2'-0-methyl-uridine (inm 5 Um), 1- thio-uracil, deoxythymidine, 5-(2-carbomethoxyvinyl)-uracil,

5 -(carbamoylhydroxymethyl)-uracil, 5 -carbamoylmethyl-2-thio-uracil, 5 -carboxymethyl-2-thio- uracil, 5-cyanomethyl-uracil, 5-methoxy-2-thio-uracil, and 5-[3-(l-E-propenylamino)]uracil.

[00305] In some embodiments, the nucleobase is an alternative cytosine. Exemplary nucleobases and nucleosides having an alternative cytosine include 5-aza-cytosine, 6-aza- cytosine, pseudoisocytidine, 3 -methyl -cytosine (m3C), N4-acetyl-cytosine (ac4C), 5-formyl- cytosine (f5C), N4-methyl-cytosine (m4C), 5-methyl-cytosine (m5C), 5-halo-cytosine (e.g. , 5- iodo-cytosine), 5 -hydroxymethyl -cytosine (hm5C), 1 -methyl -pseudoisocytidine, pyrrolo- cytosine, pyrrolo-pseudoisocytidine, 2-thio-cytosine (s2C), 2-thio-5 -methyl -cytosine, 4-thio- pseudoisocytidine, 4-thio- 1 -methyl -pseudoisocytidine, 4-thio- 1 -methyl- 1 -deaza- pseudoisocytidine, 1 -methyl- 1-deaza-pseudoisocytidine, zebularine, 5-aza-zebularine, 5-methyl- zebularine, 5-aza-2-thio-zebularine, 2-thio-zebularine, 2-methoxy-cytosine, 2-methoxy-5- methyl -cytosine, 4-methoxy-pseudoisocytidine, 4-methoxy- 1 -methyl-pseudoisocytidine, lysidine (k2C), 5,2'-0-dimethyl-cytidine (m5Cm), N4-acetyl-2'-0-methyl-cytidine (ac4Cm), N4,2'-0-dimethyl-cytidine (m4Cm), 5-formyl-2'-0-methyl-cytidine (f5Cm), N4,N4,2'-0- trimethyl-cytidine (m42Cm), 1-thio-cytosine, 5-hydroxy-cytosine, 5-(3-azidopropyl)-cytosine, and 5-(2-azidoethyl)-cytosine.

[00306] In some embodiments, the nucleobase is an alternative adenine. Exemplary nucleobases and nucleosides having an alternative adenine include 2-amino-purine, 2,6- diaminopurine, 2-amino-6-halo-purine (e.g., 2-amino-6-chloro-purine), 6-halo-purine (e.g. , 6- chloro-purine), 2-amino-6-methyl-purine, 8-azido-adenine, 7-deaza-adenine, 7-deaza-8-aza- adenine, 7-deaza-2 -amino-purine, 7-deaza-8-aza-2 -amino-purine, 7-deaza-2,6-diaminopurine, 7-deaza-8-aza-2,6-diaminopurine, 1 -methyl -adenine (ml A), 2-methyl-adenine (m2A), N6- methyl-adenine (m6A), 2-methylthio-N6-methyl-adenine (ms2m6A), N6-isopentenyl-adenine (i6A), 2-methylthio-N6-isopentenyl-adenine (ms2i6A), N6-(cis-hydroxyisopentenyl)adenine (io6A), 2-methylthio-N6-(cis-hydroxyisopentenyl)adenine (ms2io6A), N6-glycinylcarbamoyl- adenine (g6A), N6-threonylcarbamoyl-adenine (t6A), N6-methyl-N6-threonylcarbamoyl- adenine (m6t6A), 2-methylthio-N6-threonylcarbamoyl-adenine (ms2g6A), N6,N6-dimethyl- adenine (m62A), N6-hydroxynorvalylcarbamoyl-adenine (hn6A), 2-methylthio-N6- hydroxynorvalylcarbamoyl-adenine (ms2hn6A), N6-acetyl-adenine (ac6A), 7-methyl-adenine, 2-methylthio-adenine, 2-methoxy-adenine, N6,2'-0-dimethyl-adenosine (m6Am), N6,N6,2'-0- trimethyl-adenosine (m62Am), l,2'-0-dimethyl-adenosine (m l Am), 2-amino-N6-methyl-purine, 1-thio-adenine, 8-azido-adenine, N6-(19-amino-pentaoxanonadecyl)-adenine, 2,8-dimethyl- adenine, N6-formyl-adenine, and N6-hydroxymethyl -adenine.

[00307] In some embodiments, the nucleobase is an alternative guanine. Exemplary nucleobases and nucleosides having an alternative guanine include inosine (I), 1-methyl-inosine (mil), wyosine (imG), methylwyosine (mimG), 4-demethyl-wyosine (imG-14), isowyosine (imG2), wybutosine (yW), peroxywybutosine (o2yW), hydroxywybutosine (OHyW), undermodified hydroxywybutosine (OHyW*), 7-deaza-guanine, queuosine (Q), epoxyqueuosine (oQ), galactosyl-queuosine (galQ), mannosyl-queuosine (manQ), 7-cyano-7-deaza-guanine (preQO), 7-aminomethyl-7-deaza-guanine (preQ l), archaeosine (G+), 7-deaza-8-aza-guanine, 6- thio-guanine, 6-thio-7-deaza-guanine, 6-thio-7-deaza-8-aza-guanine, 7-methyl-guanine (m7G), 6-thio-7-methyl-guanine, 7-methyl-inosine, 6-methoxy-guanine, 1 -methyl-guanine (mlG), N2- methyl-guanine (m2G), N2,N2-dimethyl-guanine (m22G), N2,7-dimethyl-guanine (m2,7G), N2, N2,7-dimethyl -guanine (m2,2,7G), 8-oxo-guanine, 7-methyl-8-oxo-guanine, l-methyl-6-thio- guanine, N2-methyl-6-thio-guanine, N2,N2-dimethyl-6-thio-guanine, N2-methyl-2'-0-methyl- guanosine (m2Gm), N2,N2-dimethyl-2'-0-methyl-guanosine (m22Gm), l-methyl-2'-0-methyl- guanosine (mlGm), N2,7-dimethyl-2'-0-methyl-guanosine (m2,7Gm), 2'-0-methyl-inosine (Im), l,2'-0-dimethyl -inosine (mllm), 1-thio-guanine, and O-6-methyl-guanine.

[00308] The alternative nucleobase of a nucleotide can be independently a purine, a pyrimidine, a purine or pyrimidine analog. For example, the nucleobase can be an alternative to adenine, cytosine, guanine, uracil, or hypoxanthine. In another embodiment, the nucleobase can also include, for example, naturally-occurring and synthetic derivatives of a base, including pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines, 5-methylcytosine (5-me-C), 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine, xanthine, hypoxanthine, 2-aminoadenine, 6-methyl and other alkyl derivatives of adenine and guanine, 2- propyl and other alkyl derivatives of adenine and guanine, 2-thiouracil, 2-thiothymine and 2- thiocytosine, 5-propynyl uracil and cytosine, 6-azo uracil, cytosine and thymine, 5 -uracil (pseudouracil), 4-thiouracil, 8-halo (e.g., 8-bromo), 8-amino, 8-thiol, 8-thioalkyl, 8-hydroxy and other 8-substituted adenines and guanines, 5-halo particularly 5-bromo, 5-trifluoromethyl and other 5 -substituted uracils and cytosines, 7-methylguanine and 7-methyladenine, 8-azaguanine and 8-azaadenine, deazaguanine, 7-deazaguanine, 3-deazaguanine, deazaadenine,

7-deazaadenine, 3-deazaadenine, pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, imidazo[l,5-a] 1,3,5 triazinones, 9-deazapurines, imidazo[4,5-d]pyrazines, thiazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidines, pyrazin-2-ones, 1,2,4- triazine, pyridazine; or 1,3,5 triazine. When the nucleotides are depicted using the shorthand A, G, C, T or U, each letter refers to the representative base and/or derivatives thereof, e.g. , A includes adenine or adenine analogs, e.g. , 7-deaza adenine).

Alterations on the sugar

[00309] Nucleosides include a sugar molecule (e.g. , a 5 -carbon or 6-carbon sugar, such as pentose, ribose, arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose, or a deoxy derivative thereof) in combination with a nucleobase, while nucleotides are nucleosides containing a nucleoside and a phosphate group or alternative group (e.g. , boranophosphate, thiophosphate, selenophosphate, phosphonate, alkyl group, amidate, and glycerol). A nucleoside or nucleotide may be a canonical species, e.g. , a nucleoside or nucleotide including a canonical nucleobase, sugar, and, in the case of nucleotides, a phosphate group, or may be an alternative nucleoside or nucleotide including one or more alternative components. For example, alternative nucleosides and nucleotides can be altered on the sugar of the nucleoside or nucleotide. In some embodiments, the alternative nucleosides or nucleotides include the structure:

Formula VII.

In each of the Formulae IV, V, VI and VII,

each of m and n is independently, an integer from 0 to 5,

each of U and U' independently, is O, S, N(R u ) nu , or C(R u ) nu , wherein nu is an integer from 0 to 2 and each R u is, independently, H, halo, or optionally substituted alkyl; each of R 1 ', R 2 ', R 1 ", R 2 ", R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , and R 5 is, independently, if present, H, halo, hydroxy, thiol, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted aminoalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, optionally substituted hydroxyalkoxy, optionally substituted amino, azido, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aminoalkyl, optionally substituted aminoalkenyl, optionally substituted aminoalkynyl, or absent; wherein the combination of R 3 with one or more of R 1 , R 1 , R 2 , R 2 ", or R 5 (e.g., the combination of R 1 and R 3 , the combination of R 1 and R 3 , the combination of R 2 and R 3 , the combination of R 2 and R 3 , or the combination of R 5 and R 3 ) can join together to form optionally substituted alkylene or optionally substituted heteroalkylene and, taken together with the carbons to which they are attached, provide an optionally substituted heterocyclyl (e.g., a bicyclic, tricyclic, or tetracyclic heterocyclyl);

wherein the combination of R 5 with one or more of R 1 , R 1 , R 2 , or R 2 " (e.g., the combination of R 1 and R 5 , the combination of R 1 and R 5 , the combination of R 2 and R 5 , or the combination of R 2 " and R 5 ) can join together to form optionally substituted alkylene or optionally substituted heteroalkylene and, taken together with the carbons to which they are attached, provide an optionally substituted heterocyclyl (e.g., a bicyclic, tricyclic, or tetracyclic heterocyclyl); and wherein the combination of R 4 and one or more of R 1 , R 1 , R 2 , R 2 ", R 3 , or R 5 can join together to form optionally substituted alkylene or optionally substituted heteroalkylene and, taken together with the carbons to which they are attached, provide an optionally substituted heterocyclyl (e.g., a bicyclic, tricyclic, or tetracyclic heterocyclyl); each of m' and m" is, independently, an integer from 0 to 3 (e.g., from 0 to 2, from 0 to 1, from 1 to 3, or from 1 to 2);

each of Y 1 , Y 2 , and Y 3 , is, independently, O, S, Se,— R N1 — , optionally substituted alkylene, or optionally substituted heteroalkylene, wherein R N1 is H, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted aryl, or absent;

each Y 4 is, independently, H, hydroxy, thiol, boranyl, optionally substituted alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted alkynyl, optionally substituted alkoxy, optionally substituted alkenyloxy, optionally substituted alkynyloxy, optionally substituted thioalkoxy, optionally substituted alkoxyalkoxy, or optionally substituted amino;

each Y 5 is, independently, O, S, Se, optionally substituted alkylene (e.g., methylene), or optionally substituted heteroalkylene; and

B is a nucleobase, either modified or unmodified. In some embodiments, the 2'-hydroxy group (OH) can be modified or replaced with a number of different substituents. Exemplary substitutions at the 2'-position include, but are not limited to, H, azido, halo (e.g., fluoro), optionally substituted Ci-6 alkyl (e.g. , methyl); optionally substituted Ci-6 alkoxy (e.g. , methoxy or ethoxy); optionally substituted C6-10 aryloxy; optionally substituted C3-8 cycloalkyl; optionally substituted C6-10 aryl-Ci-6 alkoxy, optionally substituted Ci-12 (heterocyclyl)oxy; a sugar (e.g. , ribose, pentose, or any described herein); a polyethyleneglycol (PEG), -

0(CH2CH20)nCH2CH20R, where R is H or optionally substituted alkyl, and n is an integer from

0 to 20 (e.g. , from 0 to 4, from 0 to 8, from 0 to 10, from 0 to 16, from 1 to 4, from 1 to 8, from

1 to 10, from 1 to 16, from 1 to 20, from 2 to 4, from 2 to 8, from 2 to 10, from 2 to 16, from 2 to 20, from 4 to 8, from 4 to 10, from 4 to 16, and from 4 to 20); "locked" nucleic acids (LNA) in which the 2'-hydroxy is connected by a Ci-6 alkylene or Ci-6 heteroalkylene bridge to the 4 ' - carbon of the same ribose sugar, where exemplary bridges included methylene, propylene, ether, or amino bridges; aminoalkyl, as defined herein; aminoalkoxy, as defined herein; amino as defined herein; and amino acid, as defined herein.

[00311] Generally, RNA includes the sugar group ribose, which is a 5-membered ring having an oxygen. Exemplary, non-limiting alternative nucleotides include replacement of the oxygen in ribose (e.g. , with S, Se, or alkylene, such as methylene or ethylene); addition of a double bond (e.g. , to replace ribose with cyclopentenyl or cyclohexenyl); ring contraction of ribose (e.g. , to form a 4-membered ring of cyclobutane or oxetane); ring expansion of ribose (e.g. , to form a 6- or 7-membered ring having an additional carbon or heteroatom, such as for anhydrohexitol, altritol, mannitol, cyclohexanyl, cyclohexenyl, and morpholino (that also has a phosphoramidate backbone)); multicyclic forms (e.g. , tricyclo and "unlocked" forms, such as glycol nucleic acid (GNA) (e.g. , R-GNA or S-GNA, where ribose is replaced by glycol units attached to phosphodiester bonds), threose nucleic acid (TNA, where ribose is replace with

a-L-threofuranosyl-(3'→2')), and peptide nucleic acid (PNA, where 2-amino-ethyl-glycine linkages replace the ribose and phosphodiester backbone).

[00312] In some embodiments, the sugar group contains one or more carbons that possess the opposite stereochemical configuration of the corresponding carbon in ribose. Thus, a polynucleotide molecule can include nucleotides containing, e.g. , arabinose or L-ribose, as the sugar.

[00313] In some embodiments, the polynucleotide includes at least one nucleoside wherein the sugar is L-ribose, 2 ' -O-methyl -ribose, 2 ' -fluoro-ribose, arabinose, hexitol, an LNA, or a PNA.

Alterations on the internucleoside linkage

[00314] Alternative nucleotides can be altered on the internucleoside linkage (e.g. , phosphate backbone). Herein, in the context of the polynucleotide backbone, the phrases "phosphate" and "phosphodiester" are used interchangeably. Backbone phosphate groups can be altered by replacing one or more of the oxygen atoms with a different substituent.

[00315] The alternative nucleotides can include the wholesale replacement of an unaltered phosphate moiety with another internucleoside linkage as described herein. Examples of alternative phosphate groups include, but are not limited to, phosphorothioate,

phosphoroselenates, boranophosphates, boranophosphate esters, hydrogen phosphonates, phosphoramidates, phosphorodiamidates, alkyl or aryl phosphonates, and phosphotriesters. Phosphorodithioates have both non-linking oxygens replaced by sulfur. The phosphate linker can also be altered by the replacement of a linking oxygen with nitrogen (bridged

phosphoramidates), sulfur (bridged phosphorothioates), and carbon (bridged methylene- phosphonates).

[00316] The alternative nucleosides and nucleotides can include the replacement of one or more of the non-bridging oxygens with a borane moiety (BH3), sulfur (thio), methyl, ethyl, and/or methoxy. As a non-limiting example, two non-bridging oxygens at the same position (e.g. , the alpha (a), beta (β) or gamma (γ) position) can be replaced with a sulfur (thio) and a methoxy.

[00317] The replacement of one or more of the oxygen atoms at the a position of the phosphate moiety (e.g., a-thio phosphate) is provided to confer stability (such as against exonucleases and endonucleases) to RNA and DNA through the unnatural phosphorothioate backbone linkages. Phosphorothioate DNA and RNA have increased nuclease resistance and subsequently a longer half-life in a cellular environment.

[00318] Other internucleoside linkages that may be employed according to the present disclosure, including internucleoside linkages which do not contain a phosphorous atom, are described herein.

Internal ribosome entry sites

[00319] Polynucleotides may contain an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). An IRES may act as the sole ribosome binding site, or may serve as one of multiple ribosome binding sites of an mRNA. A polynucleotide containing more than one functional ribosome binding site may encode several peptides or polypeptides that are translated independently by the ribosomes (e.g., multicistronic mRNA). When polynucleotides are provided with an IRES, further optionally provided is a second translatable region. Examples of IRES sequences that can be used according to the present disclosure include without limitation, those from picomaviruses (e.g. , FMDV), pest viruses (CFFV), polio viruses (PV), encephalomyocarditis viruses (ECMV), foot- and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV), hepatitis C viruses (HCV), classical swine fever viruses (CSFV), murine leukemia virus (MLV), simian immune deficiency viruses (SIV) or cricket paralysis viruses (CrPV).

5 ' -cap structure

[00320] A polynucleotide (e.g. , an mR A) may include a 5 -cap structure. The 5 -cap structure of a polynucleotide is involved in nuclear export and increasing polynucleotide stability and binds the mRNA Cap Binding Protein (CBP), which is responsible for

polynucleotide stability in the cell and translation competency through the association of CBP with poly-A binding protein to form the mature cyclic mRNA species. The cap further assists the removal of 5 ' -proximal introns removal during mRNA splicing.

[00321] Endogenous polynucleotide molecules may be 5 -end capped generating a

5 -ppp-5 -triphosphate linkage between a terminal guanosine cap residue and the 5 ' -terminal transcribed sense nucleotide of the polynucleotide. This 5 ' -guanylate cap may then be methylated to generate an N7-methyl-guanylate residue. The ribose sugars of the terminal and/or anteterminal transcribed nucleotides of the 5 ' end of the polynucleotide may optionally also be 2'-0-methylated. 5 ' -decapping through hydrolysis and cleavage of the guanylate cap structure may target a polynucleotide molecule, such as an mRNA molecule, for degradation.

[00322] Alterations to polynucleotides may generate a non-hydrolyzable cap structure preventing decapping and thus increasing polynucleotide half-life. Because cap structure hydrolysis requires cleavage of 5 ' -ppp-5 ' phosphorodiester linkages, alternative nucleotides may be used during the capping reaction. For example, a Vaccinia Capping Enzyme from New England Biolabs (Ipswich, MA) may be used with a-thio-guanosine nucleotides according to the manufacturer's instructions to create a phosphorothioate linkage in the 5 -ppp-5 ' cap.

Additional alternative guanosine nucleotides may be used such as a-methyl-phosphonate and seleno-phosphate nucleotides.

[00323] Additional alterations include, but are not limited to, 2'-0-methylation of the ribose sugars of 5 ' -terminal and/or 5 ' -anteterminal nucleotides of the polynucleotide (as mentioned above) on the 2'-hydroxy group of the sugar. Multiple distinct 5 ' -cap structures can be used to generate the 5 ' -cap of a polynucleotide, such as an mRNA molecule.

[00324] 5 -Cap structures include those described in International Patent Publication Nos. WO2008127688, WO 2008016473, and WO 201 1015347, the cap structures of each of which are incorporated herein by reference.

[00325] Cap analogs, which herein are also referred to as synthetic cap analogs, chemical caps, chemical cap analogs, or structural or functional cap analogs, differ from natural (i.e., endogenous, wild-type, or physiological) 5 ' -caps in their chemical structure, while retaining cap function. Cap analogs may be chemically (i.e., non-enzymatically) or enzymatically synthesized and/linked to a polynucleotide.

[00326] For example, the Anti-Reverse Cap Analog (ARCA) cap contains two guanosines linked by a 5 ' -5 ' -triphosphate group, wherein one guanosine contains an N7-methyl group as well as a 3'-0-methyl group (i.e., N7,3'-0-dimethyl-guanosine-5 ' -triphosphate-5 ' -guanosine, m 7 G-3'mppp-G, which may equivalently be designated 3' 0-Me-m7G(5 ' )ppp(5 ' )G). The 3'-0 atom of the other, unaltered, guanosine becomes linked to the 5 ' -terminal nucleotide of the capped polynucleotide (e.g. , an mRNA). The N7- and 3'-0-methlyated guanosine provides the terminal moiety of the capped polynucleotide (e.g. , mRNA).

[00327] Another exemplary cap is mCAP, which is similar to ARCA but has a 2'-0-methyl group on guanosine (i.e., N7,2'-0-dimethyl-guanosine-5 ' -triphosphate-5 ' -guanosine, m 7 Gm- ppp-G).

[00328] A cap may be a dinucleotide cap analog. As a non-limiting example, the

dinucleotide cap analog may be modified at different phosphate positions with a

boranophosphate group or a phophoroselenoate group such as the dinucleotide cap analogs described in US Patent No. 8,519, 1 10, the cap structures of which are herein incorporated by reference.

[00329] Alternatively, a cap analog may be a N7-(4-chlorophenoxyethyl) substituted dinucleotide cap analog known in the art and/or described herein. Non-limiting examples of N7- (4-chlorophenoxyethyl) substituted dinucleotide cap analogs include a N7-(4- chlorophenoxyethyl)-G(5 )ppp(5 )G and a N7-(4-chlorophenoxyethyl)-m3 -OG(5 )ppp(5 )G cap analog (see, e.g. , the various cap analogs and the methods of synthesizing cap analogs described in Kore et al. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 2013 21 :4570-4574; the cap structures of which are herein incorporated by reference). In other instances, a cap analog useful in the polynucleotides of the present disclosure is a 4-chloro/bromophenoxyethyl analog.

[00330] While cap analogs allow for the concomitant capping of a polynucleotide in an in vitro transcription reaction, up to 20% of transcripts remain uncapped. This, as well as the structural differences of a cap analog from endogenous 5 ' -cap structures of polynucleotides produced by the endogenous, cellular transcription machinery, may lead to reduced translational competency and reduced cellular stability.

[00331] Alternative polynucleotides may also be capped post-transcriptionally, using enzymes, in order to generate more authentic 5 ' -cap structures. As used herein, the phrase "more authentic" refers to a feature that closely mirrors or mimics, either structurally or functionally, an endogenous or wild type feature. That is, a "more authentic" feature is better representative of an endogenous, wild-type, natural or physiological cellular function, and/or structure as compared to synthetic features or analogs of the prior art, or which outperforms the corresponding endogenous, wild-type, natural, or physiological feature in one or more respects. Non-limiting examples of more authentic 5 ' -cap structures useful in the polynucleotides of the present disclosure are those which, among other things, have enhanced binding of cap binding proteins, increased half-life, reduced susceptibility to 5 ' -endonucleases, and/or reduced 5 ' - decapping, as compared to synthetic 5 -cap structures known in the art (or to a wild-type, natural or physiological 5 ' -cap structure). For example, recombinant Vaccinia Virus Capping Enzyme and recombinant 2'-0-methyltransferase enzyme can create a canonical 5 ' -5 ' -triphosphate linkage between the 5 ' -terminal nucleotide of a polynucleotide and a guanosine cap nucleotide wherein the cap guanosine contains an N7-methylation and the 5 ' -terminal nucleotide of the polynucleotide contains a 2'-0-methyl. Such a structure is termed the Capl structure. This cap results in a higher translational -competency, cellular stability, and a reduced activation of cellular pro-inflammatory cytokines, as compared, e.g. , to other 5 cap analog structures known in the art. Other exemplary cap structures include 7mG(5 ')ppp(5 ')N,pN2p (Cap 0),

7mG(5 ')ppp(5 ')NlmpNp (Cap 1), 7mG(5 ')-ppp(5 ')NlmpN2mp (Cap 2), and

m(7)Gpppm(3)(6,6,2 ' )Apm(2 ' )Apm(2 ' )Cpm(2)(3,2 ' )Up (Cap 4).

[00332] Because the alternative polynucleotides may be capped post-transcriptionally, and because this process is more efficient, nearly 100% of the alternative polynucleotides may be capped. This is in contrast to -80% when a cap analog is linked to a polynucleotide in the course of an in vitro transcription reaction.

[00333] 5 -terminal caps may include endogenous caps or cap analogs. A 5 -terminal cap may include a guanosine analog. Useful guanosine analogs include inosine, Nl -methyl - guanosine, 2'-fluoro-guanosine, 7-deaza-guanosine, 8-oxo-guanosine, 2-amino-guanosine, LNA- guanosine, and 2-azido-guanosine.

[00334] In some cases, a polynucleotide contains a modified 5 -cap. A modification on the 5 ' -cap may increase the stability of polynucleotide, increase the half-life of the polynucleotide, and could increase the polynucleotide translational efficiency. The modified 5 -cap may include, but is not limited to, one or more of the following modifications: modification at the 2 - and/or 3 -position of a capped guanosine triphosphate (GTP), a replacement of the sugar ring oxygen (that produced the carbocyclic ring) with a methylene moiety (CH2), a modification at the triphosphate bridge moiety of the cap structure, or a modification at the nucleobase (G) moiety.

5 -UTRs [00335] A 5 -UTR may be provided as a flanking region to polynucleotides (e.g. , mRNAs). A 5 -UTR may be homologous or heterologous to the coding region found in a polynucleotide. Multiple 5 -UTRs may be included in the flanking region and may be the same or of different sequences. Any portion of the flanking regions, including none, may be codon optimized and any may independently contain one or more different structural or chemical alterations, before and/or after codon optimization.

[00336] Shown in Table 21 in US Provisional Application No 61/775,509, and in Table 21 and in Table 22 in US Provisional Application No. 61/829,372, of which are incorporated herein by reference, is a listing of the start and stop site of alternative polynucleotides (e.g. , mRNA). In Table 21 each 5 -UTR (5 -UTR-005 to 5 -UTR 6851 1) is identified by its start and stop site relative to its native or wild type (homologous) transcript (ENST; the identifier used in the ENSEMBL database).

[00337] To alter one or more properties of a polynucleotide (e.g. , mRNA), 5 -UTRs which are heterologous to the coding region of an alternative polynucleotide (e.g. , mRNA) may be engineered. The polynucleotides (e.g. , mRNA) may then be administered to cells, tissue or organisms and outcomes such as protein level, localization, and/or half-life may be measured to evaluate the beneficial effects the heterologous 5 -UTR may have on the alternative polynucleotides (mRNA). Variants of the 5 ' -UTRs may be utilized wherein one or more nucleotides are added or removed to the termini, including A, T, C or G. 5 -UTRs may also be codon-optimized, or altered in any manner described herein.

5 -UTRs, 3 -UTRs, and translation enhancer elements (TEEs)

[00338] The 5 -UTR of a polynucleotides (e.g. , mRNA) may include at least one translation enhancer element. The term "translational enhancer element" refers to sequences that increase the amount of polypeptide or protein produced from a polynucleotide. As a non-limiting example, the TEE may be located between the transcription promoter and the start codon. The polynucleotides (e.g. , mRNA) with at least one TEE in the 5 -UTR may include a cap at the 5 - UTR. Further, at least one TEE may be located in the 5 -UTR of polynucleotides (e.g. , mRNA) undergoing cap-dependent or cap-independent translation.

[00339] In one aspect, TEEs are conserved elements in the UTR which can promote translational activity of a polynucleotide such as, but not limited to, cap-dependent or cap- independent translation. The conservation of these sequences has been previously shown by Panek et al. (Nucleic Acids Research, 2013, 1- 10) across 14 species including humans. [00340] In one non-limiting example, the TEEs known may be in the 5 -leader of the Gtx homeodomain protein (Chappell et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101 :9590-9594, 2004, the TEEs of which are incorporated herein by reference).

[00341] In another non-limiting example, TEEs are disclosed in US Patent Publication Nos. 2009/0226470and 2013/0177581, International Patent Publication Nos. WO2009/075886, WO2012/009644, and WO 1999/024595, and US Patent Nos. 6,310, 197 and 6,849,405, the TEE sequences of each of which are incorporated herein by reference.

[00342] In yet another non-limiting example, the TEE may be an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), HCV-IRES or an IRES element such as, but not limited to, those described in US Patent No. 7,468,275, US Patent Publication Nos. 2007/0048776 and 201 1/0124100 and International Patent Publication Nos. WO2007/025008 and WO2001/055369, the IRES sequences of each of which are incorporated herein by reference. The IRES elements may include, but are not limited to, the Gtx sequences (e.g. , Gtx9-nt, Gtx8-nt, Gtx7-nt) described by Chappell et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101 :9590-9594, 2004) and Zhou et al. (PNAS 102:6273-6278, 2005) and in US Patent Publication Nos. 2007/0048776 and 201 1/0124100 and International Patent Publication No. WO2007/025008, the IRES sequences of each of which are incorporated herein by reference.

[00343] "Translational enhancer polynucleotides" are polynucleotides which include one or more of the specific TEE exemplified herein and/or disclosed in the art (see e.g., U.S. Patent Nos. 6,310, 197, 6,849,405, 7,456,273, 7, 183,395, U.S. Patent Publication Nos. 20090/226470, 2007/0048776, 201 1/0124100, 2009/0093049, 2013/0177581, International Patent Publication Nos. WO2009/075886, WO2007/025008, WO2012/009644, WO2001/055371

WO 1999/024595, and European Patent Nos. 2610341 and 2610340; the TEE sequences of each of which are incorporated herein by reference) or their variants, homologs or functional derivatives. One or multiple copies of a specific TEE can be present in a polynucleotide (e.g., mRNA). The TEEs in the translational enhancer polynucleotides can be organized in one or more sequence segments. A sequence segment can harbor one or more of the specific TEEs exemplified herein, with each TEE being present in one or more copies. When multiple sequence segments are present in a translational enhancer polynucleotide, they can be homogenous or heterogeneous. Thus, the multiple sequence segments in a translational enhancer polynucleotide can harbor identical or different types of the specific TEEs exemplified herein, identical or different number of copies of each of the specific TEEs, and/or identical or different organization of the TEEs within each sequence segment. [00344] A polynucleotide (e.g., mR A) may include at least one TEE that is described in International Patent Publication Nos. WO 1999/024595, WO2012/009644, WO2009/075886, WO2007/025008, WO 1999/024595, European Patent Publication Nos. 2610341 and 2610340, US Patent Nos. 6,310, 197, 6,849,405, 7,456,273, 7, 183,395, and US Patent Publication Nos. 2009/0226470, 201 1/0124100, 2007/0048776, 2009/0093049, and 2013/0177581 the TEE sequences of each of which are incorporated herein by reference. The TEE may be located in the 5 ' -UTR of the polynucleotides (e.g., mRNA).

[00345] A polynucleotide (e.g., mRNA) may include at least one TEE that has at least 50%, at least 55%, at least 60%, at least 65%, at least 70%, at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%, at least 95% or at least 99% identity with the TEEs described in US Patent

Publication Nos. 2009/0226470, 2007/0048776, 2013/0177581 and 201 1/0124100, International Patent Publication Nos. WO 1999/024595, WO2012/009644, WO2009/075886 and

WO2007/025008, European Patent Publication Nos. 2610341 and 2610340, US Patent Nos. 6,310, 197, 6,849,405, 7,456,273, 7, 183,395, the TEE sequences of each of which are incorporated herein by reference.

[00346] The 5 -UTR of a polynucleotide (e.g., mRNA) may include at least 1, at least 2, at least 3, at least 4, at least 5, at least 6, at least 7, at least 8, at least 9, at least 10, at least 1 1, at least 12, at least 13, at least 14, at least 15, at least 16, at least 17, at least 18 at least 19, at least 20, at least 21, at least 22, at least 23, at least 24, at least 25, at least 30, at least 35, at least 40, at least 45, at least 50, at least 55 or more than 60 TEE sequences. The TEE sequences in the 5 ' - UTR of a polynucleotide (e.g., mRNA) may be the same or different TEE sequences. The TEE sequences may be in a pattern such as ABABAB, AABBAABBAABB, or ABCABCABC, or variants thereof, repeated once, twice, or more than three times. In these patterns, each letter, A, B, or C represent a different TEE sequence at the nucleotide level.

[00347] In some cases, the 5 -UTR may include a spacer to separate two TEE sequences. As a non-limiting example, the spacer may be a 15 nucleotide spacer and/or other spacers known in the art. As another non-limiting example, the 5 -UTR may include a TEE sequence-spacer module repeated at least once, at least twice, at least 3 times, at least 4 times, at least 5 times, at least 6 times, at least 7 times, at least 8 times, at least 9 times, or more than 9 times in the 5 ' - UTR.

[00348] In other instances, the spacer separating two TEE sequences may include other sequences known in the art which may regulate the translation of the polynucleotides (e.g., mRNA) of the present disclosure such as, but not limited to, miR sequences (e.g., miR binding sites and miR seeds). As a non-limiting example, each spacer used to separate two TEE sequences may include a different miR sequence or component of a miR sequence (e.g., miR seed sequence).

[00349] In some instances, the TEE in the 5 -UTR of a polynucleotide (e.g., mRNA) may include at least 5%, at least 10%, at least 15%, at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, at least 50%, at least 55%, at least 60%, at least 65%, at least 70%, at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 99% or more than 99% of the TEE sequences disclosed in US Patent Publication Nos. 2009/0226470, 2007/0048776, 2013/0177581 and 201 1/0124100, International Patent Publication Nos.

WO 1999/024595, WO2012/009644, WO2009/075886 and WO2007/025008, European Patent Publication Nos. 2610341 and 2610340, and US Patent Nos. 6,310, 197, 6,849,405, 7,456,273, and 7, 183,395 the TEE sequences of each of which are incorporated herein by reference. In another embodiment, the TEE in the 5 -UTR of the polynucleotides (e.g. , mRNA) of the present disclosure may include a 5-30 nucleotide fragment, a 5-25 nucleotide fragment, a 5-20 nucleotide fragment, a 5- 15 nucleotide fragment, a 5- 10 nucleotide fragment of the TEE sequences disclosed in US Patent Publication Nos. 2009/0226470, 2007/0048776,

2013/0177581 and 2011/0124100, International Patent Publication Nos. WO 1999/024595, WO2012/009644, WO2009/075886 and WO2007/025008, European Patent Publication Nos. 2610341 and 2610340, and US Patent Nos. 6,310, 197, 6,849,405, 7,456,273, and 7, 183,395; the TEE sequences of each of which are incorporated herein by reference.

[00350] In certain cases, the TEE in the 5 -UTR of the polynucleotides (e.g. , mRNA) of the present disclosure may include at least 5%, at least 10%, at least 15%, at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 30%, at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, at least 50%, at least 55%, at least 60%, at least 65%, at least 70%, at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 99% or more than 99% of the TEE sequences disclosed in Chappell et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101 :9590-9594, 2004) and Zhou et al. (PNAS 102:6273-6278, 2005), in Supplemental Table 1 and in Supplemental Table 2 disclosed by Wellensiek et al (Genome-wide profiling of human cap-independent translation-enhancing elements, Nature Methods, 2013; DOI: 10.1038/NMETH.2522); the TEE sequences of each of which are herein incorporated by reference. In another embodiment, the TEE in the 5 -UTR of the polynucleotides (e.g. , mRNA) of the present disclosure may include a 5-30 nucleotide fragment, a 5-25 nucleotide fragment, a 5-20 nucleotide fragment, a 5-15 nucleotide fragment, a 5- 10 nucleotide fragment of the TEE sequences disclosed in Chappell et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101 :9590-9594, 2004) and Zhou et al. (PNAS 102:6273-6278, 2005), in Supplemental Table 1 and in Supplemental Table 2 disclosed by Wellensiek et al (Genome-wide profiling of human cap-independent translation- enhancing elements, Nature Methods, 2013; DOI: 10.1038/NMETH.2522); the TEE sequences of each of which is incorporated herein by reference.

[00351] In some cases, the TEE used in the 5 -UTR of a polynucleotide (e.g. , mRNA) is an IRES sequence such as, but not limited to, those described in US Patent No. 7,468,275 and International Patent Publication No. WO2001/055369, the TEE sequences of each of which are incorporated herein by reference.

[00352] In some instances, the TEEs used in the 5 -UTR of a polynucleotide (e.g. , mRNA) may be identified by the methods described in US Patent Publication Nos. 2007/0048776 and 201 1/0124100 and International Patent Publication Nos. WO2007/025008 and

WO2012/009644, the methods of each of which are incorporated herein by reference.

[00353] In some cases, the TEEs used in the 5 -UTR of a polynucleotide (e.g. , mRNA) of the present disclosure may be a transcription regulatory element described in US Patent Nos.

7,456,273 and 7, 183,395, US Patent Publication No. 2009/0093049, and International

Publication No. WO2001/055371, the TEE sequences of each of which is incorporated herein by reference. The transcription regulatory elements may be identified by methods known in the art, such as, but not limited to, the methods described in US Patent Nos. 7,456,273 and 7, 183,395, US Patent Publication No. 2009/0093049, and International Publication No. WO2001/055371, the methods of each of which is incorporated herein by reference.

[00354] In yet other instances, the TEE used in the 5 -UTR of a polynucleotide (e.g. , mRNA) is a polynucleotide or portion thereof as described in US Patent Nos. 7,456,273 and 7, 183,395, US Patent Publication No. 2009/0093049, and International Publication No. WO2001/055371, the TEE sequences of each of which are incorporated herein by reference.

[00355] The 5 -UTR including at least one TEE described herein may be incorporated in a monocistronic sequence such as, but not limited to, a vector system or a polynucleotide vector. As a non-limiting example, the vector systems and polynucleotide vectors may include those described in US Patent Nos. 7,456,273 and 7, 183,395, US Patent Publication Nos.

2007/0048776, 2009/0093049 and 201 1/0124100, and International Patent Publication Nos. WO2007/025008 and WO2001/055371, the TEE sequences of each of which are incorporated herein by reference.

[00356] The TEEs described herein may be located in the 5 -UTR and/or the 3 -UTR of the polynucleotides (e.g. , mRNA). The TEEs located in the 3 -UTR may be the same and/or different than the TEEs located in and/or described for incorporation in the 5 -UTR.

[00357] In some cases, the 3 -UTR of a polynucleotide (e.g., mRNA) may include at least 1, at least 2, at least 3, at least 4, at least 5, at least 6, at least 7, at least 8, at least 9, at least 10, at least 1 1, at least 12, at least 13, at least 14, at least 15, at least 16, at least 17, at least 18 at least 19, at least 20, at least 21, at least 22, at least 23, at least 24, at least 25, at least 30, at least 35, at least 40, at least 45, at least 50, at least 55 or more than 60 TEE sequences. The TEE sequences in the 3 ' -UTR of the polynucleotides (e.g. , mRNA) of the present disclosure may be the same or different TEE sequences. The TEE sequences may be in a pattern such as ABABAB,

AABBAABBAABB, or ABCABCABC, or variants thereof, repeated once, twice, or more than three times. In these patterns, each letter, A, B, or C represent a different TEE sequence at the nucleotide level.

[00358] In one instance, the 3 -UTR may include a spacer to separate two TEE sequences. As a non-limiting example, the spacer may be a 15 nucleotide spacer and/or other spacers known in the art. As another non-limiting example, the 3 -UTR may include a TEE sequence- spacer module repeated at least once, at least twice, at least 3 times, at least 4 times, at least 5 times, at least 6 times, at least 7 times, at least 8 times, at least 9 times, or more than 9 times in the 3 -UTR.

[00359] In other cases, the spacer separating two TEE sequences may include other sequences known in the art which may regulate the translation of the polynucleotides (e.g. , mRNA) of the present disclosure such as, but not limited to, miR sequences described herein (e.g. , miR binding sites and miR seeds). As a non-limiting example, each spacer used to separate two TEE sequences may include a different miR sequence or component of a miR sequence (e.g. , miR seed sequence).

[00360] In yet other cases, the incorporation of a miR sequence and/or a TEE sequence changes the shape of the stem loop region which may increase and/or decrease translation, (see e.g., Kedde et al. A Pumilio-induced RNA structure switch in p27-3 ' UTR controls miR-221 and miR-22 accessibility. Nature Cell Biology. 2010).

Stem loops

[00361] Polynucleotides (e.g. , mRNAs) may include a stem loop such as, but not limited to, a histone stem loop. The stem loop may be a nucleotide sequence that is about 25 or about 26 nucleotides in length such as, but not limited to, those described in International Patent

Publication No. WO2013/103659, which is incorporated herein by reference. The histone stem loop may be located 3 ' -relative to the coding region (e.g. , at the 3 ' -terminus of the coding region). As a non-limiting example, the stem loop may be located at the 3 ' -end of a

polynucleotide described herein. In some cases, a polynucleotide (e.g. , an mRNA) includes more than one stem loop (e.g. , two stem loops). Examples of stem loop sequences are described in International Patent Publication Nos. WO2012/019780 and WO201502667, the stem loop sequences of which are herein incorporated by reference. In some instances, a polynucleotide includes the stem loop sequence CAAAGGCTCTTTTCAGAGCCACCA (SEQ ID NO: 1). In others, a polynucleotide includes the stem loop sequence

CAAAGGCUCUUUUCAGAGCCACCA (SEQ ID NO: 2).

[00362] A stem loop may be located in a second terminal region of a polynucleotide. As a non-limiting example, the stem loop may be located within an untranslated region (e.g., 3 -UTR) in a second terminal region.

[00363] In some cases, a polynucleotide such as, but not limited to mRNA, which includes the histone stem loop may be stabilized by the addition of a 3 ' -stabilizing region (e.g., a 3 ' - stabilizing region including at least one chain terminating nucleoside). Not wishing to be bound by theory, the addition of at least one chain terminating nucleoside may slow the degradation of a polynucleotide and thus can increase the half-life of the polynucleotide.

[00364] In other cases, a polynucleotide such as, but not limited to mRNA, which includes the histone stem loop may be stabilized by an alteration to the 3 ' -region of the polynucleotide that can prevent and/or inhibit the addition of oligio(U) (see e.g., International Patent

Publication No. WO2013/103659).

[00365] In yet other cases, a polynucleotide such as, but not limited to mRNA, which includes the histone stem loop may be stabilized by the addition of an oligonucleotide that terminates in a 3 ' -deoxynucleoside, 2 ' ,3 ' -dideoxynucleoside 3 ' -0- methylnucleosides, 3 -0- ethylnucleosides, 3 ' -arabinosides, and other alternative nucleosides known in the art and/or described herein.

[00366] In some instances, the polynucleotides of the present disclosure may include a histone stem loop, a poly-A region, and/or a 5 ' -cap structure. The histone stem loop may be before and/or after the poly-A region. The polynucleotides including the histone stem loop and a poly-A region sequence may include a chain terminating nucleoside described herein.

[00367] In other instances, the polynucleotides of the present disclosure may include a histone stem loop and a 5 -cap structure. The 5 -cap structure may include, but is not limited to, those described herein and/or known in the art.

[00368] In some cases, the conserved stem loop region may include a miR sequence described herein. As a non-limiting example, the stem loop region may include the seed sequence of a miR sequence described herein. In another non-limiting example, the stem loop region may include a miR- 122 seed sequence.

[00369] In certain instances, the conserved stem loop region may include a miR sequence described herein and may also include a TEE sequence. [00370] In some cases, the incorporation of a miR sequence and/or a TEE sequence changes the shape of the stem loop region which may increase and/or decrease translation. (See, e.g., Kedde et al. A Pumilio-induced RNA structure switch in p27-3 JTR controls miR-221 and miR-22 accessibility. Nature Cell Biology. 2010, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[00371] Polynucleotides may include at least one histone stem-loop and a poly-A region or polyadenylation signal. Non-limiting examples of polynucleotide sequences encoding for at least one histone stem-loop and a poly-A region or a polyadenylation signal are described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013/120497, WO2013/ 120629, WO2013/120500, WO2013/120627, WO2013/120498, WO2013/120626, WO2013/120499 and WO2013/120628, the sequences of each of which are incorporated herein by reference. In certain cases, the polynucleotide encoding for a histone stem loop and a poly-A region or a polyadenylation signal may code for a pathogen antigen or fragment thereof such as the polynucleotide sequences described in International Patent Publication No WO2013/ 120499 and WO2013/120628, the sequences of both of which are incorporated herein by reference. In other cases, the polynucleotide encoding for a histone stem loop and a poly-A region or a polyadenylation signal may code for a therapeutic protein such as the polynucleotide sequences described in

International Patent Publication No WO2013/ 120497 and WO2013/120629, the sequences of both of which are incorporated herein by reference. In some cases, the polynucleotide encoding for a histone stem loop and a poly-A region or a polyadenylation signal may code for a tumor antigen or fragment thereof such as the polynucleotide sequences described in International Patent Publication No WO2013/120500 and WO2013/120627, the sequences of both of which are incorporated herein by reference. In other cases, the polynucleotide encoding for a histone stem loop and a poly-A region or a polyadenylation signal may code for a allergenic antigen or an autoimmune self-antigen such as the polynucleotide sequences described in International Patent Publication No WO2013/120498 and WO2013/120626, the sequences of both of which are incorporated herein by reference.

Poly-A regions

[00372] A polynucleotide or nucleic acid (e.g. , an mRNA) may include a polyA sequence and/or polyadenylation signal. A polyA sequence may be comprised entirely or mostly of adenine nucleotides or analogs or derivatives thereof. A polyA sequence may be a tail located adjacent to a 3 ' untranslated region of a nucleic acid.

[00373] During RNA processing, a long chain of adenosine nucleotides (poly-A region) is normally added to messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules to increase the stability of the molecule. Immediately after transcription, the 3 ' -end of the transcript is cleaved to free a 3 ' -hydroxy. Then poly-A polymerase adds a chain of adenosine nucleotides to the RNA. The process, called polyadenylation, adds a poly-A region that is between 100 and 250 residues long.

[00374] Unique poly-A region lengths may provide certain advantages to the alternative polynucleotides of the present disclosure.

[00375] Generally, the length of a poly-A region of the present disclosure is at least 30 nucleotides in length. In another embodiment, the poly-A region is at least 35 nucleotides in length. In another embodiment, the length is at least 40 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 45 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 55 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 60 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 70 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 80 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 90 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 100 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 120 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 140 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 160 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 180 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 200 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 250 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 300 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 350 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 400 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 450 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 500 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 600 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 700 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 800 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 900 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 1000 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 1 100 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 1200 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 1300 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 1400 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 1500 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 1600 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 1700 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 1800 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 1900 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 2000 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 2500 nucleotides. In another embodiment, the length is at least 3000 nucleotides.

[00376] In some instances, the poly-A region may be 80 nucleotides, 120 nucleotides, 160 nucleotides in length on an alternative polynucleotide molecule described herein. [00377] In other instances, the poly-A region may be 20, 40, 80, 100, 120, 140 or 160 nucleotides in length on an alternative polynucleotide molecule described herein.

[00378] In some cases, the poly-A region is designed relative to the length of the overall alternative polynucleotide. This design may be based on the length of the coding region of the alternative polynucleotide, the length of a particular feature or region of the alternative polynucleotide (such as mRNA), or based on the length of the ultimate product expressed from the alternative polynucleotide. When relative to any feature of the alternative polynucleotide (e.g. , other than the mRNA portion which includes the poly-A region) the poly-A region may be 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 or 100% greater in length than the additional feature. The poly-A region may also be designed as a fraction of the alternative polynucleotide to which it belongs. In this context, the poly-A region may be 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, or 90% or more of the total length of the construct or the total length of the construct minus the poly-A region.

[00379] In certain cases, engineered binding sites and/or the conjugation of polynucleotides (e.g. , mRNA) for poly-A binding protein may be used to enhance expression. The engineered binding sites may be sensor sequences which can operate as binding sites for ligands of the local microenvironment of the polynucleotides (e.g., mRNA). As a non-limiting example, the polynucleotides (e.g. , mRNA) may include at least one engineered binding site to alter the binding affinity of poly-A binding protein (PABP) and analogs thereof. The incorporation of at least one engineered binding site may increase the binding affinity of the PABP and analogs thereof.

[00380] Additionally, multiple distinct polynucleotides (e.g. , mRNA) may be linked together to the PABP (poly-A binding protein) through the 3 '-end using alternative nucleotides at the 3'- terminus of the poly-A region. Transfection experiments can be conducted in relevant cell lines at and protein production can be assayed by ELISA at 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, and day 7 post-transfection. As a non-limiting example, the transfection experiments may be used to evaluate the effect on PABP or analogs thereof binding affinity as a result of the addition of at least one engineered binding site.

[00381] In certain cases, a poly-A region may be used to modulate translation initiation. While not wishing to be bound by theory, the poly-A region recruits PABP which in turn can interact with translation initiation complex and thus may be essential for protein synthesis.

[00382] In some cases, a poly-A region may also be used in the present disclosure to protect against 3 ' -5 ' -exonuclease digestion. [00383] In some instances, a polynucleotide (e.g. , mRNA) may include a polyA-G Quartet. The G-quartet is a cyclic hydrogen bonded array of four guanosine nucleotides that can be formed by G-rich sequences in both DNA and RNA. In this embodiment, the G-quartet is incorporated at the end of the poly-A region. The resultant polynucleotides (e.g. , mRNA) may be assayed for stability, protein production and other parameters including half-life at various time points. It has been discovered that the polyA-G quartet results in protein production equivalent to at least 75% of that seen using a poly-A region of 120 nucleotides alone.

[00384] In some cases, a polynucleotide (e.g. , mRNA) may include a poly-A region and may be stabilized by the addition of a 3 ' -stabilizing region. The polynucleotides (e.g. , mRNA) with a poly-A region may further include a 5 ' -cap structure.

[00385] In other cases, a polynucleotide (e.g. , mRNA) may include a poly-A-G Quartet. The polynucleotides (e.g. , mRNA) with a poly-A-G Quartet may further include a 5 ' -cap structure.

[00386] In some cases, the 3 -stabilizing region which may be used to stabilize a

polynucleotide (e.g. , mRNA) including a poly-A region or poly-A-G Quartet may be, but is not limited to, those described in International Patent Publication No. WO2013/103659, the poly-A regions and poly-A-G Quartets of which are incorporated herein by reference. In other cases, the 3 ' -stabilizing region which may be used with the present disclosure include a chain termination nucleoside such as 3 ' -deoxyadenosine (cordycepin), 3 ' -deoxyuridine, 3 ' - deoxycytosine, 3 ' -deoxyguanosine, 3 ' -deoxythymine, 2 ' ,3 ' -dideoxynucleosides, such as 2 ' ,3 ' - dideoxyadenosine, 2 ' ,3 ' -dideoxyuridine, 2 ' ,3 ' -dideoxycytosine, 2 ' ,3 ' - dideoxyguanosine, 2 ' ,3 ' -dideoxythymine, a 2 ' -deoxynucleoside, or an O-methylnucleoside.

[00387] In other cases, a polynucleotide such as, but not limited to mRNA, which includes a polyA region or a poly-A-G Quartet may be stabilized by an alteration to the 3 -region of the polynucleotide that can prevent and/or inhibit the addition of oligio(U) (see e.g. , International Patent Publication No. WO2013/103659).

[00388] In yet other instances, a polynucleotide such as, but not limited to mRNA, which includes a poly-A region or a poly-A-G Quartet may be stabilized by the addition of an oligonucleotide that terminates in a 3 ' -deoxynucleoside, 2 ' ,3 ' -dideoxynucleoside 3 -0- methylnucleosides, 3 ' -0-ethylnucleosides, 3 ' -arabinosides, and other alternative nucleosides known in the art and/or described herein.

Chain terminating nucleosides

[00389] A nucleic acid may include a chain terminating nucleoside. For example, a chain terminating nucleoside may include those nucleosides deoxygenated at the 2' and/or 3 ' positions of their sugar group. Such species may include 3'-deoxyadenosine (cordycepin), 3'-deoxyuridine, 3'-deoxycytosine, 3'-deoxyguanosine, 3'-deoxythymine, and 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides, such as 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine, 2',3'-dideoxyuridine,

2',3'-dideoxycytosine, 2',3'-dideoxyguanosine, and 2',3'-dideoxythymine.

Other components

[00390] A nanoparticle composition may include one or more components in addition to those described in the preceding sections. For example, a nanoparticle composition may include one or more small hydrophobic molecules such as a vitamin (e.g. , vitamin A or vitamin E) or a sterol.

[00391] Nanoparticle compositions may also include one or more permeability enhancer molecules, carbohydrates, polymers, surface altering agents, or other components. A permeability enhancer molecule may be a molecule described by U.S. patent application publication No. 2005/0222064, for example. Carbohydrates may include simple sugars (e.g., glucose) and polysaccharides (e.g., glycogen and derivatives and analogs thereof).

[00392] A polymer may be included in and/or used to encapsulate or partially encapsulate a nanoparticle composition. A polymer may be biodegradable and/or biocompatible. A polymer may be selected from, but is not limited to, polyamines, polyethers, polyamides, polyesters, polycarbamates, polyureas, polycarbonates, polystyrenes, polyimides, polysulfones, polyurethanes, polyacetylenes, polyethylenes, polyethyleneimines, polyisocyanates, polyacrylates, polymethacrylates, polyacrylonitriles, and polyarylates. For example, a polymer may include poly(caprolactone) (PCL), ethylene vinyl acetate polymer (EVA), poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA), poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), poly(L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLLGA), poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLA), poly(L- lactide) (PLLA), poly(D,L-lactide-co-caprolactone), poly(D,L-lactide-co-caprolactone-co- glycolide), poly(D,L-lactide-co-PEO-co-D,L-lactide), poly(D,L-lactide-co-PPO-co-D,L-lactide), polyalkyl cyanoacrylate, polyurethane, poly-L-lysine (PLL), hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA), polyethyleneglycol, poly-L-glutamic acid, poly(hydroxy acids), polyanhydrides, polyorthoesters, poly(ester amides), polyamides, poly(ester ethers), polycarbonates, polyalkylenes such as polyethylene and polypropylene, polyalkylene glycols such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), polyalkylene oxides (PEO), polyalkylene terephthalates such as poly(ethylene terephthalate), polyvinyl alcohols (PVA), polyvinyl ethers, polyvinyl esters such as poly(vinyl acetate), polyvinyl halides such as poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC),

polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polysiloxanes, polystyrene (PS), polyurethanes, derivatized celluloses such as alkyl celluloses, hydroxyalkyl celluloses, cellulose ethers, cellulose esters, nitro celluloses, hydroxypropylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, polymers of acrylic acids, such as poly(methyl(meth)acrylate) (PMMA), poly(ethyl(meth)acrylate),

poly(butyl(meth)acrylate), poly(isobutyl(meth)acrylate), poly(hexyl(meth)acrylate), poly(isodecyl(meth)acrylate), poly(lauryl(meth)acrylate), poly(phenyl(meth)acrylate), poly(methyl acrylate), poly(isopropyl acrylate), poly(isobutyl acrylate), poly(octadecyl acrylate) and copolymers and mixtures thereof, polydioxanone and its copolymers,

polyhydroxyalkanoates, polypropylene fumarate, polyoxymethylene, poloxamers,

polyoxamines, poly(ortho)esters, poly(butyric acid), poly(valeric acid), poly(lactide-co- caprolactone), trimethylene carbonate, poly(N-acryloylmorpholine) (PAcM), poly(2-methyl-2- oxazoline) (PMOX), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOZ), and polyglycerol.

[00393] Surface altering agents may include, but are not limited to, anionic proteins (e.g. , bovine serum albumin), surfactants (e.g. , cationic surfactants such as dimethyldioctadecyl- ammonium bromide), sugars or sugar derivatives (e.g., cyclodextrin), nucleic acids, polymers (e.g. , heparin, polyethylene glycol, and poloxamer), mucolytic agents (e.g., acetylcysteine, mugwort, bromelain, papain, clerodendrum, bromhexine, carbocisteine, eprazinone, mesna, ambroxol, sobrerol, domiodol, letosteine, stepronin, tiopronin, gelsolin, thymosin β4, dornase alfa, neltenexine, and erdosteine), and DNases (e.g. , rhDNase). A surface altering agent may be disposed within a nanoparticle and/or on the surface of a nanoparticle composition (e.g. , by coating, adsorption, covalent linkage, or other process).

[00394] A nanoparticle composition may also comprise one or more functionalized lipids. For example, a lipid may be functionalized with an alkyne group that, when exposed to an azide under appropriate reaction conditions, may undergo a cycloaddition reaction. In particular, a lipid bilayer may be functionalized in this fashion with one or more groups useful in facilitating membrane permeation, cellular recognition, or imaging. The surface of a nanoparticle composition may also be conjugated with one or more useful antibodies. Functional groups and conjugates useful in targeted cell delivery, imaging, and membrane permeation are well known in the art.

[00395] In addition to these components, nanoparticle compositions may include any substance useful in pharmaceutical compositions. For example, the nanoparticle composition may include one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients or accessory ingredients such as, but not limited to, one or more solvents, dispersion media, diluents, dispersion aids, suspension aids, granulating aids, disintegrants, fillers, glidants, liquid vehicles, binders, surface active agents, isotonic agents, thickening or emulsifying agents, buffering agents, lubricating agents, oils, preservatives, and other species. Excipients such as waxes, butters, coloring agents, coating agents, flavorings, and perfuming agents may also be included. Pharmaceutically acceptable excipients are well known in the art (see for example Remington's The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 21 st Edition, A. R. Gennaro; Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 2006).

[00396] Examples of diluents may include, but are not limited to, calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, calcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, calcium sulfate, calcium hydrogen phosphate, sodium phosphate lactose, sucrose, cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, kaolin, mannitol, sorbitol, inositol, sodium chloride, dry starch, cornstarch, powdered sugar, and/or combinations thereof. Granulating and dispersing agents may be selected from the non-limiting list consisting of potato starch, corn starch, tapioca starch, sodium starch glycolate, clays, alginic acid, guar gum, citrus pulp, agar, bentonite, cellulose and wood products, natural sponge, cation- exchange resins, calcium carbonate, silicates, sodium carbonate, cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone) (crospovidone), sodium carboxymethyl starch (sodium starch glycolate), carboxymethyl cellulose, cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (croscarmellose), methylcellulose, pregelatinized starch (starch 1500), microcrystalline starch, water insoluble starch, calcium carboxymethyl cellulose, magnesium aluminum silicate (VEEGUM®), sodium lauryl sulfate, quaternary ammonium compounds, and/or combinations thereof.

[00397] Surface active agents and/or emulsifiers may include, but are not limited to, natural emulsifiers (e.g. acacia, agar, alginic acid, sodium alginate, tragacanth, chondrux, cholesterol, xanthan, pectin, gelatin, egg yolk, casein, wool fat, cholesterol, wax, and lecithin), colloidal clays (e.g. bentonite [aluminum silicate] and VEEGUM® [magnesium aluminum silicate]), long chain amino acid derivatives, high molecular weight alcohols (e.g. stearyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, oleyl alcohol, triacetin monostearate, ethylene glycol distearate, glyceryl monostearate, and propylene glycol monostearate, polyvinyl alcohol), carbomers (e.g. carboxy polymethylene, polyacrylic acid, acrylic acid polymer, and carboxyvinyl polymer), carrageenan, cellulosic derivatives (e.g. carboxymethylcellulose sodium, powdered cellulose, hydroxymethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methylcellulose), sorbitan fatty acid esters (e.g. polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate [TWEEN®20], polyoxyethylene sorbitan [TWEEN® 60], polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate [TWEEN®80], sorbitan monopalmitate [SPAN®40], sorbitan monostearate [SPAN®60], sorbitan tristearate [SPAN®65], glyceryl monooleate, sorbitan monooleate [SPAN®80]), polyoxyethylene esters (e.g. polyoxyethylene monostearate [MYRJ® 45], polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil, polyethoxylated castor oil, polyoxymethylene stearate, and SOLUTOL®), sucrose fatty acid esters, polyethylene glycol fatty acid esters (e.g. CREMOPHOR®), polyoxyethylene ethers, (e.g. polyoxyethylene lauryl ether [BRIJ® 30]), poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone), diethylene glycol monolaurate, triethanolamine oleate, sodium oleate, potassium oleate, ethyl oleate, oleic acid, ethyl laurate, sodium lauryl sulfate, PLURONIC®F 68, POLOXAMER® 188, cetrimonium bromide, cetylpyridinium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, docusate sodium, and/or combinations thereof.

[00398] A binding agent may be starch (e.g. cornstarch and starch paste); gelatin; sugars (e.g. sucrose, glucose, dextrose, dextrin, molasses, lactose, lactitol, mannitol); natural and synthetic gums (e.g., acacia, sodium alginate, extract of Irish moss, panwar gum, ghatti gum, mucilage of isapol husks, carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, ethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, cellulose acetate, poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone), magnesium aluminum silicate (VEEGUM®), and larch arabogalactan); alginates; polyethylene oxide; polyethylene glycol; inorganic calcium salts; silicic acid; polymethacrylates; waxes; water; alcohol; and combinations thereof, or any other suitable binding agent.

[00399] Examples of preservatives may include, but are not limited to, antioxidants, chelating agents, antimicrobial preservatives, antifungal preservatives, alcohol preservatives, acidic preservatives, and/or other preservatives. Examples of antioxidants include, but are not limited to, alpha tocopherol, ascorbic acid, acorbyl palmitate, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, monothioglycerol, potassium metabisulfite, propionic acid, propyl gallate, sodium ascorbate, sodium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite, and/or sodium sulfite. Examples of chelating agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid monohydrate, disodium edetate, dipotassium edetate, edetic acid, fumaric acid, malic acid, phosphoric acid, sodium edetate, tartaric acid, and/or trisodium edetate. Examples of antimicrobial preservatives include, but are not limited to, benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, benzyl alcohol, bronopol, cetrimide, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine, chlorobutanol, chlorocresol, chloroxylenol, cresol, ethyl alcohol, glycerin, hexetidine, imidurea, phenol, phenoxyethanol, phenylethyl alcohol, phenylmercuric nitrate, propylene glycol, and/or thimerosal. Examples of antifungal preservatives include, but are not limited to, butyl paraben, methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, propyl paraben, benzoic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, potassium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium propionate, and/or sorbic acid. Examples of alcohol preservatives include, but are not limited to, ethanol, polyethylene glycol, benzyl alcohol, phenol, phenolic compounds, bisphenol, chlorobutanol, hydroxybenzoate, and/or phenylethyl alcohol. Examples of acidic preservatives include, but are not limited to, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, citric acid, acetic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, ascorbic acid, sorbic acid, and/or phytic acid. Other preservatives include, but are not limited to, tocopherol, tocopherol acetate, deteroxime mesylate, cetrimide, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ethylenediamine, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), sodium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite, potassium sulfite, potassium

metabisulfite, GLYDANT PLUS®, PHENONIP®, methylparaben, GERMALL® 1 15,

GERMABEN®II, NEOLONE™, KATHON™, and/or EUXYL®.

[00400] Examples of buffering agents include, but are not limited to, citrate buffer solutions, acetate buffer solutions, phosphate buffer solutions, ammonium chloride, calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, calcium citrate, calcium glubionate, calcium gluceptate, calcium gluconate, d- gluconic acid, calcium glycerophosphate, calcium lactate, calcium lactobionate, propanoic acid, calcium levulinate, pentanoic acid, dibasic calcium phosphate, phosphoric acid, tribasic calcium phosphate, calcium hydroxide phosphate, potassium acetate, potassium chloride, potassium gluconate, potassium mixtures, dibasic potassium phosphate, monobasic potassium phosphate, potassium phosphate mixtures, sodium acetate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride, sodium citrate, sodium lactate, dibasic sodium phosphate, monobasic sodium phosphate, sodium phosphate mixtures, tromethamine, amino-sulfonate buffers (e.g., HEPES), magnesium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide, alginic acid, pyrogen-free water, isotonic saline, Ringer's solution, ethyl alcohol, and/or combinations thereof. Lubricating agents may selected from the non-limiting group consisting of magnesium stearate, calcium stearate, stearic acid, silica, talc, malt, glyceryl behenate, hydrogenated vegetable oils, polyethylene glycol, sodium benzoate, sodium acetate, sodium chloride, leucine, magnesium lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, and combinations thereof.

[00401] Examples of oils include, but are not limited to, almond, apricot kernel, avocado, babassu, bergamot, black current seed, borage, cade, camomile, canola, caraway, carnauba, castor, cinnamon, cocoa butter, coconut, cod liver, coffee, corn, cotton seed, emu, eucalyptus, evening primrose, fish, flaxseed, geraniol, gourd, grape seed, hazel nut, hyssop, isopropyl myristate, jojoba, kukui nut, lavandin, lavender, lemon, litsea cubeba, macademia nut, mallow, mango seed, meadowfoam seed, mink, nutmeg, olive, orange, orange roughy, palm, palm kernel, peach kernel, peanut, poppy seed, pumpkin seed, rapeseed, rice bran, rosemary, safflower, sandalwood, sasquana, savoury, sea buckthorn, sesame, shea butter, silicone, soybean, sunflower, tea tree, thistle, tsubaki, vetiver, walnut, and wheat germ oils as well as butyl stearate, caprylic triglyceride, capric triglyceride, cyclomethicone, diethyl sebacate, dimethicone 360, simethicone, isopropyl myristate, mineral oil, octyldodecanol, oleyl alcohol, silicone oil, and/or combinations thereof.

Formulations [00402] Nanoparticle compositions may include a lipid component and one or more additional components, such as a therapeutic and/or prophylactic. A nanoparticle composition may be designed for one or more specific applications or targets. The elements of a nanoparticle composition may be selected based on a particular application or target, and/or based on the efficacy, toxicity, expense, ease of use, availability, or other feature of one or more elements. Similarly, the particular formulation of a nanoparticle composition may be selected for a particular application or target according to, for example, the efficacy and toxicity of particular combinations of elements.

[00403] The lipid component of a nanoparticle composition may include, for example, a lipid according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III), a phospholipid (such as an unsaturated lipid, e.g. , DOPE or DSPC), a PEG lipid, and a structural lipid. The elements of the lipid component may be provided in specific fractions.

[00404] In some embodiments, the lipid component of a nanoparticle composition includes a lipid according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III), a phospholipid, a PEG lipid, and a structural lipid. In certain embodiments, the lipid component of the nanoparticle composition includes about 30 mol % to about 60 mol % compound of Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III), about 0 mol % to about 30 mol % phospholipid, about 18.5 mol % to about 48.5 mol % structural lipid, and about 0 mol % to about 10 mol % of PEG lipid, provided that the total mol % does not exceed 100%. In some embodiments, the lipid component of the nanoparticle composition includes about 35 mol % to about 55 mol % compound of Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III), about 5 mol % to about 25 mol % phospholipid, about 30 mol % to about 40 mol % structural lipid, and about 0 mol % to about 10 mol % of PEG lipid. In a particular embodiment, the lipid component includes about 50 mol % said compound, about 10 mol % phospholipid, about 38.5 mol % structural lipid, and about 1.5 mol % of PEG lipid. In another particular embodiment, the lipid component includes about 40 mol % said compound, about 20 mol % phospholipid, about 38.5 mol % structural lipid, and about 1.5 mol % of PEG lipid. In some embodiments, the phospholipid may be DOPE or DSPC. In other embodiments, the PEG lipid may be PEG-DMG and/or the structural lipid may be cholesterol.

[00405] Nanoparticle compositions may be designed for one or more specific applications or targets. For example, a nanoparticle composition may be designed to deliver a therapeutic and/or prophylactic such as an RNA to a particular cell, tissue, organ, or system or group thereof in a mammal's body. Physiochemical properties of nanoparticle compositions may be altered in order to increase selectivity for particular bodily targets. For instance, particle sizes may be adjusted based on the fenestration sizes of different organs. The therapeutic and/or prophylactic included in a nanoparticle composition may also be selected based on the desired delivery target or targets. For example, a therapeutic and/or prophylactic may be selected for a particular indication, condition, disease, or disorder and/or for delivery to a particular cell, tissue, organ, or system or group thereof (e.g. , localized or specific delivery). In certain embodiments, a nanoparticle composition may include an mRNA encoding a polypeptide of interest capable of being translated within a cell to produce the polypeptide of interest. Such a composition may be designed to be specifically delivered to a particular organ. In some embodiments, a composition may be designed to be specifically delivered to a mammalian liver.

[00406] The amount of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic in a nanoparticle composition may depend on the size, composition, desired target and/or application, or other properties of the nanoparticle composition as well as on the properties of the therapeutic and/or prophylactic. For example, the amount of an RNA useful in a nanoparticle composition may depend on the size, sequence, and other characteristics of the RNA. The relative amounts of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic and other elements (e.g. , lipids) in a nanoparticle composition may also vary. In some embodiments, the wt/wt ratio of the lipid component to a therapeutic and/or prophylactic in a nanoparticle composition may be from about 5 : 1 to about 60: 1, such as 5 : 1, 6: 1, 7: 1, 8: 1, 9: 1, 10: 1, 1 1 : 1, 12: 1, 13 : 1, 14: 1, 15 : 1, 16: 1, 17: 1, 18: 1, 19: 1, 20: 1, 25 : 1, 30: 1, 35 : 1, 40: 1, 45 : 1, 50: 1, and 60: 1. For example, the wt/wt ratio of the lipid component to a therapeutic and/or prophylactic may be from about 10: 1 to about 40: 1. In certain embodiments, the wt/wt ratio is about 20: 1. The amount of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic in a nanoparticle composition may, for example, be measured using absorption spectroscopy (e.g. , ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy).

[00407] In some embodiments, a nanoparticle composition includes one or more RNAs, and the one or more RNAs, lipids, and amounts thereof may be selected to provide a specific N:P ratio. The N:P ratio of the composition refers to the molar ratio of nitrogen atoms in one or more lipids to the number of phosphate groups in an RNA. In general, a lower N:P ratio is preferred. The one or more RNA, lipids, and amounts thereof may be selected to provide an N:P ratio from about 2: 1 to about 30: 1, such as 2: 1, 3 : 1, 4: 1, 5 : 1, 6: 1, 7: 1, 8: 1, 9: 1, 10: 1, 12: 1, 14: 1, 16: 1, 18: 1, 20: 1, 22: 1, 24: 1, 26: 1, 28: 1, or 30: 1. In certain embodiments, the N:P ratio may be from about 2: 1 to about 8: 1. In other embodiments, the N:P ratio is from about 5 : 1 to about 8: 1. For example, the N:P ratio may be about 5.0: 1, about 5.5 : 1, about 5.67: 1, about 6.0: 1, about 6.5 : 1, or about 7.0: 1. For example, the N:P ratio may be about 5.67: 1.

Physical properties [00408] The characteristics of a nanoparticle composition may depend on the components thereof. For example, a nanoparticle composition including cholesterol as a structural lipid may have different characteristics than a nanoparticle composition that includes a different structural lipid. Similarly, the characteristics of a nanoparticle composition may depend on the absolute or relative amounts of its components. For instance, a nanoparticle composition including a higher molar fraction of a phospholipid may have different characteristics than a nanoparticle composition including a lower molar fraction of a phospholipid. Characteristics may also vary depending on the method and conditions of preparation of the nanoparticle composition.

[00409] Nanoparticle compositions may be characterized by a variety of methods. For example, microscopy (e.g. , transmission electron microscopy or scanning electron microscopy) may be used to examine the morphology and size distribution of a nanoparticle composition. Dynamic light scattering or potentiometry (e.g., potentiometric titrations) may be used to measure zeta potentials. Dynamic light scattering may also be utilized to determine particle sizes. Instruments such as the Zetasizer Nano ZS (Malvern Instruments Ltd, Malvern,

Worcestershire, UK) may also be used to measure multiple characteristics of a nanoparticle composition, such as particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential.

[00410] The mean size of a nanoparticle composition may be between 10s of nm and 100s of nm, e.g. , measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). For example, the mean size may be from about 40 nm to about 150 nm, such as about 40 nm, 45 nm, 50 nm, 55 nm, 60 nm, 65 nm, 70 nm, 75 nm, 80 nm, 85 nm, 90 nm, 95 nm, 100 nm, 105 nm, 1 10 nm, 1 15 nm, 120 nm, 125 nm, 130 nm, 135 nm, 140 nm, 145 nm, or 150 nm. In some embodiments, the mean size of a nanoparticle composition may be from about 50 nm to about 100 nm, from about 50 nm to about 90 nm, from about 50 nm to about 80 nm, from about 50 nm to about 70 nm, from about 50 nm to about 60 nm, from about 60 nm to about 100 nm, from about 60 nm to about 90 nm, from about 60 nm to about 80 nm, from about 60 nm to about 70 nm, from about 70 nm to about 150 nm, from about 70 nm to about 130 nm, from about 70 nm to about 100 nm, from about 70 nm to about 90 nm, from about 70 nm to about 80 nm, from about 80 nm to about 150 nm, from about 80 nm to about 130 nm, from about 80 nm to about 100 nm, from about 80 nm to about 90 nm, from about 90 nm to about 150 nm, from about 90 nm to about 130 nm, or from about 90 nm to about 100 nm. In certain embodiments, the mean size of a nanoparticle composition may from about 70 nm to about 130 nm or be from about 70 nm to about 100 nm. In a particular embodiment, the mean size may be about 80 nm. In other embodiments, the mean size may be about 100 nm. In other embodiments, the mean size may be about 120 nm. [00411] A nanoparticle composition may be relatively homogenous. A polydispersity index may be used to indicate the homogeneity of a nanoparticle composition, e.g., the particle size distribution of the nanoparticle compositions. A small (e.g. , less than 0.3) polydispersity index generally indicates a narrow particle size distribution. A nanoparticle composition may have a polydispersity index from about 0 to about 0.25, such as 0.01 , 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.09, 0.10, 0.1 1, 0.12, 0.13, 0.14, 0.15, 0.16, 0.17, 0.18, 0.19, 0.20, 0.21, 0.22, 0.23, 0.24, or 0.25. In some embodiments, the polydispersity index of a nanoparticle composition may be from about 0.10 to about 0.20.

[00412] The zeta potential of a nanoparticle composition may be used to indicate the electrokinetic potential of the composition. For example, the zeta potential may describe the surface charge of a nanoparticle composition. Nanoparticle compositions with relatively low charges, positive or negative, are generally desirable, as more highly charged species may interact undesirably with cells, tissues, and other elements in the body. In some embodiments, the zeta potential of a nanoparticle composition may be from about -10 mV to about +20 mV, from about -10 mV to about +15 mV, from about -10 mV to about +10 mV, from about - 10 mV to about +5 mV, from about -10 mV to about 0 mV, from about -10 mV to about -5 mV, from about -5 mV to about +20 mV, from about -5 mV to about +15 mV, from about -5 mV to about +10 mV, from about -5 mV to about +5 mV, from about -5 mV to about 0 mV, from about 0 mV to about +20 mV, from about 0 mV to about +15 mV, from about 0 mV to about +10 mV, from about 0 mV to about +5 mV, from about +5 mV to about +20 mV, from about +5 mV to about +15 mV, or from about +5 mV to about +10 mV.

[00413] The efficiency of encapsulation of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic describes the amount of therapeutic and/or prophylactic that is encapsulated or otherwise associated with a nanoparticle composition after preparation, relative to the initial amount provided. The encapsulation efficiency is desirably high (e.g. , close to 100%). The encapsulation efficiency may be measured, for example, by comparing the amount of therapeutic and/or prophylactic in a solution containing the nanoparticle composition before and after breaking up the nanoparticle composition with one or more organic solvents or detergents. Fluorescence may be used to measure the amount of free therapeutic and/or prophylactic (e.g. , RNA) in a solution. For the nanoparticle compositions described herein, the encapsulation efficiency of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic may be at least 50%, for example 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100%. In some embodiments, the encapsulation efficiency may be at least 80%. In certain embodiments, the encapsulation efficiency may be at least 90%. [00414] A nanoparticle composition may optionally comprise one or more coatings. For example, a nanoparticle composition may be formulated in a capsule, film, or tablet having a coating. A capsule, film, or tablet including a composition described herein may have any useful size, tensile strength, hardness, or density.

Pharmaceutical compositions

[00415] Nanoparticle compositions may be formulated in whole or in part as pharmaceutical compositions. Pharmaceutical compositions may include one or more nanoparticle compositions. For example, a pharmaceutical composition may include one or more nanoparticle compositions including one or more different therapeutic and/or prophylactics. Pharmaceutical compositions may further include one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients or accessory ingredients such as those described herein. General guidelines for the formulation and manufacture of pharmaceutical compositions and agents are available, for example, in Remington's The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 21 st Edition, A. R. Gennaro; Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 2006. Conventional excipients and accessory ingredients may be used in any pharmaceutical composition, except insofar as any conventional excipient or accessory ingredient may be incompatible with one or more components of a nanoparticle composition. An excipient or accessory ingredient may be incompatible with a component of a nanoparticle composition if its combination with the component may result in any undesirable biological effect or otherwise deleterious effect.

[00416] In some embodiments, one or more excipients or accessory ingredients may make up greater than 50% of the total mass or volume of a pharmaceutical composition including a nanoparticle composition. For example, the one or more excipients or accessory ingredients may make up 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, or more of a pharmaceutical convention. In some embodiments, a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient is at least 95%, at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98%, at least 99%, or 100% pure. In some embodiments, an excipient is approved for use in humans and for veterinary use. In some embodiments, an excipient is approved by United States Food and Drug Administration. In some embodiments, an excipient is pharmaceutical grade. In some embodiments, an excipient meets the standards of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP), the European Pharmacopoeia (EP), the British Pharmacopoeia, and/or the International Pharmacopoeia.

[00417] Relative amounts of the one or more nanoparticle compositions, the one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients, and/or any additional ingredients in a pharmaceutical composition in accordance with the present disclosure will vary, depending upon the identity, size, and/or condition of the subject treated and further depending upon the route by which the composition is to be administered. By way of example, a pharmaceutical composition may comprise between 0.1% and 100% (wt/wt) of one or more nanoparticle compositions.

[00418] In certain embodiments, the nanoparticle compositions and/or pharmaceutical compositions of the disclosure are refrigerated or frozen for storage and/or shipment (e.g., being stored at a temperature of 4 °C or lower, such as a temperature between about -150 °C and about 0 °C or between about -80 °C and about -20 °C (e.g., about -5 °C, -10 °C, -15 °C, -20 °C, -25 °C, -30 °C, -40 °C, -50 °C, -60 °C, -70 °C, -80 °C, -90 °C, -130 °C or -150 °C). For example, the pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any of Formulae (I), (IA), (IB), (II), and (Ila)-(IIg) is a solution that is refrigerated for storage and/or shipment at, for example, about -20 °C, -30 °C, -40 °C, -50 °C, -60 °C, -70 °C, or -80 °C. In certain embodiments, the disclosure also relates to a method of increasing stability of the nanoparticle compositions and/or pharmaceutical compositions comprising a compound of any of Formulae (I), (IA), (IB), (II), and (Ila)-(IIg) by storing the nanoparticle compositions and/or pharmaceutical compositions at a temperature of 4 °C or lower, such as a temperature between about -150 °C and about 0 °C or between about -80 °C and about -20 °C, e.g., about -5 °C, -10 °C, -15 °C, -20 °C, -25 °C, -30 °C, -40 °C, -50 °C, -60 °C, -70 °C, -80 °C, -90 °C, -130 °C or -150 °C). For example, the nanoparticle compositions and/or pharmaceutical compositions disclosed herein are stable for about at least 1 week, at least 2 weeks, at least 3 weeks, at least 4 weeks, at least 5 weeks, at least 6 weeks, at least 1 month, at least 2 months, at least 4 months, at least 6 months, at least 8 months, at least 10 months, at least 12 months, at least 14 months, at least 16 months, at least 18 months, at least 20 months, at least 22 months, or at least 24 months, e.g., at a temperature of 4 °C or lower (e.g., between about 4 °C and -20 °C). In one embodiment, the formulation is stabilized for at least 4 weeks at about 4 °C. In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition of the disclosure comprises a nanoparticle composition disclosed herein and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier selected from one or more of Tris, an acetate (e.g., sodium acetate), an citrate (e.g., sodium citrate), saline, PBS, and sucrose. In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition of the disclosure has a pH value between about 7 and 8 (e.g., 6.8 6.9, 7.0, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9 or 8.0, or between 7.5 and 8 or between 7 and 7.8). For example, a pharmaceutical composition of the disclosure comprises a nanoparticle composition disclosed herein, Tris, saline and sucrose, and has a pH of about 7.5-8, which is suitable for storage and/or shipment at, for example, about -20 °C. For example, a

pharmaceutical composition of the disclosure comprises a nanoparticle composition disclosed herein and PBS and has a pH of about 7-7.8, suitable for storage and/or shipment at, for example, about 4 °C or lower. "Stability," "stabilized," and "stable" in the context of the present disclosure refers to the resistance of nanoparticle compositions and/or pharmaceutical compositions disclosed herein to chemical or physical changes (e.g., degradation, particle size change, aggregation, change in encapsulation, etc.) under given manufacturing, preparation, transportation, storage and/or in-use conditions, e.g., when stress is applied such as shear force, freeze/thaw stress, etc.

[00419] Nanoparticle compositions and/or pharmaceutical compositions including one or more nanoparticle compositions may be administered to any patient or subject, including those patients or subjects that may benefit from a therapeutic effect provided by the delivery of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic to one or more particular cells, tissues, organs, or systems or groups thereof, such as the renal system. Although the descriptions provided herein of nanoparticle compositions and pharmaceutical compositions including nanoparticle

compositions are principally directed to compositions which are suitable for administration to humans, it will be understood by the skilled artisan that such compositions are generally suitable for administration to any other mammal. Modification of compositions suitable for administration to humans in order to render the compositions suitable for administration to various animals is well understood, and the ordinarily skilled veterinary pharmacologist can design and/or perform such modification with merely ordinary, if any, experimentation.

Subjects to which administration of the compositions is contemplated include, but are not limited to, humans, other primates, and other mammals, including commercially relevant mammals such as cattle, pigs, hoses, sheep, cats, dogs, mice, and/or rats.

[00420] A pharmaceutical composition including one or more nanoparticle compositions may be prepared by any method known or hereafter developed in the art of pharmacology. In general, such preparatory methods include bringing the active ingredient into association with an excipient and/or one or more other accessory ingredients, and then, if desirable or necessary, dividing, shaping, and/or packaging the product into a desired single- or multi-dose unit.

[00421] A pharmaceutical composition in accordance with the present disclosure may be prepared, packaged, and/or sold in bulk, as a single unit dose, and/or as a plurality of single unit doses. As used herein, a "unit dose" is discrete amount of the pharmaceutical composition comprising a predetermined amount of the active ingredient (e.g., nanoparticle composition). The amount of the active ingredient is generally equal to the dosage of the active ingredient which would be administered to a subject and/or a convenient fraction of such a dosage such as, for example, one-half or one-third of such a dosage. [00422] Pharmaceutical compositions may be prepared in a variety of forms suitable for a variety of routes and methods of administration. For example, pharmaceutical compositions may be prepared in liquid dosage forms (e.g. , emulsions, microemulsions, nanoemulsions, solutions, suspensions, syrups, and elixirs), injectable forms, solid dosage forms (e.g., capsules, tablets, pills, powders, and granules), dosage forms for topical and/or transdermal administration (e.g. , ointments, pastes, creams, lotions, gels, powders, solutions, sprays, inhalants, and patches), suspensions, powders, and other forms.

[00423] Liquid dosage forms for oral and parenteral administration include, but are not limited to, pharmaceutically acceptable emulsions, microemulsions, nanoemulsions, solutions, suspensions, syrups, and/or elixirs. In addition to active ingredients, liquid dosage forms may comprise inert diluents commonly used in the art such as, for example, water or other solvents, solubilizing agents and emulsifiers such as ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl carbonate, ethyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, propylene glycol, 1,3-butylene glycol, dimethylformamide, oils (in particular, cottonseed, groundnut, corn, germ, olive, castor, and sesame oils), glycerol, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, polyethylene glycols and fatty acid esters of sorbitan, and mixtures thereof. Besides inert diluents, oral compositions can include additional therapeutic and/or prophylactics, additional agents such as wetting agents, emulsifying and suspending agents, sweetening, flavoring, and/or perfuming agents. In certain embodiments for parenteral administration, compositions are mixed with solubilizing agents such as Cremophor®, alcohols, oils, modified oils, glycols, polysorbates, cyclodextrins, polymers, and/or

combinations thereof.

[00424] Injectable preparations, for example, sterile injectable aqueous or oleaginous suspensions may be formulated according to the known art using suitable dispersing agents, wetting agents, and/or suspending agents. Sterile injectable preparations may be sterile injectable solutions, suspensions, and/or emulsions in nontoxic parenterally acceptable diluents and/or solvents, for example, as a solution in 1,3-butanediol. Among the acceptable vehicles and solvents that may be employed are water, Ringer's solution, U.S.P., and isotonic sodium chloride solution. Sterile, fixed oils are conventionally employed as a solvent or suspending medium. For this purpose any bland fixed oil can be employed including synthetic mono- or diglycerides. Fatty acids such as oleic acid can be used in the preparation of injectables.

[00425] Injectable formulations can be sterilized, for example, by filtration through a bacterial-retaining filter, and/or by incorporating sterilizing agents in the form of sterile solid compositions which can be dissolved or dispersed in sterile water or other sterile injectable medium prior to use. [00426] In order to prolong the effect of an active ingredient, it is often desirable to slow the absorption of the active ingredient from subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. This may be accomplished by the use of a liquid suspension of crystalline or amorphous material with poor water solubility. The rate of absorption of the drug then depends upon its rate of dissolution which, in turn, may depend upon crystal size and crystalline form. Alternatively, delayed absorption of a parenterally administered drug form is accomplished by dissolving or suspending the drug in an oil vehicle. Injectable depot forms are made by forming

microencapsulated matrices of the drug in biodegradable polymers such as polylactide- polyglycolide. Depending upon the ratio of drug to polymer and the nature of the particular polymer employed, the rate of drug release can be controlled. Examples of other biodegradable polymers include poly(orthoesters) and poly(anhydrides). Depot injectable formulations are prepared by entrapping the drug in liposomes or microemulsions which are compatible with body tissues.

[00427] Compositions for rectal or vaginal administration are typically suppositories which can be prepared by mixing compositions with suitable non-irritating excipients such as cocoa butter, polyethylene glycol or a suppository wax which are solid at ambient temperature but liquid at body temperature and therefore melt in the rectum or vaginal cavity and release the active ingredient.

[00428] Solid dosage forms for oral administration include capsules, tablets, pills, films, powders, and granules. In such solid dosage forms, an active ingredient is mixed with at least one inert, pharmaceutically acceptable excipient such as sodium citrate or dicalcium phosphate and/or fillers or extenders (e.g. starches, lactose, sucrose, glucose, mannitol, and silicic acid), binders (e.g., carboxymethylcellulose, alginates, gelatin, polyvinylpyrrolidinone, sucrose, and acacia), humectants (e.g., glycerol), disintegrating agents (e.g., agar, calcium carbonate, potato or tapioca starch, alginic acid, certain silicates, and sodium carbonate), solution retarding agents (e.g., paraffin), absorption accelerators (e.g., quaternary ammonium compounds), wetting agents (e.g., cetyl alcohol and glycerol monostearate), absorbents (e.g., kaolin and bentonite clay, silicates), and lubricants (e.g., talc, calcium stearate, magnesium stearate, solid polyethylene glycols, sodium lauryl sulfate), and mixtures thereof. In the case of capsules, tablets and pills, the dosage form may comprise buffering agents.

[00429] Solid compositions of a similar type may be employed as fillers in soft and hard- filled gelatin capsules using such excipients as lactose or milk sugar as well as high molecular weight polyethylene glycols and the like. Solid dosage forms of tablets, dragees, capsules, pills, and granules can be prepared with coatings and shells such as enteric coatings and other coatings well known in the pharmaceutical formulating art. They may optionally comprise opacifying agents and can be of a composition that they release the active ingredient(s) only, or preferentially, in a certain part of the intestinal tract, optionally, in a delayed manner. Examples of embedding compositions which can be used include polymeric substances and waxes. Solid compositions of a similar type may be employed as fillers in soft and hard-filled gelatin capsules using such excipients as lactose or milk sugar as well as high molecular weight polyethylene glycols and the like.

[00430] Dosage forms for topical and/or transdermal administration of a composition may include ointments, pastes, creams, lotions, gels, powders, solutions, sprays, inhalants, and/or patches. Generally, an active ingredient is admixed under sterile conditions with a

pharmaceutically acceptable excipient and/or any needed preservatives and/or buffers as may be required. Additionally, the present disclosure contemplates the use of transdermal patches, which often have the added advantage of providing controlled delivery of a compound to the body. Such dosage forms may be prepared, for example, by dissolving and/or dispensing the compound in the proper medium. Alternatively or additionally, rate may be controlled by either providing a rate controlling membrane and/or by dispersing the compound in a polymer matrix and/or gel.

[00431] Suitable devices for use in delivering intradermal pharmaceutical compositions described herein include short needle devices such as those described in U.S. Patents 4,886,499; 5, 190,521 ; 5,328,483; 5,527,288; 4,270,537; 5,015,235; 5, 141,496; and 5,417,662. Intradermal compositions may be administered by devices which limit the effective penetration length of a needle into the skin, such as those described in PCT publication WO 99/34850 and functional equivalents thereof. Jet injection devices which deliver liquid compositions to the dermis via a liquid jet injector and/or via a needle which pierces the stratum corneum and produces a jet which reaches the dermis are suitable. Jet injection devices are described, for example, in U.S. Patents 5,480,381 ; 5,599,302; 5,334, 144; 5,993,412; 5,649,912; 5,569, 189; 5,704,91 1 ;

5,383,851 ; 5,893,397; 5,466,220; 5,339, 163; 5,312,335; 5,503,627; 5,064,413; 5,520,639; 4,596,556; 4,790,824; 4,941,880; 4,940,460; and PCT publications WO 97/37705 and WO 97/13537. Ballistic powder/particle delivery devices which use compressed gas to accelerate vaccine in powder form through the outer layers of the skin to the dermis are suitable.

Alternatively or additionally, conventional syringes may be used in the classical mantoux method of intradermal administration.

[00432] Formulations suitable for topical administration include, but are not limited to, liquid and/or semi liquid preparations such as liniments, lotions, oil in water and/or water in oil emulsions such as creams, ointments and/or pastes, and/or solutions and/or suspensions.

Topically-administrable formulations may, for example, comprise from about 1% to about 10% (wt/wt) active ingredient, although the concentration of active ingredient may be as high as the solubility limit of the active ingredient in the solvent. Formulations for topical administration may further comprise one or more of the additional ingredients described herein.

[00433] A pharmaceutical composition may be prepared, packaged, and/or sold in a formulation suitable for pulmonary administration via the buccal cavity. Such a formulation may comprise dry particles which comprise the active ingredient. Such compositions are conveniently in the form of dry powders for administration using a device comprising a dry powder reservoir to which a stream of propellant may be directed to disperse the powder and/or using a self-propelling solvent/powder dispensing container such as a device comprising the active ingredient dissolved and/or suspended in a low-boiling propellant in a sealed container. Dry powder compositions may include a solid fine powder diluent such as sugar and are conveniently provided in a unit dose form.

[00434] Low boiling propellants generally include liquid propellants having a boiling point of below 65 °F at atmospheric pressure. Generally the propellant may constitute 50% to 99.9% (wt/wt) of the composition, and active ingredient may constitute 0.1% to 20% (wt/wt) of the composition. A propellant may further comprise additional ingredients such as a liquid non- ionic and/or solid anionic surfactant and/or a solid diluent (which may have a particle size of the same order as particles comprising the active ingredient).

[00435] Pharmaceutical compositions formulated for pulmonary delivery may provide an active ingredient in the form of droplets of a solution and/or suspension. Such formulations may be prepared, packaged, and/or sold as aqueous and/or dilute alcoholic solutions and/or suspensions, optionally sterile, comprising active ingredient, and may conveniently be administered using any nebulization and/or atomization device. Such formulations may further comprise one or more additional ingredients including, but not limited to, a flavoring agent such as saccharin sodium, a volatile oil, a buffering agent, a surface active agent, and/or a preservative such as methylhydroxybenzoate. Droplets provided by this route of administration may have an average diameter in the range from about 1 nm to about 200 nm.

[00436] Formulations described herein as being useful for pulmonary delivery are useful for intranasal delivery of a pharmaceutical composition. Another formulation suitable for intranasal administration is a coarse powder comprising the active ingredient and having an average particle from about 0.2 μιη to 500 μιη. Such a formulation is administered in the manner in which snuff is taken, i.e. by rapid inhalation through the nasal passage from a container of the powder held close to the nose.

[00437] Formulations suitable for nasal administration may, for example, comprise from about as little as 0.1% (wt/wt) and as much as 100% (wt/wt) of active ingredient, and may comprise one or more of the additional ingredients described herein. A pharmaceutical composition may be prepared, packaged, and/or sold in a formulation suitable for buccal administration. Such formulations may, for example, be in the form of tablets and/or lozenges made using conventional methods, and may, for example, 0.1% to 20% (wt/wt) active ingredient, the balance comprising an orally dissolvable and/or degradable composition and, optionally, one or more of the additional ingredients described herein. Alternately, formulations suitable for buccal administration may comprise a powder and/or an aerosolized and/or atomized solution and/or suspension comprising active ingredient. Such powdered, aerosolized, and/or aerosolized formulations, when dispersed, may have an average particle and/or droplet size in the range from about 0.1 nm to about 200 nm, and may further comprise one or more of any additional ingredients described herein.

[00438] A pharmaceutical composition may be prepared, packaged, and/or sold in a formulation suitable for ophthalmic administration. Such formulations may, for example, be in the form of eye drops including, for example, a 0.1/1.0% (wt/wt) solution and/or suspension of the active ingredient in an aqueous or oily liquid excipient. Such drops may further comprise buffering agents, salts, and/or one or more other of any additional ingredients described herein. Other ophthalmically-administrable formulations which are useful include those which comprise the active ingredient in microcrystalline form and/or in a liposomal preparation. Ear drops and/or eye drops are contemplated as being within the scope of this present disclosure.

mRNA Therapies

[00439] mRNA as a drug modality has the potential to deliver transmembrane and intracellular proteins, i.e., targets that standard biologies are unable to access due to their inability to cross the cell membrane. (See Sahin, U., Kariko K., Tiireci 0. Nat. Rev. Drug. Discov. 2014, 13, 759-780, the content of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety). One major challenge to making mRNA based therapies a reality is the identification of an optimal delivery vehicle. Due to its large size, chemical instability and potential immunogenicity, mRNA requires a delivery vehicle that can offer protection from endo- and exo-nucleases, as well as shield the cargo from immune sentinels. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) have been identified as a leading option in this regard. (See Hajj, K.A., Whitehead, K.A. Nat. Rev. Mater. 2017, 2, 1-17, the content of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety). This approach has recently been validated by demonstrating safe and effective delivery of an mRNA based vaccine formulated in LNPs. (See Bahl, K. et al. Mol. Ther. 2017, 25, 1316-1327, the content of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety).

[00440] Key performance criteria for a lipid nanoparticle delivery system are to maximize cellular uptake and enable efficient release of mRNA from the endosome. At the same time the LNP must provide a stable drug product and be able to be dosed safely at therapeutically relevant levels. LNPs are multi -component systems which typically consist of an amino lipid, phospholipid, cholesterol, and a PEG-lipid. Each component is required for aspects of efficient delivery of the nucleic acid cargo and stability of the particle. The key component thought to drive cellular uptake, endosomal escape, and tolerability is the amino lipid. Cholesterol and the PEG-lipid contribute to the stability of the drug product both in vivo and on the shelf, while the phospholipid provides additional fusogenicity to the LNP, thus helping to drive endosomal escape and rendering the nucleic acid bioavailable in the cytosol of cells.

[00441] Several amino lipid series have been developed for oligonucleotide delivery over the past couple of decades. (See Stanton M.G., Murphy-Benenato, K.E. RNA Therapeutics. Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, 2017, vol 27., A. Garner eds., (Springer, Cham) pp. 237-253, the content of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety). The literature highlights direct links between the structure of the amino lipid and the resultant delivery efficiency and tolerability of the LNP. The amino lipid MC3 (DLin-MC3 -DMA) is the most clinically advanced oligonucleotide delivery system, as siRNA formulated in MC3 -based LNPs has progressed to Phase III for the treatment of transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis. (See Coelho, T. et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 2013, 369, 819-829.; Butler, J.S. et al. Amyloid 2016, 23, 109-118, the contents of each of which are incorporated by reference herein in their entireties). More recently, literature reports have demonstrated the effectiveness of MC3-based LNPs to deliver mRNA. (See Nanbhan, J.F. et al. Sci. Rep. 2016, 6, 20019, the content of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.) LNPs of this class are quickly opsonized by apolipoprotein E (ApoE) when delivered intravenously, which enables cellular uptake by the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr). (See Akinc, A. et al. Mol. Ther. 2010, 18, 1357-1364, the content of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.) However, concerns remain that MC3's long tissue half-life could contribute to unfavorable side effects hindering its use for chronic therapies. (See Maier M.A. et al. Mol. Ther. 2013, 21, 1570-1578, the content of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety). In addition, extensive literature evidence suggests that chronic dosing of lipid nanoparticles can produce several toxic sides effects including complement activation-related pseudo allergy (CARP A) and liver damage (See Szebeni J. Mol. Immunol. 2014, 61, 163-173, the content of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety). Hence, to unleash the potential of mRNA therapies for humans, a class of LNPs with increased delivery efficiency along with a metabolic and toxicity profile that would enable chronic dosing in humans is needed.

[00442] The ability to treat a broad swath of diseases requires the flexibility to safely dose chronically at varying dose levels. Through systematic optimization of the amino lipid structure, the compounds of the disclosure were identified as compounds that balance chemical stability, improved efficiency of delivery due to improved endosomal escape, rapid in vivo metabolism, and a clean toxicity profile (Example 26). The combination of these features provides a drug candidate that can be dosed chronically without activation of the immune system. Initial rodent screens led to the identification of a lead lipid with good delivery efficiency and

pharmacokinetics. The lead LNP was profiled further in non-human primate for efficiency of delivery after single and repeat dosing. Finally, the optimized LNPs were evaluated in one- month repeat dose toxicity studies in rat and non-human primate. Without wishing to be bound by theory, the novel ionizable lipids of the instant disclosure allow for the safe and effective use of mRNA-based therapies in acute and chronic diseases.

Methods of producing polypeptides in cells

[00443] The present disclosure provides methods of producing a polypeptide of interest in a mammalian cell. Methods of producing polypeptides involve contacting a cell with a nanoparticle composition including an mRNA encoding the polypeptide of interest. Upon contacting the cell with the nanoparticle composition, the mRNA may be taken up and translated in the cell to produce the polypeptide of interest.

[00444] In general, the step of contacting a mammalian cell with a nanoparticle composition including an mRNA encoding a polypeptide of interest may be performed in vivo, ex vivo, in culture, or in vitro. The amount of nanoparticle composition contacted with a cell, and/or the amount of mRNA therein, may depend on the type of cell or tissue being contacted, the means of administration, the physiochemical characteristics of the nanoparticle composition and the mRNA (e.g. , size, charge, and chemical composition) therein, and other factors. In general, an effective amount of the nanoparticle composition will allow for efficient polypeptide production in the cell. Metrics for efficiency may include polypeptide translation (indicated by polypeptide expression), level of mRNA degradation, and immune response indicators.

[00445] The step of contacting a nanoparticle composition including an mRNA with a cell may involve or cause transfection. A phospholipid including in the lipid component of a nanoparticle composition may facilitate transfection and/or increase transfection efficiency, for example, by interacting and/or fusing with a cellular or intracellular membrane. Transfection may allow for the translation of the mRNA within the cell.

[00446] In some embodiments, the nanoparticle compositions described herein may be used therapeutically. For example, an mRNA included in a nanoparticle composition may encode a therapeutic polypeptide (e.g. , in a translatable region) and produce the therapeutic polypeptide upon contacting and/or entry (e.g. , transfection) into a cell. In other embodiments, an mRNA included in a nanoparticle composition may encode a polypeptide that may improve or increase the immunity of a subject. For example, an mRNA may encode a granulocyte-colony stimulating factor or trastuzumab.

[00447] In certain embodiments, an mRNA included in a nanoparticle composition may encode a recombinant polypeptide that may replace one or more polypeptides that may be substantially absent in a cell contacted with the nanoparticle composition. The one or more substantially absent polypeptides may be lacking due to a genetic mutation of the encoding gene or a regulatory pathway thereof. Alternatively, a recombinant polypeptide produced by translation of the mRNA may antagonize the activity of an endogenous protein present in, on the surface of, or secreted from the cell. An antagonistic recombinant polypeptide may be desirable to combat deleterious effects caused by activities of the endogenous protein, such as altered activities or localization caused by mutation. In another alternative, a recombinant polypeptide produced by translation of the mRNA may indirectly or directly antagonize the activity of a biological moiety present in, on the surface of, or secreted from the cell. Antagonized biological moieties may include, but are not limited to, lipids (e.g., cholesterol), lipoproteins (e.g., low density lipoprotein), nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and small molecule toxins. Recombinant polypeptides produced by translation of the mRNA may be engineered for localization within the cell, such as within a specific compartment such as the nucleus, or may be engineered for secretion from the cell or for translocation to the plasma membrane of the cell.

[00448] In some embodiments, contacting a cell with a nanoparticle composition including an mRNA may reduce the innate immune response of a cell to an exogenous nucleic acid. A cell may be contacted with a first nanoparticle composition including a first amount of a first exogenous mRNA including a translatable region and the level of the innate immune response of the cell to the first exogenous mRNA may be determined. Subsequently, the cell may be contacted with a second composition including a second amount of the first exogenous mRNA, the second amount being a lesser amount of the first exogenous mRNA compared to the first amount. Alternatively, the second composition may include a first amount of a second exogenous mRNA that is different from the first exogenous mRNA. The steps of contacting the cell with the first and second compositions may be repeated one or more times. Additionally, efficiency of polypeptide production (e.g., translation) in the cell may be optionally determined, and the cell may be re-contacted with the first and/or second composition repeatedly until a target protein production efficiency is achieved.

Methods of delivering therapeutic agents to cells and organs

[00449] The present disclosure provides methods of delivering a therapeutic and/or prophylactic to a mammalian cell or organ. Delivery of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic to a cell involves administering a nanoparticle composition including the therapeutic and/or prophylactic to a subject, where administration of the composition involves contacting the cell with the composition. For example, a protein, cytotoxic agent, radioactive ion,

chemotherapeutic agent, or nucleic acid (such as an RNA, e.g. , mRNA) may be delivered to a cell or organ. In the instance that a therapeutic and/or prophylactic is an mRNA, upon contacting a cell with the nanoparticle composition, a translatable mRNA may be translated in the cell to produce a polypeptide of interest. However, mRNAs that are substantially not translatable may also be delivered to cells. Substantially non-translatable mRNAs may be useful as vaccines and/or may sequester translational components of a cell to reduce expression of other species in the cell.

[00450] In some embodiments, a nanoparticle composition may target a particular type or class of cells (e.g., cells of a particular organ or system thereof). For example, a nanoparticle composition including a therapeutic and/or prophylactic of interest may be specifically delivered to a mammalian liver, kidney, spleen, femur, or lung. Specific delivery to a particular class of cells, an organ, or a system or group thereof implies that a higher proportion of nanoparticle compositions including a therapeutic and/or prophylactic are delivered to the destination (e.g., tissue) of interest relative to other destinations, e.g., upon administration of a nanoparticle composition to a mammal. In some embodiments, specific delivery may result in a greater than 2 fold, 5 fold, 10 fold, 15 fold, or 20 fold increase in the amount of therapeutic and/or prophylactic per 1 g of tissue of the targeted destination (e.g., tissue of interest, such as a liver) as compared to another destination (e.g. , the spleen). In some embodiments, the tissue of interest is selected from the group consisting of a liver, kidney, a lung, a spleen, a femur, an ocular tissue (e.g., via intraocular, subretinal, or intravitreal injection), vascular endothelium in vessels (e.g. , intra-coronary or intra-femoral) or kidney, and tumor tissue (e.g., via intratumoral injection). [00451] As another example of targeted or specific delivery, an mR A that encodes a protein-binding partner (e.g. , an antibody or functional fragment thereof, a scaffold protein, or a peptide) or a receptor on a cell surface may be included in a nanoparticle composition. An mRNA may additionally or instead be used to direct the synthesis and extracellular localization of lipids, carbohydrates, or other biological moieties. Alternatively, other therapeutic and/or prophylactics or elements (e.g., lipids or ligands) of a nanoparticle composition may be selected based on their affinity for particular receptors (e.g., low density lipoprotein receptors) such that a nanoparticle composition may more readily interact with a target cell population including the receptors. For example, ligands may include, but are not limited to, members of a specific binding pair, antibodies, monoclonal antibodies, Fv fragments, single chain Fv (scFv) fragments, Fab' fragments, F(ab')2 fragments, single domain antibodies, camelized antibodies and fragments thereof, humanized antibodies and fragments thereof, and multivalent versions thereof; multivalent binding reagents including mono- or bi-specific antibodies such as disulfide stabilized Fv fragments, scFv tandems, diabodies, tribodies, or tetrabodies; and aptamers, receptors, and fusion proteins.

[00452] In some embodiments, a ligand may be a surface-bound antibody, which can permit tuning of cell targeting specificity. This is especially useful since highly specific antibodies can be raised against an epitope of interest for the desired targeting site. In one embodiment, multiple antibodies are expressed on the surface of a cell, and each antibody can have a different specificity for a desired target. Such approaches can increase the avidity and specificity of targeting interactions.

[00453] A ligand can be selected, e.g., by a person skilled in the biological arts, based on the desired localization or function of the cell. For example an estrogen receptor ligand, such as tamoxifen, can target cells to estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells that have an increased number of estrogen receptors on the cell surface. Other non-limiting examples of

ligand/receptor interactions include CCR1 (e.g., for treatment of inflamed joint tissues or brain in rheumatoid arthritis, and/or multiple sclerosis), CCR7, CCR8 (e.g., targeting to lymph node tissue), CCR6, CCR9,CCR10 (e.g. , to target to intestinal tissue), CCR4, CCR10 (e.g., for targeting to skin), CXCR4 (e.g. , for general enhanced transmigration), HCELL (e.g., for treatment of inflammation and inflammatory disorders, bone marrow), Alpha4beta7 (e.g., for intestinal mucosa targeting), and VLA-4NCAM-1 (e.g., targeting to endothelium). In general, any receptor involved in targeting (e.g., cancer metastasis) can be harnessed for use in the methods and compositions described herein. [00454] Targeted cells may include, but are not limited to, hepatocytes, epithelial cells, hematopoietic cells, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, lung cells, bone cells, stem cells, mesenchymal cells, neural cells, cardiac cells, adipocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle cells, beta cells, pituitary cells, synovial lining cells, ovarian cells, testicular cells, fibroblasts, B cells, T cells, reticulocytes, leukocytes, granulocytes, and tumor cells.

[00455] In some embodiments, a nanoparticle composition may target hepatocytes.

Apolipoprotiens such as apolipoprotein E (apoE) have been shown to associate with neutral or near neutral lipid-containing nanoparticle compositions in the body, and are known to associate with receptors such as low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) found on the surface of hepatocytes. Thus, a nanoparticle composition including a lipid component with a neutral or near neutral charge that is administered to a subject may acquire apoE in a subject's body and may subsequently deliver a therapeutic and/or prophylactic (e.g., an RNA) to hepatocytes including LDLRs in a targeted manner.

Methods of treating diseases and disorders

[00456] Nanoparticle compositions may be useful for treating a disease, disorder, or condition. In particular, such compositions may be useful in treating a disease, disorder, or condition characterized by missing or aberrant protein or polypeptide activity. For example, a nanoparticle composition comprising an mRNA encoding a missing or aberrant polypeptide may be administered or delivered to a cell. Subsequent translation of the mRNA may produce the polypeptide, thereby reducing or eliminating an issue caused by the absence of or aberrant activity caused by the polypeptide. Because translation may occur rapidly, the methods and compositions may be useful in the treatment of acute diseases, disorders, or conditions such as sepsis, stroke, and myocardial infarction. A therapeutic and/or prophylactic included in a nanoparticle composition may also be capable of altering the rate of transcription of a given species, thereby affecting gene expression.

[00457] Diseases, disorders, and/or conditions characterized by dysfunctional or aberrant protein or polypeptide activity for which a composition may be administered include, but are not limited to, rare diseases, infectious diseases (as both vaccines and therapeutics), cancer and proliferative diseases, genetic diseases (e.g. , cystic fibrosis), autoimmune diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cardio- and reno-vascular diseases, and metabolic diseases.

Multiple diseases, disorders, and/or conditions may be characterized by missing (or substantially diminished such that proper protein function does not occur) protein activity. Such proteins may not be present, or they may be essentially non-functional. A specific example of a dysfunctional protein is the missense mutation variants of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which produce a dysfunctional protein variant of CFTR protein, which causes cystic fibrosis. The present disclosure provides a method for treating such diseases, disorders, and/or conditions in a subject by administering a nanoparticle composition including an RNA and a lipid component including a lipid according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III), a phospholipid (optionally unsaturated), a PEG lipid, and a structural lipid, wherein the RNA may be an mRNA encoding a polypeptide that antagonizes or otherwise overcomes an aberrant protein activity present in the cell of the subject.

[00458] The disclosure provides methods involving administering nanoparticle compositions including one or more therapeutic and/or prophylactic agents and pharmaceutical compositions including the same. The terms therapeutic and prophylactic can be used interchangeably herein with respect to features and embodiments of the present disclosure. Therapeutic compositions, or imaging, diagnostic, or prophylactic compositions thereof, may be administered to a subject using any reasonable amount and any route of administration effective for preventing, treating, diagnosing, or imaging a disease, disorder, and/or condition and/or any other purpose. The specific amount administered to a given subject may vary depending on the species, age, and general condition of the subject; the purpose of the administration; the particular composition; the mode of administration; and the like. Compositions in accordance with the present disclosure may be formulated in dosage unit form for ease of administration and uniformity of dosage. It will be understood, however, that the total daily usage of a composition of the present disclosure will be decided by an attending physician within the scope of sound medical judgment. The specific therapeutically effective, prophylactically effective, or otherwise appropriate dose level (e.g., for imaging) for any particular patient will depend upon a variety of factors including the severity and identify of a disorder being treated, if any; the one or more therapeutic and/or prophylactics employed; the specific composition employed; the age, body weight, general health, sex, and diet of the patient; the time of administration, route of administration, and rate of excretion of the specific pharmaceutical composition employed; the duration of the treatment; drugs used in combination or coincidental with the specific pharmaceutical composition employed; and like factors well known in the medical arts.

[00459] A nanoparticle composition including one or more therapeutic and/or prophylactics may be administered by any route. In some embodiments, compositions, including prophylactic, diagnostic, or imaging compositions including one or more nanoparticle compositions described herein, are administered by one or more of a variety of routes, including oral, intravenous, intramuscular, intra-arterial, intramedullary, intrathecal, intraparenchymal, subcutaneous, intraventricular, trans- or intra-dermal, interdermal, rectal, intravaginal, intraperitoneal, intraocular, subretinal, intravitreal, topical (e.g. by powders, ointments, creams, gels, lotions, and/or drops), mucosal, nasal, buccal, enteral, vitreal, intratumoral, sublingual, intranasal; by intratracheal instillation, bronchial instillation, and/or inhalation; as an oral spray and/or powder, nasal spray, and/or aerosol, and/or through a portal vein catheter. In some embodiments, a composition may be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, intradermally, intra-arterially, intratumorally, subcutaneously, intraocularly, subretinally, intravitreally, intraparenchymally, or by any other parenteral route of administration or by inhalation. However, the present disclosure encompasses the delivery or administration of compositions described herein by any appropriate route taking into consideration likely advances in the sciences of drug delivery. In general, the most appropriate route of administration will depend upon a variety of factors including the nature of the nanoparticle composition including one or more therapeutic and/or prophylactics (e.g. , its stability in various bodily environments such as the bloodstream and gastrointestinal tract), the condition of the patient (e.g., whether the patient is able to tolerate particular routes of administration), etc.

[00460] In certain embodiments, compositions in accordance with the present disclosure may be administered at dosage levels sufficient to deliver from about 0.0001 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg, from about 0.001 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg, from about 0.005 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg, from about 0.01 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg, from about 0.05 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg, from about 0.1 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg, from about 1 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg, from about 2 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg, from about 5 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg, from about 0.0001 mg/kg to about 5 mg/kg, from about 0.001 mg/kg to about 5 mg/kg, from about 0.005 mg/kg to about 5 mg/kg, from about 0.01 mg/kg to about 5 mg/kg, from about 0.05 mg/kg to about 5 mg/kg, from about 0.1 mg/kg to about 5 mg/kg, from about 1 mg/kg to about 5 mg/kg, from about 2 mg/kg to about 5 mg/kg, from about 0.0001 mg/kg to about 2.5 mg/kg, from about 0.001 mg/kg to about 2.5 mg/kg, from about 0.005 mg/kg to about 2.5 mg/kg, from about 0.01 mg/kg to about 2.5 mg/kg, from about 0.05 mg/kg to about 2.5 mg/kg, from about 0.1 mg/kg to about 2.5 mg/kg, from about 1 mg/kg to about 2.5 mg/kg, from about 2 mg/kg to about 2.5 mg/kg, from about 0.0001 mg/kg to about 1 mg/kg, from about 0.001 mg/kg to about 1 mg/kg, from about 0.005 mg/kg to about 1 mg/kg, from about 0.01 mg/kg to about 1 mg/kg, from about 0.05 mg/kg to about 1 mg/kg, from about 0.1 mg/kg to about 1 mg/kg, from about 0.0001 mg/kg to about 0.25 mg/kg, from about 0.001 mg/kg to about 0.25 mg/kg, from about 0.005 mg/kg to about 0.25 mg/kg, from about 0.01 mg/kg to about 0.25 mg/kg, from about 0.05 mg/kg to about 0.25 mg/kg, or from about 0.1 mg/kg to about 0.25 mg/kg of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic (e.g. , an mR A) in a given dose, where a dose of 1 mg/kg (mpk) provides 1 mg of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic per 1 kg of subject body weight. In some embodiments, a dose of about 0.001 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic (e.g., mRNA) of a nanoparticle composition may be administered. In other embodiments, a dose of about 0.005 mg/kg to about 2.5 mg/kg of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic may be administered. In certain embodiments, a dose of about 0.1 mg/kg to about 1 mg/kg may be administered. In other embodiments, a dose of about 0.05 mg/kg to about 0.25 mg/kg may be administered. A dose may be administered one or more times per day, in the same or a different amount, to obtain a desired level of mRNA expression and/or therapeutic, diagnostic, prophylactic, or imaging effect. The desired dosage may be delivered, for example, three times a day, two times a day, once a day, every other day, every third day, every week, every two weeks, every three weeks, or every four weeks. In certain embodiments, the desired dosage may be delivered using multiple administrations (e.g., two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, or more administrations). In some embodiments, a single dose may be administered, for example, prior to or after a surgical procedure or in the instance of an acute disease, disorder, or condition.

[00461] Nanoparticle compositions including one or more therapeutic and/or prophylactics may be used in combination with one or more other therapeutic, prophylactic, diagnostic, or imaging agents. By "in combination with," it is not intended to imply that the agents must be administered at the same time and/or formulated for delivery together, although these methods of delivery are within the scope of the present disclosure. For example, one or more nanoparticle compositions including one or more different therapeutic and/or prophylactics may be administered in combination. Compositions can be administered concurrently with, prior to, or subsequent to, one or more other desired therapeutics or medical procedures. In general, each agent will be administered at a dose and/or on a time schedule determined for that agent. In some embodiments, the present disclosure encompasses the delivery of compositions, or imaging, diagnostic, or prophylactic compositions thereof in combination with agents that improve their bioavailability, reduce and/or modify their metabolism, inhibit their excretion, and/or modify their distribution within the body.

[00462] It will further be appreciated that therapeutically, prophylactically, diagnostically, or imaging active agents utilized in combination may be administered together in a single composition or administered separately in different compositions. In general, it is expected that agents utilized in combination will be utilized at levels that do not exceed the levels at which they are utilized individually. In some embodiments, the levels utilized in combination may be lower than those utilized individually. [00463] The particular combination of therapies (therapeutics or procedures) to employ in a combination regimen will take into account compatibility of the desired therapeutics and/or procedures and the desired therapeutic effect to be achieved. It will also be appreciated that the therapies employed may achieve a desired effect for the same disorder (for example, a composition useful for treating cancer may be administered concurrently with a

chemotherapeutic agent), or they may achieve different effects (e.g. , control of any adverse effects, such as infusion related reactions).

[00464] A nanoparticle composition may be used in combination with an agent to increase the effectiveness and/or therapeutic window of the composition. Such an agent may be, for example, an anti-inflammatory compound, a steroid (e.g., a corticosteroid), a statin, an estradiol, a BTK inhibitor, an S IP 1 agonist, a glucocorticoid receptor modulator (GRM), or an antihistamine. In some embodiments, a nanoparticle composition may be used in combination with dexamethasone, methotrexate, acetaminophen, an HI receptor blocker, or an H2 receptor blocker. In some embodiments, a method of treating a subject in need thereof or of delivering a therapeutic and/or prophylactic to a subject (e.g., a mammal) may involve pre-treating the subject with one or more agents prior to administering a nanoparticle composition. For example, a subject may be pre-treated with a useful amount (e.g., 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg, 50 mg, 60 mg, 70 mg, 80 mg, 90 mg, 100 mg, or any other useful amount) of dexamethasone, methotrexate, acetaminophen, an HI receptor blocker, or an H2 receptor blocker. Pre-treatment may occur 24 or fewer hours (e.g., 24 hours, 20 hours, 16 hours, 12 hours, 8 hours, 4 hours, 2 hours, 1 hour, 50 minutes, 40 minutes, 30 minutes, 20 minutes, or 10 minutes) before administration of the nanoparticle composition and may occur one, two, or more times in, for example, increasing dosage amounts.

[00465] Those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents to the specific embodiments in accordance with the disclosure described herein. The scope of the present disclosure is not intended to be limited to the above Description, but rather is as set forth in the appended claims.

[0001] In the claims, articles such as "a," "an," and "the" may mean one or more than one unless indicated to the contrary or otherwise evident from the context. Claims or descriptions that include "or" between one or more members of a group are considered satisfied if one, more than one, or all of the group members are present in, employed in, or otherwise relevant to a given product or process unless indicated to the contrary or otherwise evident from the context. The disclosure includes embodiments in which exactly one member of the group is present in, employed in, or otherwise relevant to a given product or process. The disclosure includes embodiments in which more than one, or all, of the group members are present in, employed in, or otherwise relevant to a given product or process. As used herein, the expressions "one or more of A, B, or C," "one or more A, B, or C," "one or more of A, B, and C," "one or more A, B, and C", "selected from A, B, and C," "selected from the group consisting of A, B, and C," and the like are used interchangeably and all refer to a selection from a group consisting of A, B, and /or C, i.e., one or more As, one or more Bs, one or more Cs, or any combination thereof, unless otherwise specified.

[0002] It is also noted that the term "comprising" is intended to be open and permits but does not require the inclusion of additional elements or steps. When the term "comprising" is used herein, the terms "consisting essentially of and "consisting of are thus also encompassed and disclosed. Throughout the description, where compositions are described as having, including, or comprising specific components, it is contemplated that compositions also consist essentially of, or consist of, the recited components. Similarly, where methods or processes are described as having, including, or comprising specific process steps, the processes also consist essentially of, or consist of, the recited processing steps. Further, it should be understood that the order of steps or order for performing certain actions is immaterial so long as the invention remains operable. Moreover, two or more steps or actions can be conducted simultaneously.

[0003] Where ranges are given, endpoints are included. Furthermore, it is to be understood that unless otherwise indicated or otherwise evident from the context and understanding of one of ordinary skill in the art, values that are expressed as ranges can assume any specific value or sub-range within the stated ranges in different embodiments of the disclosure, to the tenth of the unit of the lower limit of the range, unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.

[0004] The synthetic processes of the disclosure can tolerate a wide variety of functional groups, therefore various substituted starting materials can be used. The processes generally provide the desired final compound at or near the end of the overall process, although it may be desirable in certain instances to further convert the compound to a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0005] Compounds of the present disclosure can be prepared in a variety of ways using commercially available starting materials, compounds known in the literature, or from readily prepared intermediates, by employing standard synthetic methods and procedures either known to those skilled in the art, or which will be apparent to the skilled artisan in light of the teachings herein. Standard synthetic methods and procedures for the preparation of organic molecules and functional group transformations and manipulations can be obtained from the relevant scientific literature or from standard textbooks in the field. Although not limited to any one or several sources, classic texts such as Smith, M. B., March, J., March 's Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure, 5 th edition, John Wiley & Sons: New York, 2001 ;

Greene, T.W., Wuts, P.G. M., Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, 3 rd edition, John Wiley & Sons: New York, 1999; R. Larock, Comprehensive Organic Transformations, VCH

Publishers (1989); L. Fieser and M. Fieser, Fieser and Fieser 's Reagents for Organic Synthesis, John Wiley and Sons (1994); and L. Paquette, ed., Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, John Wiley and Sons ( 1995), incorporated by reference herein, are useful and recognized reference textbooks of organic synthesis known to those in the art. The following descriptions of synthetic methods are designed to illustrate, but not to limit, general procedures for the preparation of compounds of the present disclosure.

[0006] The compounds of this disclosure having any of the formulae described herein may be prepared according to the procedures illustrated in Schemes 1, 2, and 3 below, from commercially available starting materials or starting materials which can be prepared using literature procedures. The variables in the schemes (e.g., Ri, R2, and R3 etc. are as defined herein). One of ordinary skill in the art will note that, during the reaction sequences and synthetic schemes described herein, the order of certain steps may be changed, such as the introduction and removal of protecting groups.

[0007] One of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that certain groups may require protection from the reaction conditions via the use of protecting groups. Protecting groups may also be used to differentiate similar functional groups in molecules. A list of protecting groups and how to introduce and remove these groups can be found in Greene, T.W., Wuts, P.G. M., Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, 3 rd edition, John Wiley & Sons: New York, 1999.

[0008] Preferred protecting groups include, but are not limited to:

[0009] For a hydroxyl moiety: TBS, benzyl, THP, Ac;

[0010] For carboxylic acids: benzyl ester, methyl ester, ethyl ester, allyl ester;

[0011] For amines: Fmoc, Cbz, BOC, DMB, Ac, Bn, Tr, Ts, trifluoroacetyl, phthalimide, benzylideneamine;

[0012] For diols: Ac (x2) TBS (x2), or when taken together acetonides;

[0013] For thiols: Ac;

[0014] For benzimidazoles: SEM, benzyl, PMB, DMB;

[0015] For aldehydes: di-alkyl acetals such as dimethoxy acetal or diethyl acetyl.

[0016] In the reaction schemes described herein, multiple stereoisomers may be produced. When no particular stereoisomer is indicated, it is understood to mean all possible stereoisomers that could be produced from the reaction. A person of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the reactions can be optimized to give one isomer preferentially, or new schemes may be devised to produce a single isomer. If mixtures are produced, techniques such as preparative thin layer chromatography, preparative HPLC, preparative chiral HPLC, or preparative SFC may be used to separate the isomers.

Scheme 1

[0017] As illustrated in Scheme 1 above, 8-bromooctanoic acid reacts with an alcohol al (e.g., heptadecan-9-ol) to afford an ester bl (e.g., heptadecan-9-yl 8-bromooctanoate). Step 1 can take place in an organic solvent (e.g., dichloromethane) in the presence of, e.g., N-(3- dimethylaminopropyl)-N-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride, NN-diisopropylethylamine and DMAP. Step 1 can take place at room temperature for 18 h. Next, ester bl reacts with 2- aminoethan-l-ol to afford amine cl (e.g., heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate). Step 2 can take place in ethanol at, e.g., a temperature of about 60 ° C. Then amine cl reacts with an bromoalkyl Ri-Br (e.g., 1-bromotetradecane) to afford compound dl (e.g., heptadecan- 9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(tetradecyl)amino)octanoate). Step 3 can take place in ethanol in the presence of NN-diisopropylethylamine.

Scheme 2

Step 2 HO^R 2 Step 3

°^R 2

R 3 -MgX

d2 e2

[0018] As illustrated in Scheme 2 above, an acid a2 (t is an integer between 1 and 7; e.g., 8- bromooctanoic acid) reacts with an alcohol b2 (e.g., nonan-l-ol) to afford an ester c2 (e.g., nonyl-8-bromooctanoate). Step 1 can take place in an organic solvent (e.g., dichloromethane) in the presence of, e.g., N-(3-dimemylaminopropyl)-N -ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride, N,N- diisopropylethylamine and DMAP. Alcohol e2 (e.g., heptadecan-9-ol) can be obtained from reacting aldehyde d2 (e.g., nonanal) with a Grignard reagent Pv3-MgX (e.g., n-CsHnMgBr) via Step 2. Next, 8-bromooctanoic acid reacts with an alcohol e2 (e.g., heptadecan-9-ol) to afford an ester f2 (e.g., heptadecan-9-yl 8-bromooctanoate). Step 3 can take place in an organic solvent (e.g., dichloromethane) in the presence of, e.g., N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'- ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride, N,N-diisopropylethylamine and DMAP. Next, ester f2 reacts with 2-aminoethan-l-ol to afford amine g2 (e.g., heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2- hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate). Step 4 can take place in ethanol in the presence of z ' -PnEtN. Then amine g2 reacts with ester c2 (e.g., nonyl-8-bromooctanoate) to afford compound h2 (e.g., heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate) . Step 5 can take place in an organic solvent (e.g., a mixture of CPME and MeCN), in the presence of a base (such as an inorganic base (e.g., K2CO3) or non-nucleophilic organic base (e.g., z-PnEtN)) and a catalyst (e.g., an iodide such as KI or Nal) at, e.g., an elevated temperature (such as at about 70- 90 ° C, e.g., about 80 ° C).

Scheme 3 O O Step l 0 0

[0019] As illustrated in Scheme 3 above, a haloalkanol (t is an integer between 1 and 12, e.g., 6- bromohexan-l-ol) is reacted with a starting material a3 (s is an integer between 1 and 6, e.g., 4-(hexyloxy)-4-oxobutanoic acid) to afford a halogenated diester b3 (e.g., 6-bromohexyl hexyl succinate). Compound a3 can be obtained by reaction of an alcohol (e.g., hexan-l-ol) with an acid anhydride (e.g. succinic anhydride, dihydro-2H-pyran-2,6(3H)-dione, 3-(tert-butoxy)-3- oxopropanoic acid, 4-(tert-butoxy)-3-methyl-4-oxobutanoic acid, or 4-(tert-butoxy)-2-methyl-4- oxobutanoic acid). Step 1 can take place in an organic solvent (e.g., dichloromethane) in the presence of, e.g., N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride, N,N- diisopropylethylamine and DMAP. Next, halogenated diester b3 reacts with an amine c3 (u is an integer between 5 and 13, v is an integer between 1 and 5, e.g., heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2- hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate) to afford the product d3. Step 2 can take place in an organic solvent (e.g., a mixture of CPME and MeCN), in the presence of a base (such as an inorganic base (e.g., K2CO3) and a catalyst (e.g., an iodide such as KI) and an ether solvent (e.g., cyclopentyl methyl ether), at an elevated temperature (e.g., about 90 °C).

[0020] A person of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that in the above schemes the order of certain steps may be interchangeable.

[0021] In certain aspects, the disclosure also includes methods of synthesizing a compound of any of Formulae (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) and intermediate(s) for synthesizing the compound. [0022] In some embodiments, the method of synthesizing a compound of Formula (I)

includes reacting a compound of Formula (X2):

afford the compound of Formula (I), wherein each variables are as defined herein. For example, m is 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, preferably 5, 7, or 9. For example, each of Rs, Re, and R7 is H. For example, M is -C(0)0- or -OC(O)-. For example, R4 is unsubstituted C1-3 alkyl, or -(CH2)nQ, in which n is 2, 3, or 4 and Q is OH, -NHC(S)N(R) 2 , -NHC(0)N(R) 2 , -N(R)C(0)R,

or -N(R)S(0)2R. For example, the reaction of the compound of Formula (X2) with Ri-Br takes place in the presence of a base (such as an inorganic base (e.g., K2CO3) or non-nucleophilic organic base (e.g., z ' -PnEtN)). For example, the reaction takes place in the presence of an inorganic base (e.g., K2CO3) and a catalyst (e.g., an iodide such as KI or Nal). For example, the reaction takes place at an elevated temperature, e.g., about 50-100 ° C, 70-90 ° C, or about 80 ° C).

[0023] The method may also include reacting a compound of Formula (XI):

with R4NH2 to afford a compound of Formula (X2), wherein each variables are as defined herein.

[0024] In s Formulae

(XI) and (X2): (X2), wherein each variables are as defined herein. For example, the intermediate includes heptadecan-9-yl 8- bromooctanoate, and heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate, and morphic forms thereof (e.g., a crystalline form).

[0025] In addition, it is to be understood that any particular embodiment of the present disclosure that falls within the prior art may be explicitly excluded from any one or more of the claims. Since such embodiments are deemed to be known to one of ordinary skill in the art, they may be excluded even if the exclusion is not set forth explicitly herein. [0026] All cited sources, for example, references, publications, databases, database entries, and art cited herein, are incorporated into this application by reference, even if not expressly stated in the citation. In case of conflicting statements of a cited source and the instant application, the statement in the instant application shall control.

Examples

Example 1 : Synthesis of compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He) (Ilf), or (Ilg)

A. General Considerations

[0027] All solvents and reagents used were obtained commercially and used as such unless noted otherwise. ¾ NMR spectra were recorded in CDCh, at 300 K using a Bruker Ultrashield 300 MHz instrument. Chemical shifts are reported as parts per million (ppm) relative to TMS (0.00) for ¾. Silica gel chromatographies were performed on ISCO CombiFlash Rf+ Lumen Instruments using ISCO RediSep Rf Gold Flash Cartridges (particle size: 20-40 microns). Reverse phase chromatographies were performed on ISCO CombiFlash Rf+ Lumen Instruments using RediSep Rf Gold C 18 High Performance columns. All final compounds were determined to be greater than 85% pure via analysis by reverse phase UPLC-MS (retention times, RT, in minutes) using Waters Acquity UPLC instrument with DAD and ELSD and a ZORBAX Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD) SB-C18 LC column, 2.1 mm, 50 mm, 1.8 μπι, and a gradient of 65 to 100% acetonitrile in water with 0.1% TFA over 5 minutes at 1.2 mL/min. Injection volume was 5 and the column temperature was 80 °C. Detection was based on electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive mode using Waters SQD mass spectrometer (Milford, MA, USA) and evaporative light scattering detector.

[0028] The procedures described below are useful in the synthesis of Compounds 1-280.

[0029] The following abbreviations are employed herein:

THF: Tetrahydrofuran

MeCN: Acetonitrile

LAH: Lithium Aluminum Hydride

DCM: Dichloromethane

DMAP: 4-Dimethylaminopyridine

LDA: Lithium Diisopropylamide

rt: Room Temperature

DME: 1 ,2-Dimethoxy ethane

«-BuLi: «-Butyllithium

CPME: Cyclopentyl methyl ether z-PnEtN : Ν,Ν-Diisopropylethy lamine

B. Compound 2: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(tetradecyl)amino)octanoate

R

heptadecan-9-yl 8-

heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(tetradecyl)amino)octanoate

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-

[0030] To a solution of 8-bromooctanoic acid ( 1.04 g, 4.6 mmol) and heptadecan-9-ol (1.5 g, 5.8 mmol) in dichloromethane (20 mL) was added N-(3-dimethy laminopropy^-N 7 - ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (1.1 g, 5.8 mmol), N,N-diisopropylethylamine (3.3 mL, 18.7 mmol) and DMAP (1 14 mg, 0.9 mmol). The reaction was allowed to stir at rt for 18 h. The reaction was diluted with dichloromethane and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate. The organic layer was separated and washed with brine, and dried over MgS04. The organic layer was filtered and evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0- 10% ethyl acetate in hexanes) to obtain heptadecan-9-yl 8-bromooctanoate (875 mg, 1.9 mmol, 41%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 1H); 3.42 (m, 2H); 2.31 (m, 2H); 1.89 (m, 2H); 1.73-1.18 (br. m, 36H); 0.88 (m, 6H).

Heptadecan-9- -((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate (Method B)

[0031] A solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-bromooctanoate (3.8 g, 8.2 mmol) and 2- aminoethan- l-ol (15 mL, 248 mmol) in ethanol (3 mL) was allowed to stir at 62 °C for 18 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo and the residue was taken-up in ethyl acetate and water. The organic layer was separated and washed with water, brine and dried over Na2S04. The mixture was filtered and evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to obtain heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate (3.1 g, 7 mmol, 85%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.67 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 442.68 for C27H55NO3 ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (p, 1H); 3.67 (t, 2H); 2.81 (t, 2H); 2.65 (t, 2H); 2.30 (t, 2H); 2.05 (br. m, 2H); 1.72- 1.41 (br. m, 8H); 1.40- 1.20 (br. m, 30H); 0.88 (m, 6H).

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-( -hydroxyethyl)(tetradecyl)amino)octanoate (Method C)

Chemical Formula: C41H83NO3

Molecular Weight: 638.12

[0032] A solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate (125 mg, 0.28 mmol), 1-bromotetradecane (94 mg, 0.34 mmol) and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (44 mg, 0.34 mmol) in ethanol was allowed to stir at 65 °C for 18 h. The reaction was cooled to rt and solvents were evaporated in vacuo. The residue was taken-up in ethyl acetate and saturated sodium bicarbonate. The organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04 and evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0- 100% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to obtain heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2- hydroxyethyl)(tetradecyl)amino)octanoate (89 mg, 0.14 mmol, 50%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.61 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 638.91 for C41H83NO3. 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (p, 1H); 3.72-3.47 (br. m, 2H); 2.78-2.40 (br. m, 5H); 2.28 (t, 2H); 1.70-1.40 (m, 10H); 1.38-1.17 (br. m, 54H); 0.88 (m, 9H).

Synthesis of Intermediates:

Intermediate A: 2-Octyldecanoic acid

[0033] A solution of diisopropylamine (2.92 mL, 20.8 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was cooled to -78 °C and a solution of «-BuLi (7.5 mL, 18.9 mmol, 2.5 M in hexanes) was added. The reaction was allowed to warm to 0 °C. To a solution of decanoic acid (2.96 g, 17.2 mmol) and NaH (754 mg, 18.9 mmol, 60%w/w) in THF (20 mL) at 0 °C was added the solution of LDA and the mixture was allowed to stir at rt for 30 min. After this time 1-iodooctane (5 g, 20.8 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was heated at 45 °C for 6 h. The reaction was quenched with IN HC1 (10 mL). The organic layer was dried over MgS04, filtered and evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-20% ethyl acetate in hexanes) to yield 2- octyldecanoic acid (1.9 g, 6.6 mmol, 38%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 2.38 (br. m, 1H); 1.74-1.03 (br. m, 28H); 0.91 (m, 6H).

Intermediate B: 7-Bro

[0034] 7-bromoheptyl 2-octyldecanoate was synthesized using Method A from 2- octyldecanoic acid and 7-bromoheptan-l-ol. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.09 (br. m, 2H); 3.43 (br. m, 2H); 2.48-2.25 (br. m, 1H); 1.89 (br. m, 2H); 1.74- 1.16 (br. m, 36H); 0.90 (m, 6H).

Intermediate C: (2-Hexylcyclopr

[0035] A solution of diethyl zinc (20 mL, 20 mmol, 1 M in hexanes), in dichloromethane (20 mL) was allowed to cool to -40 °C for 5 min. Then a solution of diiodomethane (3.22 mL, 40 mmol) in dichloromethane (10 mL) was added dropwise. After the reaction was allowed to stir for 1 h at -40 °C, a solution of trichloro-acetic acid (327 mg, 2 mmol) and DME ( 1 mL, 9.6 mmol) in dichloromethane (10 mL) was added. The reaction was allowed to warm to -15 °C and stir at this temperature for 1 h. A solution of (Z)-non-2-en-l-ol ( 1.42 g, 10 mmol) in dichloromethane (10 mL) was then added to the -15 °C solution. The reaction was then slowly allowed to warm to rt and stir for 18 h. After this time saturated NH4CI (200 mL) was added and the reaction was extracted with dichloromethane (3X), washed with brine, and dried over Na2S04. The organic layer was filtered, evaporated in vacuo and the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% ethyl acetate in hexanes) to yield (2- hexylcyclopropyl)methanol (1.43 g, 9.2 mmol, 92%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 3.64

(m, 2H); 1.57-1.02 (m, 12H); 0.99-0.80 (m, 4H); 0.72 (m, 1H), 0.00 (m, 1H).

C. Compound 1 : Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(octadecyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H91NO3

Molecular Weight: 694.23

[0036] Compound 1 was synthesized according to the general procedure and Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.86 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 694.93 for C45H91NO3. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (m, 1H); 3.77-3.47 (br. m, 2H); 2.

(br. m, 5H); 2.28 (t, 2H); 1.73-1.40 (br. m, 10H); 1.38- 1.18 (br. m, 62H); 0.88 (m, 9H).

D. Compound 3: oate

Chemical Formula: C36H73NO3

Molecular Weight: 567.98

[0037] Compound 3 was synthesized according to the general procedure and Representative Procedure 1 and Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.36 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 568.80 for C36H73NO3. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (p, 1H); 3.72-3.45 (br. m, 2H); 2.79-2.34 (br. m, 5H); 2.28 (t, 2H); 1.70-1.38 (m, 10H); 1.38- 1.16 (br. m, 44H); 0.88 (m, 9H).

E. Compound 4: H oate

Chemical Formula: C35H71NO3

Molecular Weight: 553.96

[0038] Compound 4 was synthesized according to the general procedure and Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.99 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 554.777 for C35H71NO3. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (p, 1H); 3.71 (br. s, 2H); 2.70 (br. s, 5H); 2.26 (t, 2H); 1.48- 1.59 (br. m., 10H); 1.24 (m, 42H); 0.86 (t, 9H).

F. Compound 5: oate

Chemical Formula: C33H57NO3

Molecular Weight: 525.90

[0039] Compound 5 was synthesized according to the general procedure and Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.10 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 526.73 for C33H67NO3. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (p, 1H); 3.67-3.48 (br. m, 2H); 2.74-2.39 (br. m, 5H); 2.28 (t, 2H); 1.68-1.39 (br. m, 10H); 1.38-1.16 (br. m, 38H); 0.88 (m, 9H). G. Compound 6: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)((9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dien-l- yl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H87NO3

Molecular Weight: 690.20

[0040] Compound 6 was synthesized according to the general procedure and Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.77 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 690.84 for C45H87NO3. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.37 (m, 4H); 4.86 (br. m, 1H); 3.53 (br. m; 2H); 2.78 (br. m, 2H); 2.58 (br. m, 2H); 2.45 (br. m, 4H); 2.28 (m, 2H); 2.05 (m, 4H); 1.68-1.15 (br. m, 57H); 0.89 (m, 9H).

H. Compound 7: anoate

Chemical Formula: C37H75NO3

Molecular Weight: 582.01

[0041] Compound 7 was synthesized according to the general procedure and Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.24 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 582.987 for C37H75NO3. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.84 (p, 1H); 3.76 (t, 2H); 2.42-2.66 (br. s, 5H); 2.25 (t, 2H); 1.47-1.68 (br. m, 12H); 1.24 (m, 42H); 0.86 (t, 9H).

I. Compound 8: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(lH-imidazol-l-yl)propyl)(nonyl)amino)octanoate Step 1 : Heptadecan-9-y

Chemical Formula: C37H74CINO2

Molecular Weight: 600.45

[0042] To a 0 °C solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-hydroxypropyl)(nonyl)amino)octanoate (0.53 g, 0.91 mmol) in 4 mL of DCM was added mesyl chloride (0.070 mL, 0.91 mmol) followed by triethylamine (0.13 mL, 0.91 mmol). The reaction was allowed to slowly warm to rt and stir overnight. The reaction was quenched by the addition of water (-10 mL). The mixture was extracted with DCM three times and the pooled organics were washed with brine, dried over MgS04, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude oil was purified by silica gel chromatography to afford heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-chloropropyl)(nonyl)amino)octanoate (0.23 g, 42%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.84 (p, 1H); 3.58 (t, 2H); 2.51 (br. s, 2H); 2.35 (br. s, 2H); 2.26 (2, 2H); 1.86 (br. s, 2H); 1.40-1.60 (br. m, 12H); 1.24 (br. m, 42H); 0.86 (t, 9H). Step 2: Heptadec oate

Chemical Formula: C40H77N3O2

Molecular Weight: 632.08

[0043] In a round bottom flask, heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-chloropropyl)(nonyl)amino)octanoate (50 mg, 0.083 mmol) was combined with imidazole (17 mg, 0.25 mmol), K2CO3 (35 mg, 0.25 mmol) in MeCN (0.5 mL). The flask was fitted with a condenser and placed in an 82 °C heating mantle and was allowed to stir for 24 h. After this time, the reaction was allowed to cool to rt, was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuo. The crude oil was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% [DCM, 20% MeOH, 1% NH 4 OH]/MeOH) to afford the desired product as a clear oil (39 mg, 74%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.92 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 633.994 for C40H77N3O2. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.46 (s, 1H); 7.05 (s, 1H); 6.91 (s, 1H); 4.84 (dt, 1H); 4.02 (br. s, 2H); 2.47 (br. s, 4H); 2.26 (t, 2H); 2.00 (br. s, 2H); 1.47-1.59 (br. m, 10H); 1.24 (br. m, 44H); 0.86 (t, 9H).

J. Compound 9: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-acetoxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C46H89NO6

Molecular Weight: 752.22

[0044] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (100 mg, 0.14 mmol) and acetic acid (8 mg, 0.13 mmol) in dichloromethane (1 mL) were added N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (31 mg, 0.16 mmol), NN-diisopropylethylamine (73 mg, 0.56 mmol) and DMAP

(3 mg, 0.02 mmol). The reaction was allowed to stir at rt for 18 h. The reaction was diluted with dichloromethane and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate. The organic layer was separated and washed with brine and dried over MgS04. The organic layer was filtered and evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to yield heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-acetoxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (63 mg, 0.08 mmol).

UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.63 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 753.07 for C46H 8 9N0 6 . ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 4.87 (p, 1H); 4.17-3.99 (m, 4H); 2.67 (m, 2H); 2.43 (m, 3H); 2.29 (m, 4H); 2.05 (s, 3H); 1.71-1.17 (br. m, 63H); 0.88 (m, 9H).

K. Compound 10: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxypropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO5

Molecular Weight: 724.209

[0045] Compound 10 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.73 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 725.10 for C45H89NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (p, 1H); 4.05 (t, 2H); 3.80-3.54 (br. m, 1H); 2.61-2.13 (br. m, 9H); 1.69-1.03 (br. m, 67H); 0.88 (m, 9H).

L. Compound 11: Heptadecan-9-yl (i?)-8-((2-hydroxypropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl) amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO5

Molecular Weight: 724.21

[0046] Compound 11 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 5.21 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 725.02 for C45H89NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (p, 1H); 4.05 (t, 2H); 3.72 (br. m, 1H); 2.65-2.10 (br. m, 8H); 1.71-0.99 (br. m, 68H); 0.88 (m, 9H). M. Compound 12: Heptadecan-9-yl (S)-8-((2-hydroxypropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl) amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO5

Molecular Weight: 724.21

[0047] Compound 12 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 5.30 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 725.10 for C45H89NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (p, 1H); 4.05 (t, 2H); 3.71 (br. m, 1H); 2.64-2.10 (br. m, 8H); 1.71-1.03 (br. m, 68H); 0.88 (m, 9H).

N. Compound 13: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxybutyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C46H91NO5

Molecular Weight: 738.24

[0048] Compound 13 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.89 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 739.21 for C46H91NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (p, 1H); 4.05 (t, 2H); 3.58-3.38 (br. m, 1H); 2.65-2.15 (br. m, 9H); 1.72-1.12 (br. m, 66H); 0.98 (t, 3H); 0.88 (m, 9H).

O. Compound 14: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C46H92N2O4

Molecular Weight: 737.252

[0049] Compound 14 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.51 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 738.23 for C46H92N2O4. 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 4.84 (p, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H); 2.95 (m, 2H); 2.78 (m, 6H); 2.44 (s, 6H); 2.28 (m, 4H); 1.70-1.41 (br. m, 14H); 1.41-1.14 (br. m, 48H); 0.87 (m, 9H).

P. Compound 15: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-methoxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO5

Molecular Weight: 724.21

[0050] Compound 15 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.90 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 725.19 for C45H89NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (p, 1H); 4.05 (t, 2H); 3.43 (m, 2H); 3.34 (s, 3H); 2.61 (m, 2H); 2.43 (m, 3H); 2.29 (m, 4H); 1.70-1.15 (br. m, 63H); 0.88 (m, 9H).

Q. Compound 16: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-methoxypropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C46H91NO5 Molecular Weight: 738.236

[0051] Compound 16 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.90 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 739.13 for C46H91NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.42 (m, 2H); 3.35 (s, 3H); 2.55-2.21 (m, 9H); 1.81- 1.18 (br. m, 65H); 0.88 (m, 9H).

R. Compound 17: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-(2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy)ethyl)

(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C48H96N2O5

Molecular Weight: 781.305

[0052] Compound 17 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.72 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 782.27 for CtsifeeNiOs. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.88 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.57 (m, 4H); 2.72 (m, 2H); 2.52 (m, 5H); 2.38-2.13 (br. m, 12H); 1.73-1.19 (br. m, 61H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

S. Compound 18: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C44H87NO5

Molecular Weight: 710.18

[0053] Compound 18 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above or according to the scheme below:

[0054] UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.59 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 710.89 for GwHsvNOs. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (m, 1H); 4.05 (t, 2H); 3.53 (br. m, 2H); 2.83-2.36 (br. m, 5H); 2.29 (m, 4H); 0.96- 1.71 (m, 64H); 0.88 (m, 9H).

T. Compound 19: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-hydroxypropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO5

Molecular Weight: 724.21

[0055] Compound 19 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 4.51 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 725.19 for C45H89NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (p, 1H); 4.05 (t, 2H); 3.80 (m, 2H); 2.92-2.36 (br. m, 5H); 2.29 (m, 4H); 1.89-1.42 (br. m, 16H); 1.42-1.02 (br. m, 50H); 0.88 (m, 9H).

U. Compound 20: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-hydroxybutyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C46H91NO5

Molecular Weight: 738.24

[0056] Compound 20 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.84 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 739.21 for C46H91NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (p, 1H); 4.05 (t, 2H); 3.77-3.45 (br. m, 2H); 2.63-2.20 (br. m, 8H); 1.82-1.40 (br. m, 18H); 1.40-1.15 (br. m, 51H); 0.88 (m, 9H).

V. Compound 21 : Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-cyanoethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H86N2O4

Molecular Weight: 719.19

[0057] Compound 21 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 4.04 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 720.18 for CtsHseNiC . ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.88 (p, 1H); 4.07 (t, 2H); 2.81 (m, 2H); 2.44 (m, 5H); 2.30 (m, 4H); 1.73- 1.18 (br. m, 63H); 0.89 (m, 9H).

W. Compound 22: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxycyclohexyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C48H93NO5

Molecular Weight: 764.27

[0058] Compound 22 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 4.54 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 765.21 for CtsHwNOs. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (p, 1H); 4.05 (t, 2H); 2.89-2.34 (br. m, 4H); 2.28 (m, 4H); 2.00 (m, 1H); 1.86-0.99 (br. m, 72H); 0.88 (m, 9H). X. Compound 23: Heptadecan-9-yl 10-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino) decanoate

Chemical Formula: C46H91NO5

Molecular Weight: 738.24

[0059] Compound 23 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.75 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 739.13 for C46H91NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (m, 1H); 4.05 (m, 2H); 3.72-3.46 (br. m, 2H); 2.81-2.35 (br. m, 5H); 2.29 (m, 4H); 1.71- 1.40 (br. m, 13H); 1.40-1.15 (br. m, 55H); 0.88 (m, 9H).

Y. Compound 24: Heptadecan-9-yl ( )-8_((2-hydroxyethyl)

(8-(non-2-en-l-ylox -8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C44H85NO5

Molecular Weight: 708.17

[0060] Compound 24 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.54 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 708.95 for C44H85NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.74-5.44 (br. m, 2H); 4.86 (m, 1H); 4.62 (m, 2H); 3.71-3.40 (br. m, 2H); 2.81-2.37 (br. m, 5H); 2.29 (m, 4H); 2.09 (m, 2H); 1.70-1.14 (br. m, 58H); 0.88 (m, 9H).

Z. Compound 25: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(6-oxo-6- (undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C44H87NO5

Molecular Weight: 710.182

[0061] Compound 25 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.66 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 71 1.00 for C44H87NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (m, 1H); 4.05 (t, 2H); 3.68-3.46 (br. m, 2H); 2.77-2.37 (br. m, 5H); 2.29 (m, 4H); 1.74- 1.41 (br. m, 14H); 1.39-1.18 (m, 50H); 0.88 (m, 9H). AA. Compound 26: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(4-(nonyloxy)-4-oxobutyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C40H79NO5

Molecular Weight: 654.07

[0062] Compound 26 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 4.29 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 655.07 for C40H79NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (p, 1H); 4.06 (t, 2H); 3.79 (br. m, 2H); 2.91-2.20 (br. m, 10H); 1.98-1.03 (br. m, 55H); 0.88 (m, 9H).

AB. Compound 27: Nonyl 8-((6-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-6-oxohexyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C42H83NO5

Molecular Weight: 682.13

[0063] Compound 27 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.57 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 683.12 for C HSBNOS. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (m, 1H); 4.05 (m, 2H); 3.70-3.45 (br. m, 2H); 2.78-2.35 (br. m, 5H); 2.29 (m, 4H); 1.73-1.41 (m, 13H); 1.41-1.16 (m, 47H); 0.88 (m, 9H).

AC. Compound 28: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((8-((2-hexylcyclopropyl)methoxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)amin

Chemical Formula: C45H87NO5

Molecular Weight: 722.19 [0064] Compound 28 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above using Intermediate C. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 5.17 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 722.97 for CtsHsvNOs. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (p, 1H); 4.17 (m, 1H); 3.93 (m, 1H); 3.61 (br. m, 2H); 2.97-2.37 (br. m, 6H); 2.35-2.21 (m, 4H); 1.74-0.97 (br. m, 60H); 0.94-0.79 (m, 10H); 0.74 (m, 1H); 0.01 (m, 1H).

AD. Compound 29: l)dioctanoate

Chemical Formula: C52H103NO5

Molecular Weight: 822.40

[0065] Compound 29 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.98 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 823.19 for C52H103NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (m, 2H); 3.72-3.44 (br. m, 2H); 2.83- 2.34 (br. m, 5H); 2.28 (m, 4H); 1.69- 1.39 (br. m, 16H); 1.39-1.16 (br. m, 62H); 0.88 (m, 12H).

AE. Compound 30: 7-((2-Hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)heptyl 2- octyldecanoate

Chemical Formula: C44H87NO5

Molecular Weight: 710.18

[0066] Compound 30 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above using Intermediate B. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.55 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 711.16 for CwHsvNOs. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.06 (m, 4H); 3.69-3.44 (br. m, 2H); 2.71-2.39 (br. m, 5H); 2.29 (m, 3H); 1.70-1.16 (br. m, 64H); 0.88 (m, 9H).

AF. Compound 31: heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(octadec-9-en-l-yl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO3

Molecular Weight: 692.21

[0067] Compound 31 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.83 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 693.20 for C45H89NO3. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.37 (m, 2H); 4.89 (p, 1H); 3.58 (br. m, 2H); 2.72-2.43 (br. m, 5H); 2.30 (m, 2H), 2.05 (m, 4H); 1.71-1.03 (br. m, 63H), 0.90 (m, 9H).

AG. Compound 32: nonyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-oxo-8-(pentadecan-7-yloxy)octyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C42H83NO5

Molecular Weight: 682.13

[0068] Compound 32 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.45 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 683.20 for C HSBNOS. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.60 (br. m, 2H); 2.85-2.40 (br. m, 5H); 2.31(m, 4H), 1.78-1.01 (m, 59H), 0.90 (m, 9H).

AH. Compound 33: nonyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-oxo-8-(tetradecan-6-yloxy)octyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: CnHsiNOs

Molecular Weight: 668.10

[0069] Compound 33 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.39 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 669.09 for CnHsiNOs. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.84 - 3.54 (br. m, 2H); 2.99-2.41 (br. m, 5H); 2.31 (m, 4H), 1.76-1.02 (br. m, 57H), 0.90 (m, 9H).

AI. Compound 34: dodecan-4-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C39H77NO5

Molecular Weight: 640.05

[0070] Compound 34 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.21 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 641.05 for C39H77NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.91 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.67 (br. m, 2H); 3.03-2.44 (br. m, 5H); 2.30 (m, 4H), 1.75-1.00 (br. m, 53H), 0.90 (m, 9H). AJ. Compound 35: nonyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-oxo-8-(undecan-3-yloxy)octyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C38H75NO5

Molecular Weight: 626.02

[0071] Compound 35 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.16 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 627.1 1 for C38H75NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.83 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.63 (br. m, 2H); 2.81-2.39 (br. m, 5H); 2.31 (m, 4H), 1.74-1.01 (br. m, 51H), 0.90 (m, 9H). AK. Compound 36: decan-2-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C37H73NO5 Molecular Weight: 61 1.99

[0072] Compound 36 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.05 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 613.00 for C37H73NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.91 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.55 (m, 2H); 2.60 (m, 2H); 2.47 (m, 4H); 2.29 (m, 4H), 1.731-1.01 (m, 5 1H), 0.90 (m, 6H). AL. Compound 47: heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(2-octylcyclopropyl)octyl) amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C46H91NO3

Molecular Weight: 706.24

[0073] Compound 47 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.92 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 707.39 for C46H91NO3. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (p, 1H); 3.56 (br. m, 2H); 2.72-2.38 (br. m, 5H); 2.28 (t, 2H); 1.70-1.02 (br. m, 67H), 0.88 (m, 9H); 0.71-0.49 (m, 4H); -0.33 (m, 1H).

AM. Compound 48: decan-2-yl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2-hydroxyethyl) amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO5

Molecular Weight: 724.21

[0074] Compound 48 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.60 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 725.10 for C45H89NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.91 (m, 2H); 3.59 (br. m, 2H); 2.79-2.37 (br. m, 5H); 2.29 (m, 4H); 1.74-1.13 (m, 66H); 0.90 (m, 9H). AN. Compound 49: heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-oxo-8-(undecan-3-yloxy) amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C46H91NO5

Molecular Weight: 738.24

[0075] Compound 49 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.68 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 739.21 for C46H91NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 2H); 3.56 (br. m, 2H); 2.68-2.39 (br. m, 5H); 2.30 (m, 4H); 1.71-1.19 (m, 66H); 0.90 (m, 12H).

AO. Compound 50: dodecan-4-yl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2-hydroxyethyl) amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C47H93NO5

Molecular Weight: 752.26

[0076] Compound 50 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.73 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 753.23 for C47H93NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 2H); 3.60 (br. m, 2H); 2.75-2.43 (br. m, 5H); 2.30 (m, 4H); 1.71-1.44 (m, 16H); 1.28 (m, 51H); 0.90 (m, 12H). AP. Compound 51: heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-butoxy-4-oxobutyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C35H59NO5

Molecular Weight: 583.94 [0077] Compound 51 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.05 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 584.87 for C35H69NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (p, 1H); 4.10 (t, 2H); 3.61 (br. m, 2H); 2.81-2.21 (br. m, 9H); 1.87(br. m, 2H), 1.70- 1.04 (m, 43H), 0.98-0.82 (m, 9H). AQ. Compound 52: heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(4-oxo-4-(pentyloxy)butyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C36H71NO5

Molecular Weight: 597.97

[0078] Compound 52 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.1 1 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 598.90 for C36H71NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (p, 1H); 4.09 (t, 2H); 3.61 (br. m, 2H); 2.89-2.22 (br. m, 9H); 1.87(br. m, 2H), 1.73- 1.43 (m, 1 1H), 1.28 (m, 34H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

AR. Compound 53: heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-(hexyloxy)-4-oxobutyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C37H73NO5

Molecular Weight: 61 1.99

[0079] Compound 53 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.22 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 612.92 for C37H73NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (p, 1H); 4.06 (t, 2H); 3.55 (br. m, 2H); 2.68-2.38 (br. m, 5H); 2.28 (m, 4H); 1.79 (br. m, 2H); 1.71-0.96 (m, 48H); 0.88 (m, 9H). AS. Compound 54: heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-(heptyloxy)-4-oxobutyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C38H75NO5

Molecular Weight: 626.02

[0080] Compound 54 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.28 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 626.94 for C38H75NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (p, 1H); 4.09 (t, 2H); 3.60 (br. m, 2H); 2.77-2.42 (br. m, 5H); 2.32 (m, 4H); 1.84 (br. m, 2H); 1.75-1.03 (m, 49H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

AT. Compound 55: heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-((2-hexylcyclopropyl)methoxy)-4-oxobutyl)(2- hydroxyethyl) amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C41H79NO5

Molecular Weight: 666.09

[0081] Compound 55 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.37 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 667.04 for C41H79NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.83 (p, 1H); 4.15 (m, 1H); 3.95 (m, 1H); 3.53 (br. m, 2H); 2.66-2.39 (br. m, 5H); 2.34-2.19 (m, 4H); 1.78 (br. m, 2H); 1.66- 0.98 (m, 50H); 0.85 (m, 10H); 0.70 (m, 1H); 0.00 (m, 1H).

AU. Compound 56: nonyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-oxo-8-(tridecan-7-yloxy)octyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C40H79NO5 Molecular Weight: 654.07

[0082] Compound 56 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.28 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 654.99 for C40H79NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.60 (br. m, 2H); 2.77-2.40 (br. m, 5H); 2.30 (m, 4H); 1.78-0.99 (m, 55H); 0.90 (m, 9H). AV. Compound 57: nonan-5-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C36H71NO5

Molecular Weight: 597.97

[0083] Compound 57 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.88 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 598.98 for C36H71NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.59 (br. m, 2H); 2.82-2.37 (br. m, 5H); 2.31 (m, 4H); 1.73- 1.03 (m, 47H); 0.91 (m, 9H). AW. Compound 58: heptan-4-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C34H57NO5

Molecular Weight: 569.91

[0084] Compound 58 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.67 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 570.93 for C34H67NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.93 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.57 (br. m, 2H); 2.69-2.42 (br. m, 5H); 2.30 (m, 4H); 1.72- 1.04 (m, 43H); 0.93 (m, 9H). AX. Compound 59: nonyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-oxo-8-(pentan-3-yloxy)octyl)amino) octanoate

Chemical Formula: C32H63NO5

Molecular Weight: 541.86

[0085] Compound 59 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.39 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 542.80 for C32H63NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.78 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.57 (br. m, 2H); 2.71-2.39 (br. m, 5H); 2.31 (m, 4H); 1.77- 1.05 (m, 39H); 0.90 (m, 9H). AY. Compound 60: (5Z,12Z)-Heptadeca-5,12-dien-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)- 8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

(5Z,12 )-Heptadeca-5,12-dien-9-

Chemical Formula: C17H32O

Molecular Weight: 252.44

[0086] To a solution of (Z)-l-bromooct-3-ene (6.2 g, 32.4 mmol) in THF (45 mL) Mg turnings were added (0.843 g, 34.7 mmol). The reaction was heated to 45 °C for 3 h. The reaction was cooled to 0 °C and ethyl formate (2.4 g, 32.4 mmol) in THF (5 mL) was added dropwise. The reaction was allowed to warm to rt and stir for 30 min. The reaction was cooled to 0 °C and quenched with water (15 mL) and 6N HC1 (15 mL). The reaction was stirred until all the Mg was dissolved. Water (25 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with hexanes (3X25 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine, separated, dried over Na2S04, filtered, and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was dissolved in EtOH (20 mL), a solution of KOH in water (1.76 g in 8 mL of water) was added and allowed to stir for 15 min. EtOH was evaporated under vacuum. The residue was diluted with water (20 mL), acidified with 6N HC1 (20 mL) and extracted with hexanes (3x). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, separated, dried over Na2S04, filtered, and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography with (0-5%) EtOAc in hexanes to obtain (5Z,12Z)-heptadeca-5, 12-dien-9-ol (2.3 g, 9.1 mmol, 28%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5,41 (m, 4); 3.66 (m, 1H); 2.13 (m, 8H); 1.51 (m, 5H); 1.36 (m, 8H); 0.92 (m, 6H).

(5Z,12Z Heptadeca-5,12-dien-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C44H83NO5

Molecular Weight: 706.15

[0087] Compound 60 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.36 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 707.10 for CWHSBNOS. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.37 (m, 4H); 4.92 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.57 (br. m, 2H); 2.73-2.38 (br. m, 5H); 2.31 (m, 4H); 2.04 (m, 8H); 1.73-1.01 (m, 47H); 0.92 (m, 9H).

AZ. Compound 61: (5Z,12Z)-heptadeca-5,12-dien-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(6-oxo-6- (undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C44H83NO5

Molecular Weight: 706.15

[0088] Compound 61 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.39 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 707.10 for CWHSBNOS. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.37 (m, 4H); 4.92 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.58 (br. m, 2H); 2.70-2.41 (br. m, 5H); 2.32 (m, 4H); 2.04 (m, 8H); 1.77-1.03 (m, 47H); 0.92 (m, 9H).

BA. Compound 65: 1-Cyclopropylnonyl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C47H91NO5

Molecular Weight: 750.247

[0089] Compound 65 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.72 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 750.9 for C47H91NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 1H); 4.28 (m, 1H); 3.54 (m, 2H); 2.59 (m, 2H); 2.46 (m, 4H); 2.29 (m, 4H), 1.73-1.18 (m, 61H); 0.90 (m, 10H); 0.62-0.33 (m, 3H); 0.28 (m, 1H).

BB. Compound 66: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-oxo-8-((4- pentylcyclohexyl)ox

Chemical Formula: C46H89NO5

Molecular Weight: 736.220

[0090] Compound 66 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.72 min. MS (ES): m/z

(MH + ) 736.9 for CteHsgNOs. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.00 (m, 0.5H); 4.89 (m, 1]

4.68 (m, 0.6H); 3.56 (m, 2H), 2.61 (br. m, 2H); 2.48 (m, 4H); 2.30 (m, 4H); 1.98 (m, 1H); 1.

(m, 2H); 1.73-1.14 (m, 61H); 1.04 (m, 1H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

BC. Compound 67: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(4-oxo-4-((4- pentylcyclohexyl)oxy

Chemical Formula: C42H81NO5

Molecular Weight: 680.1 12 [0091] Compound 67 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.56 min. MS (ES): m/z

(MH + ) 680.8 for CuHsiNOs. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.01 (m, 0.4H); 4.89 (m, 1H);

4.68 (m, 0.6H); 3.59 (m, 2H), 2.72-2.43 (br. m, 6H); 2.30 (m, 4H); 1.98 (m, 1H); 1.83 (m, 4H);

1.69-1.44 (m, 10H); 1.28 (m, 41H); 1.03 (m, 1H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

BD. Compound 68: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(6-oxo-6-((4- pentylcyclohexyl)oxy

Chemical Formula: C44H85NO5

Molecular Weight: 708.166

[0092] Compound 68 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.66 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 708.9 for CwHssNOs. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.00 (m, 0.5H); 4.89 (m, 1H); 4.68 (m, 0.6H); 3.55 (m, 2H), 2.66-2.39 (br. m, 6H); 2.30 (m, 4H); 1.97 (m, 1H); 1.83 (m, 2H); 1.73-1.41 (m, 15H); 1.41- 1.17 (m, 42H); 1.04 (m, 1H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

BE. Compound 69: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2,3-dihydroxypropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO6

Molecular Weight: 740.21

[0093] Compound 69 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.60 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 741.0 for CtsHsgNOe. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.76 (br. m, 2H); 3.51 (m, 1H); 2.57 (m, 6H); 2.31 (m, 4H); 1.71- 1.41 (m, 14H); 1.41- 1.12 (m, 48H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

BF. Compound 70: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-(decan-2-yloxy)-4-oxobutyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: CnHsiNOs

Molecular Weight: 667.61

[0094] Compound 70 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.44 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 668.9 for GuHsiNOs. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.91 (m, 2H); 3.57 (m, 2H); 2.71-2.40 (m, 5H); 2.30 (m, 4H), 1.80 (m, 2H); 1.71-1.40 (m, 11H); 1.39-1.05 (m, 45H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

BG. Compound 71: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(4-oxo-4-(tetradecan-6- yloxy)butyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO5

Molecular Weight: 724.209

[0095] Compound 71 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.72 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 724.9 for C45H89NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 2H); 3.56 (m, 2H); 2.70-2.41 (m, 6H); 2.33 (m, 4H), 1.80 (m, 2H); 1.69-1.41 (m, 13H); 1.28 (m, 48H); 0.90 (m, 12H).

BH. Compound 72: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(4-oxo-4-(undecan-3- yloxy)butyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C42H83NO5

Molecular Weight: 682.13 [0096] Compound 72 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.57 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 683.0 for CUHSBNOS. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (m, 2H); 3.58 (br. m, 2H); 2.75-2.41 (br. m, 5H); 2.30 (m, 4H), 1.81 (br. m, 2H); 1.70-1.42 (m, 13H); 1.40-1.18 (m, 42H); 0.90 (m, 12H).

BI. Compound 73: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(4-oxo-4-(pentadecan-7- yloxy)butyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C46H91NO5

Molecular Weight: 738.236

[0097] Compound 73 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.80 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 739.09 for C46H91NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 2H); 3.59 (br. m, 2H); 2.81-2.43 (br. m, 6H); 2.31 (m, 4H); 1.83 (m, 2H); 1.69-1.42 (m, 12H); 1.28 (m, 50H); 0.90 (m, 12H).

BJ. Compound 74: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-(dodecan-4-yloxy)-4-oxobutyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C43H85NO5

Molecular Weight: 696.155

[0098] Compound 74 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.68 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 696.9 for CoHssNOs. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 2H); 3.56 (m, 2H); 2.70-2.41 (m, 6H); 2.30 (m, 4H), 1.80 (m, 2H); 1.70-1.40 (m, 12H); 1.28 (m, 44H); 0.90 (m, 12H). BK. Compound 75: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(6-oxo-6-(undecan-3- yloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C44H87NO5

Molecular Weight: 710.18

[0099] Compound 75 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.67 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 71 1.1 for CwHsvNOs. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (m, 2H); 3.57 (m, 2H); 2.72-2.40 (br. m, 5H); 2.30 (m, 4H); 1.70-1.42 (m, 16H); 1.28 (m, 45H); 0.90 (m, 12H).

BL. Compound 79: Nonyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-oxo-8-((4- pentylcyclohexyl)oxy)o

Chemical Formula: C38H73NO5

Molecular Weight: 624.00

[00100] Compound 79 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.10 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 624.8 for C38H73NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.00 (br. m, 0.5H); 4.68 (m, 0.5H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.56 (m, 2H); 2.72-2.38 (m, 6H); 2.31(m, 4H), 1.97 (m, 1H); 1.82 (m, 2H); 1.73-0.95 (m, 48H), 0.90 (m, 6H).

BM. Compound 80: [l,l'-Bi(cyclohexan)]-4-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoat

Chemical Formula: C39H73NO5

Molecular Weight: 636.02

[00101] Compound 80 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.10 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 636.9 for C39H73NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.01 (br. m, 0.5H); 4.65 (m, 0.5H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.56 (m, 2H); 2.69-2.36 (m, 6H); 2.31(m, 4H); 2.07-0.84 (m, 57H).

BN. Compound 81: Cyclopentadecyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C42H81NO5

Molecular Weight: 680.11

[00102] Compound 81 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.36 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 681.0 for CuHsiNOs. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.91 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.57 (br. m, 2H); 2.74-2.39 (m, 6H); 2.30(m, 4H), 1.73-1.03 (m, 62H), 0.90 (m, 3H).

BO. Compound 94: Heptadecan-9-yl) 8-(benzyl(8-nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-(be

Chemical Formula: C32H57NO2

Molecular Weight: 487.81

[00103] A solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-bromooctanoate (250 mg, 0.542 mmol) in phenylmethanamine (1.2 mL, 10.83 mmol) was allowed to stir at rt for 6 h. The reaction was cooled to rt and solvents were evaporated in vacuo. The residue was taken-up in ethyl acetate and washed with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate. The organic layer was separated and washed with brine, dried over Na2S04 and evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (20-100% (mixture of 1% NH40H, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to obtain heptadecan-9-yl 8-(benzylamino)octanoate (200 mg, 0.41 mmol, 76%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.87 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 488.4 for C32H57NO2. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.35-7.25 (br. m, 5H); 4.89 (p, 1H); 3.81 (s, 2H); 2.65 (t, 2H); 2.29 (t, 2H); 1.65-1.51 (br. m, 8H); 1.28 (m, 30H); 0.90 (m, 6H). Heptadecan-9-yl 8-(benzyl(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C49H89NO4

Molecular Weight: 756.25

[00104] A solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-(benylamino)octanoate (200 mg, 0.41 mmol), nonyl 8-bromooctanoate (172 mg, 0.49 mmol) and NN-diisopropylethylamine (100 μί, 0.57 mmol) were dissolved in ethanol and was allowed to stir at 62 °C for 48 h. The reaction was cooled to rt and solvents were evaporated in vacuo. The residue was taken-up in ethyl acetate and washed with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate. The organic layer was separated and washed with brine, dried over Na2S04 and evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% (mixture of 1% NH40H, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to obtain heptadecan-9-yl 8-(benzyl(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (138 mg, 0.18 mmol, 45%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.78 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 757.0 for C49H89NO4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.33-7.23 (br. m, 5H); 4.89 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.55 (s, 2H); 2.40 (m, 4H); 2.30 (m, 4H); 1.64-1.28 (br. m, 62H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

BP. Compound 96: 7-((8-(Heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino) heptyl decanoate

Chemical Formula: C44H87NO5

Molecular Weight: 710.182

[00105] Compound 96 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.74 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 71 1.0 for CwHsvNOs. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.61 (m, 2H); 2.88-2.37 (br. m, 6H); 2.31 (m, 4H), 1.79- 1.04 (m, 62H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

BQ. Compound 98: 8-((8-(Heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino) octan- 2-yl decanoate

Octane-l,7-diol

Chemical Formula: CsHisC

Molecular Weight: 146.230

[00106] A solution of 7-oxooctanoic acid (4 g, 25.29 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was added to a stirred solution of LAH in THF (70 mL) under N2 at 0 °C. The mixture was allowed to warm to rt and stir at rt for 4 h, after which time 10 mL of sat. Na2S04. IOH2O (aq) was added to the solution slowly. White solid crashed out. Additional solid Na2S04. IOH2O was added and the mixture was filtered through a plug of celite. The filtrate was diluted with EtOAc and washed with brine. The organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, filtered, and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography with (0-40%) EtOAc in hexanes to obtain octane- 1,7-diol (2.97 g, 20.31 mmol, 80%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 3.81 (m, 1H); 3.66 (t, 2H); 1.66-1.31 (m, 12H); 1.22 (d, 3H).

8-((teri-Butyldiphenylsilyl)oxy)o

Chemical Formula: C24H36O2S1

Molecular Weight: 384.635

[00107] To a solution of octane- 1 ,7-diol (1 g, 6.84 mmol) in DCM (75 mL) at 0 °C imidazole (0.94 g, 13.81 mmol) was added followed by slow addition of a solution of tert- butyl(chloro)dip.benylsilane (2.14 mL. 8.21 mmol) in DCM (using dropping funnel). The reaction allowed stir at 0 °C for 1.5 h. The reaction was quenched with saturated NH*CJ<a f ). The aqueous layer was extracted 3 times with a DCM (3 * 50 mL). The organic layer was dried over anhydrous MgS€>4 and filtered, and the solvent was evaporated. The crude product was purified by flash silica gel column chromatography 0-10% EtOAc in hexanes to obtain - {tert- butyldiphenylsilyl)oxy)octan-2-ol (2.29 g, 5.95 mmol, 87%). Ή NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.69 (m, 4H); 7.42 (m, 6H); 3.80 (m, 1H); 3.68 (t, 2H); 1.59 (m, 2H); 1.50-1.26 (m, 9H); 1.21 (d, 3H); 1.07 (s, 9H).

8-((teri-Butyldiph

Chemical Formula: C34H54O3S1

Molecular Weight: 538.888 [00108] 8-((fert-Butyldiphenylsilyl)oxy)octan-2-yl decanoate was synthesized according to Method A. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCh) δ: ppm 7.69 (m, 4H); 7.42 (m, 6H); 4.92 (m, 1H); 3.67 (t, 2H); 2.29(t, 2H); 1.67-1.42 (m, 6H); 1.41-1.17 (m, 21H); 1.07 (s, 9H); 0.90 (m, 3H).

8-Hydroxyoctan-2-yl

Chemical Formula: C18H36O3

Molecular Weight: 300.483

[00109] To a solution of 8-[(fert-butyldiphenylsilyl)oxy]octan-2-yl decanoate (1.08 g, 2 mmol) in THF was added TBAF (8.02 mL 1 M solution in THF, 8.02 mmol) and the mixture was allowed to stir at rt for 3h. The organic solvents were evaporated under vacuum. The residue was diluted with EtOAc and washed with sat. NaHCC , followed by brine. The organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, filtered, and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography with (0-40%) EtOAc in hexanes to obtain 8- hydroxyoctan-2-yl decanoate (0.55g, 1.82 mmol, 91%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm

4.91 (m, 1H); 3.66 (t, 2H); 2.29 (t, 2H); 1.72-1.17 (m, 28H); 0.90 (m, 3H).

8-((8-(Heptadecan- -yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino)octan-2-yl decanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO5

Molecular Weight: 724.209

[00110] Compound 98 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.55 min. MS (ES): m/z

(MH + ) 725.0 for C45H89NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 2H); 3.58 (br. m,

2H); 2.77-2.40 (m, 6H); 2.29 (m, 4H); 1.72-1.41(m, 14H); 1.28 (m, 51H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

BR. Compound 101: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-(4-methylpiperazin-l-yl)ethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2 anoate

Chemical Formula: C44H86CINO4

Molecular Weight: 728.63

[00111] A solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (1 100 mg, 1.55 mmol) in dichloromethane (25 mL) at 0 °C was added N-Chlorosuccinimide in one portion. The reaction was allowed to stir at 0 °C for 1 h followed by 1 h at room temperature. Added 90 mL of hexanes and allowed the reaction to stir at room temperature for 20 min. Filtered off white solid through a silica gel plug and washed three times with hexanes. Organic layers were concentrated in vacuo. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 4.89 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.57 (m, 2H); 2.85 (m, 2H); 2.54 (m, 4H); 2.33-2.27 (m, 4H); 1.66- 1.28 (br. m, 62H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-(4-methylpiperazin-l-yl)ethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C49H97N3O4

Molecular Weight: 792.33

[00112] A solution of 1-methylpiperazine (15 mg, 0.151 mmol), heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2- chloroethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate ( 110 mg, 0.151 mmol), K2CO3 (42 mg, 0.302 mmol) and KI (3 mg, 0.0151 mmol) were dissolved in 1 : 1 THF:MeCN (1 mL: l mL). The reaction was allowed to stir at 65 °C for 18 hours. The reaction was cooled to room temperature, filtered and washed with hexanes and EtOAc. The organic filtrate was transferred to separatory funnel and washed with water and brine. Dried organic layers over NaiSCU, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography [0-100% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane] to obtain heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-(4-methylpiperazin-l-yl)ethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl )amino)octanoate (36 mg, 0.045 mmol, 30%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.25 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 792.8 for C49H97N3O4. Ή NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.88 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 2.57-2.45 (br. m, 20H); 2.31 (m, 3H); 1.64-1.28 (br. m, 62H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

BS. Compound 103: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-(4-methylpiperazin-l-yl)ethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-chloroethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C44H86CINO4

Molecular Weight: 728.63

[00113] To a stirred solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (1100 mg, 1.55 mmol) in dichloromethane (25 mL) at 0 °C was added N-Chlorosuccinimide in one portion. The reaction was allowed to stir at 0 °C for 1 h followed by lh at room temperature. Added 90 mL of hexanes and allowed the reaction to stir at room temperature for 20 min. Filtered off white solid through a silica gel plug and washed three times with hexanes. Organic layers were concentrated in vacuo. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCh) δ: ppm

4.89 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.57 (m, 2H); 2.85 (m, 2H); 2.54 (m, 4H); 2.33-2.27 (m, 4H); 1.66- 1.28 (br. m, 62H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-( )octanoate

Chemical Formula: C48H94N2O5

Molecular Weight: 779.29

[00114] A solution of morpholine (13 mg, 0.151 mmol), heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2- chloroethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (110 mg, 0.151 mmol), K2CO3 (42 mg, 0.302 mmol) and KI (3 mg, 0.0151 mmol) were dissolved in 1 : 1 THF:MeCN (1 mL: l mL). The reaction was allowed to stir at 65 °C for 18 hours. The reaction was cooled to room

temperature, filtered and washed with hexanes and EtOAc. The organic filtrate was transferred to separatory funnel and washed with water and brine. Dried organic layers over Na2S04, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography [0- 100% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane] to obtain heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-(4-methylpiperazin- 1 -yl)ethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

(58 mg, 0.074 mmol, 49%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.53 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 779.8 for C48H94N2O5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (p, 1H); 4.05 (t, 2H); 3.70 (m, 4H); 2.59- 2.54 (m, 2H); 2.48-2.38 (m, 10H); 2.31-2.25 (m, 4H); 1.64-1.26 (br. m, 62H); 0.88 (m, 9H). BT. Compound 108: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-acetamidopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C47H92N2O5

Molecular Weight: 765.26

[00115] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (400 mg, 0.553 mmol) and triethylamine (0.15 mL, 1.10 mmol) in 10 mL dichloromethane was added dropwise at 0 °C acetyl chloride (47 μί, 0.66 mmol), and the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature for 16 h. MS showed the product, and the mixture was diluted with dichloromethane and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate and brine. After it was dried over sodium sulfate, the filtrate was concentrated and purified by ISCO (S1O2: MeOH/CH 2 Cl2/l% NH 4 OH 0 to 5%) to provide the product as a colorless oil (300 mg, 71%). LC/UV (202 nm): RT = 9.14 min. MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 765.7. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.41 (bs, 1H); 4.85 (p, 1H, J = 6.0 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.6 Hz); 3.40-3.25 (m, 2H); 2.53-2.23 (m, 10H); 1.91 (s, 3H); 1.65- 1.16 (m, 64H); 0.86 (m, 9H). BU. Compound 109: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(methylsulfonamido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C46H92N2O6S

Molecular Weight: 801.31

[00116] Methanesulfonyl chloride (51 μί, 0.66 mmol) was added dropwise to a 0 °C solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (400 mg,

0.553 mmol) and triethylamine (0.15 mL, 1.10 mmol) in 10 mL dichloromethane, and the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature for 16 h. MS showed the product, and the mixture was diluted with dichloromethane and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate and brine. After drying over sodium sulfate, the filtrate was concentrated and purified by ISCO (S1O2: MeOH/CH 2 Cl2/l% NH 4 OH 0 to 5%) to provide the product as a colorless oil (296 mg, 88%). LC/UV (214 nm): RT = 1 1.51 min. MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 801.7. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCh) δ: ppm 4.85 (p, 1H, J= 6.0 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 3.22 (t,

2H, J= 5.8 Hz); 2.88 (s, 3H); 2.53-2.23 (m, 10H); 1.73-1.16 (m, 64H); 0.87 (m, 9H).

BV. Compound 110: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(3,3-dimethylureido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C48H95N3O5

Molecular Weight: 794.30

[00117] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (400 mg, 0.553 mmol), dimethylaminopyridine (7 mg, 0.0553 mmol) and triethylamine (0.15 mL, 1.10 mmol) in 10 mL dichloromethane, dimethylcarbamic chloride (56 μί, 0.61 mmol) was added dropwise at 0 °C, and the reaction mixture was allowed to stir at room temperature for 16 h. MS showed the product. The mixture was diluted with

dichloromethane and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate and brine. After it was dried over sodium sulfate, the filtrate was concentrated and purified by ISCO (S1O2:

MeOH/CH 2 Cl2/l% NH 4 OH 0 to 5%) to afford the product as a colorless oil (267 mg, 60%). LC/UV (202 nm): RT = 9.81 min. MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 794.7. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 6.13 (t, 1H, J= 4.5 Hz); 4.85 (p, 1H, J= 6.0 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 3.32-3.26 (m, 2H); 2.85 (s, 6H); 2.52-2.23 (m, 10H); 1.67-1.18 (m, 64H); 0.87 (m, 9H).

BW. Compound 111: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(3,3-dimethylthioureido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)- 8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C48H95N3O4S

Molecular Weight: 810.37

[00118] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (400 mg, 0.553 mmol) and triethylamine (0.15 mL, 1.10 mmol) in 10 mL dichloromethane was added dropwise at 0 °C thiophosgene (51 μί, 0.664 mmol), and the reaction mixture was allowed to stir at room temperature for 6 h. After this time, the reaction was cooled to 0 °C, and a solution of dimethylamine in THF (2.0 M, 0.55 mL, 1.10 mmol) was added. The reaction was then allowed to stir at room temperature for 16 h. MS showed the product, and the mixture was diluted with dichloromethane and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate and brine. After drying over sodium sulfate, the filtrate was concentrated and purified by ISCO (SiOi: MeOH/CH 2 Cl2/l% NH 4 OH 0 to 5%) to afford the product as a brown oil (346 mg, 77%). LC UV (202 nm): RT = 9.89 min. MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 810.7. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 8.12 (bs, 1H); 4.85 (p, 1H, J= 6.0 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 3.74- 3.64 (m, 2H); 3.20 (s, 6H); 2.62-2.23 (m, 10H); 1.77-1.17 (m, 64H); 0.87 (m, 9H).

BX. Compound 112: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(3-methylureido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C47H93N3O5

Molecular Weight: 780.28

[00119] To a 0 °C solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (400 mg, 0.553 mmol) in 10 mL dichloromethane was methyl isocyanate (38 mg, 0.664 mmol), and the reaction mixture was allowed to stir at room temperature for 16 h. MS showed the product. The mixture was diluted with dichloromethane and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate and brine. After it was dried over sodium sulfate, the filtrate was concentrated and purified by ISCO (SiOi: MeOH/CH 2 Ch/l% NH 4 OH 0 to 5%) to afford the product as a colorless oil (320 mg, 70%). LC UV (202 nm): RT = 9.63 min. MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 780.7. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.54 (bs, 1H); 4.85 (p, 1H, J = 6.0 Hz); 4.76 (bs, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 3.23 (t, 2H, J= 5.8 Hz); 2.74 (d, 3H, J= 2.0 Hz); 2.47 (t, 2H, J= 6.0 Hz); 2.37 (t, 4H, J= 7.4 Hz); 2.31-2.23 (m, 4H); 1.68-1.17 (m, 64H); 0.87 (m, 9H).

BY. Compound 113: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(3-methylthioureido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C49H93N3O4S

Molecular Weight: 795.69

[00120] To a 0 °C solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (400 mg, 0.553 mmol) in 10 mL dichloromethane was added methyl isothiocyanate (45 μί, 0.664 mmol), and the reaction mixture was allowed to stir at room temperature for 16 h. MS showed the product. The mixture was concentrated and purified by ISCO (S1O2: MeOH/CH 2 Cl2/l% NH 4 OH 0 to 5%) to afford the product as a colorless oil (312 mg, 70%). LC/UV (202 nm): RT = 9.96 min. MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 796.7. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.85 (p, 1H, J= 6.0 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 3.51 (bs, 2H); 2.93 (bs, 3H); 2.52 (t, 2H, J= 6.0 Hz); 2.41 (t, 4H, J= 7.8 Hz); 2.31-2.23 (m, 4H); 1.68-1.17 (m, 66H); 0.86 (m, 9H).

BZ. Compound 114: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-l(2H)- yl)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C49H91N3O6

Molecular Weight: 818.28

[00121] A mixture of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-chloropropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (500 mg, 0.67 mmol), uracil (300 mg, 2.67 mmol) and 1,8- diazabicycloundec-7-ene (150 1.07 mmol) in 3 mL DMF was heated at 100 °C in a sealed tube for 16 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness and partitioned between dichloromethane and water. The organic layer was washed with brine. After it was dried over sodium sulfate, the filtrate was concentrated and purified by ISCO (S1O2: MeOH/CH2Ch/l% NH4OH 0 to 5%) to afford the product as a yellow oil (268 mg, 49%). LC/UV (202 nm): RT = 8.91 min. MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 818.7. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 8.19 (bs, 1H); 7.24 (d, 1H, J= 7.7 Hz); 5.64 (d, 1H, J= 7.7 Hz); 4.85 (p, 1H, J= 6.0 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 3.76 (t, 2H, J= 7.0 Hz); 2.45-2.24 (m, 10H); 1.81 (p, 2H, J = 6.6 Hz); 1.68-1.17 (m, 62H); 0.87 (m, 9H).

CA. Compound 115: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(4-amino-2-oxopyrimidin-l(2H)-yl)propyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-

Chemical Formula: C49H92N4O5

Molecular Weight: 817.30

[00122] To a suspension of cytosine (82 mg, 0.74 mmol) in 1 mL DMF was added NaH (30 mg, 0.74 mmol) and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. A solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-chloropropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (500 mg, 0.67 mmol) in 2 mL DMF was then added and the mixture was heated at 100 °C in a sealed tube for 16 h. MS showed product. The reaction was quenched with saturated sodium bicarbonate and extracted with hexanes (2X). The combined organic layer was washed with water and brine. After it was dried over sodium sulfate, the filtrate was concentrated and purified by ISCO (S1O2: MeOH/CH 2 Ci2/l% NH 4 OH 0 to 5%) to afford the product as a yellow oil (310 mg, 56%).

LC/UV (202 nm): RT = 8.32 min. MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 817.7. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.34 (d, 1H, J= 7.1 Hz); 5.61 (d, 1H, J = 7.1 Hz); 5.44 (bs, 2H); 4.85 (p, 1H, J = 6.0 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 3.79 (t, 2H, J = 7.0 Hz); 2.42-2.22 (m, 9H); 1.84 (t, 2H, J = 6.6 Hz); 1.68- 1.17 (m, 63H); 0.86 (m, 9H).

CB. Compound 116: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)- 8-oxooctyl)a

Chemical Formula: C50H92N6O4

Molecular Weight: 841.32

[00123] A mixture of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-chloropropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (500 mg, 0.67 mmol), adenine (135 mg, 1.0 mmol) and 1,8- diazabicycloundec-7-ene (137 μί, 1.0 mmol) in 2 mL DMF was heated at 90 °C in a sealed tube for 16 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness and partitioned between

dichloromethane and water. The organic layer was washed with brine. After it was dried over sodium sulfate, the filtrate was concentrated and purified by ISCO (SiC : MeOH/CH2Ch/l% NH4OH 0 to 5%) to afford the product as a yellow oil (325 mg, 57%). LC/UV (202 nm): RT = 8.47 min. MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 841.7. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 8.36 (s, 1H); 7.80 (s, 1H); 5.51 (bs, 2H); 4.85 (p, 1H, J= 6.0 Hz); 4.24 (t, 2H, J= 7.0 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.6 Hz); 2.45-2.24 (m, 10H); 2.01 (p, 2H, J= 6.9 Hz); 1.68-1.17 (m, 62H); 0.86 (m, 9H).

CC. Compound 118: 3,4-Dipentylphenyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

5-Methoxy-2-(pent-l-yn-l-yl)benzaldehyde (see e.g., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2013, 23, 1365)

Chemical Formula: C13H14O2

Molecular Weight: 202.25

[00124] A mixture of 2-bromo-5-methoxybenzaldehyde (4.30 g, 20 mmol), 1-pentyne (3.0 mL, 30 mmol), bis(triphenylphosphino)palladium chloride (702 mg, 1 mmol), Cul (380 mg, 2.0 mmol) and triethylamine (5.6 mL, 40 mmol) in 60 mL THF was heated to 50 °C for 16 h under nitrogen. TLC showed the disappearance of starting material. The reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness. The residue was dissolved in dichloromethane and washed with water and brine. After drying over sodium sulfate, the filtrate was concentrated and the residue was purified by ISCO (S1O2: EtOAc/Hexanes 0 to 5%) to afford the product as a dark brown oil

(3.00 g, 74%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 10.49 (s, 1H); 7.42 (d, 1H, J = 8.5 Hz); 7.36 (d, 1H, J= 2.8 Hz); 7.07 (dd, 1H, J= 8.5 Hz, 2.8 Hz); 3.84 (s, 3H); 2.44 (t, 2H, J= 7.0 Hz); 1.62 (m, 2H); 1.05 (t, 3H, J= 7.2 Hz).

4-Methoxy-2-(pent-l-en-l-yl)-l-(

Chemical Formula: C17H22O

Molecular Weight: 242.36 [00125] To a suspension of butyl triphenylphosphonium bromide (8.88 g, 22.2 mmol) in 75 mL THF was added at 0 °C potassium tert-butoxide (2.50 g, 22.2 mmol). After 30 min, a solution of 5-methoxy-2-(pent- l-yn-l-yl)benzaldehyde (3.00 g, 14.8 mmol) in 25 mL THF was then added slowly into the orange suspension. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm up to room temperature and stir for 60 h. Saturated ammonium chloride solution was added and the mixture was extracted with ether (2X), and the combined organic layer was washed with brine. After drying over sodium sulfate, the filtrate was concentrated and the residue was purified by ISCO (SiOi: EtOAc/Hexanes 0 to 5%) to afford the product as a brown oil (3.46 g, 96%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.33 (d, 0.5H, J= 8.5 Hz); 7.26 (d, 0.5H, J= 8.5 Hz); 6.99 (d, 0.5H, J= 2.8 Hz); 6.88-6.80 (m, 1H); 6.73-6.61 (m, 1.5H); 6.25 (dt, 0.5H, J= 15.9 Hz, 6.9 Hz); 5.73 (dt, 0.5H, J= 1 1.5 Hz, 7.4 Hz); 3.80 (s, 3H); 2.45-2.37 (m, 2H); 2.31-2.18 (m, 2H); 1.71- 1.41 (m, 4H); 1.09-0.90 (m, 6H).

4-Methoxy- 1 ,2-dipentylbenzene

Chemical Formula: C17H28O

Molecular Weight: 248.41

[00126] A mixture of 4-methoxy-2-(pent-l-en-l-yl)- l-(pent-l -yn-l-yl)benzene (3.46 g, 14.3 mmol) and Pd/C (10%, 300 mg) in 60 mL EtOH was stirred for 60 h under a hydrogen balloon. TLC showed complete reaction. The reaction mixture was filtered through Celite and concentrated to afford the product as a yellow oil (3.70 g, quant.), which was used for the next step without purification. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.05 (d, 1H, J= 8.2 Hz); 6.72- 6.55 (m, 2H); 3.78 (s, 3H); 2.59-2.50 (m, 4H); 1.62-1.48 (m, 4H); 1.39-1.28 (m, 8H); 0.93-0.86 (m, 6H).

3,4-Dipentylphenol

Chemical Formula: C16H26O

Molecular Weight: 234.38

[00127] To a solution of 4-methoxy- l,2-dipentylbenzene (3.40 g, 13.7 mmol) in 75 mL dichloromethane was added dropwise at -78 °C BBn ( 1.65 mL, 17.1 mmol), and then the reaction was allowed to warm to room temperature over 3 h. TLC showed complete reaction. The reaction was quenched by addition of saturated sodium bicarbonate, and then it was extracted with dichloromethane (2X). The combined organic layer was washed with brine and dried over sodium sulfate. After concentration, the residue was purified by ISCO (SiC :

EtOAc/Hexanes 0 to 30%) to afford the product as a brown oil (3.35 g, 97%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 6.99 (d, 1H, J= 8.0 Hz); 6.64-6.59 (m, 2H); 4.45 (bs, 1H); 2.55-2.47 (m, 4H); 1.66-1.43 (m, 4H); 1.39-1.28 (m, 8H); 0.93-0.86 (m, 6H).

3,4-Dipentylphenyl 8-bromooctanoate

Chemical Formula: C24H39BrC

Molecular Weight: 439.48

[00128] To a solution of 8-bromooctanoic acid (2.23g, 10 mmol) and 3,4-dipentylphenol (2.34 g, 10 mmol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) were added N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'- ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (1.92 g, 10 mmol) and DMAP (244 mg, 2 mmol). The reaction was allowed to stir at room temperature for 18 h. The reaction was diluted with dichloromethane and extracted with saturated sodium bicarbonate. The organic layer was separated and washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate. The organic layer was filtered and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by ISCO (SiCh: EtOAc/Hexanes 0 to 10%) to afford the product as a brown oil (4.30 g, 98%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.11 (d, 1H, J= 7.7 Hz); 6.84-6.77 (m, 2H); 3.41 (t, 2H, J= 6.9 Hz); 2.60-2.49 (m, 6H); 1.92-1.69 (m, 4H); 1.62- 1.29 (m, 18H); 0.90 (m, 6H).

Nonyl 8-((2-hydro

Chemical Formula: C19H39NO3

Molecular Weight: 329.53

[00129] A mixture of nonyl 8-bromooctanoate (2.50 g, 7.15 mmol) and 2-aminoethanol (4.3 mL, 71.5 mmol) in 10 mL EtOH was stirred at room temperature for 60 h. The reaction mixture was partitioned with hexanes and water, and the organic layer was washed with brine. After drying over sodium sulfate, the filtrate was concentrated and purified by ISCO (S1O2:

MeOH/CH 2 Ci2/l% NH 4 OH 0 to 20%) to afford the product as white solid (1.57 g, 66%). MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 330.3. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 3.63 (t, 2H, J= 5.2 Hz); 2.77 (t, 2H, J= 5.1 Hz); 2.61 (t, 2H, J= 7.1 Hz); 2.28 (t, 2H, J= 7.4 Hz); 1.99 (bs, 2H); 1.67-1.20 (m, 4H); 1.62-1.29 (m, 17H); 0.87 (m, 6H).

3,4-Dipentylphenyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C43H77NO5

Molecular Weight: 688.09

[00130] A solution of nonyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate (500 mg, 1.52 mmol), 3,4- dipentylphenyl 8-bromooctanoate (1.00 g, 2.27 mmol) and N, N-diisopropylethylamine (0.40 mL, 2.27 mmol) in tert-butanol (3 mL) was heated to 60 °C in a sealed tube for 60 h. The reaction was cooled to room temperature and solvents were evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by ISCO (S1O2: MeOH/CH 2 Cl2/l% NH 4 OH 0 to 5%) to obtain mixture (365 mg), and then the mixture was purified by ISCO (EtOAc/Hexanes/0.5% Et3N 0 to 50%) to afford product as a colorless oil (80 mg). LC/UV (214 nm): RT = 10.23 min. MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 688.6. Ή NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.11 (d, 1H, J= 8.0 Hz); 6.84-6.77 (m, 2H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 3.51 (t, 2H, J= 5.5 Hz); 2.60-2.38 (m, 12H); 2.28 (t, 2H, J= 7.4 Hz); 1.79-1.19 (m, 37H); 0.92-0.82 (m, 9H).

CD. Compound 119: Nonyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-oxo-8-(4- pentylphenoxy)octyl)amino)octanoate

4-Pentylphenyl 8-bromooctanoate

Chemical Formula: Cis>H29Br02

Molecular Weight: 369.34

[00131] To a solution of 8-bromooctanoic acid (2.00 g, 8.96 mmol) and 4-pentylphenol (3.07 mL g, 17.9 mmol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) were added N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N- ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (1.72 g, 8.96 mmol) and DMAP (220 mg, 1.79 mmol). The reaction was allowed to stir at room temperature for 60 h. The reaction was diluted with dichloromethane and extracted with saturated sodium bicarbonate. The organic layer was separated and washed with brine, and dried over sodium sulfate. The organic layer was filtered and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by ISCO (S1O2: EtOAc/Hexanes 0 to 10%) to afford the product as a colorless oil (3.12 g, 94%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.16 (d, 2H, J= 8.5 Hz); 6.96 (d, 2H, J= 8.5 Hz); 3.41 (t, 2H, J= 6.9 Hz); 2.61-2.49 (m, 4H); 1.92-1.69 (m, 4H); 1.65-1.25 (m, 10H); 0.88 (m, 3H).

Nonyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-oxo-8-(4-pentylphenoxy)octyl)amino)oct anoate

Chemical Formula: C38H67NO5

Molecular Weight: 617.96

[00132] A solution of nonyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate (500 mg, 1.52 mmol), 4- pentylphenyl 8-bromooctanoate (840 mg, 2.28 mmol) and N N-diisopropylethylamine (0.40 mL, 2.28 mmol) in fert-butanol (3 mL) was heated to 60 °C in a sealed tube for 48 h. The reaction was cooled to room temperature and solvents were evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by ISCO (S1O2: MeOH/CH 2 Cl2/l% NH 4 OH 0 to 5%) to obtain mixture (360 mg), and then the mixture was purified by ISCO (EtOAc/Hexanes/0.5% Et 3 N 0 to 50%) to afford the product as a colorless oil (95 mg). LC UV (214 nm): RT = 9.63 min. MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 618.5. ! H NMR ^OO MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 7.11 (d, 1H, J= 8.0 Hz); 6.84-6.77 (m, 2H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 3.51 (t, 2H, J= 5.5 Hz); 2.60-2.38 (m, 12H); 2.28 (t, 2H, J= 7.4 Hz); 1.79-1.19 (m, 37H); 0.92-0.82 (m, 9H).

CE. Compound 120: Nonyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-oxo-8-(3- pentylphenoxy)octyl)amino)octanoate

3-Pentylphenol (Ref: Tetrahedron Lett. 2013, 54, 52)

Chemical Formula: C11H16O

Molecular Weight: 164.25

[00133] At -78 °C, to a suspension of potassium tert-butoxide (6.73 g, 60 mmol) in 15 mL pentane were added sequentially tetramethylethylenediamine (9.0 mL, 60 mmol) and BuLi (2.5 M in hexane, 24 mL, 60 mmol), and a solution of m-cresol (2.6 mL, 25 mmol) in 10 mL pentane was added slowly. The reaction mixture was warmed up to -20 °C for 3 h. 30 mL THF was added and the reaction was cooled to -60 °C. Butyl bromide (4.8 mL, 45 mmol) was added slowly, and the mixture was allowed warm to room temperature and stir for 16 h. After cooled to 0 °C, the reaction mixture was acidified with 4 M HC1 to pH~3, and then extracted with ether. The combined organic layer was washed with brine and dried over sodium sulfate. After concentration, the residue was purified by ISCO (EtOAc/Hexanes 0 to 5%) to provide a mixture of product with starting material, which was distilled under vacuum to provide the product as a colorless oil (1.23 g, 65%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.14 (t, 1H, J= 7.7 Hz); 6.75 (d, 1H, J= 7.7 Hz); 6.67-6.61 (m, 2H); 4.62 (s, 1H); 2.55 (t, 2H, J= 7.7 Hz); 1.67-1.52 (m, 2H); 1.38-1.24 (m, 4H); 0.88 (t, 3H, J= 6.9 Hz).

3-Pentylphenyl 8-bromooctanoate

Chemical Formula: Ci9H29Br02

Molecular Weight: 369.34

[00134] To a solution of 8-bromooctanoic acid (1.84 g, 8.20 mmol) and 3-pentylphenol (1.23 g, 7.49 mmol) in dichloromethane (40 mL) were added N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N- ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (1.58 g, 8.20 mmol) and DMAP (183 mg, 1.50 mmol). The reaction was allowed to stir at room temperature for 16 h. The reaction was diluted with dichloromethane and extracted with saturated sodium bicarbonate. The organic layer was separated and washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate. The organic layer was filtered and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by ISCO (SiC : EtOAc/Hexanes 0 to 10%) to provide the product as a colorless oil (2.23 g, 80%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.26 (t, 1H, J= 8.5 Hz); 7.03 (d, 1H, J= 7.6 Hz); 6.91-6.84 (m, 2H); 3.41 (t, 2H, J= 6.9 Hz); 2.61- 2.49 (m, 4H); 1.92-1.69 (m, 4H); 1.65-1.25 (m, 12H); 0.88 (t, 3H, J= 6.9 Hz).

Nonyl 8-((2-hydr ate

Chemical Formula: C38H57NO5

Molecular Weight: 617.96

[00135] A solution of nonyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate (500 mg, 1.52 mmol), 3- pentylphenyl 8-bromooctanoate (840 mg, 2.28 mmol) and N N-diisopropylethylamine (0.40 mL, 2.28 mmol) in tert-butanol (3 mL) was stirred at 60 °C in a sealed tube for 16 h. The reaction was cooled to room temperature and solvents were evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by ISCO (S1O2: MeOH/CH 2 Cl2/l% NH 4 OH 0 to 5%) to obtain a mixture

(247 mg), and then the mixture was purified by ISCO (EtOAc/Hexanes/0.5% Et 3 N 0 to 50%) to afford the product as a colorless oil (150 mg). LC UV (202 nm): RT = 7.45 min. MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 618.5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.26 (t, 1H, J= 8.5 Hz); 7.03 (d, 1H, J =

7.6 Hz); 6.91-6.84 (m, 2H); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 3.51 (t, 2H, J= 5.5 Hz); 2.64-2.38 (m,

10H); 2.28 (t, 2H, J= 7.8 Hz); 1.79-1.19 (m, 41H); 0.91-0.82 (m, 6H). CF. Compound 121: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoateHeptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-chloropropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H88CINO4

Molecular Weight: 742.65

[00136] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-hydroxypropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (8.00 g, 11.0 mmol) and triethylamine (2.0 mL, 14.4 mmol) in dichloromethane (200 mL) was added dropwise methanesulfonyl chloride (1.07 mL, 13.8 mmol) at 0 °C, and the reaction mixture was allowed to room temperature for 16 h. TLC and MS showed complete reaction. The reaction mixture was diluted with dichloromethane and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate and brine. After drying over sodium sulfate, the solvent was removed under vacuum to give the product as a brown oil (7.30 g, 89%). NMR showed the crude contained a small amount of mesylate and desired chloride. This was used for the next step without purification. MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 742.6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (p, 1H, J= 6.0 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6.9 Hz); 3.58 (t, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 2.58-2.22 (m, 9H); 1.92-1.16 (m, 65H); 0.87 (m, 9H).

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-(( -azidopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H88N4O4

Molecular Weight: 749.22

[00137] A mixture of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-chloropropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (4.20 g, 5.66 mmol) and sodium azide (1.75 g, 28.28 mmol) in 20 mL DMF in a sealed tube was heated to 100 °C for 16 h. After it was cooled to room temperature, the reaction mixture was diluted with water and extracted with hexanes. The combined organic layer was washed with water and brine, and then dried over sodium sulfate. After filtration and concentration, the residue was purified by ISCO (S1O2: MeOH/CH 2 Cl2/l% NH 4 OH 0 to 5%) to provide the product as a brown oil (3.66 g, 86%). MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 749.7. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCh) δ: ppm 4.85 (p, 1H, J = 6.0 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.32 (t, 2H, J

2.58-2.22 (m, 10H); 1.72- 1.19 (m, 64H); 0.87 (m, 9H).

Heptadecan-9-yl 8- -aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H90N2O4

Molecular Weight: 723.23

[00138] A mixture of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-azidopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (3.66 g, 4.89 mmol) and Pd/C (10%, 400 mg) in 150 mL EtOH was stirred under hydrogen balloon for 16 h. MS showed complete reaction. The reaction mixture was filtered through Celite, and the filtrate was concentrated and purified by ISCO (S1O2: MeOH/CH 2 Ci2/l% NH 4 OH 0 to 20%) to afford the product as a brown oil (3.08 g, 87%). LC/UV (202 nm): RT = 8.39 min. MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 723.7. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.85 (p, 1H, J= 6.0 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 2.70 (t, 2H, J= 6.9 Hz); 2.46-2.24 (m, 10H); 1.65-1.16 (m, 66H); 0.87 (m, 9H).

CG. Compound 122: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((6-(decan-2-yloxy)-6-oxohexyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C43H85NO5

Molecular Weight: 696.16

[00139] Compound 122 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.58 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 697.1 for C43H85NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.91 (m, 2H); 3.62 (m, 2H); 2.81-2.42 (br. m, 5H); 2.30 (m, 4H); 1.73-1.43 (m, 14H); 1.28 (m, 48H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

CH. Compound 123: He ooctyl)amino)octanoate Chemical Formula: C26H53NO2

Molecular Weight: 41 1.72

[00140] A solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-bromooctanoate (200 mg, 0.433 mmol) in methanamine (10 mL, 19.92 mmol, 2M in THF) was allowed to stir at rt for 18 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (10- 100% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to obtain heptadecan-9-yl 8-(methylamino)octanoate ( 1 13 mg, 0.27 mmol, 63%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.76 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 412.4 for C26H53NO2. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.92 (p, 1H); 2.62 (t, 2H); 2.48 (s, 3H); 2.32-2.27 (m, 2H); 1.66-1.52 (br. m, 8H); 1.28 (m, 30H); 0.90 (m, 6H).

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-(m

Chemical Formula: C43H85NO4

Molecular Weight: 680.16

[00141] A solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-(methylamino)octanoate (1 13 mg, 0.27 mmol), nonyl 8-bromooctanoate (1 15 mg, 0.33 mmol) and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (67 μί, 0.38 mmol) and potassium iodide (5 mg, 0.027 mmol) were dissolved in ethanol and was allowed to stir at 62 °C for 48 h. The reaction was cooled to rt and solvents were evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0- 100% (mixture of 1% ΝΗ4ΟΗ, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to obtain heptadecan-9-yl 8-(methyl(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (75 mg, 0.1 1 mmol, 41%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.84 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 681.0 for C43H85NO4. ^ NMR ^OO MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.88 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 2.88-2.67 (br. m, 7H); 2.34-2.27 (m, 4H); 1.80 (m, 4H); 1.63-1.52 (br. m, 10H); 1.37-1.28 (br. m, 48H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

CI. Compound 124: Di(h octanoate

Chemical Formula: C51H101NO4

Molecular Weight: 792.37

[00142] A solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-bromooctanoate (500 mg, 1.08 mmol) in methanamine (11 mL, 21.67 mmol, 2M in THF) was allowed to stir at rt for 6 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (20- 100% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to obtain di(heptadecan-9-yl) 8,8'-(methylazanediyl)dioctanoate (26 mg, 0.03 mmol, 3%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 4.03 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 793.3 for C51H101NO4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (p, 2H); 2.32-2.24 (m, 11H); 1.66-1.28 (br. m, 76H); 0.90 (m, 12H).

CJ. Compound 125: 3-((8-(Heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)propanoic acid

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C42H83NO4

Molecular Weight: 666.13

[00143] At -78 °C, to a solution of oxalyl chloride (0.25 mL, 3.0 mmol) in 3 mL

dichloromethane was added dropwise a solution of DMSO (0.43 mL, 6.0 mmol) in 2 mL dichloromethane, and then a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-hydroxypropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (1.45 g, 2.0 mmol) in dichloromethane (10 mL) was added immediately. After it was stirred for 30 min at this temperature, triethylamine (1.45 mL, 10.4 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was warmed up to room temperature. TLC and MS showed complete reaction (M+l : 722.7), and the reaction mixture was diluted with water and extracted with hexanes (2X). The combined organic layer was washed with brine. After drying over sodium sulfate, the filtrate was concentrated and the residue was purified by ISCO (S1O2: EtOAc/Hexanes/0.5% Et 3 N 0 to 50%) to afford the product as a brown oil (810 mg, 61%). MS

(APCI): m/z (MH + ) 666.7. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.85 (p, 1H, J= 6.0 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6.9 Hz); 2.56 (t, 4H, J= 7.1 Hz); 2.31-2.24 (m, 4H); 1.67-1.19 (m, 63H); 0.87 (m, 9H). Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(benzyloxy)-3-oxopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino )octanoate

Chemical Formula: C52H93NO6

Molecular Weight: 828.32

[00144] A solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (798 mg, 1.2 mmol) and benzyl acrylate (293 mg, 1.8 mmol) in dichloromethane (20 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 16 h. TLC and MS showed almost no reaction, 10 mL MeOH was added and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 h. MS showed the product with a small amount of methyl ester (M+l : 829.8, 752.7). The reaction mixture was

concentrated to dryness and purified by ISCO (S1O2: EtOAc/hexanes 0 to 35%) to afford the product as a colorless oil (280 mg, 28%). MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 829.8. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.36-7.32 (m, 5H); 5.10 (s, 2H); 4.85 (p, 1H, J = 6.0 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.9 Hz); 2.78 (t, 2H, J= 6.9 Hz); 2.46 (t, 2H, J = 7.0 Hz); 2.36 (t, 4H, J = 6.9 Hz); 2.30-2.24 (m, 4H); 1.67-1.19 (m, 62H); 0.87 (m, 9H).

3-((8-(Heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooct yl)amino)propanoic acid

Chemical Formula: C45H87NO6

Molecular Weight: 738.19

[00145] A mixture of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(benzyloxy)-3-oxopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (280 mg, 0.34 mmol) and Pd/C ( 10%, 28 mg) in 20 mL EtOAc was stirred under hydrogen balloon for 1 h. MS showed complete reaction. The reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was purified by ISCO (S1O2:

MeOH/CHiCh 0 to 10%) to afford the product as a colorless oil (230 mg, 91%). LC UV (214 nm): RT = 12.38 min. MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 838.7. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.85 (p, 1H, J= 6.0 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 2.85 (t, 2H, J = 6.0 Hz); 2.65 (t, 4H, J= 7.7 Hz); 2.48 (t, 2H, J= 6.0 Hz); 2.32-2.24 (m, 4H); 1.67-1.17 (m, 63H); 0.87 (m, 9H). CK. Compound 126: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-(methyl(4-(nonyloxy)-4-oxobutyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C39H77NO4

Molecular Weight: 624.05

[00146] A solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-(methylamino)octanoate (103 mg, 0.25 mmol), nonyl 4-bromobutanoate (88 mg, 0.30 mmol) and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (61 μί, 0.35 mmol) were dissolved in ethanol and was allowed to stir at 62 °C for 48 h. The reaction was cooled to rt and solvents were evaporated in vacuo. The residue was taken-up in ethyl acetate and washed with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate. The organic layer was separated and washed with brine, dried over Na2S04 and evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to obtain heptadecan-9-yl 8-(methyl(4-(nonyloxy)-4- oxobutyl)amino)octanoate (90 mg, 0.14 mmol, 58%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.58 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 624.8 for C39H77NO4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (p, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 2.38-2.24 (br. m, 1 1H); 1.82 (m, 2H); 1.64-1.28 (br. m, 52H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

CL. Compound 127: Nonyl 8-((9-((bis(nonyloxy)phosphoryl)oxy)nonyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)ami

Chemical Formula: C46H94NO7P

Molecular Weight: 804.232

[00147] Compound 127 was synthesized in the same manner as Compound 131 and according to the general procedure and Representative Procedure 1 described above.

UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.58 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 805.1 for C46H94NO7P. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.05 (m, 8H); 3.55 (m, 2H); 2.59 (m, 2H); 2.46 (m, 4H); 2.31(t, 2H), 1.67 (m, 1 1H); 1.29 (m, 55H); 0.90 (m, 9H). CM. Compound 128: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((6-((l-cyclopropylnonyl)oxy)-6-oxohexyl)(2 hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H87NO5

Molecular Weight: 722.193

[00148] Compound 128 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.67 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 722.9 for CtsHsvNOs. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 1H); 4.30 (m, 1H); 3.56 (m, 2H); 2.72-2.39 (m, 6H); 2.30 (m, 4H), 1.76-1.17 (m, 58H); 0.90 (m, 10H); 0.61-0.35 (m, 3H); 0.28 (m, 1H).

CN. Compound 129: Undecyl 6-((8-(dioctylamino)-8-oxooctyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)amino)hexanoate

Chemical Formula: C43H86N2O4

Molecular Weight: 695.171

[00149] Compound 129 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.45 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 695.9 for CoHseNiC . ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.54 (m, 2H), 3.28 (m, 4H); 2.59 (m, 2H); 2.47 (m, 4H); 2.32 (q, 4H); 1.73-1.19 (m, 58H); 0.90 (m, 9H). CO. Compound 130: Decan-2-yl 8-((8-(dioctylamino)-8-oxooctyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C44H88N2O4 Molecular Weight: 709.198

[00150] Compound 130 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.46 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 709.9 for C44H88N2O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 4.90 (m, 1H); 3.70 (br. m, 2H), 3.35-3.15 (m, 4H); 2.96-2.41 (br. m, 6H); 2.29 (m, 4H); 1.74-1.43 (m, 14H); 1.41-1.1 15 (m, 47H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

CP. Compound 131 : Nonyl 8-((7-((bis(octyloxy)phosphoryl)oxy)heptyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate

7-Bromoheptyl dioctyl p

Chemical Formula: dsEUsBrCUP

Molecular Weight: 499.51 1

[00151] To a solution of POCh (1.91 mL, 20.5 mmol) in DCM (20 mL) at 0 °C, Et 3 N (2.85 mL, 20.4 mmol) was slowly added followed by 7-bromoheptan-l-ol (4.0 g, 20.5 mmol). The reaction was allowed to stir for 4 h at 0 °C. A solution of octan-l-ol (7.10 mL, 45.11 mmol) and

Et3N (8.9 mL, 63.8 mmol) in DCM were added and the reaction was allowed to stir at rt for 16 h. The reaction was diluted with DCM and washed with saturated NaHCC . The organic layer was separated, dried over NaiSCU, filtered, and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by ISCO with (0-30%) EtOAc in hexanes to obtain 7-bromoheptyl dioctyl phosphate

(0.58 g, 1.16 mmol, 6%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.03 (m, 6H); 3.43 (t, 2H); 1.88

(m, 2H); 1.70 (m, 6H); 1.54-1.23 (m, 26H); 0.90 (m, 6H).

Nonyl 8-((7-((bis(octyloxy)phosphoryl)oxy)heptyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)a mino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C42H86NO7P Molecular Weight: 748.124

[00152] Compound 131 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.22 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 750.0 for C42H86NO7P. Ή NMR (300 MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 4.05 (m, 8H); 3.51 (m, 2H); 2.60 (br. m, 2H); 2.46 (m, 4H); 2.31 (t, 2H); 1.76 - 1.15 (m, 58H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

CQ. Compound 132: Decan-2-yl 8-((7-((bis(octyloxy)phosphoryl)oxy)heptyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)amin

Chemical Formula: C43H88NO7P

Molecular Weight: 762.15

[00153] Compound 132 was synthesized in the same manner as Compound 131 and according to the general procedure and Representative Procedure 1 described above.

UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.27 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 764.00 for C43H88NO7P. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.91 (m, 1H); 4.03 (m, 6H); 3.56 (m, 2H); 2.73-2.38 (br. m, 6H); 2.29 (t, 2H); 1.79 - 1.16 (m, 61H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

CR. Compound 133: ((2-Hydroxyethyl)azanediyl)bis(nonane-9,l-diyl) bis(2- hexyldecanoate)

Chemical Formula: C52H103NO5

Molecular Weight: 822.398

[00154] Compound 133 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.91 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 824.0 for C52HIO3NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.09 (t, 4H); 3.60 (m, 2H); 2.74 - 2.42 (br. m, 6H); 2.33 (m, 3H); 1.72 -1.17 (m, 76H); 0.90 (m, 12H). CS. Compound 134: 9-((2-Hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)nonyl 2- hexyldecanoate

Chemical Formula: C44H87NO5

Molecular Weight: 710.182

[00155] Compound 134 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.48 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 712.0 for CwHsvNOs. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.08 (m, 4H); 3.55 (m, 2H); 2.67 - 2.39 (br. m, 6H); 2.31 (m, 3H); 1.71 -1.19 (m, 62H); 0.90 (m, 12H).

CT. Compound 135: 7-((8-(Decan-2-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino)hepty l 2- octyldecanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO5

Molecular Weight: 724.209

[00156] Compound 135 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.63 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 726.0 for C45H89NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.91 (m, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.57 (m, 2H); 2.73 - 2.40 (br. m, 6H); 2.29 (m, 3H); 1.71 - 1.16 (m, 66H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

CU. Compound 136: Nonyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)((9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dien-l- yl)amino)octanoate

Representative Procedure 2:

Nonyl 8-bromooctanoate (Method A)

[00157] To a solution of 8-bromooctanoic acid (5 g, 22 mmol) and nonan-l-ol (6.46 g, 45 mmol) in dichloromethane (100 mL) were added N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N- ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (4.3 g, 22 mmol) and DMAP (547 mg, 4.5 mmol). The reaction was allowed to stir at rt for 18 h. The reaction was diluted with dichloromethane and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate. The organic layer was separated and washed with brine, dried over MgS04. The organic layer was filtered and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-10% ethyl acetate in hexanes) to obtain nonyl 8-bromooctanoate (6.1 g, 17 mmol, 77%).

[00158] ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.06 (t, 2H); 3.40 (t, 2H); 2.29 (t, 2H); 1.85 (m, 2H); 1.72-0.97 (m, 22H); 0.88 (m, 3H).

[00159] A solution of nonyl 8-bromooctanoate (1.2 g, 3.4 mmol) and 2-aminoethan-l-ol (5 mL, 83 mmol) in ethanol (2 mL) was allowed to stir at 62 ° C for 18 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuum and the residue was extracted with ethyl acetate and water. The organic layer was separated and washed with water, brine and dried over Na2S04. The organic layer was filtered and evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0- 100%) (mixture of 1%> NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to obtain nonyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate (295 mg, 0.9 mmol, 26%).

[00160] UPLC/ELSD: RT = 1.29 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 330.42 for C19H39NO3

[00161] ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.07 (t, 2H); 3.65 (t, 2H); 2.78 (t, 2H); 2.63 (t, 2H); 2.32-2.19 (m, 4H); 1.73-1.20 (m, 24H); 0.89 (m, 3H)

Nonyl 8-((2-hydro oate

Chemical Formula: C37H71NO3

Molecular Weight: 577.98

[00162] A solution of nonyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate (150 mg, 0.46 mmol), (6Z,9Z)-18-bromooctadeca-6,9-diene (165 mg, 0.5 mmol) and NN-diisopropylethylamine (65 mg, 0.5 mmol) in ethanol (2 mL) was allowed to stir at reflux for 48 h. The reaction was allowed to cool to rt and solvents were evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-10% MeOH in dichloromethane) to obtain nonyl 8-((2- hydroxyethyl)((9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9, 12-dien-l-yl)amino)octanoate (81 mg, 0.14 mmol, 30%) as a HBr salt.

[00163] UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.24 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 578.64 for C37H71NO3 [00164] ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 10.71 (br., 1H); 5.36 (br. m, 4H); 4.04 (m, 4H); 3.22-2.96 (br. m, 5H); 2.77 (m, 2H); 2.29 (m, 2H); 2.04 (br. m, 4H); 1.86 (br. m, 4H); 1.66-1.17 (br. m, 40H); 0.89 (m, 6H)

CV. Compound 137: Methyl 12-(dodecyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amino)dodecanoate

Methyl 12-bromododecanoate

Chemical Formula: CDlrhsBrC

Molecular Weight: 293.25

[00165] To a solution of 12-bromododecanoic acid (2.5 g, 8.95 mmol) in THF (7 mL) was added methanol (7.2 mL, 179 mmol). Sulfuric acid (0.50 mL, 8.95 mmol) was added dropwise and the reaction was allowed to stir at 65 °C for two hours. The reaction mixture was washed with 5% NaHCCb and brine. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography (0-20% EtOAc/hexanes) provided methyl 12-bromododecanoate (2.40 g, 92%).

[00166] ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 3.69 (s, 3H); 3.44 (t, 2H); 2.33 (t, 2H); 1.88 (br. m, 2H); 1.64 (br. m, 2H); 1.45 (br. m, 2H); 1.31 (br. m, 12H).

Methyl 12-(dodecyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amino)dodecanoate

Chemical Formula: C27H55NO3

Molecular Weight: 441.74

[00167] To a solution of methyl 12-((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)dodecanoate (413 mg, 1.51 mmol) (isolated from the synthesis of 12, 12'-((2-Hydroxyethyl)azanediyl)didodecanoate) in MeCN (5 mL) was added 1-bromododecane (452 mg, 1.81 mmol), K2CO3 (418 mg, 3.02 mmol), and KI (25 mg, 0.151 mmol). The reaction was allowed to stir at 82 °C for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, diluted with H2O, and extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography (0-100% [DCM, 20% MeOH, l% NH40H]/MeOH) provided methyl 12-(dodecyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amino)dodecanoate (409 mg, 61%).

[00168] UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.39 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 442.60 for C27H55NO3 [00169] ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 3.69 (s, 3H); 3.61 (t, 2H); 2.68 (t, 2H); 2.54 (t, 4H); 2.32 (t, 2H); 1.64 (m, 2H); 1.50 (br. m, 4H); 1.28 (br. m, 32H); 0.90 (t, 3H).

CW. Compound 138: Dinonyl 8,8'-((2-hydroxyethyl)azanediyl)dioctanoate

Representative Procedure 3:

Dinonyl 8,8'-((2-hydroxyethyl)azanediyl)dioctanoate

O

O^O'

Chemical Formula: C36H71NO5

Molecular Weight: 597.97

[00170] A solution of nonyl 8-bromooctanoate (200 mg, 0.6 mmol) and 2-aminoethan-l-ol (16 mg, 0.3 mmol) and N, N-diisopropylethylamine (74 mg, 0.6 mmol) in THF/CH3CN (1 : 1) (3 mL) was allowed to stir at 63 °C for 72 h. The reaction was cooled to rt and solvents were evaporated under vacuum. The residue was extracted with ethyl acetate and saturated sodium bicarbonate. The organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04 and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-10% MeOH in dichloromethane) to obtain dinonyl 8,8'-((2-hydroxyethyl)azanediyl)dioctanoate (80 mg, 0.13 mmol, 43%).

[00171] UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.09 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 598.85 for C36H71NO5

[00172] ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.05 (m, 4H); 3.57 (br. m, 2H); 2.71-2.38 (br. m, 6H); 2.29 (m, 4H), 1.71-1.01 (br. m, 49H), 0.88 (m, 6H).

CX. Compound 139: Di(( )-non-2-en-l-yl) 8,8'-((2-hydroxyethyl)azanediyl)dioctanoate

[00173] Compound 139 was synthesized following the Representative Procedure 3.

Chemical Formula: C36H57NO5

Molecular Weight: 593.93

[00174] UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.88 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 594.78 for CseHevNOs

[00175] ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.60 (m, 2H); 5.50 (m, 2H); 4.59 (m, 4H); 3.96 (br. m, 2H); 3.20-2.94 (br. m, 5H); 2.28 (m, 4H); 2.07 (m, 4H); 1.80 (br. m 4H); 1.59 (br. m, 6H); 1.43-1.14 (br. m, 28H), 0.85 (m, 6H). CY. Compound 140: Di(( )-undec-2-en-l-yl) 6,6'-((2-hydroxyethyl)azanediyl)dihexanoate

[00176] Compound 140 was synthesized following the Representative Procedure 3.

Chemical Formula: C36H67NO5

Molecular Weight: 593.93

[00177] UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.87 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 594.74 for CseHevNOs

[00178] ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 5.73-5.44 (m, 4H); 4.62 (m, 4H); 3.55 (m, 2H); 2.73-2.39 (br. m, 6H); 2.39 (m, 4H); 2.09 (m, 4H); 1.64 (m, 4H); 1.55-1.14 (br. m, 33H); 0.88 (m, 6H).

CZ. Compound 141 : Diundecyl 6,6'-((2-hydroxyethyl)azanediyl)dihexanoate

[00179] Compound 141 was synthesized following Representative Procedure 3.

Chemical Formula: C36H71NO5

Molecular Weight: 597.97

[00180] UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.03 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 598.63 for C36H71NO5

[00181] ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.05 (m, 4H); 3.53 (m, 2H); 2.95 (br. m, 2.65-2.35 (m, 6H); 2.30 (m, 4H); 1.73-1.54 (m, 8H); 1.54-1.15 (m, 40H); 0.88 (m, 6H).

DA. Compound 142: 12,12'-((2-Hydroxyethyl)azanediyl)didodecanoate

12, 12'-((2-Hydroxyethyl)azanediyl)didodecanoate

Chemical Formula: C28H55NO5

Molecular Weight: 485.75

[00182] To a solution of methyl 12-bromododecanoate (1.5 g, 5.12 mmol) in MeCN (1 1 mL) was added ethanolamine (0.310 mL, 5.12 mmol), K2CO3 ( 1.42 g, 10.2 mmol), and KI (85 mg, 0.512 mmol). The reaction was allowed to stir at 82 °C for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, filtered, and the solids were washed with hexanes. The filtrate was extracted with hexanes, and the combined extracts were concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography (0-100% [DCM, 20% MeOH, l% NH 4 OH]/MeOH) provided 12, 12'- ((2-hydroxyethyl)azanediyl)didodecanoate (563 mg, 45%).

[00183] UPLC/ELSD: RT = 1.81 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 486.63 for CisHssNOs

[00184] ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 3.69 (s, 6H); 3.59 (br. m, 2H); 2.75-2.40 (br. m,

6H); 2.32 (t, 4H); 1.64 (m, 4H); 1.48 (br. m, 4H); 1.29 (br. m, 28H).

DB. Compound 143: Nonyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(7-((2-octyldecyl)oxy)-7- oxoheptyl)amino)octanoate

2-Octyldecanoic acid

Chemical Formula: C18H36O2

Molecular Weight: 284.48

[00185] A solution of diisopropylamine (2.92 mL, 20.8 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was cooled to -78 °C and a solution of «-BuLi (7.5 mL, 18.9 mmol, 2.5 M in hexanes) was added. The reaction was allowed to warm to 0 °C To a solution of decanoic acid (2.96 g, 17.2 mmol) and NaH (754 mg, 18.9 mmol, 60% w/w) in THF (20 mL) at 0 °C was added the solution of LDA and the mixture was allowed to stir at rt for 30 min. After this time 1-iodooctane (5 g, 20.8 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was heated at 45 °C for 6 h. The reaction was quenched with IN HC1 (10 mL). The organic layer was dried over MgS04, filtered and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-20% ethyl acetate in hexanes) to yield 2-octyldecanoic acid (1.9 g, 6.6 mmol).

[00186] ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 2.38 (br. m, 1H); 1.74-1.03 (br. m, 28H); 0.91 (m, 6H).

2-Octyldecan-l-ol

Chemical Formula: CISHBSO

Molecular Weight: 270.50

[00187] A solution of 2-octyldecanoic acid (746 mg, 2.6 mmol) in dry THF (12 mL) was added to a stirred solution of LAH (5.2 mL, 5.2 mmol, 1M solution in THF) in dry THF (6 mL) under nitrogen at 0 ° C. The reaction was allowed to warm to rt and stirred at rt for 12 h. A solution of saturated Na2S04* IOH2O solution (10 mL) was added. The solids were filtered through a plug of Celite. The filtrate was evaporated under vacuum and the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-20% ethyl acetate in hexanes) to yield 2-octyldecan-l-ol (635 mg, 2.3 mmol).

[00188] ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 3.54 (d, 2H); 1.56-1.21 (br. m, 30H); 0.91 (t, 6H).

2-Octyldecyl 7-bromoheptanoate

[00189] 2-Octyldecyl 7-bromoheptanoate was synthesized according to Method A.

[00190] ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 3.96 (d, 2H); 3.40 (t, 2H); 2.31 (t, 2H); 1.86 (m,

2H); 1.71-1.19 (m, 35H); 0.88 (m, 6H).

[00191] Nonyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(7-((2-octyldecyl)oxy)-7-oxoheptyl)amino) octanoate was synthesized using Re

Chemical Formula: C44H87NO5

Molecular Weight: 710.182

[00192] UPLC/ELSD: RT = 5.23 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 71 1.08 for C44H87NO5

[00193] ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.05 (t, 2H); 3.96 (d, 2H); 3.58 (br. m,

2.79-2.36 (br. m, 5H); 2.30 (m, 4H); 1.72-1.01 (br. m, 63H); 0.88 (m, 9H).

DC. Compound 144: Nonyl 8-((8-(dioctylamino)-8-oxooctyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate

8-Bromo-AyV-dioctyloctanamide

Chemical Formula: C24H4sBrNO

Molecular Weight: 446.56

[00194] To a solution of 8-bromooctanoic acid ( 1 g, 2.2 mmol) and DMF (1 drop) in dichloromethane was added oxalyl chloride (0.416 mL, 2.5 mmol) dropwise. The reaction was allowed to stir for 1 h at room temperature. Solvents were evaporated and the residue was added to a solution of dioctylamine (1.14 g, 4.8 mmol) and DMAP (100 mg, 0.8 mmol). Triethylamine was added to the reaction dropwise and the reaction was allowed to stir for 18 h. The solvents were evaporated and the residue was taken up in ethyl acetate and saturated NaHCC . The organic layer was separated and washed with water and brine. The organic layer was dried over Na2S04, filtered and evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel

chromatography (0-100% (mixture of 1% NH40H, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane to yield a mixture of 8-bromo-N,N-dioctyloctanamide and chloro-N^V- dioctyloctanamide (736 mg, 1.6 mmol).

[00195] UPLC/ELSD: RT = 4.02 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 446.53 for

[00196] ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 3.55 (t, 0.6H); 3.42 (t, 1.4H); 3.36-3.15 (m, 4H); 2.31 (t, 2H); 1.96-1.18 (m, 34H); 0.91 (m, 6H).

[00197] Nonyl 8-((8-(dioctylamino)-8-oxooctyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino)octano ate was synthesized utilizing Representative Procedure 2.

Chemical Formula: C43H86N2O4

Molecular Weight: 695.17

[00198] UPLC/ELSD: RT = 4.24 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 696.16 for CoHseNiC

[00199] ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.05 (t, 2H); 3.57 (br. m, 2H); 3.35-3.14 (m, 4H); 2.80-.2.20 (m, 10H); 1.74-1.00 (br. m, 59H); 0.88 (m, 9H).

DD. Compound 145: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(methyl(octyl)amino)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C44H88N2O4

Molecular Weight: 709.198 [00200] Compound 145 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.17 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 710.0 for CwHssNiC . ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, IH); 3.55 (m, 2H); 3.37 (t, IH); 3.27 (t, IH); 2.98 (s, 1.5H); 2.93 (s, 1.5H); 2.59 (m, 2H); 2.47 (m, 4H); 2.30 (m, 4H), 1.75-1.20 (m, 60H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

DE. Compound 146: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(6-(methyl(octyl)amino)-6- oxohexyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C42H84N2O4

Molecular Weight: 681.144

[00201] Compound 146 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.01 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 682.0 for C42H84N2O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.88 (m, IH); 3.55 (m, 2H); 3.37 (t, IH); 3.26 (t, IH); 2.98 (s, 1.5H); 2.93 (s, 1.5H); 2.59 (m, 2H); 2.48 (m, 4H); 2.31 (m, 4H), 1.76-1.18 (m, 56H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

DF. Compound 147: Tridecan-7-yl 10-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)decanoate

Chemical Formula: C42H83NO5

Molecular Weight: 682.128

[00202] Compound 147 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.16 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 683.0 for CUHSBNOS. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, IH); 4.08 (m, 2H); 3.55 (m, 2H); 2.59 (m, 2H); 2.46 (m, 4H); 2.30 (m, 4H), 1.72-1.18 (m, 58H); 0.90 (m, 9H). DG. Compound 148: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-((2-methoxynonyl)oxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

l-((teri-Butyldiphenylsilyl)oxy)nonan-2-ol

Chemical Formula: C25H38O2S1

Molecular Weight: 398.662

[00203] TBDPSC1 (8.58 g, 31 ,2 ramol) was added to a mixture ofnonaxie-.l ,2-dioi. (5.0 g,

31 .2 mrriol) and imidazole (4.24 g, 62.4 mmol) in DMF ax RT. The reaction was stirred at RT overnight. The reaction was diluted with water ( 150 inL) and extracted with EtOAc/hexanes

( 1 : 1) (4X). The combined organic layer was washed with brine, separated, dried with Na2S04, filtered, and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by ISCO with (0-10%) EtOAc in hexanes to obtain l-((fert-butyldiphenylsilyl)oxy)nonan-2-ol (7.75 g, 19.4 mmol). 'H NMR

(300 MHz, DMSO) δ: ppm 7.63 (m, 4H); 7.43 (m, 6H); 4.51 (d, 1H); 3.54 (m, 2H); 3.43 (m,

1H); 1.57 (m, 1H); 1.24 (m, 1 1H); 1.00 (s, 9H); 0.85 (m, 3H).

2-Meliioxynenyl 8-bromooetaiioate

Chemical Formula: CisHBsBrC

Molecular Weight: 379.379

[00204] 2~Methoxynonyl 8-bromooctanoate was synthesized following Method A in Representative Procedure 1. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.19 (m, 1H); 4.04 (m, 1H); 3.42 (m, 6H); 2.36 (t, 2H); 1.87 (m, 2H); 1.73- 1.22 (m, 20H); 0.93 (m, 3H).

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-((2-methoxynonyl)oxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino )octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO6

Molecular Weight: 740.208

[00205] Compound 148 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.48 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 741.0 for C45H89NO6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 1H); 4.19 (m, 1H); 4.04 (m, 1H); 3.57 (m, 2H); 3.42 (s, 3H); 3.37 (m, 1H); 2.73-2.41 (m, 6H); 2.33 (m, 4H), 1.73- 1.19 (m, 61H); 0.90 (m, 9H). DH. Compound 149: Heptyl 10-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8- oxooctyl)(methyl)amin

Chemical Formula: C43H85NO4

Molecular Weight: 680.156

[00206] Compound 149 was synthesized similarly to Compound 123 and according to the general procedure and Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.55 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 681.0 for CoifcNC . ^ NMR ^OO MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 2.42-2.14 (m, 1 1H); 1.73-1.17 (m, 62H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

DI. Compound 150: Pentyl 12-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8- oxooctyl)(methyl)amin

Chemical Formula: C43H85NO4

Molecular Weight: 680.156

[00207] Compound 150 was synthesized similarly to Compound 123 and according to the general procedure and Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.47 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 681.0 for CoifcNC . ^ NMR ^OO MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m,

1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 2.42-2.16 (m, 10H); 1.73-1.20 (m, 63H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

DJ. Compound 151 : 7-((7-(Decanoyloxy)heptyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino)heptyl 2- octyldecanoate

Chemical Formula: C44H87NO5

Molecular Weight: 710.182 [00208] Compound 151 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.83 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 71 1.0 for C44H87NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.07 (m, 4H); 3.57 (m, 2H); 2.63 (br. m, 2H); 2.50 (m, 4H); 2.31 (m, 3H), 1.71-1.19 (m, 62H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

DK. Compound 152: Nonyl ( )-8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(10-octyloctadec-8-en-l- yl)amino)octanoate

7V-Methoxy-iV-methyl-2-octyldecan amide

Chemical Formula: C20H41NO2

Molecular Weight: 327.553

[00209] To a solution of 2-octyl-decanoic acid ( 11.1 g, 39.02 mmol) and DMF (0.05 mL, 3.9 mmol) in DCM (100 mL) oxalyl chloride (3.63 mL, 42.92 mmol) was added dropwise. The reaction was allowed to stir for 2 h at rt. Solvents and volatiles were evaporated under vacuum.

The resulting residue (crude 2-octyldecanoyl chloride) (1 1.82 g, 39.02 mmol) was taken up in

DCM ( 100 mL) and N,0-dimethylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (4 g, 40.97 mmol) and 4- dimethylaminopyridine (0.48 g, 3.9 mmol) were added. The mixture was allowed to cool to 0

°C and triethylamine (19.04 mL, 136.57 mmol) was slowly added. The reaction was allowed to warm to rt and stir for 1 h. Solvents were evaporated under vacuum. The residue was diluted with EtOAc and washed with sat. NaHCC , followed by brine. The organic layer was separated, dried over NaiSCU, filtered, and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography with (0-40%) EtOAc in hexanes to obtain N-methoxy-N-methyl-2- octyldecanamide (7.10 g, 21.68 mmol, 56%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 3.70 (s, 3H);

3.22 (s, 3H); 2.82 (br. m, 1H); 1.62 (m, 2H); 1.51-1.19 (m, 26H); 0.90 (m, 6H).

2-Octyldecanal

Chemical Formula: C18H36O

Molecular Weight: 268.485

[00210] A solution ofN-inethoxy-N-niethj'l-2-octyldecananiide (7.1 g, 21.68 mmol) in dry THF (2 ml) was added to a suspension of LAH (27,53 mL 1 M in THF, 27,53 mmol) in dry THF (5 ml) at -45 °C. The resulting suspension was stirred tor I h at -45 °C, after which time it was allowed to warm to room temperature and stir tor 0.5 h. The reaction was cooled back to -45 °C and quenched with a sat. aqueous solution of sodium sulfate deeahydrate (2 mL). The mixture was stirred for 20 mm at room temperature and filtered through plug of Celite. The filtrate was washed with brine. The organic layer was separated, dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography with (0-10 %) EtOAc in hexanes to obtain 2-octyldecanal (4.45 g, 16.57 mmol, 76%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 9.58 (d, 1H); 2.23 (m, 1H); 1.63 (m, 2H); 1.53- 1.19 (m, 26H); 0.90 (m, 6H). ( )-10-Octyloctadec-8-e -l-ol

Chemical Formula: C26H52O

Molecular Weight: 380.701

[00211] A solution of (8-hydroxyoctyl)triphenylphosphonium bromide (3.68 g, 7.81 mmol) in THF (16 mL) and HMPA was cooled in an ice bath and NaHMDS (19.52 mL 1 M, 19.52 mmol) was added. 2-Octyldecanal (1.05 g, 3.9 mmol) in THF (5 mL) was slowly added and the reaction was warmed to 30 °C. After 16 h the reaction was diluted with 20 mL of water and acidified with 2N HCl. The reaction was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic extracts were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduce pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50%) EtOAc in hexanes to obtain (Z)- 10-octyloctadec-8-en- l-ol (0.5 g, 1.30 mmol, 33%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb)5: ppm 5.24 (m, 1H); 4.90 (m, 1H); 3.53 (t, 2H); 2.14 (m, 1H); 1.89 (m, 2H); 1.45 (m, 3H); 1.33- 0.95 (m, 36H); 0.77 (m, 6H).

( )-l-Bromo-10-octyloct

Chemical Formula: deHsiBr

Molecular Weight: 443.598

[00212] To a solution of PPh 3 (0.29 g, 1.1 1 mmol) and (8Z)-10-octyloctadec-8-en- l-ol (0.4 g, 1.05 mmol) in DCM (10 mL) at 0 °C, NBS (0.22 g, 1.22 mmol) was added in one portion. The reaction was allowed to stir at 0 °C for 1 h and then warm to rt and stir for 1 h. 300 mL of hexanes were added and the mixture was filtered through a silica plug and evaporated under vacuum. 200 mL of hexanes were added and the mixture was filtered through a silica plug and evaporated under vacuum to obtain (Z)-l-bromo-10-octyloctadec-8-ene (0.39 g, 0.88 mmol, 83%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.24 (m, 1H); 4.90 (m, 1H); 3.53 (t, 2H); 2.14 (m,

1H); 1.89 (m, 2H); 1.45 (m, 3H); 1.33-0.95 (m, 36H); 0.77 (m, 6H).

Nonyl ( )-8-((2-hy e

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO3

Molecular Weight: 693.21 1

[00213] Compound 152 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.00 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 694.0 for C45H89NO3. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.36 (m, 1H); 5.03 (m, 1H); 4.07 (t, 2H); 3.54 (t, 2H); 2.59 (t, 2H); 2.46 (m, 4H); 2.30 (m, 3H); 2.01 (m, 2H); 1.63 (m, 4H); 1.53-1.03 (m, 58H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

DL. Compound 153: Nonyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(10-octyloctadecyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H91NO3

Molecular Weight: 694.227

[00214] A flask was charged with Pd(OH)2 (20 mg) and purged with N2. A solution of nonyl

8-[(2-hydroxyethyl)[(8Z)- 10-octyloctadec-8-en-l-yl]amino]octanoate (100 mg, 0.14 mmol) in

EtOH (1 mL) was added. The reaction was purged with H2 and was kept under H2 (balloon) with stirring for 16h at rt. After this time the reaction was purged with N2. The reaction was filtered through a plug of Celite and washed with EtOH (50 mL). The filtrate was evaporated under vacuum. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc and washed with water. The organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, filtered, and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography with (0-50%) (1%, 20% Me OH in DCM) in DCM to obtain nonyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(10-octyloctadecyl)amino)octanoate (0.069 g, 0.099 mmol,

69%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.21 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 695.08 for C45H91NO3. 'H NMR

(300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.56 (t, 2H); 2.62 (m, 2H); 2.48 (m, 4H); 2.31 (m, 2H);

1.64 (m, 4H); 1.54-1.16 (m, 66H); 0.90 (m, 9H). DM. Compound 154: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amin

Chemical Formula: C46H91NO6

Molecular Weight: 754.235

[00215] Compound 154 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.54 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 755.0 for CteHnNOe. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.88 (m, 1H); 4.62 (m, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.79-3.56 (m, 6H); 2.64 (m, 2H); 2.47 (m, 4H); 2.31 (m, 4H), 1.73- 1.20 (m, 61H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

DN. Compound 155: teri-Butyl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate

teri-Butyl 8-bromooctanoate

Chemical Formula: CnifeBrC

Molecular Weight: 279.218

[00216] To a solution of 8-bromooctanoic acid (2 g, 8.96 mmol) in DCM (20 mL) at 0 °C trifluoroacetic anhydride (2.77 mL, 19.9 mmol) was added dropwise. After 2.5 h. l BuOH (3.1 mL, 32.27 mmol) was slowly added. After 1 h the reaction was warmed to rt and allowed to stir for 2.5 h. The reaction was quenched with water and extracted with diethylether. The organic layer was separated, dried over MgSC , filtered, and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography with (0-10%) EtOAc in hexanes to obtain fert-butyl 8-bromooctanoate ( 1.5 g, 5.37 mmol, 60%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 3.42 (t, 2H); 2.23 (t, 2H); 1.87 (m, 2H); 1.60 (m, 2H); 1.47 (s, 1 1H); 1.35(m, 4H).

teri-Butyl 8-((8-(h octanoate

Chemical Formula: C39H77NO5 Molecular Weight: 640.047

[00217] Compound 155 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.18 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 641.0 for C39H77NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 1H); 3.58 (br. m, 2H); 2.75-2.36 (br. m, 6H); 2.26 (m, 4H); 1.71-1.40 (m, 22H); 1.28 (m, 35H); 0.90 (m, 6H). DO. Compound 156: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((l,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO6

Molecular Weight: 740.208

[00218] Compound 156 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.53 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 741.0 for CtsHsgNOe. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.88 (m, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.67 (br. m, 4H); 3.04 (m, 1H); 2.65 (m, 4H); 2.32 (m, 4H), 1.72-1.44 (m, 15H); 1.28 (m, 48H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

DP. Compound 157: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((l-hydroxypropan-2-yl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO5

Molecular Weight: 724.209

[00219] Compound 157 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.56 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 725.0 for C45H89NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.45-3.17 (br. m, 2H); 2.94 (br. m, 1H); 2.55-2.22 (m, 8H); 1.70- 1.17 (m, 62H); 0.90 (m, 12H). DQ. Compound 158: teri-Butyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C31H61NO5

Molecular Weight: 527.831

[00220] Compound 158 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.23 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 528.0 for C31H61NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.55 (br. m, 2H); 2.60 (br. m, 2H); 2.47 (m, 4H); 2.31 (t, 2H); 2.22 (t, 2H); 1.64 (br. m, 6H); 1.53-1.23 (m, 37H); 0.90 (m, 3H).

DR. Compound 159: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(2-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-

Chemical Formula: C48H96N2O6

Molecular Weight: 797.304

[00221] Compound 159 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.15 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 798.0 for CtsifeeNiOe. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.88 (m, 1H); 4.07 (t, 2H); 3.62 (br. m, 4H); 2.72 - 2.47 (br. m, 12H); 2.31 (m, 4H); 1.72-1.42 (m, 14H); 1.28 (m, 47H); 0.90 (m, 12H).

DS. Compound 160: l,5-Bis(2-butylcyclopropyl)pentan-3-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-

(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

2-(2-Butylcyclopropyl)ethan-l-ol

Chemical Formula: C9H18O

Molecular Weight: 142.242 [00222] 2-(2-Butylcyclopropyl)ethan-l-ol was synthesized in the same manner as

Intermediate C. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm: 3.94 (t, 2H); 1.93 (m, 1H); 1.59 (m, 7H); 1.39 (m, 1H); 1.12 (m, 3H); 0.90 (m, 3H); 0.00 (m, 1H).

l-(2-Bromoethyl)-2-butylcyclopropane

Chemical Formula: C9HnBr

Molecular Weight: 205.139

[00223] l-(2-Bromoethyl)-2-butylcyclopropane was synthesized in the same manner as (Z)-\- Bromo-lO-octyloctadec-8-ene. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm: 3.64 (t, 2H); 2.18 (m, 1H); 1.92 (m, 1H); 1.47 (m, 6H); 0.96 (m, 6H); 0.00 (m, 1H).

l,5-Bis(2-butylcyclopropyl)penta -3-ol

Chemical Formula: C19H36O

Molecular Weight: 280.496

[00224] l,5-Bis(2-butylcyclopropyl)pentan-3-ol was synthesized in the same manner as (5Z,12Z)-heptadeca-5, 12-dien-9-ol. ¾ ΝΜΚ (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm: 3.96 (t, 1H); 1.64 (m, 21H); 1.16 (m, 6H); 0.91 (m, 6H); 0.03 (m, 2H).

l,5-Bis(2-butylcyclopropyl)pentan-3-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C46H87NO5

Molecular Weight: 734.204

[00225] Compound 160 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.51 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 735.0 for C46H87NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.97 (m, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.56 (br. m, 2H); 2.75-2.37 (br. m, 6H); 2.31 (m, 4H); 1.74-1.05 (m, 54H); 0.92 (m, 9H); 0.67 (m, 6H); 0.31 (m, 2H). DT. Compound 161 : Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(10-(octanoyloxy)decan-2- yl)amino)octanoate

10-(Benzyloxy)decan-2-ol

Chemical Formula: C17H28O2

Molecular Weight: 264.409

[00226] A solution of 10-(benzyloxy)decan-2-one (3.5 g, 13.34 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was added to a stirred solution of LAH in THF (10 mL) under N2 at 0 °C The mixture was allowed to warm to rt and stir for 2 h after which time 10 mL of sat. Na2S04. IOH2O (aq) solution was slowly added. White solid precipitated. Additional solid Na2SO4.10H2O was added and the mixture was filtered through a plug of Celite. The filtrate was diluted with EtOAc and washed with brine. The organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography with (0- 40%) EtOAc in hexanes to obtain 10-(benzyloxy)decan-2-ol (3.2 g, 12.1 mmol, 91%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.32 (m, 5H); 4.53 (s, 2H); 3.80 (m, 1H); 3.49 (t, 2H); 1.64 (m, 2H); 1.55-1.25 (m, 132H); 1.21 (d, 3H).

9-Hydroxydecyl octanoate

Chemical Formula: C18H36O3

Molecular Weight: 300.483

[00227] 9-Hydroxydecyl octanoate was synthesized following Method A. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.80 (m, 1H); 2.30 (t, 2H); 1.64 (m, 4H); 1.52-1.17 (m, 23H); 0.90 (m, 3H).

Heptadecan-9-yl 8- -hydroxyethyl)(10-(octanoyloxy)decan-2-yl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO5

Molecular Weight: 724.209 [00228] Compound 161 was synthesized in a manner similar to Compound 152 and according to the general procedure and Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.46 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 725.0 for C45H89NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.49 (br. m, 2H); 2.77-2.55 (m, 2H); 2.54-2.23 (m, 7H); 1.71- 1.20 (m, 63H); 0.91 (m, 12H).

DU. Compound 162: 7-((2-Hydroxyethyl)(10-(octanoyloxy)decan-2-yl)amino)heptyl 2- octyldecanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO5

Molecular Weight: 724.209

[00229] Compound 162 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.49 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 725.0 for C45H89NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 3.99 (m, 4H); 2.72-2.48 (m, 2H); 2.48-2.17 (m, 6H); 1.55 (m, 8H); 1.44-1.10 (m, 56H); 0.92-0.75 (m, 12H).

DV. Compound 163: 7-((2-Hydroxyethyl)(7-methyl-8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)h eptyl 2-octyldecanoate

8-Methoxyoctanoic acid

Chemical Formula: C9H18O3

Molecular Weight: 174.240

[00230] To anhydrous MeOH (80 mL) at 0 °C KOH was added (7.54 g, 134.46 mmol) and stirred for 30 min. A solution of 8-bromooctanoic acid (10 g, 44.82 mmol) in anhydrous MeOH (70 mL) was added and the resulting solution was refluxed for 18 h. MeOH was removed under vacuum and the residue was acidified with IN HCl and extracted with diethylether. The organic layer was washed with brine, separated, dried over Na2S04, filtered, and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography with (0-50%) EtOAc in hexanes to obtain 8-methoxyoctanoic acid (6.3 g, 36.16 mmol, 81%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 3.35 (m, 5H); 2.37 (t, 2H); 1.61 (m, 4H); 1.36 (m, 6H).

8-Methoxy-2-methyloctanoic acid

Chemical Formula: C10H20O3

Molecular Weight: 188.267

[00231] To a suspension of NaH in THF (100 mL) at 0 °C, 8-methoxyoctanoic acid (5.6 g, 32.14 mmol) in THF (30 mL) was added dropwise. The reaction was allowed to stir at rt for 30 min. The reaction was cooled to 0 °C and LDA (17.86 mL, 2M in THF, 35.71 mmol) was added dropwise. After complete addition, the reaction was allowed to stir at 45 °C for 2 h. The reaction was cooled to rt and methyl iodide (2.45 mL, 39.28 mmol) in THF ( 15 mL) was slowly added. The reaction was stirred at 45 °C for 16 h. The reaction was quenched with IN HCl (20 mL). The quenched reaction was evaporated under vacuum to remove volatiles. The residue was dissolved in hexanes/EtOAc (1 : 1) and washed with IN HCl (100 mL X 2) followed by brine. The organic layer was separated, dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography with (0-15%) EtOAc in hexanes to obtain 8-methoxy-2-methyloctanoic acid (3.25 g, 17.26 mmol, 54%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 3.35 (m, 5H); 2.49 (m, 1H); 1.70 (m, 1H); 1.59(m, 2H); 1.36 (m, 7H); 1.21 (d, 3H).

8-Hydroxy-2-methyloctanoic aci

Chemical Formula: C9H18O3

Molecular Weight: 174.240

[00232] To a solution of 8-methoxy-2-methyloctanoic acid ( 1 g, 5.31 mmol) in DCM (20 mL) at -78 °C, boron tribromide (13.28 mL 1 M in DCM, 13.28 mmol) was added dropwise. The reaction was allowed to warm to rt and stir at rt for 2 h. The reaction was poured into ice and extracted with DCM. The organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, filtered, and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography with (0-40%) EtOAc in hexanes to obtain 8-hydroxy-2-methyloctanoic acid (0.77 g, 4.41 mmol, 83%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 3.43 (t, 2H); 2.50 (m, 1H); 1.94-1.64 (m, 4H); 1.56-1.26 (m, 7H); 1.20 (d, 3H).

Nonyl 8-hydroxy-2-methyloctanoate

Chemical Formula: C18H36O3

Molecular Weight: 300.483

[00233] A solution of 8-hydroxy-2-methyloctanoic acid (0.75 g, 4.31 mmol), nonan- l-ol (6.22 g, 43.1 mmol), 4-dimethylaminopyridine (0.1 1 g, 0.86 mmol) in DCM (20 mL) under N2 was added to (3-{ [(ethylimino)methylidene]amino}propyl)dimethylamine hydrochloride (0.83 g, 4.31 mmol). The reaction allowed to stir at rt for 16 h. The reaction was diluted with DCM and washed with sat. NaHCC , followed by brine. The organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, filtered, and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography with (0-20%) EtOAc in hexanes to obtain nonyl 8-hydroxy-2-methyloctanoate (0.68 g, 2.26 mmol, 53%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.42 (t, 2H); 2.45 (m, 1H); 1.87 (m, 2H); 1.75-1.57 (m, 4H); 1.52-1.22 (m, 19H); 1.15 (d, 3H); 0.91 (m, 3H). 7-((2-Hydroxyethyl ctyldecanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO5

Molecular Weight: 724.209

[00234] Compound 163 was synthesized in a manner similar to Compound 152 according to the general procedure and Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.50 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 725.0 for C45H89NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.08 (t, 4H); 3.55 (m, 2H); 2.67 (m, 2H); 2.53-2.24 (m, 6H); 1.72-1.10 (m, 65H); 0.90 (m, 9H). DW. Compound 164: Nonyl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)amin

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO5

Molecular Weight: 724.209 [00235] Compound 164 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.51 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 725.0 for C45H89NO5. Ή NMR (300 MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.55 (m, 2H); 2.69-2.38 (m, 8H); 2.30 (t, 2H); 1.74-1.09 (m, 65H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

DX. Compound 165: 7-((7-(Decanoyloxy)octyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino)heptyl 2- octyldecanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO5

Molecular Weight: 724.209

[00236] Compound 165 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.55 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 725.0 for C45H89NO5. Ή NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.91 (m, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.55 (m, 2H); 2.68-2.39 (m, 8H); 2.29 (m, 3H); 1.72-1.15 (m, 64H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

DY. Compound 166: 8-((8-(Heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoic acid

Chemical Formula: C35H59NO5

Molecular Weight: 583.939

[00237] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-{[8-(fert-butoxy)-8-oxooctyl](2- hydroxyethyl)amino}octanoate (0.11 g, 0.17 mmol) in DCM was added trifluoroacetic acid (0.06 mL, 0.69 mmol) and the reaction was allowed to stir at rt for 40 h. Volatiles were evaporated under vacuum. The residue was dissolved in ethylacetate and water and extracted with ethylacetate. The organic layer was separated, dried with NaiSCU, filtered and concentrated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50%) (1%, 20% MeOH in DCM) in DCM to obtain 8-{[8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl](2- hydroxyethyl)amino}octanoic acid (0.023 g, 0.04 mmol) as a colorless liquid. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.72 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 585.0 for C35H69NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.87 (m, 1H); 3.98 (m, 2H); 3.25-3.05(m, 6H); 2.32 (m, 4H); 1.82- 1.45 (m, 12H); 1.45-1.19 (m, 37H); 0.89 (m, 6H).

DZ. Compound 16 -((2-Hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoic acid

Chemical Formula: C27H53NO5

Molecular Weight: 471.723

[00238] Compound 167 was synthesized following the same procedure as Compound 166. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 1.57 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 472.0 for C27H53NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 4.08 (m, 2H); 4.00 (m, 2H); 3.44-2.98 (m, 10H); 2.35 (t, 4H); 1.85-1.55 (m, 10H); 1.33 (m, 23H); 0.90 (m, 3H).

EA. Compound 168: Heptadecan-9-yl ( )-8-((3-(2-cyano-3,3-dimethylguanidino)propyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-o

Chemical Formula: C49H95N5O4

Molecular Weight: 818.33

[00239] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (220 mg, 0.3 mmol) in 5 mL 2-propanol was added triethylamine (0.04 mL, 0.3 mmol) followed by diphenyl cyanocarbonimidate (72 mg, 0.3 mmol) and the mixture stirred at rt for two hours. To the reaction mixture was added a 2M dimethylamine solution in THF (0.75 mL, 1.5 mmol) and the resulting solution heated to 75 °C for 18 hours. Additional 2M dimethylamine/THF solution (0.75 mL, 1.5 mmol) was added and the temperature increased to 85 °C. After six hours the reaction was complete by LC/MS so the solution was reduced under vacuum, diluted with DCM and washed once with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. The organic phase was dried (MgSC ), filtered and the filtrate evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-(2-cyano-3,3-dimethylguanidino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy )-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (119.2 mg, 0.14 mmol, 49%) as a colorless syrup. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.52 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 819.0 for C49H95N5O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.62 (br. s., 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J= 6 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 7.5 Hz); 3.68 (d, 2H, J= 3 Hz); 2.99 (s, 6H); 2.59 (br. s, 2H); 2.43 (br. s, 3H); 2.28 (m, 4H); 1.71 (br. s, 2H); 1.62 (m, 8H); 1.49 (m, 5H); 1.26 (br. m, 50H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J= 7.5 Hz).

EB. Compound 169: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((2-(dimethylamino)-3,4-dioxocyclobut-l-en-l- yl)amino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

3-(Dimethylamino)-4-methoxycyclobut-3-ene-l,2-dione

Chemical Formula: C 7 H 9 N0 3

Molecular Weight: 155.15

[00240] To a solution of 3,4-dimethoxy-3-cyclobutene-l,2-dione (1 g, 7 mmol) in 100 mL diethyl ether was added a 2M dimethylamine solution in THF (3.8 mL, 7.6 mmol) and a ppt. formed almost immediately. The mixture was stirred at rt for 24 hours and then filtered. The filter solids were washed with diethyl ether and air-dried. The filter solids were dissolved in hot MeOH, filtered, the filtrate allowed to cool to room temp., then cooled to 0 °C to give a ppt. This was isolated via filtration, washed with cold MeOH, air-dried, then dried under vacuum to give 3-(dimethylamino)-4-methoxycyclobut-3-ene-l,2-dione (0.42 g, 2.7 mmol, 39%) as a pale yellow solid. 'H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO- e) δ: ppm 4.28 (s, 3H); 3.21 (s, 3H); 3.05 (s, 3H). Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((2-(dimethylamino)-3,4-dioxocyclobut-l-en-l-yl)amino) propyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8

Chemical Formula: C 51 H 95 N 3 0 6

Molecular Weight: 846.34

[00241] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (220 mg, 0.3 mmol) in 10 mL ethanol was added 3-(dimethylamino)- 4-methoxycyclobut-3-ene-l,2-dione (47 mg, 0.3 mmol) and the resulting colorless solution stirred at rt for 20 hours after which no starting amine remained by LC/MS. The solution was concentrated in vacuo and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8- ((3-((2-(dimethylamino)-3,4-dioxocyclobut-l-en-l-yl)amino)pr opyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate ( 135 mg, 0.16 mmol, 53%) as a colorless syrup. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.51 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 847.3 for C51H95N3O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.86 (br. s., 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 6 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6 Hz); 3.92 (d, 2H, J = 3 Hz); 3.20 (s, 6H); 2.63 (br. s, 2H); 2.42 (br. s, 3H); 2.28 (m, 4H); 1.74 (br. s, 2H); 1.61 (m, 8H); 1.50 (m, 5H); 1.41 (m, 3H); 1.25 (br. m, 47H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J= 7.5 Hz).

EC. Compound 170: Heptadecan-9-yl (E)-8-((3-((l-(methylamino)-2- nitrovinyl)ami

Chemical Formula: C 48 H94N 4 0 6

Molecular Weight: 823.30

[00242] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (220 mg, 0.3 mmol) in 5 mL methanol was added 1-methylthio-l- methylamino-2-nitroethene (45 mg, 0.3 mmol), the resulting solution heated to 70 °C and stirred for 24 hours after which no starting amine remained by LC/MS. The solution was diluted with DCM and washed once with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. The organic phase was dried (MgSC ), filtered and the filtrate evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl (E)-8-((3-(( l-(methylamino)-2- nitrovinyl)amino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octan oate (90 mg, 0.1 1 mmol, 36%) as a pale yellow syrup. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.33 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 824.3 for

C48H94N4O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 10.15 (d, 1H, J= 9 Hz); 8.26 (d, 1H, J= 27 Hz); 6.55 (d, 1H, J= 9 Hz); 4.86 (quint, 1H, J = 6 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6 Hz); 3.32 (br. s, 1H); 3.24 (br. s, 1H); 2.81 (dd, 3H, J = 3 Hz, 12 Hz); 2.63 (br. s, 1H); 2.47 (br. s, 4H); 2.28 (m, 4H); 1.77 (br. s, 2H); 1.62 (m, 5H); 1.59 (m, 6H); 1.49 (m, 3H); 1.43 (m, 3H); 1.26 (br. m, 46H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J = 7.5 Hz). ED. Compound 171: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((9-hydroxy-9-methyloctadecyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate

((Dec-9-en-l-yloxy)methyl)be

Chemical Formula: C17H26O

Molecular Weight: 246.394

[00243] To a suspension of sodium hydride (3.88 g, 96.99 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was added 9-decen-l-ol (10 g, 63.99 mmol) slowly. After 30 min. benzyl bromide (10.57 mL, 88.9 mmol) was added. The reaction was allowed to stir at rt for 18 h. The reaction was quenched with water. Solvents were evaporated under vacuum. The residue was diluted with EtOAc and washed with sat. NaHCC , followed by brine. The organic layer was separated, dried with Na2S04, filtered, and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography with (0-20%) EtOAc in hexanes to obtain ((dec-9-en-l-yloxy)methyl)benzene

(8.5 g, 34.5 mmol, 54%). 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 7.32 (m, 5H); 5.83 (m, 1H); 4.98 (m, 2H); 4.53 (s, 2H); 3.49 (t, 2H); 2.06 (m, 2H); 1.64 (m, 2H); 1.46-1.26 (br. m, 10H).

10-(Benzyloxy)decan-2-one

Chemical Formula: C17H26O2

Molecular Weight: 262.393

[00244] To a solution of palladium chloride (0.09 g, 0.52 mmol) and benzoquinone (3.09 g, 28.57 mmol) in DMF/Water (7: 1, 12.8 mL), [(dec-9-en-l-yloxy)methyl]benzene (6.4 g, 25.98 mmol) was slowly added and the dark brown solution was allowed to stir for 3 days at rt. The mixture was dissolved in 2N HC1 (50 mL) and extracted with ether (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with 2N NaOH (3 x 50 mL) and dried over MgS04.

Solvents were removed under vacuum and the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-40%) ethyl acetate in hexanes to obtain 10-(benzyloxy)decan-2-one (3.44 g, 13.11 mmol, 50%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.36 (m, 5H); 4.52 (s, 2H); 3.48 (t, 2H); 2.43 (t, 2H); 2.15 (s, 3H); 1.61 (m, 4H); 1.45-1.24 (br. m, 8H).

l-(Benzyloxy)-9-met

Chemical Formula: C26H46O2 Molecular Weight: 390.652

[00245] To a solution of 10-(benzyloxy)decan-2-one (1 g, 3.81 mmol) in THF (30 mL) at 0 °C, bromo(nonyl)magnesium (4.57 mL 1 M in diethylether, 4.57 mmol) was added dropwise. The reaction was allowed to warm to rt and stir for 4 h. The reaction was quenched with water (2mL), diethylether was added (200 mL) and the resulting white solid was filtered through a silica plug. The filtrate was extracted with ether. The organic layer was washed with water, followed by brine. The organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography with (0- 40%) EtOAc in hexanes to obtain l-(benzyloxy)-9-methyloctadecan-9-ol (0.99 g). The product was impure but taken to the next step without further purification.

9-Methyloctadecane-l,9-diol

Chemical Formula: C19H40O2

Molecular Weight: 300.527

[00246] Under N2 a flask was charged with l-(benzyloxy)-9-methyloctadecan-9-ol (1 g, 2.56 mmol), Pd(OH)2 (100 mg) and EtOH. The reaction was purged with H2 and was kept under H2 (balloon) with stirring for 16 h at rt. The reaction was purged with N2. The reaction was filtered through a plug of Celite and the Celite was washed with EtOAc (200 mL). The filtrate was evaporated under vacuum. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc and was washed with water. The organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, filtered, and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography with EtOAc in hexanes (0- 40%) to obtain 9-methyloctadecane- l,9-diol (0.65g, 2.16 mmol, 84%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 3.66 (t, 2H); 1.59 (m, 2H); 1.49-1.22 (br. m, 29H); 1.17 (s, 3H); 0.90 (m, 3H). l-Bromo-9-methyloct

Chemical Formula: Ci9H39BrO

Molecular Weight: 363.42

[00247] l-Bromo-9-methyloctadecan-9-ol was synthesized in the same manner as (Z)- \- bromo-10-octyloctadec-8-ene. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 3.43 (t, 2H); 1.88 (m, 2H); 1.53-1.23 (br. m, 28H); 1.17 (s, 3H); 0.91 (m, 3H).

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((9-hydroxy-9-methyloctadecyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino)octano ate

Chemical Formula: C46H93NO4

Molecular Weight: 724.253

[00248] Compound 171 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.56 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 725.0 for C46H93NO4. 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDC13) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 1H); 3.55 (m, 2H); 2.60 (m, 2H); 2.47 (m, 4H); 2.30 (t, 2H); 1.74- 1.21(m, 69H); 1.17 (s, 3H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

EE. Compound 172: (i?)-Decan-2-yl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)amin

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO5

Molecular Weight: 724.209

[00249] Compound 172 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.53 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 725.0 for C45H89NO5. 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDC13) δ: ppm 4.91 (m, 2H); 3.54 (m, 2H); 2.59 (m, 2H); 2.46 (m, 4H); 2.30 (m, 4H); 1.70-1.19 (m, 66H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

EF. Compound 173: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(/V-methylmethylsulfonamido)propyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 4 7H94N 2 0 6 S

Molecular Weight: 815.34

[00250] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-chloropropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (200 mg, 0.27 mmol) and N-methyl methanesulfonamide (50 uL, 0.54 mmol) in 4 mL dry DMF was added cesium carbonate ( 130 mg, 0.40 mmol), the resulting mixture heated to 60 °C and stirred for 24 hours, after which no starting chloride remained by LC/MS. The mixture was allowed to cool to rt, diluted with a 50% saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted twice with DCM. The organics were combined, washed once with water, dried (MgSCU), filtered and cone, to a yellow oil. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(N-methylmethylsulfonamido)propyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (85 mg, 0.11 mmol, 39%) as a pale yellow oil.

UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.57 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 816.1 for C47H94N2O6S. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (quint., 1H, J= 6 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6 Hz); 3.15 (t, 2H, J= 7.5 Hz); 2.85 (s, 3H); 2.79 (3, 3H); 2.40 (br. m, 5H); 2.28 (m, 4H); 1.72 (br. m, 2H); 1.64 - 1.49 (m, 13H); 1.26 (br. m, 50H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J= 7.5 Hz).

EG. Compound 174: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-l-yl)propyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 48 H 91 N 3 0 6

Molecular Weight: 806.27

[00251] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-chloropropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (200 mg, 0.27 mmol) and hydantoin (50 mg, 0.54 mmol) in 4 mL dry DMF was added cesium carbonate (130 mg, 0.40 mmol), the resulting mixture heated to 60 °C and stirred for 24 hours, after which no starting chloride remained by LC/MS. The mixture was allowed to cool to rt, diluted with a 50% saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted twice with DCM. The organics were combined, washed once with water, dried (MgS04), filtered and cone. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-l-yl)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (35 mg, 0.05 mmol, 18%) as a pale yellow oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.52 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 807.2 for C48H91N3O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.27 (br. s, 1H); 4.86 (quint, 1H, J= 6 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6 Hz); 3.95 (s, 2H); 3.55 (t, 2H, J= 7.5 Hz); 2.50 - 2.34 (br. m, 5H); 2.26 (m, 4H); 1.77 (br. s, 2H); 1.64 - 1.49 (m, 15H); 1.26 (br. m, 48H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J= 7.5 Hz). EH. Compound 175: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((methylcarbamoyl)oxy)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)- 8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 47 H92N 2 0 6

Molecular Weight: 781.26

[00252] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-hydroxypropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (200 mg, 0.27 mmol) and triethylamine (60 uL, 0.41 mmol) in 5 mL dry DCM at 0 °C was added methyl isocyanate (22 uL, 0.35 mmol) dropwise. The cooling bath was removed and the solution stirred at rt for 2 hours, after which no starting alcohol remained by LC/MS. The reaction was quenched with three drops of methanol, the mixture reduced in a stream of nitrogen and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3- ((methylcarbamoyl)oxy)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino) octanoate (1 15 mg, 0.15 mmol, 53%) as a colorless oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.54 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 782.3 for

C47H92N2O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 6 Hz); 4.62 (br. s, 1H); 4.05 (m, 4H); 2.79 (d, 3H, J= 3 Hz); 2.47 (br. s, 2H); 2.37 (br. m, 3H); 2.27 (m, 4H); 1.73 (br. s, 2H); 1.61 (m, 7H); 1.50 (br. m, 4H); 1.40 (br. m, 4H); 1.25 (br. m, 48H); 0.87 (t, 9H, J = 7.5 Hz).

EI. Compound 176: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-l-yl)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)- 8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 49 H 92 2 0 6

Molecular Weight: 805.28

[00253] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-chloropropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (200 mg, 0.27 mmol) and succinimide (50 mg, 0.54 mmol) in 4 mL dry DMSO was added cesium carbonate (130 mg, 0.40 mmol), the resulting mixture heated to

80 °C and stirred for 48 hours, after which no starting chloride remained by LC/MS. The mixture was allowed to cool to rt, diluted with a 50% saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted three times with DCM. The organics were combined, washed once with water, dried (MgSCU), filtered and cone. The residue was purified twice by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to giveheptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-l-yl)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)- 8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (44 mg, 0.05 mmol, 19%) as a slightly yellow oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.56 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 806.1 for C49H92N2O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (quint., 1H, J= 6 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6 Hz); 3.52 (t, 2H, J= 7.5 Hz); 2.69 (s, 4H); 2.42 - 2.25 (br. m, 9H); 1.71 - 1.58 (m, 10H); 1.50 (br. d, 4H, J = 3 Hz); 1.26 (br. m, 51H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J= 7.5 Hz).

EJ. Compound 177: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(4-(tert-butoxymethyl)-lH-l,2,3-triazol-l- yl)propyl)(8

Chemical Formula: C 52 H 100 N 4

Molecular Weight: 861.40

[00254] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-azidopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (500 mg, 0.67 mmol) and fert-butyl propargyl ether (100 uL, 0.73 mmol) in 4 mL THF was added a suspension of anhydrous copper(II) sulfate (5 mg, 0.03 mmol) and sodium ascorbate (14 mg, 0.07 mmol) in 1 mL water and the mixture stirred at rt for 24 hours, after which no starting azide remained by LC/MS. The mixture was diluted with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted three times with DCM. The organics were combined, dried (MgSC ), filtered and cone. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(4-(tert-butoxymethyl)-lH-l,2,3-triazol-l- yl)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (485 mg, 0.56 mmol, 84%) as a slightly yellow oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.63 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 862.2 for C52H100N4O5. 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.50 (s, 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J= 6 Hz); 4.59 (s, 2H); 4.36 (t, 2H, J = 7.5 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6 Hz); 2.36 (br. m, 5H); 2.28 (m, 4H); 2.02 (br. m, 2H); 1.62 (br. m, 8H); 1.50 (br. d, 4H, J = 3 Hz); 1.28 (br. m, 60H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J= 7.5 Hz).

EK. Compound 178: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-methoxyacetamido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C4 8 H 94 N20 6

Molecular Weight: 795.29

[00255] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (200 mg, 0.27 mmol) and triethylamine (60 uL, 0.41 mmol) in 5 mL dry DCM at 0 °C was added methoxyacetyl chloride (30 uL, 0.33 mmol) dropwise. The cooling bath was removed and the solution stirred at rt for 24 hours, after which no starting amine remained by LC/MS. The mixture was diluted with a 50% saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted twice with DCM. The organics were combined, washed once with water, dried (MgSCU), filtered and cone. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-methoxyacetamido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (50 mg, 0.06 mmol, 23%) as a colorless oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.56 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 796.2 for C48H94N2O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.53 (s, 1H); 4.86 (quint, 1H, J= 6 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6 Hz); 3.87 (s, 2H); 3.39 (m, 5H); 2.47 (br. s, 2H); 2.36 (br. m, 3H); 2.27 (m, 4H); 1.61 (m, 8H); 1.46 (br. m, 9H); 1.26 (br. m, 48H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J= 7.5 Hz).

EL. Compound 179: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(lH-l,2,3-triazol-l-yl)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(3-(4-(trimethylsilyl)-lH-l,2,3- triazol-l- yl)propyl)amin

Chemical Formula: C 50 H9 8 N4O 4 Si

Molecular Weight: 847.44

[00256] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-azidopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (200 mg, 0.27 mmol) and ethynyltrimethylsilane (41 uL, 0.29 mmol) in 2 mL THF was added a suspension of anhydrous copper(II) sulfate (2 mg, 0.01 mmol) and sodium ascorbate (5 mg, 0.02 mmol) in 0.5 mL water and the mixture stirred at rt for 20 hours, after which no starting azide remained by LC/MS. The mixture was diluted with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted three times with DCM. The organics were combined, dried (MgSCU), filtered and cone. The residue was purified by silica gel

chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(3-(4-(trimethylsilyl)- lH-l,2,3-triazol-l-yl)propyl)amino)octanoate (150 mg, 0.18 mmol, 66%) as a slightly yellow oil which is a 2: 1 mixture of TMS / des-TMS product by ^-NMR. Carried through as is.

UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.63 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 848.3 for C50H98N4O4S1. 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.55 (s, 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J= 6 Hz); 4.45 (t, 2H, J= 7.5 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6 Hz); 3.42 (br. s, 1H); 2.28 (m, 5H); 1.65 - 1.45 (br. m, 14H); 1.25 (br. m, 48H); 0.87 (t, 9H, J= 7.5 Hz); 0.33 (s, 6H).

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(lH-l,2,3-triazol-l-yl)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 47 H 90 N 4 O4

Molecular Weight: 775.26

[00257] To a solution of ( 150 mg, 0.18 mmol) in 5 mL THF was added a 1 M

tetrabutylammonium fluoride solution in THF (0.21 mL, 0.21 mmol) and the solution stirred at rt for 24 hours after which the reaction had progressed ca. 25%. The solution was heated to 55 °C and stirred for 24 hours, after which the reaction was complete by LC/MS. The solution was diluted with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted twice with

DCM. The organics were combined, dried (MgSCU), filtered and cone. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(lH-l,2,3-triazol-l-yl)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)- 8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (53 mg, 0.07 mmol, 39%) as a colorless oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.55 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 776.2 for C47H90N4O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.69 (s, 1H); 7.55 (s, 1H); 4.86 (quint, 1H, J= 6 Hz); 4.44 (t, 2H, J= 7.5 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6 Hz); 2.37 (br. m, 5H); 2.28 (m, 4H); 2.05 (br. m, 2H); 1.61 (br. m, 8H); 1.49 (br. m, 4H); 1.26 (br. m, 51H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J= 7.5 Hz). EM. Compound 181: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((methoxycarbonyl)amino)propyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-

Chemical Formula: C 47 H92N 2 0 6

Molecular Weight: 781.26

[00258] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (200 mg, 0.27 mmol) and triethylamine (60 uL, 0.41 mmol) in 5 mL dry DCM at 0 °C was added methyl chloroformate (27 uL, 0.33 mmol) dropwise. The cooling bath was removed and the solution stirred at rt for 24 hours, after which no starting amine remained by LC/MS. The mixture was diluted with a 50% saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted twice with DCM. The organics were combined, washed once with water, dried (MgSO- , filtered and cone. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((methoxycarbonyl)amino)propyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (120 mg, 0.15 mmol, 54%) as a colorless oil.

UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.55 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 782.1 for C47H92N2O6. Ή NMR (300 MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 6.11 (br. s, 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J= 6 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6 Hz); 3.64 (s, 3H); 3.25 (br. d, 2H, J= 6 Hz); 2.46 (br. s, 2H); 2.38 - 2.24 (m, 7H); 1.61 (br. t, 9H, J= 7.5 Hz); 1.50 (m, 4H); 1.42 (br. m, 3H); 1.26 (br. m, 49H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J= 7.5 Hz).

EN. Compound 182: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((2-(methylamino)-3,4-dioxocyclobut-l-en-l- yl)amino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

3-Methoxy-4-(methylamino)cyclobut-3

Chemical Formula: C 6 H 7 N0 3

Molecular Weight: 141.13

[00259] To a solution of 3,4-dimethoxy-3-cyclobutene-l,2-dione (1 g, 7 mmol) in 100 mL diethyl ether was added a 2M methylamine solution in THF (3.8 mL, 7.6 mmol) and a ppt. formed almost immediately. The mixture was stirred at rt for 24 hours, then filtered, the filter solids washed with diethyl ether and air-dried. The filter solids were dissolved in hot EtOAc, filtered, the filtrate allowed to cool to room temp., then cooled to 0 °C to give a ppt. This was isolated via filtration, washed with cold EtOAc, air-dried, then dried under vacuum to give 3- methoxy-4-(methylamino)cyclobut-3-ene-l,2-dione (0.70 g, 5 mmol, 73%) as a white solid. Ή NMR (300 MHz, DMSO- e) δ: ppm 8.50 (br. d, 1H, J = 69 Hz); 4.27 (s, 3H); 3.02 (sdd, 3H, J = 42 Hz, 4.5 Hz).

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((2-(methylamino)-3,4-dioxocyclobut-l-en-l-yl)amino)pr opyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-

Chemical Formula: C 50 H 93 N3O 6

Molecular Weight: 832.31

[00260] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (200 mg, 0.28 mmol) in 10 mL ethanol was added 3-methoxy-4- (methylamino)cyclobut-3-ene-l,2-dione (39 mg, 0.28 mmol) and the resulting colorless solution stirred at rt for 20 hours after which no starting amine remained by LC/MS. The solution was concentrated in vacuo and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8- ((3 -((2-(methylamino)-3 ,4-dioxocyclobut- 1 -en- 1 -yl)amino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (138 mg, 0.17 mmol, 60%) as a gummy white solid. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3. min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 833.4 for C51H95N3O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCh) δ: ppm 7.86 (br. s., 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J= 6 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6 Hz); 3.92 (d, 2H, J= 3 Hz); 3.20 (s, 6H); 2.63 (br. s, 2H); 2.42 (br. s, 3H); 2.28 (m, 4H); 1.74 (br. s, 2H); 1.61 (m, 8H); 1.50 (m, 5H); 1.41 (m, 3H); 1.25 (br. m, 47H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J= 7.5 Hz).

EO. Compound 183: l,3-Bis(hexyloxy)propan-2-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

(((l,3-Bis(hexyloxy)propan-2-yl)

Chemical Formula: C22H38O3

Molecular Weight: 350.543 [00261] To a slurry of NaH ( 1.76 g, 43.9 mmol) in THF (40 mL) under N 2 was added 2- (benzyloxy)propane-l,3-diol (2 g, 10.98 mmol) and the mixture was allowed to stir at 40 °C for 2 h. After this time 1-bromohexane (4.35 g, 26.34 mmol) in DMF (2ml) and a catalytic amount of KI were added. The reaction was refluxed for 16 h. Solvents were evaporated under vacuum. The residue was diluted with EtOAc and washed with sat. NaHCC , followed by brine. The organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, filtered, and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography with (0-40%) EtOAc in hexanes to obtain (((l,3-bis(hexyloxy)propan-2-yl)oxy)methyl)benzene (1.7 g, 4.75 mmol, 43%). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.34 (m, 5H); 4.73 (s, 2H); 3.75 (m, 1H); 3.61-3.40 (m, 8H); 1.59 (m, 4H); 1.32 (m, 12H); 0.91 (m, 6H).

l,3-Bis(hexyloxy)propan-2-ol

Chemical Formula: C15H32O3

Molecular Weight: 260.418

[00262] l,3-Bis(hexyloxy)propan-2-ol was synthesized using the same manner as 9- Methyloctadecane-l,9-diol. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 3.96 (m, 1H); 3.48 (m, 8H); 2.37 (br. S, 1H); 1.64 (m, 2H); 1.60 (m, 4H); 1.32 (m, 12H); 0.91 (m, 6H).

l,3-Bis(hexyloxy)propan-2-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C42H83NO7

Molecular Weight: 714.126

[00263] Compound 183 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.17 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 715.0 for C42H83NO7. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.15 (m, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.66-3.34 (m, 10H); 2.71-2.41 (m, 6H); 2.34 (m, 4H); 1.74-1.20 (m, 50H); 0.91 (m, 9H).

EP. Compound 184: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-((2-methylnonyl)oxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

2-Methylnonyl 8-bromooctanoate

Chemical Formula: OsHBsBrC

Molecular Weight: 363.380

[00264] To a solution of 8-bromooctanoic acid (3.83 g, 17.18 mmol), 2-methylnonan-l-ol (2.72 g, 17.18 mmol), 4-dimethylaminopyridine (0.42 g, 3.44 mmol) in DCM (25 mL) under N 2 was added (3-{[(ethylimino)methylidene]amino}propyl)dimethylamine hydrochloride (3.29 g, 17.18 mmol). The reaction was allowed to stir at rt for 16 h. The reaction was diluted with DCM and washed with sat. NaHCC , followed by brine. The organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, filtered, and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography with (0-20%) EtOAc in hexanes to obtain 2-methylnonyl 8-bromooctanoate (5.1 g, 14.04 mmol, 82%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 3.98 (m, 2H); 3.43 (t, 2H); 2.33 (t, 2H); 1.93-1.74 (m, 3H); 1.72-1.09 (m, 20H); 0.93 (m, 6H).

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-( )amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO5

Molecular Weight: 724.209

[00265] Compound 184 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.60 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 725.0 for C45H89NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 1H); 3.92 (m, 2H); 3.57 (m, 2H); 2.70-2.41 (m, 6H); 2.31 (m, 4H); 1.79 (m, 1H); 1.70-1.07(m, 60H); 0.93 (m, 12H). EQ. Compound 185: Henicosan-ll-yl 6-((2-hydroxyethyl)(6-oxo-6- (undecyloxy)hexyl)

Chemical Formula: C46H91NO5

Molecular Weight: 738.236 [00266] Compound 185 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.72min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 739.0 for C46H91NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.88 (m, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.55 (m, 2H); 2.60 (m, 2H); 2.48 (m, 4H); 2.32 (m, 4H); 1.72-1.41 (m, 15H); 1.28 (m, 52H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

ER. Compound 186: Heptyl 10-((2-hydroxyethyl)(10-oxo-10-(tridecan-7- yloxy)decyl)amino)

Chemical Formula: C42H83NO5

Molecular Weight: 682.128

[00267] Compound 186 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.31min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 739.0 for CUHSBNOS. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.55 (m, 2H); 2.58 (m, 2H); 2.47 (m, 4H); 2.30 (m, 4H); 1.71-1.18 (m, 58H); 0.90 (m, 9H). ES. Compound 189: Heptyl 10-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)amin

Chemical Formula: C44H87NO5

Molecular Weight: 710.182

[00268] Compound 189 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.47min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 710.98 for CwHsvNOs. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.55 (m, 2H); 2.61 (m, 2H); 2.47 (m, 4H); 2.31 (m, 4H); 1.70-1.20 (m, 62H); 0.90 (m, 9H). ET. Compound 194: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-isobutyramidopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C49H 96 N 2 0 5

Molecular Weight: 793.32

[00269] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (150 mg, 0.21 mmol) and triethylamine (90 uL, 0.62 mmol) in 5 mL dry DCM at 0 °C was added isobutyryl chloride (35 uL, 0.31 mmol) dropwise. After 30 minutes the cooling bath was removed and the solution stirred at rt for 90 minutes, after which no starting amine remained by LC/MS. The mixture was diluted with a 50% saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted twice with DCM. The organics were combined, washed once with water, dried (MgSO- , filtered and cone. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-isobutyramidopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (65 mg, 0.08 mmol, 39%) as a colorless oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.65 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 794.3 for C49H96N2O5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.53 (s, 1H); 4.86 (quint, 1H, J= 6 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6 Hz); 3.87 (s, 2H); 3.39 (m, 5H); 2.47 (br. s, 2H); 2.36 (br. m, 3H); 2.27 (m, 4H); 1.61 (m, 8H); 1.46 (br. m, 9H); 1.26 (br. m, 48H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J= 7.5 Hz).

EU. Compound 197: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-(benzyloxy)acetamido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)- 8-oxooc

Chemical Formula: C 5 4H 98 N 2 0 6

Molecular Weight: 871.39

[00270] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (300 mg, 0.41 mmol) and triethylamine (145 uL, 1 mmol) in 10 mL dry DCM at 0 °C was added benzyloxyacetyl chloride (82 uL, 0.52 mmol) dropwise. The cooling bath was removed and the solution stirred at rt for 24 hours, after which no starting amine remained by LC/MS. The mixture was diluted with a 50% saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted twice with DCM. The organics were combined, washed once with water, dried (MgSCU), filtered and cone. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-(benzyloxy)acetamido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)- 8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (179 mg, 0.21 mmol, 50%) as a colorless oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.66 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 872.4 for C54H98N2O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.55 (s, 1H); 7.33 (m, 5H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 6 Hz); 4.55 (s, 2H); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6 Hz); 3.97 (s, 2H); 3.35 (quart., 2H, J= 6 Hz); 2.46 (br. m, 2H); 2.28 (m, 7H); 1.65 - 1.48 (m, 15H); 1.26 (br. m, 50H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J = 7.5 Hz).

EV. Compound 198: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-hydroxyacetamido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 47 H 92 N 2 0 6

Molecular Weight: 781.26

[00271] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-(benzyloxy)acetamido)propyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (130 mg, 0.15 mmol) in 5 mL ethanol under nitrogen was added palladium 10 wt.% on carbon (approx.. 20, cat.) added, the sides of the flask washed down with ethanol and the flask fitted with a hydrogen balloon. The flask was evacuated and back-filled with hydrogen three times, then stirred at rt for 24 hours after which no starting ether remained by LC/MS. The flask was flushed with nitrogen, the mixture filtered through diatomaceous earth, the filter solids washed with ethanol and the filtrate cone. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2- hydroxyacetamido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octan oate (55 mg, 0.07 mmol, 47%) as a colorless oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.46 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 782.2 for C47H92N2O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.73 (br. s, 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J= 6 Hz); 4.05 (m, 4H); 3.40 (quart., 2H, J= 6 Hz); 2.50 (m, 2H); 2.37 (t, 4H, J= 6 Hz); 2.28 (m, 4H); 1.63 (m, 8H); 1.46 (br. m, 8H); 1.26 (br. m, 49H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J= 7.5 Hz).

EW. Compound 200: Heptadecan-9-yl (£)-8-((3-(3-methyl-2-nitroguanidino)propyl)(8-

(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Methyl ( ^-iV-methyl-iV-nitrocarbamimidothioate

Chemical Formula: C 3 H 7 N 3 0 2 S

Molecular Weight: 149.17

[00272] To a suspension of 2-methyl-l-nitro-2-thiopseudourea (1.0 g, 7.4 mmol) and cesium carbonate (2.5 g, 7.8 mmol in 8 mL dry DMF was added iodomethane (0.69 mL, 11.1 mmol) and the mixture stirred at room temp for 24 hours. The yellow mixture was diluted with water and extracted twice with EtOAc. The organics were combined, washed three times with a 50% saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, once with brine, dried (MgSCU), filtered and cone, to a yellow solid. This was dissolved in hot water, the solution filtered and the filtrate cooled to 4 °C for three days. The resulting solids were isolated via filtration, washed with water, air-dried, then dried under vacuum to give methyl (E/Z)-N-methyl-N- nitrocarbamimidothioate (85 mg, 0.57 mmol, 8%) as a pale yellow solid. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 10.02 (br. s, 1H); 3.12 (d, 1H, J= 6 Hz); 2.53 (s, 3H).

Chemical Formula: C 47 H 9 3N 5 0 6

Molecular Weight: 824.29

[00273] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (200 mg, 0.28 mmol) in 5 mL methanol was added methyl (E/Z)-N- methyl-N-nitrocarbamimidothioate (45 mg, 0.3 mmol), the resulting solution heated to 70 °C and stirred for 24 hours after which no starting amine remained by LC/MS. The solution was diluted with DCM and washed once with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. The organic phase was dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl (£)-8-((3-(3-methyl-2- nitroguanidino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoa te (75 mg, 0.09 mmol, 33%) as a pale yellow syrup. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.55 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 825.3 for C47H93N5O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 9.26 (br. s, 1H); 8.27 (br. s, 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J= 6 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6 Hz); 3.42 (br. s, 2H); 2.86 (d, 3H, J= 6 Hz); 2.60 - 2.40 (br. m, 5H); 2.28 (m, 4H); 1.73 (br. s, 2H); 1.65 - 1.40 (m, 16H); 1.26 (br. m, 47H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J= 7.5 Hz). EX. Compound 207: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-guanidinopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Heptadecan-9-yl 6-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)-2,2-dimethyl-ll-(8-(nonyloxy) -8- oxooctyl)-4-oxo-3-oxa-5,7,ll-triazanonadec-6-en-19-oate

Chemical Formula: C 56 H 108 N 4

Molecular Weight: 965.50

[00274] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (300 mg, 0.41 mmol) and triethylamine (230 uL, 1.66 mmol) in 10 mL dry DCM at 0 °C was added l,3-bis(fert-butoxycarbonyl)-2-

(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)guanidine (325 mg, 0.83 mmol) in one portion and the resulting solution allowed to gradually warm to rt with stirring overnight. LC/MS showed no starting material remained so the solution was diluted with DCM, washed with a 50% saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, the organic layer dried (MgSC ), filtered and cone. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 6-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)- 2,2-dimethyl- 11 -(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)-4-oxo-3 -oxa-5 ,7, 11 -triazanonadec-6-en- 19-oate (310 mg, 0.32 mmol, 77%) as a colorless oil in ca. 95% purity. Largest single impurity has mass corresponding to product with loss of one Boc group. Carried through as is. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.90 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 966.0 for 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 11.49 (s, lH); 8.55 (br. s., 1H); 4.86 (quint, 1H, J= 6 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 7.5 Hz); 3.45 (quart., 2H, J= 6 Hz); 2.46 (m, 2H); 2.36 (m, 4H); 2.27 (m, 4H); 1.61 (m, 8H); 1.50 (m, 22H); 1.40 (m, 4H); 1.25 (br. m, 48H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J= 7.5 Hz).

Chemical Formula: C 46 H 9 2N 4 0 4

Molecular Weight: 765.27

[00275] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 6-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)-2,2-dimethyl-l l-(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)-4-oxo-3-oxa-5,7,l l-triazanonadec-6-en-19-oate (310 mg, 0.32 mmol) in 10 mL DCM was added trifluoroacetic acid (500 uL, excess) and the solution stirred at rt for 48 hours after which no starting material remained by LC/MS. The solution was cone, the residue codistilled with DCM twice and purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3- guanidinopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (210 mg, 0.27 mmol, 84%) as a colorless oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.16 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 766.3 for C46H92N4O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 10.92 (br. s, 1H); 8.82 (br. s, 1H); 7.25 (br. s, 2H); 4.85 (quint., 1H, J= 6 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6 Hz); 3.38 (br. s, 2H); 3.15 (br. s, 2H); 3.00 (br. s, 4H); 2.29 (m, 4H); 2.05 (br. s, 2H); 1.91 (br. s, 3H); 1.70 - 1.45 (br. m, 12H); 1.26 (br. m, 47H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J = 7.5 Hz).

EY. Compound 218: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(4-(hydroxymethyl)-lH-l,2,3-triazol-l- yl)propyl)(8-(

Chemical Formula: C 48 H92N 4 0 5

Molecular Weight: 805.29

[00276] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(4-(tert-butoxymethyl)-lH-l,2,3-triazol-l- yl)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (190 mg, 0.22 mmol) in 4 mL DCM was added trifluoroacetic acid (675 uL, excess) and the solution stirred at rt for 72 hours after which no starting material remained by LC/MS. The solution was cone, the residue codistilled with DCM twice and purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(4- (hydroxymethyl)- 1H- 1 ,2,3-triazol- 1 -yl)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (113 mg, 0.14 mmol, 64%) as a colorless oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.41 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 806.1 for C48H92N4O5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.54 (s, 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 6 Hz); 4.80 (s, 2H); 4.40 (t, 2H, J = 7.5 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6 Hz); 2.38 (br. m, 5H); 2.28 (m, 5H);

2.04 (br. m, 2H); 1.61 (br. m, 7H); 1.50 (br. d, 4H, J = 3 Hz); 1.26 (br. m, 51H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J=

7.5 Hz) (hydroxyl proton not observed).

EZ. Compound 232: Nonyl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(6-oxo-6-((4- pentylcyclohexyl)ox

Chemical Formula: C36H59NO5

Molecular Weight: 595.950

[00277] Compound 232 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.84 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 596.84 for C36H69NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.01 (m, 0.5H); 4.68 (m, 0.5H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.56 (m, 2H), 2.67-2.55 (br. m, 2H); 2.55-2.40 (br. m, 4H); 2.31 (m, 4H); 1.97 (m, 1H); 1.82 (m, 2H); 1.73-1.15 (m, 43H); 1.02 (m, 1H); 0.90 (m, 6H).

FA. Compound 233: Heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-(3,3-dimethyl-2- (methylsulfonyl)guanidino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)am ino)octanoate

Diphenyl (methylsulfonyl)carbonimidate

Chemical Formula: C 14 H 13 N0 4 S

Molecular Weight: 291.32

[00278] In a 100 mL RBF were suspended 2.0 g (7.4 mmol) dichlorodiphenoxymethane and 1.56 g ( 16.4 mmol) methane sulfonamide in 15 mL ethyl acetate with stirring to give a white mixture. This was heated to reflux (85 °C) and stirred for 24 hours, after which only product was seen by LC/MS. The mixture was allowed to cool to room temp., cone, the residue suspended in DCM and filtered. The filter solids were washed with DCM, the filtrates combined and cone. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-40% EtOAc in hexanes), the product-containing fractions pooled and cone, to a slightly yellow solid. This was triturated with hexanes, filtered, the filter solids washed with hexanes and air-dried to give diphenyl (methylsulfonyl)carbonimidate (0.84 g, 2.88 mmol, 39%) as a white solid.

UPLC/ELSD: RT = 0.50 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 292.2 for C14H13NO4S. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 7.45-7.37 (m, 4H); 7.30 (m, 2H); 7.21 (m, 4H); 3.01 (s, 3H).

Heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-(3,3-dimethyl-2-(methylsulfonyl)guanidino)propyl)( 8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C49H9 8 N 4 0 6 S

Molecular Weight: 871.41

[00279] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (200 mg, 0.28 mmol) in 5 mL 2-propanol was added triethylamine (40 uL, 0.28 mmol) followed by diphenyl (methylsulfonyl)carbonimidate (81 mg, 0.28 mmol) and the white mixture stirred at room temp, for three hours after which no starting amine remained by LC/MS. To the solution was added a 2.0M dimethylamine solution in THF (0.75 mL, 1.5 mmol), the slightly yellow solution heated to 80 °C and stirred for 24 hours. No starting material remained by LC/MS so the solution was allowed to cool to room temp., cone, in a stream of nitrogen and the residue dissolved in DCM. The solution was washed once with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, then dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH40H, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8- ((3-(3,3-dimethyl-2-(methylsulfonyl)guanidino)propyl)(8-(non yloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (80 mg, 0.09 mmol, 33%) as a colorless oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.53 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 872.1 for C49H98N406S. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCB) δ: ppm 7.22 (br. s, 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 12.3 Hz, 5.9 Hz, ); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.40 (br. d, 2H, J = 5.4 Hz); 2.97 (s, 9H); 2.52 (br. s, 2H); 2.39 (br. s, 3H); 2.29 (m, 4H); 1.69-1.49 (m, 15H); 1.45-1.15 (m, 50H); 0.87 (t, 9H, J = 5.8 Hz) FB. Compound 234: 8-((2-Hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octan-2-yl 2- octyldecanoate

8-Hydroxyoctan-2-yl -octyldecanoate

Chemical Formula: C26H52O3

Molecular Weight: 412.699

[00280] Compound 8-Hydroxyoctan-2-yl 2-octyldecanoate was synthesized according to the general procedure as of 8-Hydroxyoctan-2-yl decanoate. Ή NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.93 (m, 1H); 3.66 (t, 2H); 2.29 (m, 1H); 1.69- 1.16 (m, 42H); 0.90 (m, 6H).

8-Bromooctan-2-yl 2-o

Chemical Formula: de biBrC

Molecular Weight: 475.596

[00281] Compound 8-Bromooctan-2-yl 2-octyldecanoate was synthesized according to the general procedure as of (Z)-l-Bromo-10-octyloctadec-8-ene. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.94 (m, 1H); 3.42 (t, 2H); 2.30 (m, 1H); 1.87 (m, 2H); 1.69- 1.16 (m, 39H); 0.90 (m, 6H) 8-((2-Hydroxyethy -(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octan-2-yl 2-octyldecanoate

Chemical Formula: C45H89NO5

Molecular Weight: 724.209

[00282] Compound 234 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.61 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 725.08 for C45H89NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.93 (m, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.71 (br. m, 2H); 3.00-2.50 (br. m, 6H); 2.32 (m, 3H); 1.73- 1.15(m, 65H); 0.90 (m, 9H). FC. Compound 235: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(3- propionamidopropyl)amino)octanoate

9-Hydroxydecyl acetate

Chemical Formula: C12H24O3

Molecular Weight: 216.321

[00283] 9-Hydroxydecyl acetate was synthesized according to the general procedure as of 8- Hydroxyoctan-2-yl decanoate. 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.07 (t, 2H); 3.80 (m, 1H); 2.07 (s, 3H); 1.76 (m, 2H); 1.54-1.16 (m, 16H).

10-Acetoxydecan-2-y -hydroxyhexanoate

Chemical Formula: C18H34O5

Molecular Weight: 330.465

[00284] lO-Acetoxydecan-2-yl 6-hydroxyhexanoate was synthesized according to the general procedure as of 8-Hydroxyoctan-2-yl decanoate. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.07 (t, 2H); 3.80 (m, 1H); 2.07 (s, 3H); 1.76 (m, 2H); 1.76 (m, 2H); 1.54-1.42 (m, 8H); 1.41-1.17 (m, 16H).

10-Acetoxydecan-2-yl -bromohexanoate

Chemical Formula: CisH33Br04

Molecular Weight: 393.362

[00285] lO-Acetoxydecan-2-yl 6-bromohexanoate was synthesized according to the general procedure as of (Z)-l-Bromo-10-octyloctadec-8-ene. 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.93 (m, 1H); 4.07 (t, 2H); 3.43 (t, 2H); 2.32 (t, 2H); 2.07 (s, 3H); 1.90 (m, 2H); 1.76-1.42 (m, 8H); 1.41-1.17 (m, 13H).

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((6-((10-acetoxydecan-2-yl)oxy)-6-oxohexyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)ami

Chemical Formula: C45H87NO7

Molecular Weight: 754.191

[00286] Compound 235 was synthesized according to the general procedure and

Representative Procedure 1 described above. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.33min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 755.10 for C45H87NO7. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.91 (m, 2H); 4.07 (t, 2H); 3.56 (m, 2H); 2.67-2.41 (m, 6H); 2.30 (t, 4H); 2.07 (s, 3H); 1.73- 1.08(m, 61H); 0.90 (m, 6H). FD. Compound 236: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(3- propionamidopropyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C^I-^I^Os

Molecular Weight: 779.29

[00287] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (160 mg, 0.22 mmol) and triethylamine (95 uL, 0.66 mmol) in 5 mL dry DCM at 0 °C was added propionyl chloride (30 uL, 0.33 mmol) dropwise. After 30 minutes the cooling bath was removed and the solution stirred at rt for 30 minutes, after which no starting amine remained by LC/MS. The mixture was diluted with a 50% saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted twice with DCM. The organics were combined, washed once with water, dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH40H, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(3- propionamidopropyl)amino)octanoate (90 mg, 0.12 mmol, 52%) as a colorless oil.

UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.59 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 780.1 for C48H94N2O5. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDC13) δ: ppm 7.29 (br. s, lH); 4.86 (quint, 1H, J = 12.4 Hz, 5.2 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.34 (quart., 2H, J = 11.3 Hz, 5.9 Hz); 2.63-2.33 (m, 6H); 2.31-2.25 (m, 4H); 2.16 (quart., 2H, J = 15.1 Hz, 7.6 Hz); 1.61 (br. t, 8H, J = 6.8 Hz); 1.55- 1.38 (br. m, 9H); 1.35-1.20 (br. m, 47H); 1.14 (t, 3H, J = 7.6 Hz); 0.87 (t, 9H, J = 6.4 Hz).

FE. Compound 244: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-acetamidoethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 4 gH9 6 2 0 6

Molecular Weight: 809.32

[00288] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (1.0 g, 1.5 mmol) and N-Boc-glycinal (0.36 g, 2.25 mmol) in 10 mL dry THF was added

MgS04 (ca. 0.5 g, excess) and the white mixture stirred at room temp, for 30 minutes. To the mixture was added sodium triacetoxyborohydride (0.67 g, 3.0 mmol) in portions over five minutes and the resulting white mixture stirred at rt overnight. No starting material remained by LC/MS so the reaction was quenched with the addition of ca. 5 mL of a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. The resulting mixture was diluted with water, extracted three times with DCM, the organics combined, washed once with water, dried (MgS04), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-40% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (930 mg, 1.15 mmol, 77%) as a pale yellow oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.66 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 809.6 for C49H96N2O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDC13) δ: ppm 4.88 (quint. 1H, J = 11.9 Hz, 6.0 Hz); 4.07 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 2.60-2.25 (m, 8H); 1.70-1.55 (m, 6H); 1.53-1.43 (m, 22H); 1.37-1.22 (m, 48H); 0.90 (t, 9H, J = 6.8 Hz)

Heptadecan-9-yl -((2-aminoethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 4 4H 88 N 2 04

Molecular Weight: 709.20

[00289] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (820 mg, 1.0 mmol) in 20 mL DCM at 0 °C was added a 4N HC1 solution in 1,4-dioxane (2.5 mL, 10 mmol), the resulting yellow solution allowed to warm to rt and stirred for three hours after which no starting material remained by LC/MS. The red/brown solution was diluted with DCM and washed with a 1 : 1 mixture of a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and brine. The phases were separated and the aqueous extracted twice with DCM. The organics were combined, dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a brown oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2- aminoethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (520 mg, 0.73 mmol, 72%) as a brown oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.15 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 709.5 for C44H88N2O4. 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 12.4 Hz, 5.9 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 2.74 (t, 2H, J = 6.0 Hz); 2.52-2.35 (m, 5H); 2.31-2.25 (m, 4H); 1.75-1.67 (br. s, 5H); 1.61 (br. t, 6H, J = 6.8 Hz); 1.55-1.37 (br. m, 8H); 1.36-1.16 (br. m, 46H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J = 6.1 Hz).

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-acetamidoethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoat e

Chemical Formula: C 46 Hg 0 N 2 O5

Molecular Weight: 751.24

[00290] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (1.0 g, 1.5 mmol) and N-Boc-glycinal (0.36 g, 2.25 mmol) in 10 mL dry THF was added MgS04 (ca. 0.5 g, excess) and the white mixture stirred at room temp, for 30 minutes. To the mixture was added sodium triacetoxyborohydride (0.67 g, 3.0 mmol) in portions over five minutes and the resulting white mixture stirred at rt overnight. No starting material remained by LC/MS so the reaction was quenched with the addition of ca. 5 mL of a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. The resulting mixture was diluted with water, extracted three times with DCM, the organics combined, washed once with water, dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-40% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-((tert- butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)oc tanoate (930 mg, 1.15 mmol, 77%) as a pale yellow oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.66 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 809.6 for C49H96N2O6. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDC13) δ: ppm 4.88 (quint. 1H, J = 11.9 Hz, 6.0 Hz); 4.07 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 2.60-2.25 (m, 8H); 1.70-1.55 (m, 6H); 1.53-1.43 (m, 22H); 1.37-1.22 (m, 48H); 0.90 (t, 9H, J = 6.8 Hz)

FF. Compound 246: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-(methylsulfonamido)ethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 4 5H9oN 2 0 6 S

Molecular Weight: 787.28

[00291] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-aminoethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (160 mg, 0.23 mmol) in 4 mL dry DCM was added triethylamine (63 uL, 0.45 mmol) and the solution cooled to 0 °C. To this was added methanesulfonyl chloride (24 uL, 0.32 mmol), the solution allowed to warm to rt and stirred for four hours. No starting material remained by LC/MS so the solution was diluted with DCM, washed once with a 50% saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, dried (MgSC ), filtered, and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-40% (mixture of 1% NH40H, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2- (methylsulfonamido)ethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octa noate (130 mg, 0.165 mmol, 73%) as a yellow oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.48 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 787.6 for

C45H90N2O6S. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDC13) δ: ppm 4.86 (quint. 1H, J = 12.4 Hz, 5.2 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.8 Hz); 3.14 (br. s, 2H); 2.95 (s, 3H); 2.61 (br. s, 2H); 2.42 (br. s, 3H); 2.32-2.25 (m, 4H); 1.61 (br. t, 6H, J = 7.0 Hz); 1.55-1.38 (m, 8H); 1.37- 1.14 (m, 50H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J = 6.1 Hz).

FG. Compound 247: Heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((2-(2-cyano-3,3-dimethylguanidino)ethyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-ox

Chemical Formula: C48H93N5

Molecular Weight: 804.30

[00292] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-aminoethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (160 mg, 0.23 mmol) in 4 mL 2-propanol was added triethylamine (31 uL, 0.23 mmol) followed by diphenyl cyanocarbonimidate (54 mg, 0.23 mmol) and the white mixture stirred at rt for two hours after which it had become a colorless solution. No starting material remained by LC/MS and only the monophenyl carbamimidate was observed (MW = 853.3). To this was added a 2M dimethylamine solution in methanol (1.1 mL, 2.2 mmol), the resulting pale yellow solution heated to 55 °C and stirred for 20 hours, after which no carbamimidate intermediate remained by LC/MS. The reaction was allowed to cool to rt, cone, the residue dissolved in DCM, washed twice with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-40% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((2-(2-cyano-3,3-dimethylguanidino)ethyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (75 mg, 0.09 mmol, 41%) as a colorless oil.

UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.46 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 804.6 for C48H93N5O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.80 (br. s, 1H); 4.86 (quint. 1H, J = 12.5 Hz, 6.2 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.60 (br. s, 2H); 3.01 (s, 6H); 2.59 (br. s, 2H); 2.40 (br. s, 3H); 2.32-2.25 (m, 4H); 1.68- 1.45 (m, 12H); 1.38-1.12 (m, 51H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J = 6.0 Hz).

FH. Compound 251 : Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((2-amino-3,4-dioxocyclobut-l-en-l- yl)amino)pro -(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 4 gH 9 N30 6

Molecular Weight: 818.28

[00293] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (220 mg, 0.28 mmol) in 8 mL ethanol was added 3-amino-4- methoxycyclobut-3-ene-l,2-dione [JACS, 88(7), 1533-1536 (1966)](35 mg, 0.28 mmol), the resulting colorless solution heated to 40 °C and stirred for 20 hours after which no starting amine remained by LC/MS. The solution was concentrated in vacuo and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((2-amino-3,4-dioxocyclobut-l-en-l- yl)amino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (175 mg, 0.21 mmol, 77%) as a gummy white solid. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.38 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 818.6 for C49H91N3O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 6.43 (br. s., 1H); 4.85 (quint, 1H, J = 12.6 Hz, 5.8 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.65 (br. s, 2H); 2.78-2.38 (m, 5H); 2.29 (m, 4H); 1.84 (br. s, 2H); 1.68- 1.41 (m, 14H); 1.40-1.14 (m, 51H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J = 6.0 Hz).

FI. Compound 252: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-(methylthio)acetamido)propyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C^H^^OsS

Molecular Weight: 811.35

[00294] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (1.0 g, 1.38 mmol) and (methylthio)acetic acid (Matrix Scientific, Columbia, SC) (150 uL, 1.66 mmol) in 20 mL dry DCM was added 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (42 mg, 0.35 mmol) followed by l-[bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-lH-l,2,3-triazolo[4,5- b]pyridinium 3-oxide hexafluorophosphate (HATU; 790 mg, 2.1 mmol) and finally N,N- diisopropylethylamine (740 uL, 4.1 mmol) and the resulting mixture stirred at rt overnight. No starting amine remained by LC/MS so the yellow solution was diluted with DCM, washed twice with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, once with brine, dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% methanol in DCM) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-(methylthio)acetamido)propyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (1.0 g, 1.23 mmol, 89%) as a yellow oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.54 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 811.56 for C48H94N2O5S. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.79 (br. s, 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 12.5 Hz, 6.2 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.40 (br. s, 2H); 3.17 (s, 2H); 2.96 (br. s, 2H); 2.66-2.34 (br. m, 3H); 2.28 (m, 4H); 2.15 (s, 3H); 1.88-1.41 (m, 16H); 1.39-1.18 (br. m, 49H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J = 5.8 Hz).

FJ. Compound 255: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-acetamidobutyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Benzyl (4,4-diethoxybutyl)car

Chemical Formula: C 16 H 25 N0 4

Molecular Weight: 295.38

[00295] To a solution of 4-aminobutanal diethyl acetal (Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) (1 g, 6.2 mmol) in 25 mL ether was added 25 mL water followed by potassium carbonate (2.6 g, 18.6 mmol) and the resulting colorless biphase cooled to 0 oC with vigorous stirring. To this was added benzyl chloroformate (0.88 mL, 6.2 mmol) dropwise over ten minutes and the resulting mixture allowed to slowly warm to rt overnight. The phases were separated and the aqueous extracted with ether. The organics were combined, washed twice with an aqueous 10% citric acid solution, then brine, dried (MgS04), filtered, and the filtrate cone, to a colorless oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% EtOAc in hexanes) to give benzyl (4,4- diethoxybutyl)carbamate (1.56 g, 5.3 mmol, 85%) as a colorless oil. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDC13) δ: ppm 7.32 (m, 5H); 5.09 (s, 2H); 4.88 (s, 1H); 4.48 (t, 2H, J = 5.3 Hz); 3.70-3.55 (m, 2H); 3.54-3.40 (m, 2H); 3.22 (quart.; 2H, J = 12.5 Hz, 6.2 Hz); 1.71-1.51 (m, 4H); 1.20 (t, 6H, J = 7.0 Hz).

Benzyl (4-oxobutyl)carbamate

Chemical Formula: C 2 H 5 N0 3

Molecular Weight: 221.26

[00296] To a solution of benzyl (4,4-diethoxybutyl)carbamate (1.56 g, 5.3 mmol) in 25 mL acetone was added an aqueous IN HC1 solution (25 mL, 25 mmol) to give a cloudy mixture which quickly became a clear solution. This was stirred at rt overnight, after which no starting acetal remained by TLC. The solution was extracted twice with Et20, the organics combined, washed once with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, once with brine, dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a colorless oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% EtOAc in hexanes) to give benzyl (4-oxobutyl)carbamate (0.82 g, 5.3 mmol, 70%) as a colorless liquid. 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.36 (m, 5H); 5.52 (br. d, 1H, J = 12.0 Hz); 5.15 (s, 2H); 3.68-3.52 (m, 1H); 3.44-3.30 (m, 1H); 2.18-1.79 (m, 4H) (aldehyde proton not observed).

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-(((benzyloxy)carbonyl)amino)butyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)ami

Chemical Formula: Cs^gs^Og

Molecular Weight: 871.39

[00297] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (1.65 g, 2.5 mmol) and benzyl (4-oxobutyl)carbamate (0.82 g, 3.71 mmol) in 15 mL dry THF was added anhydrous MgS04 (ca. 0.5 g, excess) and the white mixture stirred at rt for 30 minutes. To the mixture was added sodium triacetoxyborohydride (1.1 g, 4.9 mmol) in portions over five minutes and the resulting white mixture stirred at rt overnight. No starting material remained by LC/MS so the reaction was quenched with the addition of ca. 5 mL of a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. The resulting mixture was diluted with water, extracted three times with DCM, the organics combined, washed once with water, dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-40% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-

((4-(((benzyloxy)carbonyl)amino)butyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxo octyl)amino)octanoate (1.43 g, 1.64 mmol, 66%) as a pale yellow oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.54 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 871.52 for C54H98N206. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.34 (m, 5H); 5.51 (m, 1H); 5.15 (m, 2H); 5.09 (s, 2H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 12.3 Hz, 6.2 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.8 Hz); 3.60 (m, 1H); 3.38 (m, 1H); 3.20 (br. d, 2H, J = 3.8 Hz); 2.40 (br. s, 4H); 2.27 (m, 4H); 2.15-1.75 (m, 4H); 1.61 (br. t, 6H, J = 6.3 Hz); 1.55-1.43 (m, 8H); 1.37-1.15 (m, 46H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J = 5.8 Hz).

Heptadecan-9-y -((4-aminobutyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C^h^l^C^

Molecular Weight: 737.25

[00298] Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-(((benzyloxy)carbonyl)amino)butyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (1.42 g, 1.63 mmol) was dissolved in 20 mL ethanol with stirring to give a pale yellow solution. The reaction vessel was flushed with nitrogen and palladium 10 wt.% on carbon (ca. 200 mg, cat.) added, the sides of the vessel washed with 5 mL ethanol and the vessel again flushed with nitrogen. The flask was fitted with a hydrogen balloon, evacuated and back-filled with hydrogen three times. The resulting dark mixture was stirred at rt for five hours after which no starting material remained by LC/MS. The flask was flushed with nitrogen, the mixture filtered through Celite, the filter solids washed with ethanol and the filtrate cone, to a cloudy white oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8- ((4-aminobutyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (706 mg, 0.96 mmol, 59%) as a colorless oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.09 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 737.43 for C46H92N2O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 12.2 Hz, 6.2 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 2.71 (t, 1H, J = 6.4 Hz); 2.48-2.34 (m, 6H); 2.33-2.23 (m, 4H); 1.95 (br. s, 2H); 1.61 (br. t, 6H, J = 6.6 Hz); 1.55-1.38 (m, 12H); 1.37-1.17 (m, 49H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J = 5.9 Hz). Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-acetamidobutyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoat e

Chemical Formula: C 48 Hg4 2 05

Molecular Weight: 779.29

[00299] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-aminobutyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (220 mg, 0.3 mmol) in 4 mL dry DCM was added triethylamine (125 uL, 0.9 mmol) and the solution cooled to 0 °C To this was added acetic anhydride (42 uL, 0.45 mmol) and the solution allowed to warm to rt with stirring overnight. No starting material remained by LC/MS so the solution was diluted with DCM, washed once with a 50% saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, dried (MgSCU), filtered, and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4- acetamidobutyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (160 mg, 0.20 mmol, 69%) as a colorless oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.50 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 779.66 for C48H94N2O5. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 6.33 (br. s, 1H); 4.86 (quint, 1H, J = 12.3 Hz, 6.2 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.23 (quart., 2H, J = 11.9 Hz, 6.1 Hz); 2.46-2.33(m, 5H); 2.32-2.22 (m, 4H); 1.95 (s, 3H); 1.68-1.56 (m, 6H); 1.54-1.36 (m, 12H); 1.35-1.15 (m, 49H); 0.87 (t, 9H, J = 5.8

Hz).

FK. Compound 256: 8-(Heptadecan-9-yloxy)-N-(3-(2-(methylsulfinyl)acetamido)pro pyl)- N-(8-(nonylo -8-oxooctyl)-8-oxooctan-l-amine oxide

Chemical Formula: C^h^^O S

Molecular Weight: 843.35

FL. Compound 257: 8-(Heptadecan-9-yloxy)-N-(3-(2-(methylsulfonyl)acetamido)pro pyl)- N-(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)-8-oxooctan-l-amine oxide

Chemical Formula: C 48 H94N 2 0 8 S

Molecular Weight: 859.35

[00300] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-(methylthio)acetamido)propyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (350 mg, 0.43 mmol) in 5 mL DCM at 0 °C was added m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (50% by weight; 300 mg, 0.84 mmol) in one portion. The ice bath was removed and the resulting yellow solution stirred at rt for 24 hours after which no starting material remained by LC/MS. The solution was diluted with DCM, washed twice with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a pale yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-75% (mixture of 1%

NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give two sets of

fractions. The first set to elute was cone, to give 8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-N-(3-(2- (methylsulfonyl)acetamido)propyl)-N-(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl )-8-oxooctan- 1 -amine oxide (60 mg, 0.07 mmol, 16%) as a colorless oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.44 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 859.62 for C48H94N2O8S (Compound 257). Ή ΝΜΙΙ (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 10.95 (br. s, 1H); 4.86 (quint, 1H, J = 12.3 Hz, 5.9 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.93 (s, 2H); 3.38 (br. d, 3H, J = 5.2 Hz); 3.15 (m, 6H); 2.62-2.36 (m, 1H); 2.34-2.21 (m, 4H); 2.02 (t, 2H, J = 6.1 Hz); 1.86-1.55 (m, 10H); 1.54-1.43 (m, 5H); 1.41-1.14 (m, 48H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J = 6.0 Hz).

[00301] The second set of fractions to elute was cone, to give 8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-N-(3- (2-(methylsulfinyl)acetamido)propyl)-N-(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooc tyl)-8-oxooctan-l-amine oxide (75 mg, 0.09 mmol, 20%) as a waxy white solid. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.42 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 843.71 for C48H94N2O7S (Compound 256). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 10.15 (br. s, 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 12.5 Hz, 6.3 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.6 Hz); 3.57 (m, 2H); 3.44- 3.25 (m, 3H); 3.14 (t, 3H, J = 8.2 Hz); 2.72 (s, 3H); 2.54-2.34 (m, 1H); 2.33-2.24 (m, 4H); 2.04 (t, 2H, J = 5.6 Hz); 1.88-1.71 (m, 2H); 1.69-1.55 (m, 8H); 1.54-1.43 (m, 4H); 1.41-1.14 (m, 49H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J = 6.0 Hz).

FM. Compound 258: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-(methylsulfinyl)acetamido)propyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 48 H94N 2 0 6 S

Molecular Weight: 827.35

[00302] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (400 mg, 0.55 mmol) and methanesulfinylacetic acid [J. Med. Chem., 38(3), 508-525 ( 1995)] (81 mg, 0.66 mmol) in 10 mL dry DCM was added 4- (dimethylamino)pyridine ( 17 mg, 0.14 mmol) followed by l-[bis(dimethylamino)methylene]- lH-l,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridinium 3-oxide hexafluorophosphate (HATU; 315 mg, 0.83 mmol) and finally N,N-diisopropylethylamine (300 uL, 1.66 mmol) and the resulting mixture stirred at rt overnight. No starting amine remained by LC/MS so the dark orange solution was diluted with DCM, washed twice with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, once with brine, dried (MgSO- , filtered and the filtrate cone, to a dark yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-(methylsulfinyl)acetamido)propyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (190 mg, 0.23 mmol, 41%) as a yellow oil.

UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.44 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 827.56 for C48H94N2O6S. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDC13) δ: ppm 7.74 (br. s, 1H); 4.86 (quint, 1H, J = 12.5 Hz, 6.1 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.60 (d, 1H, J = 13.7 Hz); 3.36 (m, 3H); 2.71 (s, 3H); 2.60-2.48 (br. s, 2H); 2.47-2.34 (br. s, 3H); 2.28 (m, 4H); 1.76- 1.55 (m, 8H); 1.54-1.38 (m, 8H); 1.37- 1.15 (br. m, 49H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J = 5.9 Hz).

FN. Compound 259: Heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((4-(2-cyano-3,3-dimethylguanidino)butyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 5 oHg 7 N 5 0 4

Molecular Weight: 832.36 [00303] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-aminobutyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (235 mg, 0.32 mmol) in 4 mL 2-propanol was added triethylamine (44 uL, 0.32 mmol) followed by diphenyl cyanocarbonimidate (76 mg, 0.32 mmol) and the white mixture stirred at rt for ninety minutes after which it had become a colorless solution. No starting material remained by LC/MS and only the monophenyl carbamimidate was observed (MW = 881.4). To this was added a 2M dimethylamine solution in methanol (1.6 mL, 3.2 mmol), the resulting pale yellow solution heated to 55 °C and stirred for 20 hours, after which no carbamimidate intermediate remained by LC/MS. The reaction was allowed to cool to rt, cone, the residue dissolved in DCM, washed twice with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, dried (MgSO- , filtered and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-60% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((4-(2-cyano-3,3-dimethylguanidino)butyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (130 mg, 0.16 mmol, 49%) as a colorless oil.

UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.43 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 832.48 for C50H97N5O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.50 (br. s, 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 12.2 Hz, 6.2 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.48 (quart., 2H, J = 11.4 Hz, 5.7 Hz); 3.02 (s, 6H); 2.49 (br. s, 6H); 2.32-2.22 (m, 4H); 1.70-1.55 (m, 8H); 1.54-1.45 (m, 6H); 1.44-1.15 (m, 52H); 0.87 (t, 9H, J = 5.8 Hz).

FO. Compound 260: Heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-(3,3-dimethyl-2- sulfamoylguanidino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)oct anoate

Diphenyl sulfamoylcarbonimidate

Chem Formula: C13H12N2O4S

Molecular Weight: 292.31

[00304] To a solution of dichlorodiphenoxymethane (1 g, 3.7 mmol) in 10 mL dry acetonitrile under dry nitrogen was added sulfamide (0.72 g, 7.4 mmol) and the pale yellow mixture stirred at rt for 72 hours. The resulting mixture was cone, the residue triturated with DCM, filtered, and the filtrate cone. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography on silica (0-60% EtOAc in hexanes) to give diphenyl sulfamoylcarbonimidate (295 mg, 1.01 mmol, 27%) as a colorless oil which solidified to a translucent white solid on standing. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 0.31 min. MS (ES): m/z (M-SO2NH2) 213.97 for C13H12N2O4S. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: ppm 7.54-7.29 (dt, 10H, J = 44.5 Hz, 7.5 Hz); 7.19 (s, 2H).

Heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-(3,3-dimethyl-2-sulfamoylguanidino)propyl)(8-(nony loxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 48 H97N 5 0 6 S

Molecular Weight: 872.39

[00305] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (250 mg, 0.35 mmol) in 5 mL 2-propanol was added triethylamine (48 uL, 0.35 mmol) followed by diphenyl sulfamoylcarbonimidate ( 101 mg, 0.35 mmol) and the mixture stirred at rt for two hours, after which no starting material was seen by LC/MS and the only peak observed corresponded with the monophenyl carbamimidate intermediate (MW = 921.4). To the reaction mixture was added a 2M dimethylamine solution in methanol ( 1 mL, 2 mmol) and the resulting pale yellow solution heated to 55 °C for 18 hours. The reaction was complete by LC/MS so the solution was reduced under vacuum, diluted with DCM and washed once with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. The organic phase was dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a cloudy pale yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-(3,3-dimethyl-2- sulfamoylguanidino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)oct anoate (155 mg, 0.18 mmol, 51%) as a slightly yellow syrup. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.34 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 872.58 for C48H97N5O6S. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.02 (br. s, 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 12.4 Hz, 6.4 Hz, ); 4.48 (br. s, 2H); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.36 (quart., 2H, J = 1 1.5 Hz, 5.5 Hz); 2.97 (s, 6H); 2.54 (br. s, 2H); 2.41 (br. s, 3H); 2.28 (m, 4H); 1.79-1.68 (m, 2H); 1.67-1.55 (m, 6H); 1.54-1.45 (m, 4H); 1.44-1.37 (m, 2H); 1.36-1.14 (m, 51H); 0.87 (t, 9H, J = 5.8 Hz).

FP. Compound 261: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-hydroxypropyl)(6-oxo-6- (undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C4 5 H 89 N05

Molecular Weight: 724.21

[00306] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-hydroxypropyl)amino)octanoate (740 mg, 1.62 mmol) and undecyl 6-bromohexanoate (570 mg (1.62 mmol) in 16 mL dry acetonitrile under dry nitrogen was added potassium iodide (300 mg, 1.79 mmol) followed by powdered potassium carbonate (900 mg, 6.5 mmol) and the mixture diluted with 4 mL dry cyclopentyl methyl ether. The resulting white mixture was heated to 90 °C and stirred for 24 hours, then allowed to cool to rt, filtered, the filter solids washed with DCM and the filtrate cone. The residue was suspended in a 50% saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted twice with DCM. The organics were combined, dried (MgSC ), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3- hydroxypropyl)(6-oxo-6-(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate (780 mg, 1.08 mmol, 66%) as a slightly yellow oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.55 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 724.39 for C45H89NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.60 (br. s, 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 12.2 Hz, 6.2 Hz, ); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.78 (t, 2H, J = 4.9 Hz); 2.62 (t, 2H, J = 5.2 Hz); 2.40 (quint., 4H, J = 8.3 Hz, 5.2 Hz); 2.28 (quart., 4H, J = 15.0 Hz, 7.7 Hz); 1.73-1.55 (m, 8H); 1.54-1.39 (m, 8H); 1.38-1.12 (m, 48H); 0.87 (t, 9H, J = 5.9 Hz).

FQ. Compound 263: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-methoxyacetamido)propyl)(6-oxo-6- (undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-chloropropyl)(6-oxo-6-(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoat e

Chemical Formula: C45H88CINO4

Molecular Weight: 742.65

[00307] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-hydroxypropyl)(6-oxo-6- (undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate (700 mg, 0.97 mmol) and triethylamine (202 uL, 1.45 mmol) in dry DCM at 0 °C was added methanesulfonyl chloride (90 uL, 1.16 mmol) and the resulting solution allowed to warm to rt overnight after which no starting material remained by LC/MS. The solution was diluted with DCM, washed once with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, once with brine, dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone, to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-chloropropyl)(6-oxo-6-(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoat e (720 mg -quant.) as a pale yellow oil/solid mixture which contained some of the corresponding mesylate by Ή-ΝΜΚ. The material was carried through without further purification. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.61 min. MS (ES): m/z (M-Cl) 706.68 for C45H88CINO4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 12.1 Hz, 5.9 Hz, ); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.59 (t, 2H, J = 6.5 Hz); 2.51 (t, 2H, J = 6.8 Hz); 2.40-2.23 (m, 7H); 1.86 ( , 2H, J = 6.0 Hz); 1.70-1.45 (m, 12H); 1.44- 1.37 (m, 4H); 1.36-1.15 (m, 47H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J = 5.9 Hz).

Heptadecan-9-yl -((3-azidopropyl)(6-oxo-6-(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 4 5H 88 N 4 04

Molecular Weight: 749.22

[00308] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-chloropropyl)(6-oxo-6-

(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate (720 mg, 0.97 mmol) in 10 mL dry DMF in a high-pressure Pyrex vessel was added sodium azide (250 mg, 3.9 mmol), the vessel flushed with nitrogen and sealed with a teflon screw-top cap. The reaction was heated to 100 °C and stirred overnight after which no starting chloride remained by TLC. The reaction was allowed to cool to rt, the solution diluted with water and extracted 3x with hexanes. The organics were combined, washed once with water, once with brine, dried (MgSCU), filtered, and the filtrate cone, to a pale yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-20% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-azidopropyl)(6-oxo-6- (undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate (550 mg, 0.73 mmol, 75%) as a yellow oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.61 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 749.32 for C45H88N4O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 12.5 Hz, 6.2 Hz, ); 4.06 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.33 (t, 2H, J = 6.4 Hz); 2.46 (t, 2H, J = 6.3 Hz); 2.42-2.34 (m, 3H); 2.28 (quart., 4H, J = 14.3 Hz, 7.1 Hz); 1.77-1.55 (m, 8H); 1.54-1.38 (m, 8H); 1.37-1.14 (m, 49H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J = 5.7 Hz).

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(6-oxo-6-(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 45 H9 0 N 2 O4

Molecular Weight: 723.23

[00309] A flask containing a stirring dispersion of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-azidopropyl)(6-oxo- 6-(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate (550 mg, 0.73 mmol) in 8 mL ethanol was flushed with nitrogen and palladium 10 wt.% on carbon (ca. 50 mg, cat.) added to give a black mixture. The sides of the vessel were washed down with 2 mL ethanol and the flask again flushed with nitrogen. The flask was fitted with a hydrogen balloon, evacuated and back-filled with hydrogen three times and stirred at rt for two hours, after which no starting azide remained by LC/MS. The flask was flushed with nitrogen, the mixture filtered through Celite, the filter solids washed with ethanol and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0- 100% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(6-oxo-6-(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate (375 mg, 0.52 mmol, 71%) as a colorless oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.17 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 723.57 for C45H90N2O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 6.91 (br. s, 2H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 12.3 Hz, 6.1 Hz, ); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.8 Hz); 3.06 (t, 2H, J = 5.5 Hz); 2.65 (t, 2H, J = 5.8 Hz); 2.48 (quint, 4H, J = 9.7 Hz, 5.3 Hz); 2.29 (quart., 4H, J = 17.1 Hz, 9.6 Hz); 1.89-1.72 (m, 2H); 1.70-1.55 (m, 6H); 1.54-1.39 (m, 8H); 1.38-1.13 (m, 48H); 0.87 (t, 9H, J = 5.8 Hz).

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-methoxyacetamido)propyl)(6-oxo-6- (undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 48 Hg 4 N2

Molecular Weight: 795.29

[00310] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(6-oxo-6-

(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate (170 mg, 0.23 mmol) and triethylamine (100 uL, 0.7 mmol) in 4 mL dry DCM at 0 °C and was added methoxyacetyl chloride (32 uL, 0.35 mmol) dropwise, the resulting mixture stirred and allowed to warm to rt overnight. No starting amine remained by LC/MS so the yellow solution was diluted with DCM, washed twice with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, once with brine, dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2- methoxyacetamido)propyl)(6-oxo-6-(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)oct anoate (42 mg, 0.05 mmol, 22%) as a yellow oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.44 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 795.25 for

C48H94N2O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDC13) δ: ppm 7.50 (s, 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 12.0 Hz, 6.2 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.87 (s, 2H); 3.40 (m, 5H); 2.98 (br. s, 1H); 2.54-2.34 (m, 4H); 2.28 (quart., 4H, J = 14.7 Hz, 7.4 Hz); 1.69-1.39 (m, 14H); 1.38-1.13 (m, 51H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J = 5.9 Hz).

FR. Compound 264: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-ethoxyacetamido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C49H9 6 N 2 0 6

Molecular Weight: 809.32

[00311] Compound 264 was prepared from heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (400 mg, 0.55 mmol) analogously to Compound 178 except that ethoxy acetyl chloride (Alfa Aesar, Tewksbury, MA) (92 uL, 0.83 mmol) was used in place of methoxyacetyl chloride. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-ethoxyacetamido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (140 mg, 0.55 mmol, 31%) as a yellow oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.51 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 809.43 for CwHgeNiOe. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.48 (s, 1H); 4.86 (quint, 1H, J = 12.6 Hz, 6.1 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.91 (s, 2H); 3.55 (quart., 2H, J = 13.8 Hz, 7.0 Hz); 3.36 (d, 2H, J = 5.8 Hz); 2.53-2.43 (m, 2H); 2.41-2.32 (br. m, 3H); 2.31-2.23 (m, 4H); 1.70-1.56 (m, 8H); 1.55-1.37 (m, 8H); 1.36-1.14 (m, 52H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J = 7.5 Hz).

FS. Compound 265: Heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-(2-cyano-3,3-dimethylguanidino)propyl)(6- oxo-6-(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 4 gHg5N 5 0 4

Molecular Weight: 818.33

[00312] Compound 265 was prepared analogously to Compound 168 except that heptadecan- 9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(6-oxo-6-(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate (170 mg, 0.23 mmol) was used. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0- 50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-(2-cyano-3,3-dimethylguanidino)propyl)(6-oxo-6- (undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate (40 mg, 0.05 mmol, 21%) as a colorless syrup.

UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.52 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 818.78 for C49H95N5O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.52 (br. s., 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 12.6 Hz, 6.3 Hz); 4.06 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.68 (d, 2H, J = 4.3 Hz); 3.00 (s, 6H); 2.59 (br. s, 2H); 2.44 (br. s, 3H); 2.29 (quart., 4H, J = 13.4 Hz, 7.1 Hz); 1.80-1.58 (m, 8H); 1.56-1.38 (m, 6H); 1.37-1.13 (m, 51H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J = 5.9 Hz).

FT. Compound 267: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-methoxypropanamido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)- 8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 4 gH 96 N2

Molecular Weight: 809.32

[00313] Compound 267 was prepared from heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (300 mg, 0.42 mmol) analogously to Compound 252 except that 2-methoxypropanoic acid (Ark Pharm, Arlington Heights, IL)(66 mg, 0.62 mmol) was used instead of (methylthio)acetic acid. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2- methoxypropanamido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)oct anoate (45 mg, 0.06 mmol, 54%) as a slightly yellow oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.48 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 809.60 for C49H96N2O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.43 (s, 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 12.2 Hz, 6.2 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.71 (quart., 1H, J = 13.4 Hz, 6.7 Hz); 3.36 (m, 5H); 2.58-2.47 (m, 2H); 2.45-2.35 (m, 3H); 2.34-2.24 (m, 4H); 1.76-1.41 (m, 16H); 1.40-1.15 (m, 52H); 0.87 (t, 9H, J = 5.7 Hz).

FU. Compound 268: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-methoxy-2-methylpropanamido)propyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C5oH 98 N 2 0 6

Molecular Weight: 823.34

[00314] Compound 268 was prepared from heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (250 mg, 0.35 mmol) analogously to Compound 252 except that 2-methoxy-2-methylpropanoic acid (Enamine, Monmouth Jet., NJ) (63 mg, 0.52 mmol) was used instead of (methylthio)acetic acid. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-methoxy-2- methylpropanamido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octa noate (35 mg, 0.04 mmol, 12%) as a slightly yellow oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.58 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 823.62 for C50H98N2O6. 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 8.96 (s, 1H); 7.49 (t, 1H, J = 6.7 Hz); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 12.1 Hz, 6.1 Hz); 4.07 (t, 2H, J = 6.6 Hz); 3.44-3.37 (m, 5H); 3.20-2.98 (m, 5H); 2.37-2.26 (m, 4H); 2.17-2.02 (m, 2H); 1.80-1.69 (m, 3H); 1.68-1.60 (m, 6H); 1.57-1.47 (m, 4H); 1.46-1.17 (m, 55H); 0.90 (t, 9H, J = 5.9 Hz).

FV. Compound 269: 6-((8-(Heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino) hexyl hexyl succinate

4-(Hexyloxy)-4-oxobutanoic acid

Chemical Formula: C 10 H 18 O 4

Molecular Weight: 202.25 [00315] A slurry of succinic anhydride (5 g, 49.4 mmol) in 1-hexanol (6.3 mL, 49.4 mmol) was heated to 80 °C and stirred for 20 hours after which it had become a colorless solution. This was allowed to cool to rt, diluted with EtOAc, washed twice with a IN HCl solution, once with brine, dried (NaiSC ), filtered and the filtrate cone, to give 4-(hexyloxy)-4-oxobutanoic acid (9.87 g, 48.8 mmol, 99%) as a colorless liquid which was carried through without further purification. Ή NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 10.59 (br. s., 1H); 4.10 (quart., 2H, J = 11.9 Hz, 5.2 Hz); 2.65 (m, 4H); 1.62 (quint, 2H, J = 13.0 Hz, 6.9 Hz); 1.30 (m, 6H); 0.89 (t, 3H, J = 6.7 Hz) (carboxylate proton not observed).

6-Bromohexyl hexyl succinate

Chemical Formula: Ci 6 H 29 Br0 4

Molecular Weight: 365.31

[00316] To a solution of 4-(hexyloxy)-4-oxobutanoic acid (1.0 g, 4.9 mmol) and 6-bromo-l- hexanol (0.75 mL, 5.2 mmol) in 20 mL dry DCM under dry nitrogen was added l-ethyl-3- (dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (1.67 g, 7.4 mmol) followed by 4- (dimethylamino)pyridine (0.3 g, 2.47 mmol) and finally N,N-diisopropylethylamine (2.6 mL, 14.8 mmol) to give a pale yellow solution. This was stirred at rt for 24 hours, after which TLC showed a mostly complete reaction. The solution was diluted with DCM, washed once with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (thick emulsion), dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a colorless liquid/white solid mixture. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-25% EtOAc in hexanes) to give 6-bromohexyl hexyl succinate (0.92g, 2.5 mmol, 51%) as a pale yellow liquid. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.11-4.06 (m, 4H); 3.41 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 2.62 (s, 4H); 1.87 (quint., 2H, J = 13.9 Hz, 7.2 Hz); 1.69-1.57 (m, 4H); 1.50-1.30 (m, 10H); 0.89 (t, 3H, J = 6.3 Hz).

6-((8-(Heptadecan- -yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino)hexyl hexyl succinate

Chemical Formula: C 4 3H 83 N0 7

Molecular Weight: 726.14

[00317] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate (300 mg, 0.61 mmol) and 6-bromohexyl hexyl succinate (223 mg (0.61 mmol) in 8 mL dry acetonitrile under dry nitrogen was added potassium iodide (115 mg, 0.68 mmol) followed by powdered potassium carbonate (340 mg, 2.4 mmol) and the mixture diluted with 2 mL dry cyclopentyl methyl ether. The resulting white mixture was heated to 90 °C and stirred for 24 hours, then allowed to cool to rt, filtered, the filter solids washed with DCM and the filtrate cone. The residue was suspended in a 50% saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted twice with DCM. The organics were combined, dried (MgSC ), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-30% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give 6-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)amino)hexyl hexyl succinate (40 mg, 0.06 mmol, 9%) as a colorless oil.

UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.15 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 726.36 for C43H83NO7. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 12.2 Hz, 6.1 Hz, ); 4.08 (t, 4H, J = 6.6 Hz); 3.52 (t, 2H, J = 5.0 Hz); 2.96 (br. s, 1H); 2.62 (s, 4H); 2.57 (t, 2H, J = 4.9 Hz); 2.44 (t, 4H, J = 6.4 Hz); 2.27 ( , 2H, J = 7.4 Hz); 1.70-1.56 (m, 6H); 1.54-1.37 (m, 8H); 1.36-1.15 (m, 40H); 0.87 (t, 9H,

J = 5.9 Hz).

FW. Compound 238: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-(dimethylamino)-4-oxobutyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C^I-^^Os

Molecular Weight: 779.29

[00318] To a solution of 4-bromobutanoyl chloride (1.6 g, 8.62 mmol) in 15 mL dry THF cooled to -15 °C was added a 2M dimethylamine solution in THF (12 mL, 24 mmol), the resulting mixture stirred and allowed to warm to rt. The precipitated solids were removed via filtration and the filtrate concentrated to give crude 4-bromo-N,N-dimethylbutanamide. This was dissolved in 20 mL of a 1 : 1 acetonitrile / methyl cyclopentyl ether mixture, heptadecan-9-yl 8-((8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (1 g, 1.5 mmol), potassium carbonate (0.8 g, 6 mmol), potassium iodide (0.3 g, 1.8 mmol) added, the mixture heated to 80 °C and stirred overnight. The reaction was allowed to cool to rt, filtered and the filtrate cone. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (4: 1 hexanes / acetone isocratic) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-(dimethylamino)-4-oxobutyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)am ino)octanoate (180 mg, 0.23 mmol, 15%) as a light yellow oil. MS (CI): m/z (MH+) 779.7 for C48H94N2O5. Ή NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.83 (quint., 1H, J = 6 Hz); 4.03 (t, 2H, J = 7.5 Hz); 3-2.7 (m, 10H); 2.5 (t, 2H, J = 7.5 Hz); 2.26 (m, 4H); 2 (m, 2H); 1.7-1.4 (m, 14H); 1.4-1.2 (m, 50H); 0.8 (m, 9H). FX. Compound 239: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-(methylamino)-4-oxobutyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 7H92N2O5

Molecular Weight: 765.26

[00319] Compound 239 was prepared from heptadecan-9-yl 8-((8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (0.8 g, 1.2 mmol) analogously to Compound 238 except that a 2M methylamine solution in methanol (8 mL, 16 mmol) was used in place of a 2M dimethylamine solution in THF. The residue following filtration and concentration of the reaction mixture was purified by silica gel chromatography (4: 1 hexanes / acetone isocratic) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-(methylamino)-4-oxobutyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amin o)octanoate (400 mg, 0.52 mmol, 43%) as a light yellow oil. MS (CI): m/z (MH+) 765.6 for C47H92N2O5. Ή NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.83 (quint., 1H, J = 6 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 6 Hz); 3.6 (s, 3H); 2.4-2.2 (m, 12H); 1.8-1.4 (m, 14H); 1.4-1.2 (m, 50H); 0.8 (m, 9H); (amide proton not observed).

FY. Compound 240: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-(methoxy(methyl)amino)-4-oxobutyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

4-((8-(Heptadec -9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)butanoic acid

Chemical Formula: C 4 sH 89 N0 6

Molecular Weight: 752.22

[00320] A mixture of periodic acid (7.3 g, 32 mmol) in 100 mL acetonitrile was stirred vigorously for 15 min. at 0 °C. To this was added a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4- hydroxybutyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (10.75 g, 14.6 mmol) in 30 mL acetonitrile followed by pyridinium chlorochromate (0.16 g, 0.73 mmol). The resulting mixture was allowed to warm to rt for 4 hours after which LC/MS showed predominantly starting alcohol remaining. To the mixture was added additional pyridinium chlorochromate (0.16 g, 0.73 mmol) and stirring was continued for 1 hour. LC/MS showed more product formed after the addition of additional pyridinium chlorochromate, however, this reaction step was slow. The reaction mixture was diluted with EtOAc, washed with a water/brine (1 : 1) mixture, a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, and finally brine. After drying (MgSCU) and

concentration, 13 g crude material was obtained which by NMR contained 20% starting alcohol along with some aldehyde intermediate. The crude material was dissolved in 120 mL 1 : 1 acetonitrile / TBME, periodic acid (13.0 g, 57 mmol) and pyridinium chlorochromate (0.16 g, 0.73 mmol) added and the mixture stirred at rt for 3 hours. Additional pyridinium

chlorochromate (0.16 g, 0.73 mmol) was added and the mixture stirred at rt for 16 hours after which LC/MS showed almost no starting alcohol remained. The reaction mixture was diluted with EtOAc, washed with a water/brine (1 : 1) mixture, a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, and finally brine. The organics were dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-6% then 10% methanol in

dichloromethane) to give 4-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)butanoic acid (8.80 g, 11.7 mmol, 80%) as brown oil. MS (CI): m/z (MH+) 752.6 for C46H 8 9N0 6 . ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.84 (quint., 1H, J = 6.3 Hz); 4.03 (t, 2H, J = 6.8 Hz); 3.12 (m, 2H); 3.00 (m, 4H); 2.52 (m, 2H); 2.27 (m, 4H); 2.08 (m, 2H); 1.81 (br. m, 4H); 1.60 (m, 6H); 1.48 (m, 4H); 1.24 (br. m, 48H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J = 6.9 Hz); carboxylate proton not observed.

Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-(methoxy(methyl)amino)-4-oxobutyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 48 H94N 2 0 6

Molecular Weight: 795.29

[00321] To a solution of 4-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)butanoic acid (1.00 g, 1.33 mmol) in 40 mL dichloromethane was added carbonyldiimidazole (259 mg, 1.6 mmol) at 0 °C, the cooling bath removed and the mixture stirred at rt for 30 min. After cooling to 0 °C, N,0-dimethylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (156 mg, 1.6 mmol) and triethylamine (0.23 mL, 1.6 mmol) were added and the resulting mixture stirred at rt for 16 hours. Less than 10% of the starting acid remained by LC/MS so the reaction mixture was diluted with hexanes, washed once with water and brine. The organic layer was dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone. The residue was purified by silica gel

chromatography (0-6% then 10% methanol in dichloromethane) to give 0.77 g of a mixture containing some starting acid. This material was again purified by silica gel chromatography (0- 40% then 60% acetone in hexanes) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-(methoxy(methyl)amino)-4- oxobutyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (210 mg, 0.26 mmol, 20%) as a colorless oil. HPLC/UV (214 nm): RT = 9.78 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH+) 795.7 for C48H94N2O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.85 (quint, 1H, J = 6.3 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.8 Hz); 3.67 (s, 3H); 3.17 (s, 3H); 2.41 (m, 6H); 2.27 (m, 6H); 1.74 (m, 2H); 1.60 (m, 8H); 1.48 (m, 4H); 1.40 (m, 2H); 1.24 (br. m, 48H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J = 6.8 Hz).

FZ. Compound 241: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-(methoxyamino)-4-oxobutyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C47H 9 2N 2 0 6

Molecular Weight: 781.26

[00322] To a mixture of 4-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)butanoic acid (1.00 g, 1.33 mmol) and O-methylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (178 mg, 2.13 mmol) in 20 mL dichloromethane was added l-ethyl-3- (dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (460 mg, 2.39 mmol) followed by triethylamine (0.30 mL, 2.13 mmol) and the mixture stirred at rt for 16 hours. Only a small amount of starting acid remained by LC/MS so the reaction mixture was diluted with hexanes, washed once with water and brine. The organic layer was dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-6% then 10% methanol in dichloromethane) to give 0.63 g of a mixture containing some starting acid. This material was again purified by silica gel chromatography (0-40% then 80% acetone in hexanes) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-(methoxyamino)-4-oxobutyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)ami no)octanoate (0.56 g, 0.71 mmol, 53%) as a colorless oil. HPLC/UV (214 nm): RT = 9.49 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH+) 781.6 for C47H92N2O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.85 (quint., 1H, J = 6.3 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.8 Hz); 3.73 (s, 3H); 2.48 (m, 2H); 2.42 (m, 4H); 2.28 (m, 6H); 1.73 (m, 4H); 1.60 (m, 6H); 1.48 (m, 6H); 1.24 (br. m, 48H); 0.87 (t, 9H, J = 7.1 Hz); hydroxamate proton not observed. GA. Compound 242: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-(hydroxy(methyl)amino)-4-oxobutyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 4 7H92N 2 0 6

Molecular Weight: 781.26

[00323] To a solution of 4-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)butanoic acid (1.08 g, 1.43 mmol) in 25 mL dichloromethane at 0 oC was added oxalyl chloride (121 μί, 1.43 mmol) followed by 5 drops of DMF, the cooling bath removed and the reaction mixture stirred at rt for 16 hours. To the resulting solution at 0 °C were added N-methylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (0.36 g, 4.3 mmol) and DMAP (355 mg, 0.29 mmol) followed by triethylamine (1.0 mL, 7.2 mmol), the reaction allowed to warm to rt and stirred for 16 hours. Only a small amount of starting acid remained by LC/MS so the reaction mixture was diluted with hexanes, washed once with water and brine. The organic layer was dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% then 80% acetone in hexanes) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-(hydroxy(methyl)amino)-4-oxobutyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (0.61 g, 0.78 mmol, 54%) as a yellow oil. HPLC/UV (214 nm): RT = 9.69 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH+) 781.6 for C47H92N2O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 4.85 (quint, 1H, J = 6.0 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.9 Hz); 3.21 (s, 3H); 2.55 (m, 4H); 2.44 (m, 4H); 2.27 (m, 4H); 1.96 (m, 2H); 1.60 (m, 8H); 1.47 (m, 6H); 1.24 (br. m, 48H); 0.87 (t, 9H, J = 7.1 Hz); hydroxamate proton not observed.

GB. Compound 243: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-amino-4-oxobutyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 46 H9oN 2 05

Molecular Weight: 751.24

[00324] To a solution of 4-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)butanoic acid (1.0 g, 1.33 mmol) in 25 mL dichloromethane at 0 oC was added oxalyl chloride (120 μί, 1.33 mmol) followed by 5 drops of DMF, the cooling bath removed and the reaction mixture stirred at rt for 16 hours. The resulting solution was cooled to 0 °C, ammonia gas bubbled through for 5 min and the reaction maintained at 0 °C for two hours. Only a small amount of starting acid remained by LC/MS so the reaction mixture was diluted with dichloromethane and washed with brine. The organic layer was dried (MgSO- , filtered and the filtrate cone. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-40% then 80% acetone in hexanes) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((4-amino-4-oxobutyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (0.30 g, 0.40 mmol, 30%) as a brown oil. HPLC UV (214 nm): RT = 9.09 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH+) 751.6 for C46H90N2O5. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 6.73 (bs, 1H); 5.22 (bs, 1H); 4.85 (quint., 1H, J = 6.3 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.6 Hz); 2.45 (m, 2H); 2.37 (m, 4H); 2.27 (m, 6H); 1.75 (m, 2H); 1.60 (m, 8H); 1.50 (m, 4H); 1.40 (m, 2H); 1.24 (br. m, 48H); 0.87 (t, 9H, J = 6.5 Hz).

GC. Compound 248: Heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-(3,3-dimethyl-2-nitroguanidino)propyl)(8-

(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

S-Methyl-N-nitro-N ' -phthaloylisothiourea

Chemical Formula: C 10 H 7 N 3 O 4 S

Molecular Weight: 265.24

[00325] To a solution of S-methyl-N-nitroisothiourea (5.0 g, 37 mmol) in 70 mL pyridine at 0 °C was added phthaloyl chloride (14.5 g, 10.3 mL, 72 mmol) dropwise over 25 min. The solution was stirred at 0 °C for 30 min during which a precipitate formed. The mixture was poured into 600 mL ice-cold 2N hydrochloric acid solution, the resulting solids filtered, washed with water and air-dried. The solids were precipitated from ethanol to give S-methyl-N-nitro-N ' - phthaloylisothiourea (6.23 g, 23.5 mmol, 64%) as a white solid. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.97-7.95 (m, 2H); 7.87-7.86 (m, 2H); 2.66 (s, 3H).

Methyl N,N-dimethyl-N ' -nitrocarbam

Chemical Formula: C4H9N3O2S

Molecular Weight: 163.20 [00326] To a solution of S-methyl-N-nitroso-N ' -phthaloylisothiourea (1.5 g, 5.68 mmol) in 10 mL dichloromethane at 0 °C was added a solution of 2M dimethylamine solution in THF (2.84 mL, 5.68 mmol) in 5 mL methanol dropwise over 25 min. The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 3 hours, cone, the residue dissolved in dichloromethane and purified by silica gel chromatography (4: 1 hexane / ethyl acetate, isocratic) to give methyl N,N-dimethyl-N ' - nitrocarbamimidothioate (678 mg, 4.15 mmol, 73 %) as a waxy white solid. 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 3.25 (s, 6H); 2.53 (s, 3H).

Heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-(3,3-dimethyl-2-nitroguanidino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy )-8- oxooctyl)amin

Chemical Formula: C 48 H95N 5 0 6

Molecular Weight: 838.32

[00327] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((aminopropyl)(8-nonyloxyl)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (500 mg, 0.69 mmol) in 20 mL methanol was added methyl-N,N- dimethyl-N ' -nitrocarbamimidothioate ( 118 mg, 0.73 mmol), the reaction mixture heated to reflux and stirred for 5 hours. No starting amine remained by LC/MS so the solvent was removed and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography (eluent dichloromethane, methanol, 1% ammonium hydroxide) to get 520 mg of impure material. This was again purified by silica gel chromatography (first 0-100% ethyl acetate in hexanes, then 0-50% (mixture of 1% NH40H, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8- ((3-(3,3-dimethyl-2-nitroguanidino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxyl)-8-o xooctyl)amino)octanoate (220 mg, 0.26 mmol, 38%) as a light yellow oil. HPLC UV 214 nm: RT = 9.48 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH+) 838.7 for CtsHwNsOe. 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.87-4.83 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.51 (t, 2H, J = 5.2 Hz); 3.05 (s, 6H); 2.66 (bs, 1H); 2.48 (bs, 2H); 2.28 (dt, 4H, J = 7.4 Hz, 3.8 Hz); 1.62- 1.58 (m, 8H); 1.48- 1.30 (m, 8H); 1.29- 1.24 (m, 52H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J = 6.6 Hz).

GD. Compound 249: Heptadecan-9-yl (E)-8-((3-(2-cyano-3-methylguanidino)propyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C48H93N5O4

Molecular Weight: 804.30

[00328] Compound 249 was prepared from heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-nonyloxy)- 8-oxooctyl)aminooctanoate (400 mg, 0.55 mmol) analogously to Compound 168 except that a 2M solution of methylamine in methanol (1.4 mL, 2.8 mmol) was used in place of a 2M dimethylamine solution in THF. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (dichloromethane, methanol /1% NH40H) to give heptadecan-9-yl (E)-8-((3-(2-cyano-3-methylguanidino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxyl)-8 -oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (260 mg, 0.32 mmol, 58%) as a light yellow oil. HPLC UV 214 nm: RT = 9.83 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH+) 804.7 for C48H93N5O4. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.87-4.83 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.29 (m, 2H); 2.77 (d, 3H, J = 4.6 Hz); 2.52 (m, 1H); 2.44-2.39 (m, 3H); 2.28 (dt, 4H, J = 7.4 Hz, 3.6 Hz); 1.65-1.57 (m, 16H); 1.50- 1.41 (m, 3H); 1.30- 1.24 (m, 48H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J = 6.4 Hz).

GE. Compound 250: Heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-((l-(dimethylamino)-2- nitrovinyl)amino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octan oate

(E)-N,N-Dimethyl-l-(methylthio)-2-nit ne

Chemical Formula: C 5 Hi 0 N2O 2 S

Molecular Weight: 162.21

[00329] To a solution of (2-nitroethene-l, l-diyl)bis(methylsulfane) (EP 5984 Al)(1.0 g, 6.1 mmol) in acetonitrile at 0 °C was added a 2M dimethylamine in tetrahydrofuran (3 mL, 6 mmol) and the reaction mixture stirred at rt for 3 hours. The solvent was removed under vacuum and the crude product purified by silica gel chromatography (hexane, ethyl acetate) to get (E)-N,N- dimethyl-l-(methylthio)-2-nitroethen-l -amine (200 mg, 20%), containing Ν,Ν,Ν ' ' - tetramethyl -2 -nitroethene- 1, 1 -diamine, as a reddish yellow oil, which was used without further purification. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 6.67 (s, 1H); 3.20 (s, 6H); 2.46 (s, 3H).

Heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-((l-(dimethylamino)-2-nitrovinyl)amino)propyl)(8-( nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C4 9 H9 6 N 4 0 6

Molecular Weight: 837.33

[00330] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (500 mg, 0.69 mmol) in 20 mL methanol was added (E)-N,N- dimethyl-l-(methylthio)-2-nitroethen-l -amine (112 mg, 0.69 mmol), the reaction mixture heated to reflux and stirred for 5 hours. The solvent was removed and the compound purified twice by silica gel chromatography [Column 1 : hexane/ethyl acetate, then dichloromethane, methanol l\% NH4OH), Column 2: hexane/ethyl acetate, then dichloromethane, methanol /1% NH4OH)] to give heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-((l-(dimethylamino)-2-nitrovinyl)amino)propyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (104 mg, 0.12 mmol,18%) as a yellow oil. HPLC/UV 214 nm: RT = 8.69 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH+) 837.7 for C48H96N4O6. 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 9.56 (bs, 1H); 6.49 (s, 1H); 4.87-4.83 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.34-3.32 (m, 2H); 2.92 (s, 6H); 2.49 (m, 2H); 2.37-2.33 (m, 4H); 2.27 (dt, 4H, J = 7.4 Hz, 3.8 Hz); 1.77- 1.75 (m, 2H); 1.62-1.48 (m, 8H); 1.34- 1.24 (m, 54H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J = 6.5 Hz).

GF. Compound 254: Heptadecan-9-yl 4-imino-9-(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)-2-oxa-3,5,9- triazaheptadecan-17-oate

Heptadecan-9-yl 7-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-2,2-dimethyl-ll-(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxoo ctyl)-4-oxo- 6-(lH-pyrazo -l-yl)-3-oxa-5,7,ll-triazanonadec-5-en-19-oate

Chemical Formula: C 5 9H i 0 gN 5 O 8

Molecular Weight: 1016.55

[00331] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl (8-((3-hydroxypropyl)(8- (nonyloxy)octyl)amino)octanoate (500 mg, 0.69 mmol) in 10 mL dry tetrahydrofuran were added triphenylphosphine (271.8 mg, 1.04 mmol) and tert-butyl (((tert- butoxycarbonyl)amino)(lH-pyrazol-l-yl)methylene)carbamate (Aldrich Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO; 214.3 mg, 0.69 mmol) and the reaction mixture cooled to 0 °C. To this was added diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (0.2 mL, 1.04 mmol) dropwise, the cooling bath removed and the reaction mixture stirred at rt for 24 hours. No starting alcohol remained by LC/MS so the solvent was removed and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography (0-40% ethyl acetate in hexanes) to give heptadecan-9-yl 7-(tert)-butoxycarbonyl)-2,2-dimethyl-l l-(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)-4-oxo-6-(lH-pyrazol-l-yl)-3-oxa-5,7,l l-triazanonadec-5-en-19-oate (227 mg, 0.22 mmol, 32%) as a colorless oil. MS (CI): m/z (MH+) 1016.8 for C59H109N5O8. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.93 (s, 1H); 7.67 (s, 1H); 6.40 (s, 1H); 4.87-4.83 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.69-3.67 (m, 2H); 2.45 (t, 2H, J = 7.0 Hz) 2.35-2.23 (m, 8H); 1.88-1.84 (m, 2H); 1.57- 1.49 (m, 10H); 1.38- 1.24 (m, 70H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J = 6.5 Hz).

Heptadecan-9-yl 7-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-6-(methoxyamino)-2,2-dimethyl-ll-(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)-4-oxo-3-oxa-5,7,ll-triazanonadec-5-en -19-oate

Chemical Formula:

Molecular Weight: 995.53

[00332] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 7-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-2,2-dimethyl- 11 -(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)-4-oxo-6-(lH-pyrazol-l-yl)-3-oxa-5,7, l l-triazanondec-5-en-19-oate (227 mg, 0.22 mmol) in 30 mL of a 1 : 1 cyclopentylmethyl ether / acetonitrile mixture was added O-methyl hydroxylamine hydrochloride (93.3 mg, 1.12 mmol) followed by N,N- diisopropylethylamine (0.2 mL, 1.12 mmol), the reaction mixture heated to 85 °C and stirred for 24 hours. The reaction had progressed ca. 80% by LC/MS so additional O-methyl

hydroxylamine hydrochloride (93.3 mg, 1.12 mmol) followed by N,N-diisopropylethylamine (144.4 mg, 0.2 mL, 1.12 mmol) were added and the reaction mixture stirred at 85 °C for another 24 hours. No starting material remained by LC/MS so the solvent was removed and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography (1 : 1 hexane / ethyl acetate isocratic) to give heptadecan-9- yl 7-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-6-(methoxyamino)-2,2-dimethyl- 11 -(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)-4- oxo-3 -oxa-5, 7, 1 l-triazanonadec-5-en-19-oate (189 mg, 0.19 mmol, 85%) as a colorless oil. MS (CI): m/z (MH+) 995.8 for C57H110N4O9. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.31 (s, 1H); 4.87- 4.83 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.83 (s, 3H); 3.42 (t, 2H, J = 7.5 Hz); 2.48-2.32 (m, 6H); 2.26 (dt, 4H, J = 7.4 Hz, 3.8 Hz); 1.62-1.55 (m, 8H); 1.50-1.43 (m, 20H); 1.39-1.24 (m, 54H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J = 6.4 Hz).

Heptadecan-9- -imino-9-(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)-2-oxa-3,5,9-triazaheptade can-17-oate

Chemical Formula: C47H94N4O5

Molecular Weight: 795.29

[00333] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 7-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-6-(methoxyamino)-2,2- dimethyl-1 l-(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)-4-oxo-3-oxa-5,7,l l-triazanonadec-5-en-19-oate (189 mg, 0.19 mmol) in 1 mL ethyl acetate at 0 °C was added a 4M hydrochloric acid solution in 1,4- dioxane (8 mL, 32 mmol) dropwise and the reaction mixture stirred at rt for 3 days. No starting material remained by LC/MS and only completely deprotected product was observed. The reaction was cone, the residue dissolved in ethyl acetate and the solution washed once with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, then brine, dried (NaiSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (dichloromethane, methanol /1% NH40H) to give heptadecan-9-yl 4-imino-9-(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)-2-oxa- 3,5,9-triazaheptadecan-17-oate (120 mg, 0.15 mmol, 80%). MS (CI): m/z (MH+) 795.7 for C47H94N4O5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.87-4.83 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.64 (s, 3H); 3.15 (bs, 2H); 2.51-2.49 (m, 2H); 2.42-2.38 (m, 4H); 2.27 (dt, 4H, J = 7.4 Hz, 3.7 Hz); 1.65-1.55 (m, 8H); 1.49-1.41 (m, 8H); 1.29- 1.24 (m, 50H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J = 6.4 Hz).

GG. Compound 266: Heptadecan-9-yl (E)-8-((3-(2-cyanoguanidino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amin

Chemical Formula: C47H9-1 N5

Molecular Weight: 790.28

[00334] Compound 266 was prepared from heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-nonyloxy)-

8-oxooctyl)aminooctanoate (400 mg, 0.55 mmol) analogously to Compound 168 except that a

7M solution of ammonia in methanol (2 mL, 14 mmol) was used in place of a 2M dimethylamine solution in THF and the reaction was run in a sealed tube. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (dichloromethane, methanol /1% NH40H) to give heptadecan-9-yl (E)-8-((3-(2-cyanoguanidino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxyl)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate ( 170 mg, 0.21 mmol, 39%) as a light yellow oil. HPLC UV 214 nm: RT = 9.26 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH+) 790.7 for C47H91N5O4. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm δ 4.87-4.83 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.29-3.27 (m, 2H); 2.51-2.48 (m, 2H); 2.43-2.38 (m, 4H); 2.31-2.25 (m, 4H); 1.68-1.55 (m, 8H); 1.50- 1.48 (m, 4H); 1.40-1.37 (m, 4H); 1.30- 1.23 (m, 50H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J = 6.6 Hz); one guanidine proton not observed.

GH. Compound 274: Heptadecan-9-yl (E)-8-((3-(2-nitroguanidino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amin

Chemical Formula: C^Hg-i NsOg

Molecular Weight: 810.26

[00335] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((aminopropyl)(8-nonyloxyl)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (530 mg, 0.73 mmol) in 20 mL methanol was added methyl-N ' - nitrocarbamimidothioate (104 mg, 0.77 mmol), the reaction mixture heated to reflux and stirred for 4 hours. No starting material remained by LC/MS and two product peaks were observed which correspond to two nitroguanidine regioisomers (Z and E). The amount of Z isomer decreases with reaction time as it converts to the more stable E isomer. The solvent was removed and the crude compound purified by silica gel chromatography (initially hexane, 0- 100% ethyl acetate in hexanes, then 0-50% methanol /1% NH4OH in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl (E)-8-((3-(2-nitroguanidino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxyl)-8-oxooctyl )amino)octanoate (160 mg, 0.20 mmol, 27%) as a colorless oil. HPLC UV 214 nm: RT = 9.53 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH+) 810.7 for CteHgiNsOe. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 8.41 (bs, 1H); 4.87-4.83 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.6 Hz); 3.36-3.34 (m, 2H); 2.51-2.41 (m, 6H); 2.28 (dt, 4H, J = 7.6 Hz, 3.7 Hz); 1.78 (bs, 2H); 1.63- 1.58 (m, 8H); 1.50- 1.38 (m, 6H); 1.30- 1.23 (m, 50H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J = 6.8 Hz).

[00336] Also isolated was heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-(2-nitroguanidino)propyl)(8- (nonyloxyl)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (65 mg, 0.08 mmol, 1 1%) as a light yellow oil which slowly converted to the E isomer upon standing. HPLC/UV 214 nm: RT = 10.66 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH+) 810.6 for C46H91N5O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.87-4.80 (m, 1H); 4.04

(t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.36-3.34 (m, 2H); 2.48 (bs, 4H); 2.30-2.24 (m, 4H); 2.16-2.15 (m, 1H); 1.79

(bs, 1H); 1.62-1.42 (m, 15H); 1.30- 1.24 (m, 52H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J = 6.6 Hz).

GI. Compound 275: 7-((8-(Heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino) heptyl

(Z)-dec-3-enoate

Chemical Formula: Ci 2 H 18 0 3

Molecular Weight: 210.27

[00337] To a solution of l-octyn-3-ol (2.15 mL, 14.4 mmol) and methyl propiolate (1.2 mL,

14.4 mmol) in 100 mL dry DCM was added triethylamine (0.2 mL, 1.4 mmol) and the pale yellow solution stirred at rt for 20 hours after which no starting alcohol remained by TLC. The solution was cone, and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography (0-20% EtOAc in hexanes) to give methyl (E)-3-(oct-l-yn-3-yloxy)acrylate (2.92 g, 13.9 mmol, 97%) as a colorless liquid. Ή NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.61 (d, 1H, J= 12.5 Hz); 5.38 (d, 1H, J=

12.5 Hz); 4.53 (td, 1H, J= 6.6 Hz, 2.0 Hz); 3.70 (s, 3H); 2.58 (d, lH, J= 2.0 Hz); 1.91-1.75 (m, 2H); 1.52-1.41 (m, 2H); 1.37-1.26 (m, 4H); 0.90 (t, 3H, J= 6.9 Hz).

Chemical Formula:

C

Molecular Weight: 170.25

[00338] In a 5 mL microwave vial were combined 840 mg (4 mmol) methyl (£)-3-(oct-l-yn- 3-yloxy)acrylate and 2 mL water to give a colorless bilayer. The vial was sealed and the mixture subjected to microwave irradiation at 175 °C for 90 minutes. The resulting bilayer was washed twice with DCM, the organics combined, dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a dark orange oil. This was dissolved in hexanes and purified by silica gel chromatography (0-20% EtOAc in hexanes) to give (Z)-dec-3-enoic acid ( 155 mg, 0.91 mmol, 23%) as an orange oil. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 1 1.03 (br. s, 1H); 5.70-5.44 (m, 2H); 3.14 (d, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 2.04 (q., 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 1.43-1.13 (m, 8H); 0.88 (t, 3H, J= 6.8 Hz). (Z)-Geometry confirmed by ID selective gradient NOEsy experiments iradiating at 2.07 ppm (C-5 protons) and 3.16 ppm (C-2 protons).

Chemical Formula: Ci 7 H 31 Br0 2

Molecular Weight: 347.34

[00339] To a solution of (Z)-dec-3-enoic acid (220 mg, 1.29 mmol) and 7-bromo-l-heptanol (250 uL, 1.42 mmol) in 10 mL dry DCM were added l-ethyl-3-

(dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (440 mg, 1.94 mmol) followed by DMAP (80 mg, 0.65 mmol) and finally NN-diisopropylethylamine (680 uL, 3.88 mmol). The resulting orange solution was stirred at room temp, for 24 hours, after which TLC showed no starting acid remaining. The solution was diluted with DCM, washed once with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (thick emulsion), once with an aqueous 10% citric acid solution, dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-15% EtOAc in hexanes) to give 7-bromoheptyl (Z)-dec-3-enoate (250 mg, 0.72 mmol, 56%) as a slightly yellow liquid. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.65-5.49 (m, 2H); 4.07 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 3.40 (t, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 3.08 (d, 2H, J= 5.5 Hz); 2.04 (q., 2H, J = 6.8 Hz); 1.92-1.79 (m, -1.56 (m, 2H); 1.51-1.20 (m, 14H); 0.88 (t, 3H, J= 6.3 Hz).

Chemical Formula: C4 4 H 85 N0 5

Molecular Weight: 708.17

[00340] Compound 285 was prepared from heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2- hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate (350 mg, 0.71 mmol) analogously to compound 284 except that 7-bromoheptyl (Z)-dec-3-enoate (250 mg, 0.72 mmol) was used in place of 5-bromopentyl octyl malonate. Following an aqueous workup the resulting yellow oil was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-40% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give 7-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino) heptyl (Z)-dec-3-enoate (205 mg, 0.29 mmol, 41%) as a colorless oil.

UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.35 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 708.75 for C44H85NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.64-5.48 (m, 2H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J= 6.2 Hz); 4.07 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 3.55 (t, 2H, J= 5.0 Hz); 3.40 (t, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 3.08 (d, 2H, J= 5.6 Hz); 2.61 (t, 2H, J= 4.1 Hz); 2.47 (t, 4H, J= 6.8 Hz); 2.27 (t, 2H, J= 7.5 Hz); 2.04 (q., 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 1.70-1.55 (m, 4H); 1.54- 1.40 (m, 6H); 1.39-1.13 (m, 45H); 0.87 (t, 9H, J= 6.5 Hz). GJ. Compound 276: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(3-methoxypropanamido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)- 8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 49 H9 6 N 2 0 6

Molecular Weight: 809.32

[00341] Compound 276 was prepared from heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (250 mg, 0.35 mmol) analogously to Compound 178 except that 3-methoxypropanoyl chloride (Oakwood Chemical, Estill, SC) (57 uL, 0.52 mmol) was used in place of methoxyacetyl chloride. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-40% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(3- methoxypropanamido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)oct anoate (140 mg, 0.55 mmol, 31%) as a yellow oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.48 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 809.78 for

C49H96N2O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.48 (s, 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 12.6 Hz, 6.1 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.91 (s, 2H); 3.55 (quart., 2H, J = 13.8 Hz, 7.0 Hz); 3.36 (d, 2H, J = 5.8 Hz); 2.53-2.43 (m, 2H); 2.41-2.32 (br. m, 3H); 2.31-2.23 (m, 4H); 1.70-1.56 (m, 8H); 1.55-1.37 (m, 8H); 1.36-1.14 (m, 52H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J = 7.5 Hz).

GK. Compound 277: 4-((8-(Heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino) butyl heptyl glutarate

Step 1: 5-(Heptyloxy)-5-oxopentanoic acid

HO.

o o

Chemical Formula: Ci 2 H 2 20 4

Molecular Weight: 230.30

[00342] A slurry of 5 g (41.6 mmol) glutaric anhydride in 7.2 mL (50 mmol) 1-heptanol was heated to 90 °C and stirred for 20 hours after which it had become a colorless solution. This was allowed to cool to rt, diluted with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (-50 mL) and extracted three times with diethyl ether. The aqueous layer was adjusted to pH ~3 with an aqueous 4N HC1 solution and the resulting cloudy mixture extracted three times with EtOAc. The EtOAc phases were combined, washed once with brine, dried, (NaiSO- , filtered and the filtrate cone, to give 5-(heptyloxy)-5-oxopentanoic acid (7.36 g, 31.9 mmol, 77%) as a colorless liquid which was carried through to the next step without further purification. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 11.40 (br. s., 1H); 4.06 ( , 2H, J = 6.8 Hz); 2.41 (m, 4H); 1.95 (quint., 2H, J = 14.5 Hz, 7.3 Hz); 1.61 (m, 2H); 1.28 (m, 8H); 0.88 (t, 3H, J = 5.8 Hz).

Step 2: 4-bromobutyl

Chemical Formula: C 16 H 29 Br0 4

Molecular Weight: 365.31

[00343] To a solution of 5-(heptyloxy)-5-oxopentanoic acid (1.5 g, 6.5 mmol) and 4-bromo- 1-butanol (0.82 mL, 6.8 mmol) in 20 mL dry DCM under dry nitrogen was added l-ethyl-3- (dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (2.2 g, 9.8 mmol) followed by 4- (dimethylamino)pyridine (0.4 g, 3.26 mmol) and finally N,N-diisopropylethylamine (3.4 mL, 19.5 mmol) to give a pale yellow solution. This was stirred at rt for 24 hours, after which LC/MS showed no starting acid remaining. The solution was diluted with DCM, washed twice with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (thick emulsion), dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-20% EtOAc in hexanes) to give 4-bromobutyl heptyl glutarate (0.34 g, 0.93 mmol, 14%) as a pale yellow oil. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.11-4.06 (m, 4H); 3.41 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 2.62 (s, 4H); 1.87 (quint., 2H, J = 13.9 Hz, 7.2 Hz); 1.69-1.57 (m, 4H); 1.50-1.30 (m, 10H); 0.89 (t, 3H, J = 6.3 Hz).

Step 3: 4-((8-(Heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino) butyl heptyl glutarate

Chemical Formula: C 43 H 8 3N07

Molecular Weight: 726.14

[00344] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate (300 mg, 0.61 mmol) and 6-bromohexyl hexyl succinate (223 mg (0.61 mmol) in 8 mL dry acetonitrile under dry nitrogen was added potassium iodide (115 mg, 0.68 mmol) followed by powdered potassium carbonate (340 mg, 2.4 mmol) and the mixture diluted with 2 mL dry cyclopentyl methyl ether.

The resulting white mixture was heated to 90 °C and stirred for 24 hours, then allowed to cool to rt, filtered, the filter solids washed with DCM and the filtrate cone. The residue was suspended in a 50% saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted twice with DCM. The organics were combined, dried (MgSC ), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-30% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give 4-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)amino)butyl heptyl glutarate (140 mg, 0.19 mmol, 32%) as a colorless oil.

UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.22 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 726.63 for C43H83NO7. Ή NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 12.2 Hz, 6.1 Hz, ); 4.07 (quart., 4H, J = 12.1 Hz, 6.0 Hz); 3.53 (t, 2H, J = 5.0 Hz); 2.88 (br. s, 1H); 2.58 (t, 2H, J = 4.7 Hz); 2.47 (quart., 4H, J = 16.8 Hz, 7.0 Hz); 2.37 (t, 4H, J = 7.0 Hz); 2.27 (t, 2H, J = 7.4 Hz); 1.94 (quint, 2H, J = 14.7 Hz, 7.3 Hz); 1.70-1.55 (m, 6H); 1.54-1.37 (m, 8H); 1.36-1.15 (m, 38H); 0.87 (t, 9H, J = 6.1 Hz).

GL. Compound 278: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(cyclopropanesulfonamido)propyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 48 H9 N 2 0 6 S

Molecular Weight: 827.35

[00345] Compound 278 was prepared from heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (250 mg, 0.35 mmol) analogously to Compound 109 except that cyclopropanesulfonyl chloride (Oakwood Chemical, Estill, SC) (54 uL, 0.52 mmol) was used in place of methanesulfonyl chloride. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-40% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-

(cyclopropanesulfonamido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl) amino)octanoate (125 mg, 0.15 mmol, 44%) as a slightly yellow oil.

UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.45 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH+) 827.82 for C49H94N206S. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDC13) δ: ppm 6.95 (br. s, lH); 4.86 (quint, 1H, J = 12.4 Hz, 6.2 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.8 Hz); 3.48 (quart., 1H, J = 14.1 Hz, 7.0 Hz); 3.26 (t, 2H, J = 5.6 Hz); 2.63-2.47 (br. m, 2H); 2.45- 2.32 (br. m, 4H); 2.31-2.21 (m, 4H); 1.77-1.68 (m, 2H); 1.61 (br. t, 6H, J = 6.8 Hz); 1.55-1.39 (m, 8H); 1.38-1.17 (m, 48H); 1.16-1.10 (m, 2H); 0.98-0.92 (m, 2H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J = 6.0 Hz).GM. Compound 279: Heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-6-(cyanoimino)-2-methyl-ll-(8-(nonyloxy)- 8-oxooctyl)-2,5,7,ll-tetraazanonadecan-19-oate

Chemical Formula: C 51 H 100 N 6 O 4

Molecular Weight: 861.40

[00346] Compound 279 was prepared from heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (250 mg, 0.35 mmol) analogously to Compound 168 except that neat N,N-dimethylethylene-l,2-diamine (160 uL, 1.4 mmol) was used in place of dimethylamine solution in THF. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-6-(cyanoimino)-2 -methyl- 1 l-(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)-2,5,7,l l-tetraazanonadecan-19-oate (110 mg, 0.13 mmol, 37%) as a slightly yellow oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.10 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 861.94 for CsiHiooNeC . ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.91 (br. s., 1H); 4.86 (quint, 1H, J= 6.2 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 3.28-3.18 (m, 4H); 2.53-2.40 (m, 7H); 2.32-2.22 (m, 10H); 1.75-1.55 (m, 8H); 1.49-1.43 (m, 8H); 1.32-1.26 (br. m, 50H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J= 6.1 Hz).

GN. Compound 280: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((2-((2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)amino)-3,4- dioxocyclobut-l-en-l-yl)amino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxoocty l)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C9H.14N2O3

Molecular Weight: 198.22

[00347] To a solution of 3,4-dimethoxy-3-cyclobutene-l,2-dione (500 mg, 3.45 mmol) in 60 mL diethyl ether was added a solution of 0.42 mL (3.8 mmol) NN-dimethylethylene-1,2- diamine in 10 mL ether rapidly dropwise over five minutes and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temp for 24 hours, then filtered, the filter solids washed with diethyl ether and air-dried. The filter solids were dissolved in hexanes, filtered, the filtrate diluted with EtOAc to turbidity and the mixture allowed to cool to room temp., then cooled to 0 °C to give a ppt. This was isolated via filtration, washed with hexanes, air-dried, then dried under vacuum to give 3-((2- (dimethylamino)ethyl)amino)-4-methoxycyclobut-3-ene-l,2-dion e (255 mg, 1.29 mmol, 37%) as a white solid. The compound exists as two rotamers at room temp in chloroform. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 6.35 (br. s, 0.65H); 6.09 (br. s, 0.35H); 4.39 (s, 3H); 3.73 (br. s, 0.75H); 3.4

Chemical Formula: C 5 3H 100 N 4 O 6

Molecular Weight: 889.41

[00348] Compound 280 was prepared from heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (300 mg, 0.42 mmol) analogously to Compound 169 except that 3-((2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)amino)-4-methoxycyclobut-3-ene-l, 2-dione (160 uL, 1.4 mmol) was used in place of 3-(dimethylamino)-4-methoxycyclobut-3-ene-l,2-dione and the solution was heated to 40 °C. The solution was reduced in a stream of nitrogen and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((2-((2- (dimethylamino)ethyl)amino)-3,4-dioxocyclobut- 1 -en- 1 -yl)amino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (105 mg, 0.12 mmol, 28%) as a yellow paste. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.16 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 890.06 for C53H100N4O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.58 (br. s., 1H); 6.20 (br. s, 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J= 5.9 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 3.76- 3.60 (m, 4H); 2.63 (br. s, 2H); 2.54-2.44 (m, 6H); 2.28 (m, 10H); 1.74 (br. s, 2H); 1.61 (m, 6H); 1.49 (m, 8H); 1.25 (br. m, 48H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J= 6.0 Hz).

GO. Compound 281: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(3-methoxy-2,2- dimethylpropanamido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)oc tanoate

Chemical Formula: C 51 H 10 oN 2 0 6

Molecular Weight: 837.37

[00349] Compound 281 was prepared from heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (250 mg, 0.35 mmol) analogously to Compound 252 except that 3-methoxy-2,2-dimethylpropanoic acid (Enamine LLC, Monmouth Junction, NJ)(63 mg, 0.52 mmol) was used instead of (methylthio)acetic acid. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(3-methoxy-2,2- dimethylpropanamido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)oc tanoate (125 mg, 0.15 mmol, 43%) as a colorless oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.63 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 837.99 for

C51H100N2O6. Ή NMR (300 MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 9.26 (s, 1H); 7.39 (t, 1H, J= 6.3 Hz); 4.85 (quint., 1H, J= 6.3 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 3.42-3.32 (m, 7H); 3.12-2.98 (m, 5H); 2.33- 2.23 (m, 4H); 2.04 (br. s, 2H); 1.75-1.53 (br. m, 14H); 1.51-1.10 (m, 54H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J= 6.1 Hz).

GP. Compound 282: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((l-amino-2-nitrovinyl)amino)propyl)(8-(nonyl oxy)-8-oxooc

Chemical Formula: C 7H92N 4 0 6

Molecular Weight: 809.28

[00350] A solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (500 mg, 0.69 mmol) and (2-nitroethene-l, l-diyl)bis(methylsulfane) (125 mg, 0.76 mmol) in methanol (5 mL) was stirred at 80 ° C in a sealed tube for 5 hours. Then ammonia solution (7 Nin methanol, 5 mL, 35 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture further heated at 80 ° C for 2 hours. The solvent was removed and the crude material purified by silica gel chromatography (S1O2: EtOAc/Hexane 0 to 100%, then methanol containing 1% ammonium hydroxide/dichloromethane 0 to 20%) to give heptadecan-9-yl (£)-8-((3-((l-amino-2- nitrovinyl)amino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octan oate (80 mg, 12%) as a yellow oil. HPLC/UV (214 nm): RT = 8.78 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 809.6 for C47H92N4O6. 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 6.49 (s, 1H); 4.87-4.83 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 3.36 (m, 2H); 2.49-2.39 (m, 6H); 2.27 (dt, 4H, J= 4.3 Hz, 7.2 Hz); 1.77-1.75 (m, 2H); 1.62-1.48 (m, 15H); 1.34- 1.24 (m, 50H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.5 Hz).

GQ. Compound 283: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(methylamino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C^h^^C^

Molecular Weight: 737.25

[00351] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-chloropropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (400 mg, 0.54 mmol) in 2 mL 2-propanol was added sodium iodide (10 mg, cat.) followed by 4 mL (8 mmol) of a 2M methylamine solution in THF to give a yellow solution. This was heated to 55 °C and stirred for three days after which no starting chloride remained by LC/MS. The mixture was cone, in a stream of nitrogen and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(methylamino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (220 mg, 0.30 mmol, 55%) as a pale yellow oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.98 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 737.70 for C46H92N2O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.86 (quint, 1H, J= 6.1 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 2.72 (t, 2H, J= 6.5 Hz); 2.51 (t, 2H, J = 6.1 Hz); 2.46 (s, 3H); 2.40 (t, 4H, J= 6.3 Hz); 2.32-2.23 (m, 4H); 1.76-1.55 (m, 8H); 1.54 - 1.36 (m, 8H); 1.35-1.12 (br. m, 49H); 0.87 (t, 9H, J= 5.9 Hz).

GR. Compound 284: 5-((8-(Heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino) pentyl octyl malonate

Chemical Formula: C 15 H 28 0 4

Molecular Weight: 272.39

[00352] To a solution of mono-fert-butyl malonate (Oakwood Products, Inc., Estill, SC) (1.5 g, 9.2 mmol) and 1-octanol (1.6 mL, 10.1 mmol) in 20 mL dry DCM was added l-ethyl-3- (dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (3.1 g, 13.8 mmol) followed by 4- (dimethylamino)pyridine (0.34 g, 2.7 mmol) and finally NN-diisopropylethylamine (4.8 mL, 27.5 mmol) with stirring under dry nitrogen to give a colorless solution. This was stirred at room temp, for 24 hours, after which LC/MS showed no starting acid remaining. The yellow solution was diluted with DCM, washed twice with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, twice with an aqueous 10% citric acid solution, dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil which was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-15% EtOAc in hexanes) to give fert-butyl octyl malonate (1.86 g, 6.8 mmol, 74%) as a colorless liquid. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.11-4.06 (m, 4H); 3.41 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 2.62 (s, 4H); 1.87 (quint., 2H, J = 7.2 Hz); 1.69-1.57 (m, 4H); 1.50-1.30 (m, 10H); 0.89 (t, 3H, J= 6.3 Hz).

Chemical Formula: Ci-|H 2 o0 4

Molecular Weight: 216.28

[00353] To a solution of fert-butyl octyl malonate (1.5 g, 5.5 mmol) in 10 mL DCM at 0 °C was added trifluoroacetic acid (5 mL, excess) rapidly dropwise with stirring to give a colorless solution. The resulting colorless solution was allowed to warm to room temp and stirred for 24 hours, after which the reaction was incomplete by TLC. The solution was heated to 45 °C and stirred for three hours after which no starting material remained by TLC. The pale yellow solution was allowed to cool to room temp, cone, and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography (0-30% EtOAc in hexanes) to give 3-(octyloxy)-3-oxopropanoic acid (0.9 g, 4.2 mmol, 75%) as a colorless liquid. Ή-NMR (500 MHz, CDCb) δ ppm 4.19 (t, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 3.44 (s, 2H); 1.66 (quint, 2H, J= 7.1 Hz); 1.40-1.19 (m, 10H); 0.88 (t, 3H, J= 7.0 Hz); carboxylate proton not observed.

Chemical Formula: Ci 6 H 29 Br0 4

Molecular Weight: 365.31

[00354] To a solution of 3-(octyloxy)-3-oxopropanoic acid (900 mg, 4.2 mmol) and 5-bromo- 1-pentanol (0.58 mL, 4.4 mmol) in 20 mL dry dichloromethane was added l-ethyl-3- (dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (1.4 g, 6.2 mmol) followed by 4- (dimethylamino)pyridine (250 mg, 2.1 mmol) and finally NN-diisopropylethylamine (2.2 mL, 12.5 mmol) with stirring under dry nitrogen. The colorless solution was stirred at room temp, for 24 hours, after which TLC showed no starting acid remaining. The solution was diluted with DCM, washed twice with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (thick emulsion), once with an aqueous 10% citric acid solution, dried (MgSC ), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-20% EtOAc in hexanes) to give 5- bromopentyl octyl malonate (810 mg, 2.2 mmol, 53%) as a colorless liquid. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 2.17 min. MS (ES): m/z (M+Na + ) 387.24 for CieHigBrC . ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.15 (dt, 4H, J= 8.2 Hz, 6.6 Hz); 3.41 (t, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 3.37 (s, 2H); 1.95-1.85 (m, 2H); 1.74-

1.59 (m, 4H); 1.57-1.47 (m, 2H); 1.39-1.20 (m, 10H); 0.88 (t, 3H, J= 6.6 Hz).

Chemical Formula: C4 3 H 83 N0 7

Molecular Weight: 726.14

[00355] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate (400 mg, 0.81 mmol) and 6-bromohexyl hexyl succinate (300 mg (0.81 mmol) in 8 mL dry acetonitrile under dry nitrogen was added potassium iodide (150 mg, 0.9 mmol) followed by powdered potassium carbonate (450 mg, 3.3 mmol) and the mixture diluted with 2 mL dry cyclopentyl methyl ether. The resulting white mixture was heated to 90 °C and stirred for 24 hours, then allowed to cool to rt, filtered, the filter solids washed with DCM and the filtrate cone. The residue was suspended in a 50% saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted twice with DCM. The organics were combined, dried (MgSC ), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-40% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give 5-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)amino)pentyl octyl malonate (225 mg, 0.31 mmol, 38%) as a colorless oil.

UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.24 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 726.87 for COHSBNOV. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 4.86 (quint, 1H, 6.1 Hz, ); 4.14 (td, 4H, J= 6.7 Hz, 2.9 Hz); 3.57 (m, 2H); 3.37 (s, 2H); 2.63 (br. s, 2H); 2.51 (br. s, 4H); 2.27 (t, 2H, J= 7.4 Hz); 1.73-1.56 (m, 6H); 1.55-1.42 (m, 8H); 1.41-1.16 (m, 43H); 0.88 (t, 9H, J= 6.1 Hz).

GS. Compound 285: 7-((8-(Heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino) heptyl (Z)-dec-3-enoate

Chemical Formula: Ci 2 Hi 8 0 3

Molecular Weight: 210.27

[00356] To a solution of l-octyn-3-ol (2.15 mL, 14.4 mmol) and methyl propiolate (1.2 mL, 14.4 mmol) in 100 mL dry DCM was added triethylamine (0.2 mL, 1.4 mmol) and the pale yellow solution stirred at rt for 20 hours after which no starting alcohol remained by TLC. The solution was cone, and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography (0-20% EtOAc in hexanes) to give methyl (E)-3-(oct-l-yn-3-yloxy)acrylate (2.92 g, 13.9 mmol, 97%) as a colorless liquid. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 7.61 (d, 1H, J= 12.5 Hz); 5.38 (d, 1H, J= 12.5 Hz); 4.53 (td, 1H, J= 6.6 Hz, 2.0 Hz); 3.70 (s, 3H); 2.58 (d, 1H, J

2H); 1.52-1.41 (m, 2H); 1.37-1.26 J= 6.9 Hz).

Chemical Formula:

C10H18O2

Molecular Weight: 170.25

[00357] In a 5 mL microwave vial were combined 840 mg (4 mmol) methyl (£)-3-(oct-l-yn- 3-yloxy)acrylate and 2 mL water to give a colorless bilayer. The vial was sealed and the mixture subjected to microwave irradiation at 175 °C for 90 minutes. The resulting bilayer was washed twice with DCM, the organics combined, dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a dark orange oil. This was dissolved in hexanes and purified by silica gel chromatography (0-20% EtOAc in hexanes) to give (Z)-dec-3-enoic acid (155 mg, 0.91 mmol, 23%) as an orange oil. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 11.03 (br. s, 1H); 5.70-5.44 (m, 2H); 3.14 (d, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 2.04 (q., 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 1.43-1.13 (m, 8H); 0.88 (t, 3H, J= 6.8 Hz). (Z)-Geometry confirmed by ID selective gradient NOEsy experiments iradiating at 2.07 ppm (C-5 protons) and 3.16 ppm (C-2 proto

Chemical Formula: Ci 7 H 31 Br0 2

Molecular Weight: 347.34

[00358] To a solution of (Z)-dec-3-enoic acid (220 mg, 1.29 mmol) and 7-bromo-l-heptanol (250 uL, 1.42 mmol) in 10 mL dry DCM were added l-ethyl-3-

(dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (440 mg, 1.94 mmol) followed by DMAP (80 mg, 0.65 mmol) and finally NN-diisopropylethylamine (680 uL, 3.88 mmol). The resulting orange solution was stirred at room temp, for 24 hours, after which TLC showed no starting acid remaining. The solution was diluted with DCM, washed once with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (thick emulsion), once with an aqueous 10% citric acid solution, dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-15% EtOAc in hexanes) to give 7-bromoheptyl (Z)-dec-3-enoate (250 mg, 0.72 mmol, 56%) as a slightly yellow liquid. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.65-5.49 (m, 2H); 4.07 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 3.40 (t, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 3.08 (d, 2H, J= 5.5 Hz); 2.04 (q., 2H, J = 6.8 Hz); 1.92-1.79 (m, 2H); 1.70-1.56 (m, 2H); 1.51-1.20 (m, 14H); 0.88 (t, 3H, J= 6.3 Hz).

Chemical Formula: C 4 4H 85 N05

Molecular Weight: 708.17

[00359] Compound 285 was prepared from heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2- hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate (350 mg, 0.71 mmol) analogously to compound 284 except that

7- bromoheptyl (Z)-dec-3-enoate (250 mg, 0.72 mmol) was used in place of 5-bromopentyl octyl malonate. Following an aqueous workup the resulting yellow oil was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-40% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give 7-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino) heptyl (Z)-dec-3-enoate (205 mg, 0.29 mmol, 41%) as a colorless oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.35 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 708.75 for C44H85NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCh) δ: ppm 5.64-5.48 (m, 2H); 4.86 (quint, 1H, J= 6.2 Hz); 4.07 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 3.55 (t, 2H, J= 5.0 Hz); 3.40 (t, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 3.08 (d, 2H, J= 5.6 Hz); 2.61 (t, 2H, J= 4.1 Hz); 2.47 (t, 4H, J= 6.8 Hz); 2.27 (t, 2H, J= 7.5 Hz); 2.04 (q., 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 1.70-1.55 (m, 4H); 1.54-1.40 (m, 6H); 1.39-1.13 (m, 45H); 0.87 (t, 9H, J= 6.5 Hz).

GT. Compound 286: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-acetamido-2,2-dimethylpropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-

8- oxooctyl)amin

Chemical Formula: C52H-102N2O6

Exact Mass: 850.77

[00360] Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)-2,2-dimethylpropyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate was prepared from heptadecan-9-yl 8-((8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (500 mg, 0.75 mmol) analogously to compound 244 except that tert- butyl (2,2-dimethyl-3-oxopropyl)carbamate (Enamine LLC, Monmouth Junction, NJ)(231 mg, 1.13 mmol) was used in place of N-Boc-glycinal, three equivalents of sodium

triacetoxyborohydride were required and the reaction was run at 50 °C for three days. Following an aqueous workup the resulting yellow oil was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% methanol in DCM) and the product-containing fractions pooled and cone, to a colorless oil/white solid mixture. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-25% EtOAc in hexanes) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)-2,2-dimethylpropyl)(8-(no nyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (85 mg, 0.1 mmol, 13%) as a pale yellow oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.65 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 852.01 for C52H102N2O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 6.32 (br. s, 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J= 6.1 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.8 Hz); 2.99 (d, 2H, J= 4.6 Hz); 2.37 (t, 4H, J= 7.4 Hz); 2.32-2.19 (m, 6H); 1.69-1.55 (m, 6H); 1.54- 1.37 (m, 16H); 1.36-1.15 (m, 49H); 0.91-0.

Chemical Formula: C47H94N2O4

Molecular Weight: 751.28

[00361] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)-2,2- dimethylpropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (85 mg, 0.1 mmol) in 2 mL DCM cooled to 0 °C was added a 2M hydrogen chloride solution in diethyl ether (0.5 mL, excess) with stirring to give a colorless solution. This was allowed to warm to room temp, then heated to 40 °C and stirred for two hours after which no starting material remained by LC/MS. The solution was allowed to cool to room temp and cone, in a stream of nitrogen, the residue redissolved in ether, cone, and placed under high vacuum overnight to give heptadecan-9-yl 8- ((3-amino-2,2-dimethylpropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino) octanoate (79.3 mg, 0.096 mmol, 96%) as a colorless foamy solid (assumed to be the dihydrochloride). Carried through without further purification. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.12 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 751.97 for

Chemical Formula: C49H 96 N 2 05

Molecular Weight: 793.32

[00362] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-amino-2,2-dimethylpropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (assumed to be the dihydrochloride)(79 mg (0.096 mmol) and triethylamine (41 uL, 0.29 mmol) in 2 mL dry DCM cooled to 0 °C was added acetic anhydride (13 uL, 0.15 mmol) dropwise with stirring. After 15 minutes the cooling bath was removed and the resulting mixture stirred at room temp for two hours. No starting amine remained by LC/MS so the yellow solution was diluted with DCM, washed twice with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, once with brine, dried (MgSCU), filtered and the filtrate cone, to a yellow oil. This was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-acetamido-2,2- dimethylpropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (56 mg, 0.07 mmol, 73%) as a pale yellow oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.52 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 793.95 for C49H96N2O5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 8.06 (t, 1H, J = 4.2 Hz); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 6.2 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.8 Hz); 3.13 (d, 2H, J = 4.6 Hz); 2.41 (t, 4H, J= 7.4 Hz); 2.35-2.21 (m, 6H); 1.94 (s, 3H); 1.69- 1.56 (m, 6H); 1.55- 1.39 (m, 8H); 1.38-1.13 (m, 48H); 0.95-0.82 m, 15H).

GU. Compound 287: Heptadecan-9-yl ( )-6-(cyanoimino)-2,5-dimethyl-ll-(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)-2,5, -tetraazanonadecan-19-oate

Chemical Formula: C 52 Hi02 6O 4

Molecular Weight: 875.43

[00363] Compound 287 was prepared from heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (250 mg, 0.35 mmol) analogously to compound 168 except that N,N,N'-trimethylethylene-l,2-diamine (90 uL, 0.69 mmol) was used in place of the dimethylamine solution and the second step was run at 70 °C for two days. Following an aqueous workup the resulting cloudy pale yellow oil was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100%) (mixture of 1%> ΝΗ4ΟΗ, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-6-(cyanoimino)-2,5 -dimethyl- 1 l-(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)-2,5,7, l 1- tetraazanonadecan- 19-oate (172 mg, 0.35 mmol, 57%) as a colorless oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.00 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 876.20 for CsiHioiNeC . ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 8.68 (br. s., 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 6.2 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 3.54-3.43 (m, 2H); 3.31 (t, 2H, J = 4.8 Hz); 3.03 (s, 3H); 2.55-2.44 (m, 4H); 2.44-2.33 (br. s, 3H); 2.32-2.23 (m, 10H); 1.74-1.55 (m, 8H); 1.54- 1.37 (m, 8H); 1.36-1.18 (m, 49H); 0.87 (t, 9H, J= 6.8 Hz).

GV. Compound 288: Heptadecan-9-yl ( )-9-(cyanoimino)-2-methyl-14-(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)-5-oxa-2,8,10,14-tetraazadocosan-22-oate

Chemical Formula: C 53 H 1 0 4N 6 O5

Molecular Weight: 905.45

[00364] Compound 288 was prepared from heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (250 mg, 0.35 mmol) analogously to compound 168 except that 2-(2-aminoethoxy)-N,N-dimethylethan- l -amine ( 1 10 uL, 0.76 mmol) was used in place of the dimethylamine solution and the second step was run at 75 °C for two days.

Following an aqueous workup the resulting pale yellow oil was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% (mixture of 1% ΝΗ4θΗ, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-9-(cyanoimino)-2 -methyl- 14-(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)-5-oxa-2,8, 10, 14-tetraazadocosan-22-oate (147 mg, 0.16 mmol, 47%) as a colorless oil. UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.07 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 906.05 for C53H104N6O5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 6.95 (br. s., 1H); 6.18 (br. s, 1H); 4.86 (quint., 1H, J = 6.2 Hz); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 3.56 (t, 4H, J = 5.6 Hz); 3.37 (q, 2H, J = 5.0 Hz); 3.26 (q, 2H, J = 5.6 Hz); 2.52 (q, 4H, J = 6.2 Hz); 2.44 (t, 4H, J = 7.6 Hz); 2.35-2.20 (m, 10H); 1.75-1.55 (m, 8H); 1.54-1.38 (m, 8H); 1.37-1.15 (m, 48H); 0.87 (t, 9H, J = 6.4 Hz).

GW. Compound 289: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(3-(thiazol-2- ylamino)propyl) amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 5 3H99N 3 0 6 S

Molecular Weight: 906.45

[00365] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-hydroxypropyl)(8-nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate ( 1.0 g, 1.38 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (20 mL) containing tert- butylthiazol-2-yl carbamate (276 mg, 1.38 mol) and triphenyl phosphine (544 mg, 2.07 mmol) at 0 ° C, was added diisopropylazo dicarboxylate (DIAD) (0.4 mL, 2.07 mmol) dropwise and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The solvent was removed under vacuum to give the crude product which was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% EtOAc in hexanes) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)(thiazol-2- yl)amino)propyl) (8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (512 mg, 0.56 mmol, 41%) as colorless oil (contained DIAD byproduct as impurity). MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 906.7 for C53H99N3O6S. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDC ): δ ppm 7.39 (d, 1H, J = 3.6 Hz); 6.89 (d, 1H, J= 3.6 Hz); 4.87-4.80 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.6 Hz); 2.51-2.48 (m, 2H); 2.41-2.37 (m, 4H); 2.26 (dt, 4H, J= 7.5 Hz, 3.7 Hz); 1.84- 1.79 (m, 2H); 1.62-1.57 (m, 12H); 1.49-1.41 (m, 5H,); 1.39-1.24 (m, 56H); 0.86 = 6.6 Hz).

Chemical Formula: C4 8 H 91 N 3 0 4 S

Molecular Weight: 806.33

[00366] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)(thiazol-2- yl)amino)propyl) (8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (512 mg, 0.56 mmol) in dichloromethane (15 mL) at 0 ° C, was added trifluoroacetic acid (10 mL) dropwise and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. It was quenched by saturated sodium bicarbonate solution at 0 ° C. The organic layer was washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, 0.1 N sodium hydroxide solution and brine. After drying with anhydrous sodium sulfate the organic layer was filtered, and the solvent was removed under vacuum to give the crude product which was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% EtOAc in hexanes) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(3-(thiazol-2-ylamino)propyl) amino)octanoate (280 mg, 0.34 mmol, 61 %) as light yellow oil. HPLC UV (214 nm): RT = 7.01 min. MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 806.6 for C48H91N3O4S. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): ^ ppm 7.09 (d, 1H, J= 3.6 Hz); 6.96 (bs, 1H); 6.42 (d, 1H, J= 3.9 Hz); 4.87-4.83 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 3.39-3.35 (m, 2H); 2.54 (t, 2H, J= 5.7 Hz); 2.40-2.35 (m, 4H); 2.26 (dt, 4H, J= 3.7 Hz, 7.5 Hz); 1.77-1.73 (m, 2H); 1.61-1.57 (m, 6H); 1.48- 1.43 (m, 8H); 1.29- 1.24 (m, 48H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.6 Hz).

GX. Compound 290: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((2-((2-methoxyethyl)amino)-3,4- dioxocyclobut-l-en-l-yl)amino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxoocty l)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C52H97N3O7

Molecular Weight: 876.36

[00367] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (500 mg, 0.69 mmol) in diethyl ether (50 mL) at 0 ° C was added 3,4- dimethoxycyclobut-3-ene-l,2-dione (148 mg, 1.04 mmol) and the reaction mixture stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. LCMS showed the absence of starting material. Then a solution of 2-methoxyethan-l -amine (0.6 mL, 6.9 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (3.5 mL) was added and the reaction mixture stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was concentrated and purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((2-((2- methoxyethyl)amino)-3,4-dioxocyclobut- l-en-l-yl)amino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (350 mg, 58%) as light yellow oil. HPLC/UV (254 nm): 6.91 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 876.6 for C52H97N3O7. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDC ): δ ppm 7.10 (bs, 1H); 6.20 (bs, 1H); 4.86-4.82 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.76-3.68 (m, 4H); 3.52 (t, 2H, J = 4.8 Hz); 3.35 (s, 3H); 2.53 (t, 2H, J= 6.0 Hz); 2.39-2.36 (m, 4H); 2.31-2.25 (m, 4H); 1.75-1.71 (m, 2H); 1.66-1.55 (m, 6H); 1.50-1.48 (m, 4H); 1.40-1.38 (m, 4H); 1.29- 1.24 (m, 48H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.6 Hz).

GY. Compound 291 : Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((3,4-dioxo-2-(piperidin-l-yl)cyclobut-l-en-l- yl) amino)pr

Chemical Formula: C54H 9 9N 3 0 6

Molecular Weight: 886.40

[00368] Compound 291 was prepared analogously to compound 290 but using piperidine instead of 2-methoxyethan- l -amine. Light yellow oil, 290 mg, 47%. HPLC/UV (254 nm): RT = 6.70 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 886.7 for C54H99N3O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 8.01 (bs, 1H); 4.87-4.83 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 3.93-3.92 (m, 2H); 3.59 (bs, 4H); 2.63- 2.60 (m, 2H); 2.39 (m, 4H); 2.31-2.24 (m, 4H); 1.72- 1.54 (m, 17H); 1.49-1.48 (m, 5H); 1.38- 1.24 (m, 48H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J = 6.6 Hz).

GZ. Compound 292: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((2-(ethylamino)-3,4-dioxocyclobut-l-en-l-yl) amino)propyl -(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 51 H95N 3 0 6

Molecular Weight: 846.34

[00369] Compound 292 was prepared analogously to compound 290 but using ethylamine instead of 2-methoxyethan-l -amine. Light yellow gummy solid, 135 mg, 23%. HPLC UV (254 nm): RT = 6.81 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 846.6 for C51H95N3O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 6.20 (bs, 1H); 4.86-4.82 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 3.69-3.56 (m, 4H); 2.56 (t, 2H, J = 5.5 Hz); 2.44-2.39 (m, 4H); 2.31-2.25 (m, 4H); 1.76-1.72 (m, 2H); 1.70- 1.52 (m, 9H); 1.51- 1.44 (m, 5H); 1.42-1.38 (m, 4H); 1.28- 1.24 (m, 48H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J = 6.6 Hz).

HA. Compound 293: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((2-(diethylamino)-3,4-dioxocyclobut-l-en-l- yl) amino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 5 3H99N 3 0 6

Molecular Weight: 874.39

[00370] Compound 293 was prepared analogously to compound 290 but using diethylamine instead of 2-methoxyethan- l -amine. Yellow oil, 315 mg, 52%. HPLC UV (254 nm): RT = 6.63 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 874.7 for C53H99N3O6. 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 7.52 (bs, 1H); 4.87-4.83 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 3.93-3.91 (m, 2H); 3.53 (m, 4H,), 2.62-2.59 (m, 2H); 2.41-2.39 (m, 4H); 2.30-2.24 (m, 4H); 1.72 (m, 2H); 1.61-1.58 (m, 1 1H); 1.50-1.48 (m, 5H); 1.40-1.37 (m, 4H); 1.29- 1.20 (m, 48H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.7 Hz). HB. Compound 294: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((2-morpholino-3,4-dioxocyclobut-l-en-l-yl) amino)propy -(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 5 3H 9 7N 3 0 7

Molecular Weight: 888.37

[00371] Compound 294 was prepared analogously to compound 290 but using morpholine instead of 2-methoxyethan- l -amine. Light yellow oil, 297 mg, 48%. HPLC/UV (254 nm): RT = 6.67 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 888.6 for C53H97N3O7. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): ^ ppm 8.12 (bs, 1H); 4.87-4.83 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 3.92-3.91 (m, 2H); 3.77-3.73 (m, 4H); 3.67-3.66 (m, 4H); 2.62-2.60 (m, 2H); 2.41-2.36 (m, 4H); 2.31-2.25 (m, 4H); 1.72-1.71 (m, 2H); 1.63-1.58 (m, 10H); 1.50-1.48 (m, 4H); 1.29- 1.24 (m, 48H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.6 Hz).

HC. Compound 295: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((2-(bis(2-methoxyethyl)amino)-3,4- dioxocyclo

Chemical Formula: C 5 5H 10 3N3O 8

Molecular Weight: 934.44

[00372] Compound 295 was prepared analogously to compound 290 but using bis(2- methoxyethyl)amine instead of 2-methoxyethan- l -amine. Yellow oil, 215 mg, 33%. HPLC/UV (254 nm): RT = 6.73 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 934.7 for C55H103N3O8. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 6.74 (t, 1H, J= 5.9 Hz); 4.87-4.83 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 3.77-3.71 (m, 4H); 3.57-3.56 (m, 4H); 3.35 (s, 6H); 2.50-2.47 (m, 2H); 2.40-2.36 (m, 4H); 2.30-2.24 (m, 4H); 1.77 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 1.62- 1.52 (m, 8H); 1.50-1.42 (m, 4H); 1.40-1.36 (m, 4H); 1.29- 1.24 (m, 48H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J = 6.6 Hz).

HD. Compound 296: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((2-(4-methylpiperazin-l-yl)-3,4- dioxocyclobut-l-en-l-yl)amino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxoocty l)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 5 4H 10 oN40 6

Molecular Weight: 901 .42

[00373] Compound 296 was prepared analogously to compound 290 but using N-methyl piperazine instead of 2-methoxyethan-l -amine. Yellow oil, 210 mg, 34%. HPLC UV (254 nm): RT = 6.28 min. MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 901.7 for C54H100N4O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 8.05 (bs, 1H); 4.87-4.82 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 3.91-3.90 (m, 2H); 3.70 (bs, 4H); 2.71 (m, 2H); 2.48-2.45 (m, 8H); 2.31 (s, 3H); 2.28-2.26 (m, 4H); 1.71-1.58 (m, 10H); 1.52-1.48 (m, 6H), 1.30- 1.24 (m, 48H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.6 Hz).

HE. Compound 297: Nonyl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(methyl)amino)-7- hydroxyoctanoate

Step 1 : Nonyl oct-7-enoa

Chemical Formula: C17H32O2

Molecular Weight: 268.44

[00374] To a solution of oct-7-enoic acid (2 g, 14.065 mmol), 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (0.344 g, 2.813 mmol) and 1-nonanol (2.435 g, 16.878 mmol) in DCM (70 mL) was added EDC (2.696 g, 14.065 mmol). The reaction was allowed to stir at rt for 16 h. The reaction was diluted with DCM and extracted with sat. aqueous sodium bicarbonate. The organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried with MgS04, filtered and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-20% ethyl acetate in hexanes) to give nonyl oct-7-enoate (2.1 g, 7.82 mmol, 56%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ ppm 5.83 (m, 1H); 4.98 (m, 2H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 2.32 (t, 2H); 2.08 (m, 2H); 1.65 (m, 4H); 1.50-1.19 (m, 16H); 0.90

(m, 3H).

Step 2: Nonyl 6-(oxiran- -yl)hexanoate

Chemical Formula: C17H32O3

Molecular Weight: 284.44 [00375] To a solution of nonyl oct-7-enoate (2.07 g, 7.71 mmol) in DCM (38 mL) at 0 °C was added a solution of 3-chloroperbenzoic acid (2.129 g, 8.64 mmol) in DCM (38 mL). After 2 hours the reaction was allowed to warm to rt and stirred for 16 hours The reaction was diluted with DCM and washed with sat. aqueous sodium bicarbonate. The organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried with sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated under vac. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0- 100% ethyl acetate in hexanes) to give nonyl 6-(oxiran-2-yl)hexanoate ( 1.1 g, 3.86 mmol, 50%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.08 (t, 2H); 2.92 (m, 1H); 2.77 (t, 1H); 2.48 (m, 1H); 2.33 (t, 2H); 1.71- 1.26 (m, 22H); 0.91 (m,

3H).

Step 3: Nonyl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(methyl)amino)-7-hydro xyoctanoate

Chemical Formula: C43H85NO5

Molecular Weight: 696.15

[00376] To a high -pressure tube were added nonyl 6-(oxiran-2-yl)hexanoate (0.173 g, 0.61 mmol), heptadecan-9-yl 8-(methylamino)octanoate (0.25 g, 0.61 mmol) and a catalytic amount of lithium perchlorate (0.003 g, 0.03 mmol). The vessel was sealed and the reaction heated to 100°C for 60 minutes. The reaction was allowed to cool to room temp., dissolved in hexanes and purified by silica gel chromatography (0-40% ethyl acetate in hexanes) to give nonyl 8-{ [8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl](methyl)amino}-7-hydroxyo ctanoate (0.097 g, 0.14 mmol, 23%). LC/ELSD: RT = 3.33 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 697.1 1 for C43H85NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.66 (br. m, 2H); 2.50 (br., m, 1H); 2.43-2.20 (m, 10H); 1.76-1.19 (m, 60H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

HF. Compound 298: Nonyl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)amino) - 7-hydroxyoctanoate

Chemical Formula: C44H87NO6

Molecular Weight: 726.18

[00377] Compound 298 was prepared analogously to compound 297 using heptadecan-9-yl 8- ((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)octanoate instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-(methylamino)octanoate. Yield was 0.121 g (0.167 mmol, 29%) LC/ELSD: RT = 3.32 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 727.12 for C44H87NO6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.66 (br. m, 3H); 2.79 (m, 1H); 2.69-2.24 (m, 10H); 1.74-1.22 (m, 60H); 0.90 (m, 9H) (primary hydroxyl proton not observed).

HG. Compound 299: Heptadecan-9-yl 7-hydroxy-8-(methyl(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Step 1 : Heptadecan-9-yl oct-7-enoate

Chemical Formula: C25H48O2

Molecular Weight: 380.66

[00378] Heptadecan-9-yl oct-7-enoate was synthesized in same manner as nonyl oct-7-enoate using heptadecan-9-ol and oct-7-enoic acid. Yield was 2.15 g (5.65 mmol, 80%). 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 5.83 (m, 1H); 5.08-4.81 (m, 3H); 2.31 (t, 2H); 2.06 (m, 2H); 1.73-1.15 (m, 34H); 0.90 (m, 6H).

Step 2: Heptadecan-9-yl 6-(oxiran-2-yl)hexanoate

Chemical Formula: C25H48O3

Molecular Weight: 396.66

[00379] Heptadecan-9-yl 6-(oxiran-2-yl)hexanoate was synthesized in same manner as nonyl 6-(oxiran-2-yl)hexanoate using heptadecan-9-yl oct-7-enoate. Yield was 1.45g (3.66 mmol, 69%). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (p, 1H); 2.92 (m, 1H); 2.77 (t, 1H); 2.48 (m, 1H); 2.32 (t, 2H); 1.74-1.21 (m, 36H); 0.90 (m, 6H).

Step 3: Nonyl 8-(methylamino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C18H37NO2

Molecular Weight: 299.49

[00380] To a flask containing nonyl 8-bromooctanoate (1 g, 2.86 mmol) was added a 2M solution of methylamine (42.9 mL, 85.87 mmol) in THF. The reaction was allowed to stir at rt for 16 hours, then cone, under vacuum. The residue was diluted with ethyl acetate and washed with a saturated sodium bicarbonate solution. The organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried with Na2S04, filtered and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-20% MeOH in DCM) to give nonyl 8-(methylamino)octanoate (0.625 g, 2.86 mmol, 73%). LC/ELSD: RT = 1.19 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 300.17 for C18H37NO2. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.08 (t, 2H); 2.60 (t, 2H); 2.46 (s, 3H); 2.31 (t, 2H); 1.91-1.45 (m, 7H); 1.33 (m, 18H); 0.90 (m, 3H).

Step 4: Heptadecan-9- -hydroxy-8-(methyl(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C43H85NO5

Molecular Weight: 696.16

[00381] Compound 299 was synthesized in same manner as compound 297 using nonyl 8- (methylamino)octanoate and heptadecan-9-yl 6-(oxiran-2-yl)hexanoate. Yield was 0.152 mg (0.218 mmol, 39%). LC/ELSD: RT = 3.25 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 697.85 for C43H85NO5. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.89 (m, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.66 (br. m, 1H); 2.52 (br., m, 1H); 2.31 (br. m, 10H); 1.75-1.20 (m, 60H); 0.90 (m, 9H) (hydroxyl proton not observed).

HH. Compound 300: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-cyano-3,3-dimethylguanidino)propyl)(8- oxo-8-(undecan-3-yloxy)octyl)amino)octanoate

Step 7. Undecan-3-yl 8-bromooctanoate

Chemical Formula: CigH 37 Br0 2

Molecular Weight: 377.41 [00382] To a solution of 3-undecanol (4.14 g, 24 mmol), 8-bromooctanoic acid (8.01 g, 36 mmol) and DMAP (0.58 g, 4.8 mmol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) at 0 ° C was added EDCI (6.9 g, 36 mmol) and the reaction mixture stirred at room temperature overnight. TLC showed the reaction was complete. The reaction mixture was cooled to 0 ° C and a solution of hydrochloric acid (10 mL cone. HQ, 90 mL water, 7.5 g sodium chloride) was added very slowly over 20 minutes. Then acetonitrile (100 mL) and hexane (100 mL) were added, the layers separated and the organic layer dried and removed in vacuum to give an oil. The oil was dissolved in hexane (100 mL) and washed with a mixture of acetonitrile (100 mL) and 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (100 mL). The hexane layer was separated and filtered through diatomaceous earth, the filter cake washed with hexane and the filtrate cone, under vacuum to give undecan-3-yl 8-bromooctanoate (8.76 g, 97%) as a colorless oil. 'H NMR (300 MHz,

CDCb): δ ppm 4.82-4.76 (m, 1H); 3.39 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 2.44 (t, 0.3H, J= 7.4 Hz, for CHiCl); 2.28 (t, 2H, J= 7.5 Hz, for CHiBr); 1.88-1.79 (m, 2H); 1.70-1.42 (m, 6H); 1.38-1.17 (m, 18H); 0.88-0.82 (m, 6H).

Step 2: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((teri-butoxycarbonyl)amino)propyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C3 3 H 66 N 2 04

Molecular Weight: 554.90

[00383] A solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-bromooctanoate (69.2 g, 0.15 mole) and fert-butyl (3-aminopropyl)carbamate (130.6 g, 0.75 mole) in 500 mL ethanol was heated to 65 °C overnight. The reaction mixture was concentrated, and the crude was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-20% methanol in DCM) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((fert- butoxycarbonyl)amino)propyl)amino)octanoate (62 g, 74%) as a light yellow oil. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 555.5 for C33H66N2O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 5.15 (bs, 1H); 4.85 (quint., 1H, J= 6.0 Hz); 3.17 (m, 2H); 2.65 (t, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 2.56 (t, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 2.26 (t, 2H, J= 7.6 Hz); 1.68-1.56 (m, 6H); 1.46 (m, 5H); 1.43 (s, 9H); 1.24 (m, 30H); 0.86 (t, 6H, J= 6.6 Hz). Step 3: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((teri-butoxycarbonyl)amino)propyl)(8-oxo-8-(undecan-3 - yloxy)octyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 5 2H 10 2N2O 6

Molecular Weight: 851.40

[00384] A solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((fert- butoxycarbonyl)amino)propyl)amino)octanoate (6.0 g, 12 mmol) and undecan-3-yl 8- bromooctanoate (4.27 g, 11 mmol) in cyclopentyl methyl ether (50 mL) and acetonitrile (50 mL) containing potassium carbonate (6.02 g, 43 mmol) and potassium iodide (1.97 g, 12 mmol) was heated at 86 ° C for 18 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was filtered through diatomaceous earth, the filter cake washed with ethyl acetate, and the filtrate cone, under vacuum to give the crude product which was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% EtOAc in hexanes) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((fert- butoxycarbonyl)amino)propyl)(8-oxo-8-(undecan-3-yloxy)octyl) amino)octanoate (6.8 g, 74%) as an oil. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 851.7 for C52H102N2O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): ^ ppm 5.66 (m, 1H); 4.87-4.80 (m, 2H); 3.17 (m, 2H); 2.42 (t, 2H, J= 6.3 Hz); 2.35-2.24 (m, 8H); 1.64-1.56 (m, 12H); 1.53-1.44 (m, 9H); 1.44-1.36 (m, 3H); 1.42 (s, 9H); 1.32-1.12 (m, 42H); 0.86 (t, 12H, J= 6.4Hz).

Step 4: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-oxo-8-(undecan-3-yloxy)octyl)

amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C47H9 N2O4

Molecular Weight: 751.28

[00385] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((teri-butoxycarbonyl)amino)propyl)(8-oxo-8- (undecan-3-yloxy)octyl)amino)octanoate (6.8 g, 7.99 mmol) in dichloromethane (30 mL) at 0 ° C, was added trifluoroacetic acid (10 mL) dropwise and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction was quenched with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution at 0 ° C. The organic layer was washed with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, 0.1 N sodium hydroxide solution and brine. After drying with anhydrous sodium sulfate, the solvent was removed under vacuum to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3- aminopropyl)(8-oxo-8-(undecan-3-yloxy)octyl)amino)octanoate (5.7 g, 97%) as an oil. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 751.7 for C47H94N2O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 4.87-4.79 (m, 2H); 2.70 (t, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 2.42-2.33 (m, 6H); 2.27 (dt, 4H, J= 2.8 Hz, 7.4 Hz); 1.68-1.46 (m, 22H); 1.44-1.35 (m, 4H); 1.34-1.16 (m, 42H); 0.88-0.84 (m, 12H).

Step 5: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-cyano-3,3-dimethylguanidino)propyl)(8-oxo-8-(undeca n-3- yloxy)octyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 51 H99N 5

Molecular Weight: 846.38

[00386] Compound 300 was prepared analogously to compound 168 except that heptadecan- 9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-oxo-8-(undecan-3-yloxy)octyl)amino)octa noate (500 mg, 0.66 mmol) was used instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-cyano-3,3-dimethylguanidino) propyl)(8- oxo-8-(undecan-3-yloxy)octyl)amino)octanoate (240 mg, 43%) as a colorless oil. HPLC/UV (254 nm): RT = 8.60 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 846.7 for C51H99N5O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 7.59 (bs, 1H); 4.87-4.80 (m, 2H); 3.70-3.64 (m, 2H); 3.03 (s, 6H); 2.69-2.42 (m, 4H); 2.28 (dd, 4H, J= 3.0 Hz, 7.4 Hz); 1.71-1.42 (m, 26H); 1.36-1.16 (m, 42H); 0.88-0.84 (m, 12H).

HI. Compound 301: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((2-(methylamino)-3,4-dioxocyclobut-l-en-l- yl)amino)propyl)(8-oxo-8-(undecan-3-yloxy)octyl)amino)octano ate

Chemical Formula: C 5 2H97N 3 0 6

Molecular Weight: 860.36

[00387] Compound 301 was prepared analogously to compound 182 except that heptadecan- 9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-oxo-8-(undecan-3-yloxy)octyl)amino)octa noate (500 mg, 0.66 mmol) was used instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((2-(methylamino)-3,4-dioxocyclobut-l-en-l- yl)amino)propyl)(8-oxo-8-(undecan-3-yloxy)octyl)amino)octano ate (180 mg, 32%) as a white waxy solid. HPLC/UV (254 nm): RT = 6.77 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 860.7 for C52H97N3O6. Ή NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 4.86-4.79 (m, 2H); 3.66 (bs, 2H); 3.25 (d, 3H, J= 4.9 Hz); 2.56-2.52 (m, 2H); 2.42-2.37 (m, 4H); 2.28 (dd, 4H, J = 2.7 Hz, 7.4 Hz); 1.78-1.68 (m, 3H); 1.64-1.50 (m, 16H); 1.48- 1.38 (m, 6H); 1.32-1.18 (m, 43H); 0.88-0.84 (m, 12H).

HJ. Compound 302: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(3,3-dimethylthioureido)propyl)(8-oxo-8- (undecan-3-yloxy)octyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C50H99N3O4S

Molecular Weight: 838.42

[00388] Compound 302 was prepared analogously to compound 1 1 1 except that heptadecan- 9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-oxo-8-(undecan-3-yloxy)octyl)amino)octa noate (500 mg, 0.66 mmol) was used instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(3,3-dimethylthioureido)propyl)(8-oxo-8- (undecan-3-yloxy)octyl)amino) octanoate ( 140 mg, 25%) as a yellow oil. HPLC/UV (254 nm): RT = 6.03 min. MS (CI): in z (MH + ) 838.7 for C50H99N3O4S. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 4.87-4.80 (m, 2H); 3.83 (bs, 2H); 3.27 (s, 6H); 2.91-2.64 (m, 4H); 2.27 (dd, 4H, J = 3.1 Hz, 7.5 Hz); 1.68-1.42 (m, 27H); 1.38-1.12 (m, 42H); 0.88-0.84 (m, 12H).

HK. Compound 303: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((l-(methylamino)-2- nitrovinyl)ami

Chemical Formula: C 50 H 98 N 4 O 6

Molecular Weight: 851.36

[00389] Compound 303 was prepared analogously to compound 170 except that heptadecan- 9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-oxo-8-(undecan-3-yloxy)octyl)amino)octa noate (500 mg, 0.66 mmol) was used instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(( l-(methylamino)-2-nitrovinyl)amino)propyl) (8-oxo-8-(undecan-3-yloxy)octyl)amino)octanoate (270 mg, 40%) as an oil. HPLC/UV (254 nm): RT = 8.19 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 851.6 for C50H98N4O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb at 25 °C): ^ ppm 10.15 (bs, IH); 8.36, 8.22 (bs, IH); 6.55 (s, 0.5H); 6.53 (s, 0.5H); 4.85-4.80 (m, 2H); 3.32-3.23 (m, 2H); 2.85 (d, 1.5H, J = 4.9 Hz); 2.74-2.72 (m, 1.5H); 2.64 (m, IH); 2.46-2.44 (m, 5H); 2.28 (dd, 4H, J= 2.7 Hz, 7.4 Hz); 1.76 (m, 2H); 1.68-1.38 (m, 22H); 1.31-1.18 (m, 42H); 0.88-0.84 (m, 12H). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb at 60 °C): ^ ppm 10.15 (bs, IH); 7.70 (bs, IH); 6.51 (s, IH); 4.86-4.80 (m, 2H); 3.27 (m, 2H); 2.82 (bs, 3H); 2.64-2.39 (m, 6H); 2.28 (m, 4H); 1.76 (m, 2H); 1.68- 1.38 (m, 22H); 1.31-1.18 (m, 42H); 0.88-0.84 (m, 12H).

HL. Compound 304: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-methoxyacetamido)propyl)(8-oxo-8- (undecan-3-yloxy)octyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 5 oHg 8 N 2

Molecular Weight: 823.34

[00390] Compound 303 was prepared analogously to compound 170 except that heptadecan- 9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-oxo-8-(undecan-3-yloxy)octyl)amino)octa noate (500 mg, 0.66 mmol) was used instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-methoxyacetamido)propyl)(8-oxo-8- (undecan-3-yloxy)octyl)amino)octanoate (290 mg, 53%) as an oil. HPLC/UV (210 nm): RT = 8.52 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 823.7 for CsoHgsNiOe. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 7.59- 7.56 (m, 1H); 4.87-4.80 (m, 2H); 3.86 (s, 2H); 3.38 (s, 3H); 3.38-3.32 (m, 2H); 2.48-2.32 (m, 6H); 2.27 (dd, 4H, J= 2.7 Hz, 7.5 Hz); 1.68-1.36 (m, 24H); 1.34-1.18 (m, 42H); 0.88-0.83 (m, 12H).

HM. Compound 305: 7-((8-(Heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(3-(2- methoxyacetamido)propyl) amino)heptyl decanoate

Chemical Formula: C 48 Hg 4 N2

Molecular Weight: 795.29

[00391] Compound 305 was prepared analogously to compound 178 but using 7-((3- aminopropyl)(8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)heptyl decanoate instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Light yellow oil, 230 mg, 42%. HPLC/UV (210 nm): RT = 5.76 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 795.6 for

C48H94N2O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 7.57 (bs, 1H); 4.87-4.83 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 3.86 (s, 2H); 3.38 (s, 3H); 3.38-3.31 (m, 2H); 2.35-2.42 (m, 2H); 2.35-2.33 (m, 4H); 2.27 (dd, 2H, J= 2.9 Hz, 7.4 Hz); 1.68-1.52 (m, 11H); 1.50-1.38 (m, 11H); 1.34-1.18 (m, 44H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.5 Hz). HN. Compound 306: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(3,3-dimethylthioureido)propyl)(6- (undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate

Step 1: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((teri-butoxycarbonyl)amino)propyl)(6-oxo-6- (undecyloxy)h

Chemical Formula: C 50 Hg 8 N 2 O 6

Molecular Weight: 823.34

[00392] A solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((fert- butoxycarbonyl)amino)propyl)amino)octanoate (5.55 g, 10 mmol), undecyl 6-bromohexanoate (5.24 g, 15 mmol) in cyclopentyl methyl ether (80 mL) and acetonitrile (80 mL) containing potassium carbonate (5.53 g, 40 mmol) and potassium iodide (2.49 g, 15 mmol) was heated at 86 ° C for 18 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was filtered through diatomaceous earth, the filter cake washed with ethyl acetate, and the filtrate cone, under vacuum to give the crude product which was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% EtOAc in hexanes, then 1 : 1 acetone/hexanes) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((fert- butoxycarbonyl)amino)propyl)(6-oxo-6-(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino )octanoate (6.2 g, 73%) as an oil. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 823.7 for CsoHgsNiOe. 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDC ): δ ppm 5.64 (bs, 1H); 4.85 (quint, 1H, J= 6.3 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 3.17 (m, 2H); 2.42 (t, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 2.35-2.24 (m, 8H); 1.64-1.56 (m, 8H); 1.53-1.44 (m, 8H); 1.42 (s, 9H); 1.24 (m, 48H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.6 Hz).

Step 2: Heptadec -9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(6-oxo-6-(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: Ο 45 Η 90 Ν 2 θ 4

Molecular Weight: 723.23

[00393] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((teri-butoxycarbonyl)amino)propyl)(6-oxo-6- (undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate (6.2 g, 7.53 mmol) in dichloromethane (75 mL) at 0 ° C, was added trifluoroacetic acid (5.8 mL) dropwise and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction was quenched with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution at 0 ° C. The organic layer was washed with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, 0.1 N sodium hydroxide solution and brine. After drying with anhydrous sodium sulfate, the solvent was removed under vacuum to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(6- oxo-6-(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate (5.57 g, quant.) as a yellow oil. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 723.7 for C45H90N2O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): S ppm 4.85 (quint, 1H, J= 6.3 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 2.85 (t, 2H, J= 6.3 Hz); 2.53 (t, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 2.45-2.37 (m, 4H); 2.28 (t, 2H, J= 7.4 Hz); 2.26 (t, 2H, J= 7.4 Hz); 1.70-1.55 (m, 8H); 1.54-1.40 (m, 8H); 1.24 (m, 50H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.6 Hz).

Step 3: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(3,3-dimethylthioureido)propyl)(6-oxo-6- (undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 48 H95N30 4 S

Molecular Weight: 810.37

[00394] Compound 306 was prepared analogously to compound 111 except that heptadecan- 9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(6-oxo-6-(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate (500 mg, 0.66 mmol) was used instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(3,3-dimethylthioureido)propyl)(6-oxo-6-

(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate (320 mg, 57%) as a yellow oil. HPLC UV (210 nm): RT = 5.98 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 810.6 for C48H95N3O4S. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 8.03 (bs, 1H); 4.85 (quint, 1H, J= 6.3 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 3.70 (m, 2H); 3.20 (s, 6H); 2.57 (m, 2H); 2.42 (m, 4H); 2.28 (m, 4H); 1.71 (m, 2H); 1.62 (m, 6H); 1.54-1.40 (m, 8H); 1.24 (m, 48H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.6 Hz).

HO. Compound 307: 7-((3-(2-Cyano-3,3-dimethylguanidino)propyl)(8-(heptadecan-9 - yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)heptyl decanoate

Chemical Formula: C49H95N5O4

Molecular Weight: 818.33

[00395] Compound 307 was prepared analogously to compound 168 but using 7-((3- aminopropyl)(8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)heptyl decanoate instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Colorless oil, 160 mg, 28%. HPLC/UV (214 nm): RT = 5.88 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 818.7 for C49H95N5O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 4.87-4.83 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.68-3.64 (m, 2H); 3.02 (s, 6H); 2.79-2.48 (m, 4H,); 2.27 (dd, 4H, J= 1.6 Hz, 7.4 Hz); 1.89 (bs, 1H); 1.68- 1.42 (m, 21H); 1.38- 1.16 (m, 45H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J = 6.7 Hz).

HP. Compound 308: 7-((3-(3,3-Dimethylthioureido)propyl)(8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy) -8- oxooctyl) amin

Chemical Formula: C 48 Hg5N30 4 S

Molecular Weight: 810.37

[00396] Compound 308 was prepared analogously to compound 1 1 1 but using 7-((3- aminopropyl)(8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)heptyl decanoate instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Yellow oil, 150 mg, 27%. HPLC UV (254 nm): RT = 6.77 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 810.6 for C48H95N3O4S. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): ^ ppm 8.20 (bs, 1H); 4.87-4.83 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 6.7 Hz); 3.73 (bs, 2H); 3.23 (s, 6H); 2.68-2.38 (m, 4H,); 2.30-2.25 (m, 4H); 1.68- 1.42 (m, 22H); 1.38-1.14 (m, 44H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.5 Hz).

HQ. Compound 309: 7-((8-(Heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(3-((2-(methylamino)-3 ,4- dioxo cyclobut-l-en-l-yl)amino)propyl)amino)heptyl decanoate

Chemical Formula: C5 0 Hg3N 3 O 6

Molecular Weight: 832.31

[00397] Compound 309 was prepared analogously to compound 182 but using 7-((3- aminopropyl)(8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)heptyl decanoate instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. White waxy solid, 190 mg, 28%. HPLC UV (254 nm): RT = 6.71 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 832.6 for C50H93N3O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 4.86-4.82 (m, IH); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 3.64 (bs, 2H); 3.25 (d, 3H, J= 4.9 Hz); 2.53 (t, 2H, J= 5.6 Hz); 2.42-2.37 (m, 4H); 2.28 (t, 4H, J= 7.5 Hz); 1.76-1.71 (m, 2H); 1.64-1.58 (m, 10H); 1.52-1.38 (m, 9H); 1.30-1.18 (m, 44H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.5 Hz).

HR. Compound 310: 7-((8-(Heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(3-((l-(methylamino)-2 - nitrovinyl) am

Chemical Formula: C 48 Hg 4 N4

Molecular Weight: 823.30

[00398] Compound 310 was prepared analogously to compound 170 but using 7-((3- aminopropyl)(8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)heptyl decanoate instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Brown oil, 195 mg, 28%. HPLC UV (214 nm): RT = 6.15 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 823.7 for C48H94N4O6. Ή NMR (300 MHz, CDCb at 25 ° C): ^ ppm 10.14 (bs, IH); 8.32 (s, 0.5H); 8.18 (s, 0.5H); 6.55 (s, 0.5H);, 6.53 (s, 0.5H); 4.87-4.83 (m, IH); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 3.33-3.23 (m, 2H); 2.86 (d, 1.5H, J= 5.2 Hz); 2.73 (bs, 1.5H); 2.65 (m,lH); 2.48 (m, 5H); 2.27 (t, 4H, J= 7.5 Hz); 1.77 (m, 2H); 1.67-1.58 (m, 10H); 1.49-1.43 (m, 8H); 1.30-1.14 (m, 44H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.7 Hz). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb at 60 ° C): ^ ppm 10.14 (bs, IH); 7.70 (bs, IH); 6.51 (s, IH); 4.87-4.83 (m, IH); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 3.28 (bs, 2H); 2.83 (bs, 3H); 2.65-2.41 (m, 6H); 2.27 (t, 4H, J = 7.5 Hz); 1.77 (m, 2H); 1.67-1.58 (m, 10H); 1.49- 1.43 (m, 8H); 1.30-1.14 (m, 44H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.7 Hz).

HS. Compound 311: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-cyano-3,3-dimethylguanidino)propyl)(8-((2- methylnonyl)o -8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C50H97N5O4

Molecular Weight: 832.36

[00399] Compound 31 1 was prepared analogously to compound 168 but using heptadecan-9- yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-((2-methylnonyl)oxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)o ctanoate instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Colorless oil 350 mg, 62%. HPLC/UV (214 nm): RT = 6.04 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 832.7 for C50H97N5O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 7.62 (bs, 1H); 4.87-4.80 (m, 1H); 3.94 (dd, 1H, J = 5.9 Hz, 10.5 Hz); 3.83 (dd, 1H, J = 6.8 Hz, 10.7 Hz); 3.70-3.64 (m, 2H); 2.99 (s, 6H); 2.69-2.38 (m, 4H); 2.28 (dd, 4H, J = 7.6 Hz, 15.1 Hz); 1.80-1.52 (m, 7H); 1.52-1.16 (m, 58H); 0.91-0.82 (m, 12H).

HT. Compound 312: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(2-methoxyacetamido)propyl)(8-((2-methyl nonyl)oxy)-8-

Chemical Formula: C 9H9 6 N 2 0 6

Molecular Weight: 809.32

[00400] Compound 312 was prepared analogously to compound 178 but using heptadecan-9- yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-((2-methylnonyl)oxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)o ctanoate instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Colorless oil, 300 mg, 55%. HPLC/UV (210 nm): RT = 6.02 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 809.7 for C49H96N2O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 7.56 (bs, 1H); 4.89-4.81 (m, 1H); 3.94 (dd, lH, J = 5.7 Hz, 10.4 Hz); 3.83 (dd, 1H, J = 6.8 Hz, 10.7 Hz); 3.86 (s, 2H); 3.38 (s, 3H); 3.38-3.32 (m, 2H); 2.46 (m, 2H); 2.37-2.24 (m, 8H); 1.78-1.72 (m, 1H); 1.68-1.52 (m, 8H); 1.528-1.18 (m, 54H); 0.91- 0.82 (m, 12H).

HU. Compound 313: Heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-((2-(methylamino)-3,4-dioxocyclobut-l-en- l-yl)amino)propyl)(8-(non-2-en-l-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)oct anoate

Step 1 : ( )-Non-2-en-l-yl 8-bromooctanoate

Chemical Formula: Ci7H 31 Br0 2

Molecular Weight: 347.34

[00401] To a solution of cis-2-nonen-l-ol (10.0 g, 70 mmol), 8-bromooctanoic acid (23.43 g, 105 mmol) and DMAP (1.72 g, 14 mmol) in dichloromethane at 0 ° C was added EDCI (20.23 g, 105 mmol) and the reaction mixture stirred at room temperature overnight. TLC showed the reaction completed. The reaction mixture was cooled to 0 ° C and a solution of hydrochloric acid (10 mL cone. HCl, 90 mL water, 7.5 g sodium chloride) was added very slowly over 20 minutes. Then acetonitrile (100 mL) and hexane (100 mL) were added, the layers separated and the organic layer dried (NaiSCU) and removed under vacuum to give an oil. This was dissolved in hexane (100 mL) and washed with a mixture of acetonitrile (100 mL) and 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate (100 mL). The hexane layer was separated and filtered through diatomaceous earth, the filter cake washed with hexane and the filtrate cone, to give (Z)-non-2-en-l-yl 8- bromooctanoate (19.98 g, 82%) as a colorless oil. 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): S ppm 5.65-5.59 (m, 1H); 5.53-5.49 (m, 1H); 4.61 (d, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 3.92 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 2.44 (t, 0.5H, J =7.4 Hz, for CH2CI); 2.29 (t, 2H, J= 7.4 Hz, for CHiBr); 2.08 (dd, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz, 13.7 Hz); 1.88-1.79 (m, 2H); 1.70-1.56 (m, 2H); 1.50-1.16 (m, 14H); 0.87 (t, 3H, J= 6.7 Hz).

Step 2: Heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-((teri-butoxycarbonyl)amino)propyl)(8-(non-2-en-l- yloxy)-8-oxooctyl

Chemical Formula: C 5 oH 96 N 2 0 6

Molecular Weight: 821.33

[00402] A solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((fert- butoxycarbonyl)amino)propyl)amino)octanoate (6.0 g, 12 mmol), (Z)-non-2-en-l-yl 8- bromooctanoate (4.49 g, 13 mmol) and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (2.8 mL, 16 mmol) in ethanol (50 mL) was heated at 70 ° C for 3 days. The solvent was removed under vacuum to give the crude product which was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% EtOAc in hexanes) to give heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-((teri-butoxycarbonyl)amino)propyl)(8-(non-2-en-l- yloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (5.2 g, 60%) as a light yellow oil. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 821.7 for CsoHgeNiOe. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 5.72-5.58 (m, 2H); 5.56-5.48 (m, 1H);4.87- 4.83 (m, 1H); 4.60 (d, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 3.20-3.12 (m, 2H); 2.42 (t, 2H, J= 6.3 Hz); 2.35-2.24 (m, 9H); 2.12-2.02 (m, 4H); 1.68-1.56 (m, 8H); 1.42 (s, 9H); 1.50-1.12 (m, 47H); 0.88-0.84 (m, 9H).

Step 3: Heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(non-2-en-l-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl) amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 4 5H 88 N20 4

Molecular Weight: 721 .21

[00403] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-((teri-butoxycarbonyl)amino)propyl)(8- (non-2-en-l-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (5.2 g, 6.33 mmol) in dichloromethane (20 mL) at 0 ° C, was added trifluoroacetic acid (8 mL) dropwise and the reaction mixture stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction was quenched with the addition of a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution at 0 ° C. The organic layer was washed with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, 0.1 N sodium hydroxide solution, brine, dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate and the solvent removed under vacuum to give heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3- aminopropyl)(8-(non-2-en-l-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl) amino) octanoate (4.2 g, 93%) as an oil. MS (APCI): m/z (MH + ) 721.6 for C45H88N2O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 5.68-5.58 (m, 1H); 5.54-5.46 (m, 1H); 4.89-4.82 (m, 1H); 4.60 (d, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 2.72 (t, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 2.44 (t, 2H, J= 7.4 Hz); 2.40-2.34 (m, 4H); 2.27 (dt, 4H, J= 7.5 Hz, 15.2 Hz); 2.11-2.03 (m, 2H); 1.84-1.72 (m, 4H); 1.68-1.55 (m, 6H); 1.54-1.46 (m, 6H); 1.44-1.16 (m, 44H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.5 Hz).

Step 4: Heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-((2-(methylamino)-3,4-dioxocyclobut-l-en-l- yl)amino)propyl)(8-(non-2-en-l-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octan oate

Chemical Formula: ΰ 5 οΗ 9 Ν 3 θ6

Molecular Weight: 830.29

[00404] Compound 313 was prepared analogously to compound 182 except that heptadecan- 9-yl (Z)-8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(non-2-en-l-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl) amino)octanoate (500 mg, 0.66 mmol) was used instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl (Z)-8-((3-((2-(methylamino)-3,4-dioxocyclobut-l-en- l-yl)amino)propyl)(8-(non-2-en-l-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)oct anoate (200 mg, 29%) as a white waxy solid. HPLC/UV (254 nm): RT = 6.56 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 830.6 for C50H91N3O6. Ή NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): ^ ppm 5.68-5.59 (m, 1H); 5.54-5.48 (m, 1H); 4.86-4.80 (m, 1H); 4.60 (d, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 3.72-3.58 (m, 2H); 3.25 (d, 3H, J= 4.9 Hz); 2.59-2.52 (m, 2H); 2.46-2.38 (m, 4H); 2.29 (dd, 4H, J= 7.2 Hz, 14.6 Hz); 2.08 (dd, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz, 14.0 Hz); 1.82-1.68 (m, 3H); 1.64-1.56 (m, 5H); 1.52-1.12 (m, 52H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.7 Hz).

HV. Compound 314: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((l-(methylamino)-2- nitrovinyl)amin oate

Chemical Formula: C 48 H92N 0 6

Molecular Weight: 821.29

[00405] Compound 314 was prepared analogously to compound 170 except that heptadecan- 9-yl (Z)-8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(non-2-en-l-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl) amino)octanoate was used instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((l-(methylamino)-2-nitrovinyl)amino)propyl)(8-(((Z)-n on-2-en-l- yl)oxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (190 mg, 28%) as a yellow oil. HPLC/UV (254 nm): RT = 6.30 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 821.7 for C48H92N4O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb at 25 ° C): δ ppm 10.13 (bs, 1H); 8.36, 8.22 (bs, 1H); 6.54 (s, 0.5H); 6.52 (s, 0.5H); 5.65-5.59 (m, 1H); 5.52- 5.48 (m, 1H); 4.87-4.81 (m, 1H); 4.60 (d, 2H, J = 6.6 Hz); 3.38-3.22 (m, 2H); 2.85 (d, 1.5H, J= 5.2 Hz); 2.73-2.72 (m, 1.5H); 2.63 (m, 1H); 2.46 (m, 5H); 2.28 (dd, 4H, J= 7.5 Hz, 14.9 Hz); 2.08 (dd, 2H, J= 7.1 Hz, 14.0 Hz); 1.76 (m, 2H); 1.68- 1.56 (m, 6H); 1.52-1.12 (m, 50H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J = 6.6 Hz). ¾ ΝΜΚ (300 ΜΗζ, CDCb at 60 ° C): ^ ppm 10.15 (bs, 1H); 7.70 (bs, 1H); 6.51 (s, 1H); 5.65-5.59 (m, 1H); 5.52-5.48 (m, 1H); 4.87-4.81 (m, 1H); 4.60 (d, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 3.27 (bs, 2H); 2.81 (bs, 3H); 2.62-2.41 (m, 6H); 2.28 (dd, 4H, J= 7.5 Hz, 14.9 Hz); 2.08 (dd, 2H, J= 7.1 Hz, 14.0 Hz); 1.76 (m, 2H); 1.68-1.56 (m, 6H); 1.52- 1.12 (m, 50H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J = 6.6 Hz).

HW. Compound 315: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(( )-2-cyano-3,3- dimethylguani anoate

Chemical Formula: C49H93N5O4

Molecular Weight: 816.31

[00406] Compound 315 was prepared analogously to compound 168 but using heptadecan-9- yl (Z)-8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(non-2-en-l-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl) amino)octanoate instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3- ((Z)-2-cyano-3,3-dimethylguanidino)propyl)(8-(((Z)-non-2-en- l-yl)oxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (150 mg, 26%) as a colorless oil. HPLC/UV (254 nm): RT = 6.55 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 816.7 for C49H93N5O4. 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 7.66 (bs, 1H); 5.68-5.58 (m, 1H); 5.56-5.44 (m, 1H); 4.87-4.81 (m, 1H); 4.61 (d, 2H, J = 6.8 Hz); 3.72- 3.64 (m, 2H); 2.98 (s, 6H); 2.59-2.54 (m, 2H); 2.44-2.38 (m, 4H); 2.28 (dd, 4H, J= 7.5 Hz, 15.2 Hz); 2.08 (dd, 2H, J= 7.1 Hz, 14.0 Hz); 1.68-1.58 (m, 7H); 1.52- 1.42 (m, 5H); 1.38-1.12 (m, 46H); 0.88-0.84 (m, 9H).

HX. Compound 316: Heptadecan-9-yl ( )-8-((3-(2-methoxyacetamido)propyl)(8-(non-2-en- l-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 48 H92N 2 0 6

Molecular Weight: 793.27

[00407] Compound 316 was prepared analogously to compound 178 but using heptadecan-9- yl (Z)-8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(non-2-en-l-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl) amino)octanoate instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl ( )-8- ((3-(2-methoxyacetamido)propyl)(8-(non-2-en-l-yloxy)-8-oxooc tyl)amino)octanoate (220 mg, 40%) as a colorless oil. HPLC UV (210 nm): RT = 5.73 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 793.7 for C48H92N2O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 7.59-7.56 (m, 1H); 5.68-5.58 (m, 1H); 5.54- 5.48 (m, 1H); 4.87-4.81 (m, 1H); 4.60 (d, 2H, J = 6.8 Hz); 3.86 (s, 2H); 3.37 (s, 3H); 3.37-3.31 (m, 2H); 2.46 (t, 2H, J= 6.3 Hz); 2.37-2.24 (m, 8H); 2.08 (dd, 2H, J= 7.1 Hz, 13.7 Hz); 1.68- 1.58 (m, 5H); 1.50- 1.40 (m, 8H); 1.38-1.18 (m, 45H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.7 Hz).

HY. Compound 317: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((2-(methylamino)-3,4-dioxocyclobut-l-en-l- yl)amino)pro -oxo-6-(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C50H93N3

Molecular Weight: 832.31

[00408] Compound 317 was prepared analogously to compound 182 but using heptadecan-9- yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(6-oxo-6-(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((2- (methylamino)-3 ,4-dioxocyclobut- 1 -en- 1 -yl)amino)propyl)(6-oxo-6- (undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate (180 mg, 32%) as a white waxy solid. HPLC UV (254 nm): RT = 11.45 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 832.7 for C50H93N3O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 4.86-4.79 (m, 1H); 4.06 (t, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 3.66 (bs, 2H); 3.26 (d, 3H, J= 4.9 Hz); 2.56- 2.52 (m, 2H); 2.40-2.25 (m, 8H); 1.78-1.68 (m, 2H); 1.64-1.55 (m, 8H); 1.48-1.38 (m, 8H); 1.24 (m, 48H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.6 Hz).

HZ. Compound 318: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((l-(methylamino)-2- nitrovinyl)ami

Chemical Formula: C 48 H94N 0 6

Molecular Weight: 823.30

[00409] Compound 318 was prepared analogously to compound 170 but using heptadecan-9- yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(6-oxo-6-(undecyloxy)hexyl)amino)octanoate instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((l- (methylamino)-2-nitrovinyl)amino)propyl)(6-oxo-6-(undecyloxy )hexyl)amino)octanoate (270 mg, 40%) as a yellow oil, 270 mg, 40%. HPLC/UV (254 nm): RT = 8.74 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 823.7 for C48H94N4O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb at 25 °C): δ ppm 10.15 (bs, 1H); 8.21, 8.13 (bs, 1H); 6.55 (s, 0.5H); 6.53 (s, 0.5H); 4.85 (quint, 1H, J= 6.3 Hz); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 3.32-3.23 (m, 2H); 2.85 (d, 1.5H, J= 4.9 Hz); 2.74-2.72 (m, 1.5H); 2.64 (m, 1H); 2.46 (m, 5H); 2.28 (m, 4H); 1.76 (m, 2H); 1.66-1.53 (m, 6H); 1.53-1.40 (m, 8H); 1.24 (m, 48H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.6 Hz). Ή NMR (300 MHz, CDCb at 50 °C): ^ ppm 10.15 (bs, 1H); 7.79 (bs, 1H); 6.52 (s, 1H); 4.85 (m, 1H); 4.05 (t, 2H, J= 6.6 Hz); 3.29 (m, 2H); 2.84 (bs, 3H); 2.64-2.44 (m, 6H); 2.28 (m, 4H); 1.76 (m, 2H); 1.61 (m, 6H); 1.53-1.40 (m, 8H); 1.24 (m, 48H); 0.86 (m, 9H). IA. Compound 319: Heptadecan-9-yl ( )-8-((3-(3,3-dimethylthioureido)propyl)(8-(non-2- en-l-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 48 H 93 N 3 0 4 S

Molecular Weight: 808.35

[00410] Compound 319 was prepared analogously to compound 111 but using heptadecan-9- yl (Z)-8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(non-2-en-l-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl) amino)octanoate instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Following an aqueous workup the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl ( )-8- ((3-(3,3-dimethylthioureido)propyl)(8-(non-2-en-l-yloxy)-8-o xooctyl)amino)octanoate (110 mg,

20%) as a yellow oil. HPLC UV (254 nm): RT = 6.67 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 808.6 for

C48H93N3O4S. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 7.72 (bs, 1H); 5.64-5.58 (m, 1H); 5.53-5.48

(m, 1H); 4.86-4.80 (m, 1H); 4.60 (d, 2H, J= 6.8 Hz); 3.78-3.77 (m, 2H); 3.26 (s, 6H); 2.91-2.64

(m, 4H); 2.27 (dd, 4H, J= 7.6 Hz, 15.3 Hz); 2.08 (dd, 4H, J= 6.7 Hz, 13.8 Hz); 1.68-1.42 (m,

12H); 1.38-1.12 (m, 46H); 0.88-0.84 (m, 9H).

IB. Compound 320: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((l-(methylamino)-2- nitrovinyl)ami e

Chemical Formula: C 4 gH9 6 N 4 0 6

Molecular Weight: 837.33

[00411] Compound 320 was prepared analogously to compound 170 but using heptadecan-9- yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-((2-methylnonyl)oxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)o ctanoate instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Yellow oil, 380 mg, 56%. HPLC UV (254 nm): RT = 6.85 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 837.7 for C49H96N4O6. Ή NMR (300 MHz, CDCb at 25 ° C): ^ ppm 10.13 (bs, 1H); 8.36 (s, 0.5H); 8.22 (s, 0.5H); 6.55 (s, 0.5H); 6.53 (s, 0.5H); 4.87-4.81 (m, 1H); 3.94 (dd, lH, J= 5.7 Hz, 10.4 Hz); 3.83 (dd, 1H, J = 6.8 Hz, 10.7 Hz); 3.38-3.23 (m, 2H); 2.85 (d, 1.5H, J= 5.1 Hz); 2.72 (d, 1.5H, J= 4.1 Hz); 2.63 (m, 1H); 2.46 (m, 5H); 2.28 (dd, 4H, J= 7.4 Hz, 15.1 Hz); 1.76 (m, 3H); 1.68-1.58 (m, 6H); 1.52-1.12 (m, 54H); 0.91-0.84 (m, 12H). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb at 50 ° C): S ppm 10.15 (bs, 1H); 7.89 (bs, 1H); 6.51 (s, 1H); 4.87-4.81 (m, 1H); 3.94 (dd, 1H, J= 5.7 Hz, 10.4 Hz); 3.83 (dd, 1H, J= 6.8 Hz, 10.7 Hz); 3.25 (bs, 2H); 2.87-2.72 (m, 3H); 2.63 (m, 1H); 2.46 (m, 5H); 2.28 (dd, 4H, J= 7.4 Hz, 15.1 Hz); 1.76 (m, 3H); 1.68-1.58 (m, 6H); 1.52-1.12 (m, 54H); 0.91-0.84 (m, 12H).

IC. Compound 321: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-((2-(methylamino)-3,4-dioxocyclobut-l-en-l-yl) amino)propyl -((2-methylnonyl)oxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 51 H95N 3 0 6

Molecular Weight: 846.34

[00412] Compound 321 was prepared analogously to compound 182 but using heptadecan-9- yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-((2-methylnonyl)oxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)o ctanoate instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. White waxy solid, 240 mg, 41%. HPLC UV (ELSD): RT = 7.10 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 846.7 for C51H95N3O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 4.86-4.80 (m, 1H); 3.93 (dd, 1H, J= 6.0 Hz, 10.7 Hz); 3.83 (dd, 1H, J= 6.8 Hz, 10.7 Hz); 3.68-3.58 (m, 2H); 3.25 (d, 3H, J= 4.9 Hz); 2.55- 2.52 (m, 2H); 2.42-2.37 (m, 4H); 2.29 (dd, 4H, J= 7.7 Hz, 15.1 Hz); 1.80-1.68 (m, 3H); 1.66- 1.56 (m, 10H); 1.52-1.38 (m, 9H); 1.32-1.12 (m, 42H); 0.91-0.82 (m, 12H).

ID. Compound 322: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-(3,3-dimethylthioureido)propyl)(8-((2-methyl nonyl)oxy)-8-

Chemical Formula: C 4 gH97N30 4 S

Molecular Weight: 824.39

[00413] Compound 322 was prepared analogously to compound 111 but using heptad yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-((2-methylnonyl)oxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)o ctanoate instead of heptadecan-9-yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Yellow oil, 150 mg, 27%. HPLC UV (254 nm): RT = 7.27 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 824.7 for C49H97N3O4S. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): < ppm 7.60 (bs, 1H); 4.87-4.82 (m, 1H); 3.94 (dd, lH, J= 5.7 Hz, 10.7 Hz); 3.86-3.80 (m, 3H); 3.27 (s, 6H); 3.04-2.74 (m, 4H); 2.28 (dd, 4H, J = 7.6 Hz, 15.1 Hz); 1.80- 1.72 (m, 3H); 1.68- 1.42 (m, 12H); 1.38-1.18 (m, 50H); 0.91-0.82 (m, 12H).

IE. Compound 323: 7-((3-(2-Methoxyacetamido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)am ino) heptyl 2-octyldecanoate

Chemical Formula: C 48 Hg 4 N2

Molecular Weight: 795.29

[00414] Compound 323 was prepared analogously to compound 178 but using 7-((3- aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)heptyl 2-octyldecanoate instead of heptadecan-9- yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Yellow oil, 220 mg, 40%. HPLC UV (214 nm): RT = 6.00 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 795.7 for C48H94N2O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 7.52 (m, 1H); 4.05-4.02 (m, 4H); 3.86 (s, 2H); 3.38 (s, 3H); 3.38-3.32 (m, 2H); 2.52-2.25 (m, 9H); 1.72- 1.53 (m, 12H); 1.44-1.12 (m, 52H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.7 Hz). IF. Compound 324: 7-((3-(2-Cyano-3,3-dimethylguanidino)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amin

Chemical Formula: C49H95N5O4

Molecular Weight: 818.33

[00415] Compound 324 was prepared analogously to compound 168 but using 7-((3- aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)heptyl 2-octyldecanoate instead of heptadecan-9- yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Colorless oil, 370 mg, 65%. HPLC/UV (214 nm): RT = 6.04 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 818.7 for C49H95N5O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 7.64 (m, 1H); 4.06-4.02 (m, 4H); 3.68-3.62 (m, 2H); 2.98 (s, 6H); 2.59- 2.56 (m, 2H); 2.44-2.39 (m, 4H); 2.32-2.26 (m, 3H); 1.72-1.53 (m, 12H); 1.44-1.12 (m, 52H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.7 Hz).

IG. Compound 325: 7-((3-((l-(Methylamino)-2-nitrovinyl)amino)propyl)(8-(nonylo xy)-8- oxooctyl)amin

Chemical Formula: C 48 H94N 0 6

Molecular Weight: 823.30

[00416] Compound 325 was prepared analogously to compound 170 but using 7-((3- aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)heptyl 2-octyldecanoate instead of heptadecan-9- yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Yellow oil, 355 mg, 52%. HPLC UV (214 nm): RT = 5.76 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 823.7 for C48H94N4O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb at 25 ° C): ^ ppm 10.15 (bs, 1H); 8.37-8.24 (m, 1H); 6.55 (s, 0.5H); 6.53 (s, 0.5H); 4.06-4.04 (m, 4H); 3.34-3.24 (m, 2H); 2.90-2.85 (m, 1.5H); 2.74-2.73 (m, 1.5H); 2.64 (m, 1H); 2.47 (bs, 4H); 2.34-2.26 (m, 3H); 1.77 (m, 2H); 1.68-1.53 (m, 10H); 1.44-1.12 (m, 53H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.6 Hz). Ή NMR (300 MHz, CDCb at 50 ° C): δ ppm 10.15 (bs, 1H); 7.89 (bs, 1H); 6.52 (s, 1H); 4.06-4.04 (m, 4H); 3.29 (bs, 2H); 2.87 (m, 3H); 2.64-2.40 (m, 6H); 2.34-2.26 (m, 3H); 1.79 (m, 2H); 1.64-1.54 (m, 10H); 1.44-1.12 (m, 52H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.6 Hz).

IH. Compound 326: 7-((3-((2-(Methylamino)-3,4-dioxocyclobut-l-en-l-yl)amino)pr opyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-

Chemical Formula: C 5 oH93N 3 0 6

Molecular Weight: 832.31

[00417] Compound 326 was prepared analogously to compound 182 but using 7-((3- aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)heptyl 2-octyldecanoate instead of heptadecan-9- yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. White waxy solid, 330 mg, 57%. HPLC/UV (254 nm): RT = 7.01 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 832.6 for C50H93N3O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 6.90 (bs, 1H); 4.05-4.01 (m, 4H); 3.63 (bs, 2H); 3.25 (d, 3H, J= 4.9 Hz); 2.53 (t, 2H, J= 5.6 Hz); 2.40 (t, 4H, J= 7.4 Hz); 2.33-2.26 (m, 3H); 1.74-1.71 (m, 2H);

I .68-1.52 (m, HH); 1.48-1.12 (m, 52H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.7 Hz).

II. Compound 327: 7-((3-(3,3-Dimethylthioureido)propyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxoocty l)amino) heptyl 2-octyldecanoate

Chemical Formula: C 48 Hg5N30 4 S

Molecular Weight: 810.37

[00418] Compound 327 was prepared analogously to compound 111 but using 7-((3- aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)heptyl 2-octyldecanoate instead of heptadecan-9- yl 8-((3-aminopropyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate. Yellow oil, 200 mg, 36%. HPLC UV (254 nm): RT = 6.95 min. MS (CI): m/z (MH + ) 810.6 for C48H95N3O4S. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 8.08 (bs, 1H); 4.06-4.02 (m, 4H); 3.72 (bs, 2H); 3.23 (s, 6H); 2.72- 2.38 (m, 4H); 2.34-2.25 (m, 3H); 1.71-1.55 (m, 12H); 1.44-1.12 (m, 54H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.7 Hz).

IJ. Compound 328: Dodecan-4-yl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(3- hydroxypropyl)amino)octanoate

Step 1: dodecan-4- -((3-hydroxypropyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C23H47NO3

Molecular Weight: 385.63

[00419] To a solution of dodecan-4-yl 8-bromooctanoate (2.5 g, 6.4 mmol) in ethanol (100 mL) was added propanolamine (9.8 mL, 130 mmol) and the reaction was allowed to stir at 50 °C overnight. The solution was allowed to return to room temperature and concentrated in vacuo. The crude material was taken up in DCM and washed twice with 5% NaHCCb, dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel

chromatography (0-100% (DCM 20% MeOH l% NH 4 OH) in DCM) provided dodecan-4-yl 8- ((3-hydroxypropyl)amino)octanoate as a clear colorless oil (2.08 g, 84.5%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 1.58 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 386.42 for C23H47NO3. ¾-NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.90 (m, 1H); 3.83 (t, 2H); 3.31 (br, 1H); 2.90 (t, 2H); 2.62 (t, 2H); 2.29 (t, 2H); 1.85- 1.05 (br. m, 30H); 0.91 (m, 6H) (hydroxyl proton not observed).

Step 2: Dodecan-4-yl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(3- hydroxypropyl)a

Chemical Formula: C48H95NO5

Molecular Weight: 766.29

[00420] Dodecan-4-yl 8-[(3-hydroxypropyl)amino]octanoate (2.08 g, 5.39 mmol), heptadecan-9-yl 8-bromooctanoate (2.61 g, 5.66 mmol), potassium carbonate (1.49 g, 10.8 mmol), and potassium iodide ( 179 mg, 1.08 mmol) was suspended in MeCN (60 mL) and the mixture was allowed to stir at 82°C for 12 hours. The reaction was allowed to cool to room temperature, filtered over a pad of celite, and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (DCM 20% Me OH l% NH 4 OH) in DCM) provided dodecan-4-yl 8- ((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(3-hydroxypropyl)amino)o ctanoate as a clear light yellow oil (3.26 g, 78.9%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.53 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 766.97 for C48H95NO5. ¾-NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.90 (m, 2H); 3.82 (t, 2H); 2.76 (t, 2H); 2.54 (t, 4H); 2.30 (t, 4H); 1.85-1.05 (br. m, 68H); 0.90 (m, 12H) (hydroxyl proton not observed).

IK. Compound 329: Dodecan-4-yl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(l- hydroxypropan-2-yl)amino)octanoate

Step 1 : Dodecan-4-

Chemical Formula: C23H47NO3

Molecular Weight: 385.63

[00421] In the same manner as step 1 for compound 328, dodecan-4-yl 8-((l-hydroxypropan- 2-yl)amino)octanoate was synthesized from dodecan-4-yl 8-bromooctanoate (500 mg, 1.28 mmol) and 2-aminopropanol (2.00 mL, 25.5 mmol) in ethanol ( 15 mL). Yield (343 mg, 69.6%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 1.66 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 386.50 for C23H47NO3. ¾-NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.91 (m, 1H); 3.64-3.16 (br. m, 2H); 2.76 (br. m, 2H); 2.53 (br. m, 1H); 2.30 (t, 2H); 2.05-1.15 (br. m, 29H); 1.06 (d, 3H); 0.91 (m, 6H) (hydroxyl proton not observed). Step 2: Dodecan-4-yl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(l-hydroxypropan-2- yl)amino)octanoat

Chemical Formula: C48H95NO5

Molecular Weight: 766.29

[00422] In the same manner as Step 2 for compound 328, dodecan-4-yl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9- yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(l-hydroxypropan-2-yl)amino)octanoate was synthesized from dodecan-4-yl 8-[(l-hydroxypropan-2-yl)amino]octanoate (343 mg, 0.889 mmol), heptadecan-9-yl 8- bromooctanoate (431 mg, 0.934 mmol), potassium carbonate (246 mg, 1.78 mmol), and potassium iodide (30 mg, 0.18 mmol) in MeCN (12 mL). Yield (395 mg, 58.0%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.54 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 766.97 for C48H95NO5. ¾-NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.90 (m, 2H); 3.60-2.10 (br. m, 11H); 1.81-1.05 (br. m, 66H); 0.90 (m, 15H) (hydroxyl proton not observed).

IL. Compound 330: Dodecan-4-yl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(3- (methylsulfonamido)propyl)amino)octanoate

Step 1: Dodecan-4-yl 8-((3-chloropropyl)(8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C48H94CINO4

Molecular Weight: 784.73

[00423] To a 0 °C solution of dodecan-4-yl 8-{ [8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl](3- hydroxypropyl)amino}octanoate (3.16 g, 4.12 mmol) and triethylamin 5.4 mmol) in DCM (50 mL) was added a solution of methanesulfonyl chloride (400 ol) in DCM (4 mL), and the reaction was allowed to return to room temperature and stir for 4 hours. The reaction was quenched with water and extracted x3 with DCM. The combined organics were washed with 5% NaHCC , brine, dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to a clear orange oil. The material was carried on without further purification (3.15 g, 97.3%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.50 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 784.93 for C48H94CINO4. ¾-NMR

(300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.90 (m, 2H); 4.55-4.20 (br. m, 2H); 3.70-3.40 (br. m, 2H); 3.15-2.15

(br. m, 8H); 2.00-1.05 (br. m, 68H); 0.90 (m, 12H).

Step 2: Dodecan-4-yl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(3-

(methylsulfona

Chemical Formula: C49H98N2O6S

Molecular Weight: 843.39

[00424] To a solution of dodecan-4-yl 8-[(3-chloropropyl)[8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8- oxooctyl] amino] octanoate (300 mg, 0.382 mmol) and methanesulfonamide (364 mg, 3.82 mmol) in DMF (7 mL) was added cesium carbonate (186 mg, 0.573 mmol) and the reaction was allowed to stir at 60 °C for 12 hours. The reaction was allowed to cool to room temperature, diluted with 50% NaHCC , and extracted twice with DCM. The combined organics were washed with water, dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo.

Purification by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (DCM 20% MeOH 1% NH 4 OH) in DCM) provided dodecan-4-yl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(3-

(methylsulfonamido)propyl)amino)octanoate (79 mg, 25%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.44 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 844.06 for C49H98N2O6S. ¾-NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.90 (m, 2H); 3.26 (t, 2H); 2.92 (s, 3H); 2.68-2.20 (br. m, 10H); 1.85-1.05 (br. m, 68H); 0.90 (m, 12H) (sulfonamide proton not observed).

IM. Compound 331: Dodecan-4-yl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(3-(N- methylmethylsu

Chemical Formula: C50H100N2O6S

Molecular Weight: 857.42 [00425] In the same manner as step 2 for compound 330, dodecan-4-yl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9- yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(3-(N-methylmethylsulfonamido)propyl)amino )octanoate was synthesized from dodecan-4-yl 8-[(3-chloropropyl)[8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl]amino] octanoate (300 mg, 0.382 mmol), N-methylmethanesulfonamide (83 mg, 0.77 mmol), and cesium carbonate (186 mg, 0.573 mmol) in DMF (7mL). Yield (213 mg, 65.0%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.45 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 858.00 for CsoHiooNiOeS. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.90 (m, 2H); 3.18 (t, 2H); 2.87 (s, 3H); 2.81 (s, 3H); 2.58-2.22 (br. m, 10H); 1.80-1.05 (br. m, 68H); 0.90 (m, 12H).

IN. Compound 332: Dodecan-4-yl 8-((3-acetamidopropyl)(8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C50H98N2O5

Molecular Weight: 807.34

[00426] In the same manner as step 2 for compound 330, dodecan-4-yl 8-((3- acetamidopropyl)(8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)oct anoate was synthesized from dodecan-4-yl 8-[(3-chloropropyl)[8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl]amino] octanoate (300 mg, 0.382 mmol), acetamide (226 mg, 3.82 mmol), and cesium carbonate (125 mg, 0.382 mmol) in DMF (7 mL). Yield (74 mg, 24%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.47 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 807.98 for C50H98N2O5. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.90 (m, 2H); 3.34 (m, 2H); 2.64-2.22 (br. m, 10H); 1.95 (s, 3H); 1.80-1.10 (br. m, 68H); 0.90 (m, 12H) (acetamide proton not observed). IO. Compound 333: Dodecan-4-yl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(3-(3- methylthioureido)propyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C50H99N3O4S

Molecular Weight: 838.42 [00427] In the same manner as step 2 for compound 330, dodecan-4-yl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9- yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(3-(3-methylthioureido)propyl)amino)octano ate was synthesized from dodecan-4-yl 8-[(3-chloropropyl)[8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl]amino] octanoate (300 mg, 0.382 mmol), N-methylthiourea (345 mg, 3.82 mmol), and cesium carbonate (187 mg, 0.573 mmol) in DMF (7 mL). Yield (29 mg, 9.0%). ¾-NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.90 (m, 2H); 3.04 (t, 2H); 2.88 (s, 3H); 2.60-2.20 (br. m, 10H); 1.90-1.05 (br. m, 70H); 0.90 (m, 12H). IP. Compound 334: Dodecan-4-yl 8-((2,3-dihydroxypropyl)(8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Step 1 : Dodecan-4- -((2,3-dihydroxypropyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C23H47NO4

Molecular Weight: 401.63

[00428] In the same manner as step 1 for compound 328, dodecan-4-yl 8-((2,3- dihydroxypropyl)amino)octanoate was synthesized from dodecan-4-yl 8-bromooctanoate (500 mg, 1.28 mmol), and 3-aminopropane- l,2-diol (2.33 g, 1.97 mmol) in ethanol (15 mL). Yield (359 mg, 70.0%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 1.49 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 402.49 for C23H47NO4. ¾-NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.90 (m, 1H); 3.76 (m, 2H); 3.65 (m, 1H); 2.96-2.52 (br. m, 7H); 2.30 (t, 2H); 1.75-1.10 (br. m, 28H); 0.90 (m, 6H).

Step 2: Dodecan-4-yl 8-((2,3-dihydroxypropyl)(8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C48H95NO6

Molecular Weight: 782.29

[00429] In the same manner as step 2 for compound 328, dodecan-4-yl 8-((2,3- dihydroxypropyl)(8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)oct anoate was synthesized from dodecan-4-yl 8-[(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)amino]octanoate (359 mg, 0.894 mmol), heptadecan-9-yl 8-bromooctanoate (454 mg, 0.983 mmol), potassium carbonate (247 mg, 1.79 mmol), and potassium iodide (30 mg, 0.18 mmol) in MeCN (10 mL). Yield (412 mg, 58.9%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.39 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 782.97 for C48H95NO6. ¾-NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.90 (m, 2H); 3.77 (m, 2H); 3.51 (m, 1H); 2.74-2.38 (br. m, 6H); 2.30 (t, 4H); 1.75-1.10 (br. m, 66H); 0.90 (m, 12H) (hydroxyl protons not observed).

IQ. Compound 335: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-((2-aminoethyl)amino)ethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Step 1 : teri-Butyl (2-((teri-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(2-hydroxyethyl) carbamate (J. Med. Chem. , 2003, 46(26), 5712-5724)

Chemical Formula: C 14 H28N 2 05

Molecular Weight: 304.39

[00430] To a solution of 2-((2-aminoethyl)amino)ethanol (2.0 g, 20 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (40 mL) at 0 ° C was added a solution of di-fert-butyldicarbonate (9.2 g, 40 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran ( 10 mL) and the reaction mixture stirred overnight at room temperature. The solvent was removed and the residue dissolved in ethyl acetate. The solution was washed with brine, dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate and the solvent removed under vacuum to get the crude product, which was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-40% EtOAc in hexanes) to give fert-butyl (2-((teri-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)carbama te (3.8 g, 65%).

Ti NMR ^OO MHz, CDCb): <5 ppm 5.03-4.88 (m, 1H); 3.71 (bs, 2H); 3.34-3.11 (m, 7H); 1.45 (s, 9H); 1.41 (s, 9H).

Step 2: tert-B tyl (2-((teri-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(2-(l,3-dioxoisoindolin -2- yl)ethyl)carbamate (J. Med. Ch -5724)

Chemical Formula: C22H 31 N 3 0 6

Molecular Weight: 433.51

[00431] To a solution of fert-butyl (2-((fert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(2- hydroxyethyl)carbamate (2.3 g, 7.56 mmol), phthalimide (1.21 g, 8.24 mmol), and triphenyl phosphine (2.16 g, 8.24 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (50 mL) at 0 ° C was added dropwise diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (DIAD) (1.62 mL, 8.24 mmol) and the reaction mixture stirred at room temperature for three days. The solvent was removed to get the crude product which was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-50% EtOAc in hexanes) to give fert-butyl (2-((tert- butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(2-(l,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)ethy l)carbamate (2.75 g, 84%) as a foamy white solid. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 7.82 (m, 2H); 7.72-7.69 (m, 2H); 5.16 (bs, 1H); 3.83-3.79 (m, 2H); 3.50-3.49 (m, 2H); 3.33-3.28 (m, 4H); 1.40 (s, 9H); 1.21 (s, 9H). Step 3: tert-B tyl (2-aminoethyl)(2-((teri-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)carbamate (J. Med. Chem. , 2003, 46(26), 5712-5724)

Chemical Formula: C14H29N3O4

Molecular Weight: 303.40

[00432] Hydrazine monohydrate (0.7 mL, 12.69 mmol) was added to a solution of fert-butyl (2-((feri-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(2-( 1 ,3 -dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)ethyl)carbamate (2.75 g, 6.35 mmol) in methanol (50 mL) and the reaction mixture was stirred under reflux for 18 hours. It was allowed to cool to room temp, the mixture filtered through a glass-sintered funnel, the filter cake washed with methanol and the filtrate concentrated to get the crude product which was purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give fert-butyl (2-aminoethyl)(2-((fert- butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)carbamate (1.6 g, 83 %). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 5.50- 5.20 (m, 1H); 3.29-3.24 (m, 6H); 2.84-2.82 (m, 2H); 1.44 (s, 9H); 1.41 (s, 9H) (primary amine protons not observed).

Step 4: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-(teri-butoxycarbonyl)-2,2-dimethyl-4-oxo-3-oxa-5,8,ll- triazanonadecan-19-oate

Chemical Formula: C 3 9H77N 3 0 6

Molecular Weight: 684.06

[00433] A solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-bromooctanoate (0.97 g, 2.11 mmol) and fert-butyl (2-aminoethyl)(2-((teri-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)carbamate (1.6 g, 5.27 mmol) in ethanol (20 mL) was heated at 65 ° C for 18 hours. The solvent was removed under vacuum and the crude product purified by silica gel chromatography (0-100% EtOAc in hexanes, then (0-100% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-(teri-butoxycarbonyl)-2,2-dimethyl-4-oxo-3-oxa-5,8, 1 l-triazanonadecan-19- oate (670 mg, 50 %) as an oil. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 684.5 for C39H77N3O6. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 5.46-5.26 (bs, 1H); 4.88-4.82 (m, 1H); 3.59 (bs, 2H); 3.42-3.28 (m, 4H); 3.10- 2.70 (m, 3H); 2.25 (t, 2H, J= 7.5 Hz); 1.78-1.57 (m, 4H); 1.45 (s, 9H); 1.41 (s, 9H); 1.41-1.27 (m, 4H); 1.26-1.22 (m, 32H); 0.86 (t, 6H, J= 6.7 Hz).

Step 5: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-(teri-butoxycarbonyl)-2,2-dimethyl-ll-(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxoo ctyl)- 4-oxo-3-oxa-5,8,ll-triazanonadecan-19-oate

Chemical Formula: C5 6 H-| 0 gN 3

Molecular Weight: 952.50

[00434] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-(fert-butoxycarbonyl)-2,2-dimethyl-4-oxo-3-oxa- 5,8,1 l-triazanonadecan-19-oate (670 mg, 0.98 mmol) in cyclopentyl methyl ether (10 mL) was added a solution of a nonyl 8-bromooctanoate (358 mg, 1.029 mmol) in acetonitrile (10 mL) followed by potassium carbonate (546 mg, 3.92 mmol) and potassium iodide (179 mg, 1.07 mmol). The reaction mixture was heated to 90 ° C for 2 days. It was then allowed to cool to room temp., filtered through diatomaceous earth, the filter cake washed extensively with ethyl acetate and the filtrate cone, to get the crude product which was purified by silica gel chromatography (0 to 100% EtOAc in hexanes) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-(fert-butoxycarbonyl)-2,2-dimethyl- 1 l-(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)-4-oxo-3-oxa-5,8,l l-triazanonadecan-19-oate (560 mg, 60 %). MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 952.8 for C56H109N3O8. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ ppm 6.65 (bs, 0.5H); 5.70 (bs, 0.5H); 4.88-4.82 (m, 1H); 4.04 (t, 2H, J= 6.7 Hz); 3.32-3.12 (m, 6H); 2.68-2.48 (m, 2H); 2.44-2.34 (m, 4H); 2.29-2.22 (m, 4H); 1.68-1.54 (m, 8H); 1.52-1.38 (m, 10H); 1.44 (s, 18H); 1.38-1.12 (m, 44H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J= 6.8 Hz).

Step 6: Heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-((2-aminoethyl)amino)ethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl)amino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C 6 H93N 3

Molecular Weight: 752.27

[00435] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-(fert-butoxycarbonyl)-2,2-dimethyl-l l-(8-

(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)-4-oxo-3-oxa-5,8,l l-triazanonadecan-19-oate (560 mg, 0.59 mmol) in dichloromethane (10 mL) at 0 ° C was added trifluoroacetic acid (3 mL) and the reaction mixture stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction was quenched with a saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. The organic layer was washed with 1 N sodium hydroxide solution, brine, dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate and the solvent removed under vacuum to get crude product which was purified by silica gel chromatography (methanol containing 4% ammonia 0-100% in DCM) to give heptadecan-9-yl 8-((2-((2-aminoethyl)amino)ethyl)(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate (256 mg, 58 %) as colorless oil. HPLC/UV (ELSD):

RT = 6.70 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 752.7 for C46H93N3O4. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDC ): δ ppm 4.87-4.82 (m, 1H); 4.03 (t, 2H, J = 6.6 Hz); 2.78 (t, 2H, J= 5.9 Hz); 2.63 (dd, 4H, J = 5.9 Hz, 13.9 Hz); 2.50 (t, 2H, J= 6.0 Hz); 2.36 (t, 4H, J = 73 Hz); 2.26 (dt, 4H, J = 3.8 Hz, 7.5 Hz); 1.68-1.54 (m, 7H); 1.52- 1.42 (m, 8H); 1.42-1.36 (m, 7H); 1.36-1.12 (m, 43H); 0.86 (t, 9H, J=

6.6 Hz).

IR. Compound 336: 8-(Heptadecan-9-yloxy)-iV-(3-hydroxypropyl)-iV-methyl-7V-(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxo

Chemical Formula: C46H92INO5

Molecular Weight: 866.15

[00436] To a solution of heptadecan-9-yl 8-[(3-hydroxypropyl)[8-(nonyloxy)-8- oxooctyl] amino] octanoate (0.21 g, 0.29 mmol) in a mixture of dichloroethane (2 mL) and acetonitrile (3 mL) was added methyl iodide (0.02 mL, 0.29 mmol). The reaction was stired at rt for two hours. Solvents were evaporated. The residue was diluted with DCM and extracted with sat NaHCC .The organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried with NaiSC , filtered and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (0- 100% (mixture of 1% NH4OH, 20% MeOH in dichloromethane) in dichloromethane) to give 8- (heptadecan-9-yloxy)-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-N-methyl-N-(8-(nony loxy)-8-oxooctyl)-8-oxooctan- 1-aminium iodide (0.152 g, 0.29 mmol, 70%). LC/ELSD: RT = 3.29 min. MS (ES): m/z (M + ) 738.85 for C46H92NC>5 + ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.87 (m, 1H); 4.08 (t, 2H); 3.91- 3.68 (br. m, 4H); 3.38 (br. m, 4H); 3.26 (s, 3H); 2.33 (m, 4H); 2.07 (br. m, 3H); 1.90-1.18 (m, 62H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

IS. Compound 337: 8-(Heptadecan-9-yloxy)-7V-(2-hydroxyethyl)-^-methyl-7V-(8- (nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)-8-oxooctan-l-aminium iodide

Chemical Formula: C45H90INO5 .+

Molecular Weight: 852.12

[00437] Compound 337 was synthesized in same manner as compound 336 using heptadecan- 9-yl 8-((2-hydroxyethyl)(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate and methyl iodide. Yield was 95 mg (0.11 1 mmol, 15%). LC/ELSD: RT = 3.37 min. MS (ES): m/z (M + ) 724.91 for C45H 9 oN0 5 + 'H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.87 (m, 1H); 4.20 (br. m, 2H); 4.07 (t, 2H); 3.74 (br. m, 2H); 3.50 (br. m, 4H); 3.33 (s, 3H); 2.33 (m, 4H); 1.87-1.17 (br. m, 62H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

IT. Compound 338: 8-(Heptadecan-9-yloxy)-7V,7V-dimethyl-7V-(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxo octyl)-8- oxooctan-l-aminium i

Γ

Chemical Formula: C44H88INO4

Molecular Weight: 822.09

[00438] Compound 338 was synthesized in same manner as compound 336 using heptadecan-

9-yl 8-(methyl(8-(nonyloxy)-8-oxooctyl)amino)octanoate and methyl iodide. Yield was 202 mg

(0.29 mmol, 39%). LC/ELSD: RT = 3.33 min. MS (ES): m/z (M + ) 694.89 for CwHssNO^ ¾

NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.87 (p, 1H); 4.07 (t, 2H); 3.56 (br. m, 4H); 3.41 (s, 6H); 2.32

(m, 4H); 1.85-1.17 (br. m, 62H); 0.90 (m, 9H).

IU. Compound 339: dodecan-4-yl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8- oxooctyl)(methyl)amino)octanoate

Step 1 : Dodecan-4-yl 8-(methylamino)octanoate

Chemical Formula: C21H43NO2

Molecular Weight: 341.58 [00439] To a solution 2M solution of methylamine (1.19 g, 38.3 mmol) in THF (19 mL) was added dodecan-4-yl 8-bromooctanoate (500 mg, 1.28 mmol) and the reaction was allowed to stir at room temperature for 48 hours. The solution was concentrated in vacuo, taken up in EtOAc and washed with x3 with water, brine, dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography (0-50% (DCM 20% Me OH 1% NH 4 OH) in DCM) provided dodecan-4-yl 8-(methylamino)octanoate (326 mg, 74.7%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 1.55 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 342.23 for C21H43NO2. ¾-NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.90 (m, 1H); 2.58 (t, 2H); 2.45 (s, 3H); 2.30 (t, 2H); 1.80-1.05 (br. m, 29H); 0.92 (m, 6H).

Step 2: Dodecan-4-yl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9-yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(methyl)amino)octanoat e

Chemical Formula: C46H91NO4

Molecular Weight: 722.24

[00440] In the same manner as step 2 for compound 328, dodecan-4-yl 8-((8-(heptadecan-9- yloxy)-8-oxooctyl)(methyl)amino)octanoate was synthesized from dodecan-4-yl 8- (methylamino)octanoate (326 mg, 0.954 mmol), heptadecan-9-yl 8-bromooctanoate (485 mg, 1.05 mmol), potassium carbonate (264 mg, 1.91 mmol), and potassium iodide (32 mg, 0.19 mmol) in MeCN (10 mL). Yield (392 mg, 56.9%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 3.48 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 722.94 for C46H91NO4. Ή-NMR (300 MHz, CDCb) δ: ppm 4.90 (m, 2H); 2.55-2.05 (br. m, 11H); 1.75-1.10 (br. m, 66H); 0.90 (m, 12H).

IV. Compound 34 -l-ol

Chemical Formula: C38H71 NO

Molecular Weight: 557.99

[00441] To a solution of (6Z,9Z)-18-bromooctadeca-6,9-diene (4 g, 12.1 mmol) in MeCN (26 mL) was added ethanolamine, (0.334 mL, 5.52 mmol), K2CO3 (3.36 g, 24.3 mmol), and KI (92 mg, 0.552 mmol). The reaction was allowed to stir at 82 °C for 48 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, filtered, and the solids were washed with hexanes. The filtrate was extracted with hexanes, and the combined extracts were concentrated in vacuo. Purification by ISCO silica flash chromatography (0-20% MeOH/DCM) provided 2-(Di((9Z, 12Z)-octadeca-

9,12-dien-l-yl)amino)ethan-l-ol. Yield (1.9 g, 62%). UPLC/ELSD: RT = 6.80 min. MS (ES): m/z (MH + ) 557.94 for CBSHVINO

¾-NMR (300 MHz, CDC ) δ: ppm 5.35 (m, 8H); 3.52 (t, 2H); 2.77 (t, 4H); 2.57 (t, 2H); 2.43

(t, 4H); 2.04 (q, 8H); 1.48-1.18 (br. m, 36H); 0.89 (t, 6H).

Example 2: Production of nanoparticle compositions

A. Production of nanoparticle compositions

[00442] In order to investigate safe and efficacious nanoparticle compositions for use in the delivery of therapeutic and/or prophylactics to cells, a range of formulations are prepared and tested. Specifically, the particular elements and ratios thereof in the lipid component of nanoparticle compositions are optimized.

[00443] Nanoparticles can be made with mixing processes such as microfluidics and T- junction mixing of two fluid streams, one of which contains the therapeutic and/or prophylactic and the other has the lipid components.

[00444] Lipid compositions are prepared by combining a lipid according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf , (Ilg), or (III), a phospholipid (such as DOPE or DSPC, obtainable from Avanti Polar Lipids, Alabaster, AL), a PEG lipid (such as

l,2-dimyristoyl-s«-glycerol methoxypolyethylene glycol, also known as PEG-DMG, obtainable from Avanti Polar Lipids, Alabaster, AL), and a structural lipid (such as cholesterol, obtainable from Sigma- Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany, or a corticosteroid (such as prednisolone, dexamethasone, prednisone, and hydrocortisone), or a combination thereof) at concentrations of about 50 mM in ethanol. Solutions should be refrigeration for storage at, for example, -20° C. Lipids are combined to yield desired molar ratios (see, for example, Table 23) and diluted with water and ethanol to a final lipid concentration of between about 5.5 mM and about 25 mM.

[00445] Nanoparticle compositions including a therapeutic and/or prophylactic and a lipid component are prepared by combining the lipid solution with a solution including the therapeutic and/or prophylactic at lipid component to therapeutic and/or prophylactic wt:wt ratios between about 5: 1 and about 50: 1. The lipid solution is rapidly injected using a

NanoAssemblr microfluidic based system at flow rates between about 10 ml/min and about 18 ml/min into the therapeutic and/or prophylactic solution to produce a suspension with a water to ethanol ratio between about 1 : 1 and about 4: 1.

[00446] For nanoparticle compositions including an RNA, solutions of the RNA at concentrations of 0.1 mg/ml in deionized water are diluted in 50 mM sodium citrate buffer at a pH between 3 and 4 to form a stock solution. [00447] Nanoparticle compositions can be processed by dialysis to remove ethanol and achieve buffer exchange. Formulations are dialyzed twice against phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, at volumes 200 times that of the primary product using Slide-A-Lyzer cassettes (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Rockford, IL) with a molecular weight cutoff of 10 kDa. The first dialysis is carried out at room temperature for 3 hours. The formulations are then dialyzed overnight at 4° C. The resulting nanoparticle suspension is filtered through 0.2 μπι sterile filters (Sarstedt, Numbrecht, Germany) into glass vials and sealed with crimp closures. Nanoparticle composition solutions of 0.01 mg/ml to 0.10 mg/ml are generally obtained.

[00448] The method described above induces nano-precipitation and particle formation. Alternative processes including, but not limited to, T-junction and direct injection, may be used to achieve the same nano-precipitation.

B. Characterization of nanoparticle compositions

[00449] A Zetasizer Nano ZS (Malvern Instruments Ltd, Malvern, Worcestershire, UK) can be used to determine the particle size, the polydispersity index (PDI) and the zeta potential of the nanoparticle compositions in l xPBS in determining particle size and 15 mM PBS in determining zeta potential.

[00450] Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy can be used to determine the concentration of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic (e.g. , RNA) in nanoparticle compositions. 100 of the diluted formulation in 1 xPBS is added to 900 of a 4: 1 (v/v) mixture of methanol and chloroform. After mixing, the absorbance spectrum of the solution is recorded, for example, between 230 nm and 330 nm on a DU 800 spectrophotometer (Beckman Coulter, Beckman Coulter, Inc., Brea, CA). The concentration of therapeutic and/or prophylactic in the nanoparticle composition can be calculated based on the extinction coefficient of the therapeutic and/or prophylactic used in the composition and on the difference between the absorbance at a wavelength of, for example, 260 nm and the baseline value at a wavelength of, for example, 330 nm.

[00451] For nanoparticle compositions including an RNA, a QUANT-IT™ RIBOGREEN® RNA assay (Invitrogen Corporation Carlsbad, CA) can be used to evaluate the encapsulation of an RNA by the nanoparticle composition. The samples are diluted to a concentration of approximately 5 μg/mL in a TE buffer solution (10 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.5). 50 μΐ ^ of the diluted samples are transferred to a polystyrene 96 well plate and either 50 μΐ ^ of TE buffer or 50 μΐ ^ of a 2% Triton X-100 solution is added to the wells. The plate is incubated at a temperature of 37° C for 15 minutes. The RIBOGREEN® reagent is diluted 1 : 100 in TE buffer, and 100 μΐ ^ of this solution is added to each well. The fluorescence intensity can be measured using a fluorescence plate reader (Wallac Victor 1420 Multilabel Counter; Perkin Elmer, Waltham, MA) at an excitation wavelength of, for example, about 480 nm and an emission wavelength of, for example, about 520 nm. The fluorescence values of the reagent blank are subtracted from that of each of the samples and the percentage of free RNA is determined by dividing the fluorescence intensity of the intact sample (without addition of Triton X-100) by the fluorescence value of the disrupted sample (caused by the addition of Triton X- 100).

C. In vivo formulation studies

[00452] In order to monitor how effectively various nanoparticle compositions deliver therapeutic and/or prophylactics to targeted cells, different nanoparticle compositions including a particular therapeutic and/or prophylactic (for example, a modified or naturally occurring RNA such as an mRNA) are prepared and administered to rodent populations. Mice are

intravenously, intramuscularly, intraarterially, or intratumorally administered a single dose including a nanoparticle composition with a formulation such as those provided in Example 3. In some instances, mice may be made to inhale doses. Dose sizes may range from 0.001 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg, where 10 mg/kg describes a dose including 10 mg of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic in a nanoparticle composition for each 1 kg of body mass of the mouse. A control composition including PBS may also be employed.

[00453] Upon administration of nanoparticle compositions to mice, dose delivery profiles, dose responses, and toxicity of particular formulations and doses thereof can be measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), bioluminescent imaging, or other methods. For nanoparticle compositions including mRNA, time courses of protein expression can also be evaluated. Samples collected from the rodents for evaluation may include blood, sera, and tissue (for example, muscle tissue from the site of an intramuscular injection and internal tissue); sample collection may involve sacrifice of the animals.

[00454] Nanoparticle compositions including mRNA are useful in the evaluation of the efficacy and usefulness of various formulations for the delivery of therapeutic and/or prophylactics. Higher levels of protein expression induced by administration of a composition including an mRNA will be indicative of higher mRNA translation and/or nanoparticle composition mRNA delivery efficiencies. As the non-RNA components are not thought to affect translational machineries themselves, a higher level of protein expression is likely indicative of a higher efficiency of delivery of the therapeutic and/or prophylactic by a given nanoparticle composition relative to other nanoparticle compositions or the absence thereof. Example 3: Sample formulations

[00455] Nanoparticle compositions including a therapeutic and/or prophylactic can be optimized according to the selection of a compound according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III), the selection of additional lipids, the amount of each lipid in the lipid component, and the wt:wt ratio of the lipid component to the therapeutic and/or prophylactic, as described herein.

[00456] Initial studies were performed to compare the delivery efficiency of nanoparticle compositions including various compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III). The cationic lipid MC3 is a current standard in the art. Accordingly, the standard MC3 formulation including about 50 mol % MC3, about 10 mol % DSPC, about 38.5 mol % cholesterol, and about 1.5 mol % PEG-DMG was used as a basis for this study. Nanoparticle compositions including DSPC as a phospholipid, cholesterol as a structural lipid, PEG-DMG as a PEG lipid, an RNA, and a compound according to Formula (I),

(IA) , (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) selected from Compounds 1-159, 168- 170, and 173-175 were prepared according to or via methods similar to those described in Examples 1 and 2. The ratios of the lipids were 50: 10:38.5 : 1.5 mol% for the lipid according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or

(III):DSPC:cholesterol:PEG-DMG. The RNA used was an mRNA encoding luciferase (Luc) or hEPO, wherein each uridine was replaced Nl-methyl pseudouridine. Tables 1A-1E summarize the content and characteristics of the formulations.

[00457] As shown in Tables 1A-1E, the choice of compound according to Formula (I), (IA),

(IB) , (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (lie), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) dramatically affects the size (e.g. , diameter), polydispersity index, and encapsulation efficiency (EE) of the compositions.

Compositions had sizes between approximately 53 nm and 237 nm. Compositions including Compounds 5, 35, 36, 51, 59, 131, 132, 137-139, 145, 148, 155 and 158 produced the largest particles, while compositions including Compounds 9, 21, 29, 30, 65, 7175, 94, 107, 1 14-1 16, 1 19, 124, 133, 149, 150, 152, 174 and 175 produced the smallest particles. Polydispersity indices varied between 0.04 and 0.99, while encapsulation efficiencies exceeded 75% for compositions including every tested compound except for Compounds 21, 94, 107, 132, 148, 155 and 158. The highest encapsulation efficiencies were observed for Compounds 1, 6, 18, 19, 24, 26, 28, 29, 49, 50, 55, 60, 61, 65-70, 72, 74, 75, 101, 109-1 16, 1 18, 1 19, 121, 122, 124, 126, 128, 130, 149, 152, 153, 156, 159, 169, 170 and 174.

Table IA. Characteristics of nanoparticle compositions including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Compound Size (nm) PDI EE (%) pKa

1 72.7 0.091 97.04 6.50

2 83.9 0.14 93.88 6.73

3 97.5 0.20 92.25 6.72 Compound Size (nm) PDI EE (%) pKa

4 120.5 0.21 95.10 6.33

5 196.4 0.21 77.07 6.84

6 73.1 0.066 97.60 6.32

7 118.9 0.22 86.10 6.75

8 121.0 0.15 95.8 6.64

9 68.5 0.12 75.7 4.87

10 102.9 0.18 89.60 6.09

11 129.6 0.13 92.47 5.97

12 116.7 0.17 92.44 5.99

13 79.4 0.13 92.28 5.67

14 130.1 0.15 95.24 6.58

15 111.1 0.094 92.47 5.58

16 119.0 0.16 91.32 5.52

17 85.2 0.24 91.84 7.76

18 87.9 018 95.9 6.56

19 101.1 0.17 97.21 6.78

20 86.7 0.13 96.72 6.87

21 53.5 n.d. -15.1 n.d.

22 80.2 0.22 96.00 6.21

23 104.5 0.09 92.68 6.84

24 99.5 0.13 97.16 6.71

25 85.8 0.10 95.80 6.68

26 91.9 0.16 97.43 6.64

27 82.3 0.18 94.27 6.78

28 99.4 0.20 97.03 6.04

29 66.8 0.11 96.99 6.00

30 59.4 0.15 95.69 6.75

31 73.9 0.15 95.11 6.64

32 105.6 0.18 94.87 6.75

33 107.3 0.13 95.66 6.80

34 133.8 0.14 92.52 6.64

35 151.1 0.18 90.82 6.85

36 163.5 0.17 81.45 7.38

47 80.6 0.10 96.40 n.d.

48 82.3 0.092 96.55 6.68

49 88 0.14 89.52 6.52

50 68.4 0.100 97.33 6.42

51 148.8 0.17 89.83 n.d.

52 130.5 0.19 93.25 n.d.

53 125.4 0.13 95.8 n.d.

54 112.9 0.19 96.71 6.51

55 91.6 0.16 97.03 6.44

56 112.1 0.17 95.18 n.d.

57 128.4 0.16 94.33 n.d.

58 130.8 0.14 92.54 n.d. Compound Size (nm) PDI EE (%) pKa

59 237.0 0.24 94.44 n.d.

60 95.1 0.12 97.6 6.73

61 82.1 0.15 97.40 6.70

65 63.9 0.12 98.2 6.36

66 76.7 0.120 96.52 76.7

67 77 0.13 98 6.38

68 76.8 0.14 97.7 6.69

69 77.2 0.13 98.4 6.92

70 73.7 0.15 97.5 6.51

71 71 0.24 97.54 5.88

72 76.8 0.10 94.69 6.29

73 59.2 0.13 95.7 5.95

74 65.6 0.15 97 6.08

75 92.1 0.17 92.3 6.67

79 93.7 0.18 89.1 7.53

80 118 0.19 90.7 7.52

81 99.2 0.14 95.4 7.14

94 62.4 0.24 0 4.43

96 120.5 0.160 79.04 6.600

101 91.7 0.230 98.96 7.27

103 78.8 0.160 90.77 6.13

107 55 0.74 0 4.802

108 119 0.14 96 7.17

109 81.1 0.13 98.6 6.78

110 91.5 0.21 91.9 8.03

111 116.7 0.22 76.8 7.13

112 83.7 0.22 99.0 7.78

113 86.8 0.13 96.92 6.93

114 65.1 0.11 98.8 6.42

115 64.5 0.11 99.7 n.d.

116 63.3 0.14 99.4 5.66

118 72.1 0.08 98 6.14

119 60.8 0.24 98.1 5.29

121 98.4 0.18 100 8.50

122 69.3 0.09 98.2 6.83

123 81.6 0.23 94.4 6.27

124 61.3 0.1 97.7 5.89

125 90.9 0.16 79.6 n.d.

126 77.4 0.18 96.8 6.00

127 110.4 0.19 89.5 6.98

128 104.1 0.22 92.45 6.56

129 86.3 0.19 77.2 7.3

130 107.1 0.13 97 6.83

131 167.9 0.095 75.44 7.76

132 298.0 0.180 30.77 7.34

133 66.0 0.098 91.48 6.38 Compound Size (nm) PDI EE (%) pKa

134 85.6 0.110 94.62 6.66

135 89.5 0.130 90.20 6.47

Compound Size (nm) PDI EE (%) pKa

136 140.4 0.5 90.9 6.95

137 184.4 <1 85.7 7.06

138 179.4 <0.5 91.8 7.39

139 174.0 0.54 78.2 7.04

140 120.3 0.84 89.2 7.71

141 91.3 0.99 94.1 7.47

143 98.8 0.21 97.37 6.47

144 135.9 0.22 90.3 7.09

145 176.5 0.140 89.15 7.25

146 97.0 0.210 91.94 7.78

147 99.5 0.130 88.31 6.66

148 192.7 0.200 25.49 6.646

149 62.1 0.110 98.00 6.284

150 63.1 0.082 96.72 6.101

151 105.7 0.140 87.86 6.593

152 62.6 0.072 99.29 6.465

153 83.7 0.150 98.39 6.580

154 92.9 0.110 94.28 6.827

155 208.3 0.240 37.36 6.576

156 68.1 0.11 98.47 6.572

157 61 0.093 96.04 6.275

158 251.8 0.080 35.70 6.953

159 75.9 0.190 99.29 7.873

160 89.0 0.15 94.0 6.54

161 67.6 0.09 94.3 6.08

162 72.7 0.14 94.1 6.08

163 88.3 0.10 93.2 6.41

164 84.5 0.13 91.2 6.39

165 84.6 0.14 92.9 6.50

168 102.3 0.20 91.4 6.74

169 87.4 0.17 99.4 6.77.

170 96.0 0.18 96.7 6.31

171 100.5 0.14 85.0 6.48

172 77.3 0.13 95.4 6.40

173 75.5 0.16 92.89 6.31

174 84.4 0.21 99.0 6.65

175 65.7 0.16 94.8 6.15

178 104.2 0.12 94.7 6.90

179 71.6 0.11 94.7 6.16

181 78.7 0.12 88.9 6.17

182 84.4 0.14 99.0 6.48

183 245.3 0.24 32.3 6.54

184 77.2 0.13 94.2 6.47

185 69.6 0.14 98.3 6.77

186 92.2 0.17 87.2 6.33

198 84.2 0.24 99.5 7.62 Compound Size (nm) PDI EE (%) pKa

200 76.2 0.15 97.65

218 81.4 0.21 98.8 6.59

233 66.9 0.11 97.81

239 55.8 0.12 90.42

98 94.4 6.53

MC3 79.7 0.11 97.3 n.d.

n.d.=not determined

Table IB. Characteristics of nanoparticle compositions including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Size Endotoxin Apparent

Compound PDI EE (%)

(nm) (EU/mL) pKa

18 # 73.7 0.14 96.95 <1 6.56

25 # 69.7 0.14 97.92 1.8 6.68

30 # 76.3 0.13 96.32 <1 6.75

108* 89.6 0.22 95.38 <1 7.17

109* 75 0.099 98.29 <1 6.78

110* 73.3 0.24 92.39 <1 8.03

111* 93.3 0.13 91.23 1.4 7.13

112* 60.6 0.21 96.40 1.8 7.78

60* 88.9 0.15 95.20 <1 6.73

122* 70.2 0.12 96.27 1.2 6.83

147* 111.9 0.22 91.0

184* 85.8 0.16 96.5

189* 95.5 0.16 93.9

200* 95.3 0.19 97.3

232* 150.3 0.23 76.3

233* 93.7 0.21 97.6

234* 96.3 0.22 94.7

235* 228 0.24 40.9

237* 82.5 0.15 99.3

239* 71.3 0.14 82.6

243* 90.6 0.35 99.4

MC3* 57.7 0.12 99.01 <1 6.35

( =Formulated with hEPO mRNA

Table 1C. Characteristics of nanoparticle compositions for subcutaneous administration including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III). Lipid Size PDI %EE

(nm)

MC3 56.9 0.09 98.2

20 86.7 0.13 91.6

24 88.5 0.17 90.5

25 76.3 0.16 98.1

30 81.7 0.12 93.0

72 77.3 0.10 94.9

75 88.6 0.13 94.9

110 91.5 0.21 91.9

112 83.7 0.22 99.0

113 83.9 0.14 99.6

122 80.2 0.16 94.8

Table ID. Characteristics of nanoparticle compositions for subcutaneous administration including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Lipid Size PDI %EE

(nm)

MC3 69.1 0.15 98.7

18 # 75.0 0.11 96.2

25 # 77.6 0.13 97.8

30 # 89.8 0.11 93.1

48 # 79.8 0.09 96.2

49 # 74.0 0.09 96.2

60 # 87.4 0.13 93.0

96 # 82.6 0.14 94.4

98 # 74.8 0.14 93.8

111* 94.5 0.12 90.9

151 # 77.6 0.13 95.4

163* 78.0 0.10 92.8

164* 75.7 0.08 94.1

165* 74.3 0.14 93.5 168 # 87.4 0.07 96.1

207* 81.4 0.22 102

233* 87.0 0.13 97.5

*=Formulated with hEPO mRNA

Table IE. Characteristics of nanoparticle compositions for subcutaneous administration including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Lipid Size PDI %EE

(nm)

MC3 62.4 0.10 98

168 85.0 0.08 95

23 70.5 0.13 98

19 80.7 0.13 93

108 96.1 0.15 96

109 67.0 0.10 98

111 88.9 0.16 88

60 93.3 0.12 88

61 80.0 0.08 96

69 71.8 0.09 99

128 73.9 0.13 94

Example 4: Expression of Luc induced by sample formulations

[00458] The efficacy of the nanoparticle compositions presented in Table 1A was evaluated with a bioluminescence study. Formulations were administered intravenously to mice (n = 6) at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg (mpk) and bioluminescence measured at 3, 6, and 24 hour time points. The standard MC3 formulation and, in some instances, a control (e.g., a PBS control) were evaluated for comparison. As is evident in Table 2, at 3 hours, the total flux was highest for compositions including Compounds 4, 28, 32, 48, 66, 128 and 135 and the total flux at 3 h was higher than or comparable to that of MC3 formulations for Compounds 2, 3, 18, 19, 20, 24, 26, 25, 27, 31, 33, 47, 49, 50, 53-55, 60, 61, 65-68, 70, 72, 74, 75, 96, 111, 122, 130, 133, 134, 143, 147, 148, 150, 151 and 153. These compositions also demonstrated higher total flux at 6 and 24 hour time points. Compositions including Compounds 9, 17, 57, 58, 59, 121, 125, 137, 140, 141 and 158 had significantly lower flux at all timepoints measured. In general, flux decreased as time progressed to less than 10% of the initial flux. These results suggest that the compounds described herein may be useful in transfection applications.

Table 2. Expression of luciferase induced by administration of nanoparticle compositions including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IIB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), or (IIg).

Total Flux

Compound 3 hours 6 hours 24 hours

1 3.48E+09 3.40E+09 4.10E+08

2 1.93E+10 4.31E+10 2.43E+09

3 6.55E+10 7.37E+10 4.96E+09

4 1.37E+11 6.01E+10 1.13E+09

5 2.77E+08 1.76E+08 2.40E+07

6 5.38E+09 7.60E+09 7.69E+08

7 4.13E+10 4.03E+10 1.68E+09

8 7.43E+09 6.71E+09 7.84E+08

9 1.43E+08 3.46E+06 1.01E+06

10 6.03E+08 2.37E+09 4.04E+07

11 3.38E+09 7.11E+09 1.15E+08

12 5.14E+09 1.27E+10 2.45E+08

13 1.02E+08 1.56E+08 1.47E+06

14 4.43E+08 2.29E+09 1.39E+08

15 4.31E+08 4.41E+07 2.05E+06

16 2.58E+08 5.45E+08 2.37E+07

17 7.72E+06 3.58E+06 6.79E+05

18 1.71E+10 2.13E+10 2.51E+09

19 3.38E+10 3.56E+09 4.68E+08

20 1.71E+10 2.48E+10 5.40E+08

22 6.57E+08 3.89E+08 2.73E+07

23 1.83E+09 1.15E+09 3.71E+08

24 1.72E+10 2.25E+10 1.83E+09

25 2.27E+10 1.59E+10 9.77E+08

26 6.75E+10 1.57E+10 1.54E+09

27 1.64E+10 1.03E+10 1.94E+09

28 8.98E+10 1.13E+11 1.20E+09

29 4.61E+09 2.89E+09 3.55E+08

30 1.19E+10 2.09E+10 1.21E+09

31 4.19E+10 5.31E+10 1.68E+09

32 8.65E+10 6.08E+10 1.92E+09

33 6.53E+10 1.20E+11 3.71E+09

34 1.06E+10 1.48E+10 6.69E+08

35 9.82E+08 1.24E+09 5.09E+07

36 6.97E+07 1.72E+08 4.44E+05

47 6.55E+10 5.38E+10 2.09E+09

48 8.73E+10 l . lOE+11 2.92E+09

49 4.48E+10 1.08E+11 1.24E+09

50 3.81E+10 7.49E+10 5.02E+08 Total Flux

Compound 3 hours 6 hours 24 hours

51 1.34E+08 2.80E+08 6.20E+06

52 2.91E+09 4.63E+09 2.55E+07

53 1.91E+10 2.32E+10 1.01E+09

54 5.36E+10 4.18E+10 9.07E+08

55 5.07E+10 1.68E+10 4.06E+08

56 1.27E+10 8.06E+09 2.53E+08

57 6.69E+06 6.21E+06 4.16E+05

58 5.69E+05 7.60E+05 3.64E+05

59 2.75E+05 2.79E+05 1.45E+05

60 7.91E+10 9.04E+10 2.90E+09

61 6.54E+10 6.20E+10 1.78E+09

Total Flux

Compound 3 hours 6 hours 24 hours

65 6.56E+10 7.01E+10 7.50E+08

66 9.66E+10 4.577E+10 5.56E+09

67 4.24E+10 4.62E+10 4.51E+08

68 5.22E+10 8.16E+10 2.15E+09

69 3.38E+09 7.95E+09 1.15E+08

70 4.70E+10 2.49E+10 9.27E+08

71 4.09E+09 9.28E+09 6.51E+07

72 1.73E+10 4.07E+10 7.12E+08

73 8.10E+09 1.07E+10 1.27E+08

74 3.27E+10 2.23E+10 2.75E+08

75 3.51E+10 8.80E+10 2.13E+09

79 3.23E+08 5.27E+08 3.08E+07

80 2.76E+08 3.26E+08 1.54E+07

81 7.87E+09 9.96E+09 5.13E+08

96 4.54E+10 1.05E+11 3.86E+09

101 1.89E+08 1.41E+08 3.64E+06

103 2.68E+09 1.82E+09 9.45E+07

108 5.04E+09 5.53E+09 1.50E+08

109 3.82E+09 4.88E+09 8.06E+07

110 1.89E+09 2.57E+09 1.11E+08

111 1.89E+10 3.57E+10 8.86E+08

112 9.69E+08 1.04E+09 2.75E+07

113 5.16E+09 8.09E+09 1.30E+08

114 8.41E+07 5.98E+07 n.d.

115 2.13E+07 2.91E+07 n.d.

116 3.13E+07 3.86E+07 n.d.

118 1.46E+09 1.16E+09 4.37E+07

119 1.02E+07 3.74E+07 n.d.

121 1.29E+06 1.36E+06 n.d.

122 3.64E+10 8.64E+10 1.95E+09

123 4.06E+09 1.81E+10 5.18E+08

124 6.62E+07 3.91E+09 5.13E+06

125 2.44E+05 3.16E+05 n.d.

126 7.59E+09 1.09E+10 1.40E+08

127 3.81E+09 2.09E+09 4.56E+08

128 1.04E+11 8.99E+10 1.00E+09

129 5.97E+09 4.51E+09 2.22E+08

130 6.26E+10 8.92E+10 1.08E+09

131 6.97E+09 7.64E+09 2.47E+08

132 1.77E+09 1.36E+09 5.31E+07

133 3.32E+10 2.93E+10 4.74E+08

134 2.01E+10 2.91E+10 8.00E+08

135 1.24E+11 9.90E+10 2.51E+09

136 7.21E+08 7.33E+08 3.39E+07

137 3.77E+05 5.02E+05 4.49E+05

138 2.97E+07 2.30E+07 1.63E+06 Total Flux

Compound 3 hours 6 hours 24 hours

139 3.50E+07 1.17E+07 5.89E+05

140 3.74E+06 1.70E+06 5.67E+05

141 2.16E+.06 1.21E+06 3.49E+05

143 1.76E+10 2.03E+10 2.47E+08

144 9.50E+09 1.82E+09 3.36E+08

145 7.1 1E+09 6.50E+09 2.38E+08

146 9.48E+07 8.39E+07 2.30E+06

147 3.24E+10 4.87E+10 3.32E+08

148 6.28E+10 3.71E+10 1.43E+09

149 l .O lE+10 8.33E+09 3.45E+08

150 1.66E+10 2.31E+10 3.86E+08

151 5.63E+10 5.68E+10 2.23E+09

152 1.56E+09 2.45E+09 4.95E+07

153 1.69E+10 2.28E+10 5.10E+08

154 2.49E+09 4.89E+09 6.26E+07

155 2.49E+09 1.15E+10 1.99E+08

156 5.68E+09 1.03E+10 6.53E+07

157 8.54E+09 2.22E+10 1.90E+08

158 2.69E+05 9.82E+05 1.55E+05

159 3.32E+06 1.20E+07 4.98E+05

MC3 1.58E+10 2.12E+10 7.19E+08

n.d.=not determined

[00459] The total flux (measured by area under the curve, AUC) induced by administration of a formulation including a given lipid relative to that induced by administration of a formulation including MC3 was also measured for several lipids. As shown in Table 3A (i.v.

administration), the flux induced by formulations including Compounds 48 and 49 measured at 6 h was ten times higher than that induced by the MC3 formulation. Formulations including Compounds 50, 54, and 55 also demonstrated higher flux than MC3 formulations. As shown in Table 3B, the flux induced by formulations including Compounds 108 and 168 measured at 6 h was fourteen and sixteen times higher than that induced by the MC3 formulation via intramuscular administration (i.m.). Results are also shown in Figure 8. As shown in Table 3C (i.v. administration), the flux induced by formulations including Compounds 66, 133-135, and 147 measured at 6 h and the total flux were noticeably higher than those induced by the MC3 formulation. As shown in Table 3D, the total flux induced by formulations including

Compounds 96, 148, and 151 measured at 6 h was noticeably higher than that induced by the MC3 formulation. Table 3A. Expression of luciferase upon administration of formulations including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) relative to administration of formulations including MC3.

Compound Fold increase in total body Luc Flux relative to MC3 at 6 h

1 0.40

2 1.31

3 2.24

4 1.31

5 0.005

6 1.15

16 0.02

18 3.22

19 0.96

20 0.80

24 2.67

25 1.89

26 4.24

27 0.31

28 2.46

29 0.78

30 2.49

31 1.21

32 1.39

33 2.74

34 0.34

35 0.028

36 0.004

48 10.0

49 9.81

50 6.81

51 0.025

53 2.1 1

54 3.80 Fold increase in total body Luc Flux relative to MC3 at 6 h

55 1.52

56 0.733

57 0.00056

58 0.00007

59 0.00003

65 3.16

66 0.103

67 2.08

68 3.68

71 0.418

73 0.48

74 1.005

127 0.094

128 4.05

129 0.203

130 4.02

1.00

Table 3B. Expression of luciferase upon administration of formulations including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) relative to administration of formulations including MC3.

ND=not determined Table 3C. Expression of luciferase upon administration of formulations including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) relative to administration of formulations including MC3.

Avg.=average;

Table 3D. Expression of luciferase and lipid clearance upon intravenous administration of formulations including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (He), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) relative to administration of formulations including MC3.

% Dose % Dose

AUC Lipid/MC3 Remaining Remaining

Compound

(p/s*h) AUC in Liver in Liver

6 h 6 h

148 4.965 E+011 2.6 <1 <1

149 1.057 E+011 0.55

150 2.704 E+011 1.4 <1 <1

96 1.209 E+012 6.3 <1 <1

151 7.010 E+011 3.7 <1 <1

152 2.855 E+010 0.15

153 2.697 E+011 1.4 <1 <1 154 5.560 E+010 0.29

155 1.266 E+011 0.66

156 1.170 E+011 0.61

157 2.481 E+011 1.3 <1 <1

158 1.211 E+007 <0.01

159 1.355 E+008 <0.01

MC3 1.909 E+011 1 80 54

Table 3E. Expression of luciferase and lipid clearance upon intravenous administration of formulations including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (He), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) relative to administration of formulations including MC3.

Table 3F. Expression of luciferase and lipid clearance upon intravenous, intra muscular, intra- tumor, and subcutaneous administration of formulations including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) relative to administration of formulations including MC3.

Cpd App. LogP Novel lipid / MC3 expression ratio, 6 hr. time point (AUC)

pKa i.v. i.m. Luc i.m. hEPO s.c. Luc (mpk) s.c. hEPO

0.05 0.5 0.5 mpk

7 6.74 14.5 0.88 1.10 - 2.40 2.29

18 6.56 16.3 3.23 2.01 8.6 2.63 1.88 4.26

19 6.78 16.6 0.96 3.68 - - 2.13

20 4.00

6.87 16.4 0.80 2.21 -

(AUC: 4.02)

23 6.88 17.4 0.04 0.30 - - 1.02

24 5.79

6.71 16.1 2.67 1.10 - -

(AUC: 5.21)

25 1.73

6.68 16.3 1.89 1.46 7.1 - 5.43

(AUC: 1.7)

27 6.78 15.3 0.31 3.94 - 14.45 4.87

30 6.53

6.75 16.3 2.49 4.69 9.2

(AUC: 6.38)

48 6.68 16.6 10.0 0.31 - - - 8.09

49 6.52 17.2 9.81 12.99 - - - 8.01

60 6.73 15.4 3.37 2.93 11.2 - 1.72 6.59

61 6.70 15.4 2.31 3.51 - - 0.70

69 6.95 16.3 0.30 0.27 - - 0.14

71 5.88 17.4 0.42 0.08 - - -

72 6.29 15.8 1.52 1.03 - - 2.18

(AUC: 2.01)

75 6.67 16.1 3.29 1.22 - - 3.08

(AUC: 3.05)

108 7.17 16.5 0.40 14.2 3.7 0.22

109 6.78 16.7 0.35 3.65 5.3 - 0.49 6.78

1 10 0.78

8.03 16.8 0.19 3.74 1.2

(AUC: 0.76) 111 7.13 16.3 2.59 4.88 10.6 1.16 6.40

112 1.33

7.78 16.9 0.08 2.93 1.6

(AUC: 1.19)

113 6.93 17.2 0.59 1.58 4.53

(AUC: 4.30)

122 4.12

6.83 15.6 3.23 2.84 10.7

(AUC: 3.42)

128 6.56 16.0 4.05 0.99 - 0.47

143 6.47 16.4 0.44 4.05 - -

156 6.57 16.3 0.60 0.06 - -

157 6.27 16.7 1.29 0.79 - -

168 6.90 17.7 0.11 16.0 6.3 0.58 2.36

169 7.63 16.9 0.11 3.3 -

170 6.60 16.3 0.02 5.3 -

178 6.90 16.7 0.03 7.14 -

181 6.17 17.3 0.27 0.97 -

182 6.48 16.3 0.66 6.80 -

218 6.59 15.7 >0.01 1.77 -

194 ND 17.4 - -

198 7.62 16.4 0 0.52 -

200 ND 15.1 - 8.11 -

207 ND 16.0 0

233 ND 16.8 - 0.05 - 0.03

239 ND 16.5 0.01

Table 3G. Expression of luciferase and lipid clearance upon intravenous, intra muscular, intra- tumor, and subcutaneous administration of formulations including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid) , (He), or (Ilf) relative to administration of formulations including MC3.

Compound Apparent LogP Novel lipid / MC3 ratio, 6 hr. timepoint

pKa l.V. i.m. Luc i.m. s.c. Luc

hEPO 6 hr. AUC

20 6.87 16.4 0.80 2.21 4.00 4.02 24 6.71 16.1 2.67 1.10 - 5.79 5.21

25 6.68 16.3 1.89 1.46 7.1 1.73 1.70

30 6.75 16.3 2.49 4.69 9.2 6.53 6.38

72 6.29 15.8 1.52 1.03 - 2.18 2.01

75 6.67 16.1 3.29 1.22 - 3.08 3.05

96 6.60 16.3 6.1 1

98 6.53 16.6 3.16

1 10 8.03 16.8 0.19 3.74 1.2 0.78 0.76

1 12 7.78 16.9 0.08 2.93 1.6 1.33 1.19

1 13 6.93 17.2 0.59 1.58 - 4.53 4.30

122 6.83 15.6 3.23 2.84 10.7 4.12 3.42

151 6.59 16.3 3.29

163 6.41 16.6 3.45

164 6.39 16.6 1.24

165 6.50 16.6 2.12

Table 3H. Expression of luciferase upon intramuscular administration of formulations including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) relative to administration of formulations including MC3.

Compound AUC (p/s*h) Lipid/MC3 AUC

MC3 5.88 E+08 1

143 2.29 E+09 3.89

49 7.54 E+09 12.82

1 13 1.01 E+09 1.71

61 2.30 E+09 3.91

72 6.48 E+08 1.10

75 1.29 E+09 2.20

71 6.61 E+07 0.1 1

128 8.59 E+08 1.46

156 3.92 E+07 0.07

157 4.68 E+08 0.80

Table 31. Expression of hEPO upon intramuscular administration of formulations including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) relative to administration of formulations including MC3.

Compound Lipid/MC3 6h timepoint Lipid/MC3 AUC

48 8.2 7.5 49 11.0 9.9

169 4.6 4.7

170 5.9 5.7

178 10.4 9.3

182 1.6 1.2

194 5.5 6.2

200 2.6 2.7

244 0.4 0.4

Example 5: Expression of Luc induced by sample formulations in different organs

[00460] The efficacy of the nanoparticle compositions presented in Table 1A was further evaluated by measuring the expression of modified luciferase in the liver, lung, spleen, and femur upon administration of a given composition. Formulations were administered intravenously to mice (n = 3) at a dosage of 0.5 mpk and bioluminescence measured after 6 hours. The standard MC3 formulation and a PBS control were also tested. As is evident in Table 4, flux for nearly all species was higher in the liver compared to other tissues. Flux in the liver was highest for compositions including 3, 28, 33, 48, 96 and 135 and comparable to that of MC3 formulations for compositions including Compounds 2, 4, 6, 7, 18, 20, 24-27, 30-32, 34, 47, 49, 50, 53-56, 60, 65, 67, 68, 74, 75, 111, 113, 122, 128, 130, 133, 134, 143, 147-151, 153 and 157. Flux in the liver was lowest for compositions including Compounds 58, 59, 137, and 141. Flux in the spleen was highest for compositions including Compounds 4, 7, 33, 34, 48, 53, 108, 129, 130, and 148, and lowest for compositions including Compounds 9, 59, 124, and 141. Similar results were observed in the lung and femur.

Table 4. Expression of luciferase in various organs 6 hours after administration of nanoparticle compositions including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (He), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Total Flux

Compound Liver Lung Spleen Femur

1 4.02E+08 1.72E+06 4.27E+06 7.52E+05

2 4.87E+09 2.52E+07 5.77E+07 3.86E+06

3 1.39E+10 4.76E+07 1.47E+08 7.36E+06

4 5.26E+09 6.22E+07 4.09E+08 n.d.

5 5.84E+07 1.89E+06 1.55E+08 1.22E+06 Total Flux

Compound Liver Lung Spleen Femur

6 1.09E+09 4.30E+06 3.03E+07 2.15E+06

7 2.49E+09 3.95E+07 4.83E+08 n.d.

8 7.87E+08 4.06E+06 1.51E+08 n.d.

9 4.30E+05 2.56E+04 5.51E+04 2.57E+04

10 3.22E+08 8.85E+05 8.17E+06 5.09E+05

11 8.03E+08 1.35E+07 1.04E+08 n.d.

12 6.84E+08 7.45E+06 6.82E+07 n.d.

13 2.25E+07 2.21E+05 7.09E+05 1.35E+05

14 1.91E+08 4.74E+06 1.92E+08 4.91E+06

15 6.23E+06 6.41E+04 9.01E+05 5.93E+04

16 3.17E+07 4.18E+05 5.43E+06 2.55E+05

17 5.52E+05 9.95E+04 5.58E+06 9.55E+04

18 2.76E+09 1.25E+07 5.15E+07 4.68E+06

19 6.33E+08 5.99E+06 1.77E+07 1.68E+06

20 1.84E+09 2.66E+07 1.43E+08 1.31E+07

22 4.00E+07 4.73E+05 1.57E+06 1.16E+05

23 2.92E+08 1.82E+06 3.08E+07 1.19E+06

24 4.19E+09 1.71E+07 8.78E+07 4.54E+06

25 2.41E+09 1.51E+07 3.11E+07 4.40E+06

26 2.90E+09 1.18E+07 1.56E+07 4.67E+06

27 2.16E+09 6.35E+06 3.78E+06 2.00E+06

28 1.22E+10 2.17E+08 1.80E+08 n.d.

29 5.20E+08 9.83E+05 5.99E+06 9.56E+05

30 2.68E+09 1.02E+07 3.55E+07 6.38E+06

31 5.17E+09 7.55E+06 9.42E+07 n.d.

32 8.52E+09 1.16E+07 1.70E+08 n.d.

33 1.78E+10 2.92E+07 3.77E+08 n.d.

34 2.08E+09 9.49E+06 2.40E+08 n.d.

35 1.63E+08 2.06E+06 1.23E+08 n.d.

36 2.65E+07 5.82E+05 6.14E+07 n.d.

47 4.86E+09 8.71E+06 8.33E+07 n.d.

48 1.08E+10 3.31E+07 3.49E+08 n.d. Total Flux

Compound Liver Lung Spleen Femur

49 5.68E+09 2.52E+07 1.87E+08 n.d.

50 6.30E+09 2.81E+07 1.14E+08 n.d.

51 2.49E+07 3.67E+05 2.80E+07 n.d.

52 5.86E+08 2.80E+06 8.30E+07 n.d.

53 2.02E+09 2.47E+07 8.54E+08 n.d.

54 5.57E+09 1.12E+07 1.64E+08 n.d.

55 1.92E+09 7.02E+06 2.63E+07 n.d.

56 1.04E+09 4.62E+06 1.98E+08 n.d.

57 9.36E+05 3.18E+04 2.47E+06 n.d.

58 8.71E+04 1.21E+04 2.38E+05 n.d.

59 2.87E+05 4.41E+04 9.68E+04 n.d.

60 1.54E+09 6.25E+06 7.12E+06 n.d.

61 6.37E+08 3.56E+06 1.61E+07 n.d.

65 9.56E+09 3.79E+07 6.57E+07 n.d.

66 5.01E+09 4.20E+06 2.00E+07 n.d.

67 3.60E+09 1.68E+07 2.55E+07 n.d.

68 8.42E+09 3.98E+07 6.69E+07 n.d.

69 2.24E+08 7.34E+05 2.54E+06 n.d.

70 8.55E+08 6.32E+06 2.06E+06 n.d.

71 7.93E+08 4.86E+06 8.04E+06 n.d.

72 7.97E+08 1.05E+07 6.40E+06 n.d.

73 7.93E+08 6.17E+06 9.45E+06 n.d.

74 1.99E+09 6.93E+06 2.26E+07 n.d.

75 1.45E+09 3.92E+06 5.66E+06 n.d.

79 3.15E+06 6.13E+04 6.45E+05 n.d.

80 1.09E+07 8.97E+04 4.71E+06 n.d.

81 2.74E+08 6.23E+06 4.49E+07 n.d.

96 1.56E+10 3.43E+07 3.39E+08 n.d.

101 1.27E+07 1.77E+05 5.60E+06 n.d.

103 8.48E+07 2.06E+05 2.65E+06 n.d.

108 4.63E+08 9.81E+06 7.82E+08 n.d.

109 8.17E+08 6.03E+06 4.81E+07 n.d. Total Flux

Compound Liver Lung Spleen Femur

110 2.30E+08 5.76E+06 1.41E+08 n.d.

111 4.83E+09 2.57E+07 2.44E+08 n.d.

112 1.48E+08 1.83E+06 2.75E+07 n.d.

113 1.11E+09 5.55E+06 5.22E+07 n.d.

118 1.72E+08 1.98E+06 2.49E+07 n.d.

122 2.63E+09 2.77E+07 1.56E+07 n.d.

123 2.50E+08 1.78E+06 4.04E+06 n.d.

124 8.46E+06 5.67E+04 8.06E+04 n.d.

126 7.41E+08 2.68E+06 1.87E+07 n.d.

127 1.94E+08 5.26E+06 3.21E+08 n.d.

128 5.98E+09 2.16E+07 7.09E+07 n.d.

129 6.65E+08 9.89E+06 5.09E+08 n.d.

130 8.17E+09 5.88E+07 1.35E+09 n.d.

131 3.52E+08 1.45E+07 8.32E+08 n.d.

132 1.49E+08 1.39E+07 3.37E+08 n.d.

133 2.94E+09 3.18E+06 1.77E+07 n.d.

134 1.73E+09 2.82E+06 1.85E+07 n.d.

135 1.65E+10 2.71E+07 1.39E+08 n.d.

Total Flux

Compound Liver Lung Spleen Femur

136 1.34E+08 8.91E+05 2.77E+07 6.60E+05

137 6.48E+04 1.66E+04 1.32E+05 2.02E+04

138 3.66E+06 9.47E+04 4.04E+06 1.58E+05

139 8.27E+05 5.26E+04 2.10E+06 5.12E+04

140 4.21E+05 2.14E+04 2.22E+05 3.26E+04

141 1.59E+05 3.85E+04 6.29E+04 2.86E+04

143 1.76E+09 3.60E+07 1.42E+08 n.d.

144 3.75E+08 4.81E+06 5.1 1E+07 2.44E+06

145 5.01E+08 1.36E+07 4.25E+08 n.d.

146 7.24E+06 3.88E+06 5.1 1E+07 n.d.

147 5.24E+09 6.73E+06 8.57E+07 n.d.

148 4.39E+09 3.27E+07 2.71E+09 n.d.

149 1.1 1E+09 2.69E+06 2.71E+07 n.d.

150 1.54E+09 2.20E+06 3.43E+07 n.d.

151 4.72E+09 9.20E+06 9.27E+07 n.d.

152 1.43E+08 3.16E+05 6.63E+06 n.d.

153 1.18E+09 6.42E+06 1.42E+08 n.d.

154 3.62E+08 2.89E+06 1.30E+07 n.d.

155 8.58E+08 1.00E+07 2.77E+08 n.d.

156 6.51E+08 1.92E+06 1.82E+07 n.d.

157 2.27E+09 6.70E+06 5.15E+07 n.d.

158 1.99E+05 1.71E+04 1.17E+05 n.d.

159 1.13E+06 2.17E+05 7.24E+05 n.d.

MC3 2.57E+09 1.27E+07 2.85E+07 2.56E+06 n.d.=not determined

Example 6A: Expression induced by sample formulations upon intramuscular

administration

[00461] Sample formulations including both modified luciferase (Luc) mRNA and H10 mRNA were prepared and administered intramuscularly and the resulting expression and immunogenicity were evaluated simultaneously. Formulations including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (lie), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) were prepared and administered at doses of 0.001 and 0.01 mpk (e.g. , doses of 0.0005 mpk of a formulation including Luc mRNA and a formulation including H10 mRNA or doses of 0.005 mpk of a formulation including Luc mRNA and a formulation including H10 mRNA). As shown in Table 5 A, Compound 20 exhibited the highest expression at both dose levels. The low dose of Compound 20 showed equivalent expression to the high dose of MC3. Formulations including other compounds also showed multi-fold enhancement in expression relative to MC3. Table 5A. Total flux (p/s) measured 6 hours after intramuscular administration of nanoparticle compositions including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (He), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

n.d.=not determined Example 6B: Expression induced by sample formulations upon intramuscular administration

[00462] Sample formulations including modified luciferase (Luc) mR A prepared and administered intramuscularly and the resulting expression and immunogenicity were evaluated simultaneously. Formulations including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (He), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) were prepared and administered at dose of and 0.01 mpk. As shown in Table 5B, Compound 108 exhibited the highest expression.

Formulations including other compounds also showed multi-fold enhancement in expression relative to MC3.

Table 5B. Total flux (p/s) measured 6 hours after intramuscular administration of nanoparticle compositions including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (He), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Compound 0.01 mpk Dose

60 9.48E+07

69 8.83E+06

108 4.60E+08

109 1.18E+08

1 10 1.21E+08

1 1 1 1.58E+08

1 12 9.47E+07

1 14 3.31E+06

121 1.06E+06

122 9.19E+07

123 1.08E+07

MC3 3.23E+07

[00463] The fluxes measured upon intravenous and intramuscular administration are compared in Table 6. Fluxes are presented as fold increase over that measured for MC3 formulations. Formulations including Compound 20 displayed the highest fold increase in Luc expression upon intramuscular administration, while those including Compounds 18 and 26 displayed the highest fold increase upon intravenous administration. Notably, the intravenous data included in Table 6 was measured at higher doses than the intramuscular data. Table 6. Relative flux measured after intravenous or intramuscular administration of nanoparticle compositions including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), id), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Fold increase in Luc expression relative to MC3 Intravenous Intramuscular Intramuscular

Compound pKa

(0.5 mpk dose) (0.01 mpk dose) (0.001 mpk dose)

3 6.72 2.24 1.13 0.51

18 6.56 3.23 2.01 n.d.

20 6.87 0.80 2.21 3.70

26 6.64 4.24 1.39 0.56

29 6.00 1.03 0.25 0.1 1

n.d.=not determined

Example 7: Cytokine production induced by sample formulations

[00464] The introduction of foreign material into a mammalian body induces an innate immune response that promotes cytokine production. Such immune responses to, for example, nanoparticle compositions including therapeutic and/or prophylactics, are undesirable. The induction of certain cytokines is thus measured to evaluate the efficacy of nanoparticle compositions. The concentrations of various cytokines in mice upon intravenous administration of nanoparticle compositions presented in Table 1A at a dosage of 0.5 mpk was measured at 6 hours. The standard MC3 formulation and a PBS control were also tested. As is evident in Table 7, IL-6 induction was highest for compositions including Compounds 1, 3, 9, 19, and 26, while IP- 10 induction was highest for compositions including Compounds 3, 4, 7, 20, and 26. IL-6 induction was lowest for compositions including Compounds 4, 11, 12, and 28. IP-10 induction was lowest for compositions including Compounds 10, 1 1, 12, 13, 15, 17, and 18. Table 7. Cytokine induction 6 hours after administration of nanoparticle compositions including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Compound IL-6 IP-10 Compound IL-6 IP-10

1 267.24 687.14 140 282.82 187.83

2 70.95 468.86 141 327.15 1072.04

3 282.88 2052.87 143 6.245 209.63

4 13.1375 2253.09 144 319.46 4220.55

5 94.07 487.16 MC3 124.42 504.90

6 136.18 316.01

7 116.35 4959.16

9 317.45 366.53

10 88.81 138.16

11 0.14 44.84

12 3.88 32.03

13 29.07 126.29

14 75.29 621.49

15 64.65 184.30

16 32.01 206.75

17 138.43 156.41

18 78.76 139.92

19 285.56 1468.94

20 126.83 2468.24

22 90.54 976.50

23 94.00 1015.95

24 163.53 1172.93

25 233.45 1194.13

26 273.56 2330.01

27 161.07 345.56

28 17.47 283.13

29 69.54 1362.81

30 152.51 1638.77

136 28.69 887.91

137 130.82 234.35

138 23.38 172.56

139 23.57 153.36 Example 8: Complement activation induced by sample formulations

[00465] Complement activation assists in the clearance of pathogens from an organism. As it is undesirable that a subject's body recognize a nanoparticle composition as a foreign invader, low complement system activation upon administration of such a composition is preferred. The complex sC5b-9 is a marker for the activation of the complement system. Thus, human cells were contacted in vitro with nanoparticle compositions according to Table 1A and were evaluated for sC5b-9 levels. Table 8 shows the fold increase in sC5b-9 levels relative to saline for nanoparticle compositions including Compounds 1, 6, 9, 18, 24, 25, 29, and 30.

Compositions including Compounds 6 and 18 somewhat increase sC5b-9 levels relative to saline, while compositions including Compounds 1, 9, 24, 29, and 30 slightly decrease sC5b-9 levels relative to saline.

Table 8. Fold increases in sC5b-9 levels upon administration of nanoparticle compositions including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Fold increase

Compound

versus saline

1 0.82

6 1.39

9 0.92

18 1.28

24 0.81

25 1.02

29 0.93

30 0.94

136 0.69

139 0.73

140 0.75

141 1.81

MC3 0.73

Example 9: Clinical chemistry and hematology

[00466] Sample formulations of nanoparticle compositions including different lipids were administered intravenously to rat at a dose of 2 mpk. The expression of various clinical markers was evaluated at 48 h post dose and compared to that induced by administration of MC3 formulations or phosphate buffered saline (PBS).

Table 9. Levels of clinical markers induced by administration of nanoparticle compositions including a compound of Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Concentration

Alanine Aspartate

Compound Neutrophils Lymphocytes Monocytes aminotransferase aminotransferase

3 53.5 87.5 3388.5 12051 2103

24 51.5 90 1790.5 14100 1834

25 52 124.5 1998 15924 2122

30 56 95 3195 10408.5 877

MC3 339 325 4962.5 19976 1429

PBS 55.5 108 920 8004 276

Example 10: Expression of hEPO induced by sample formulations

[00467] Sample formulations of nanoparticle compositions including different lipids are generally first evaluated according to Luc expression in vivo. The activity of several such compositions was further evaluated using an mRNA encoding hEPO. Nanoparticle

compositions including Compounds 6, 18, 25, 30, 108-1 12, 60, and 122, or MC3 were prepared according to Example 2. As shown in Tables 10 and IB supra, each composition had a similar particle size and encapsulation efficiency.

Table 10. Characteristics of nanoparticle compositions including compounds according to

Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Compound Formulation Size (nm) PDI EE (%)

Compound 6:DSPC:Chol:PEG-DMG

6 70.5 0.082 97.84

(50: 10:38.5 : 1.5)

Compound 18:DSPC:Chol:PEG- 18 78.6 0.095 97.34

DMG (50: 10:38.5: 1.5)

MC3 : D SPC : Choi : PEG-DMG

MC3 73.7 0.1 14 97.22

(50: 10:38.5 : 1.5)

[00468] The expression of hEPO and cytokine induction in mice intravenously administered a nanoparticle composition at a dose of 0.5 mpk were measured at 3, 6, and 24 hours. The resultant hEPO and cytokine levels are summarized in Table 11A. Compositions including Compounds 6 and 18 yielded higher hEPO concentrations than MC3 formulations at each time point. The expression of hEPO in mice intramuscularly administered a nanoparticle composition from Table IB at a dose of 0.01 mpk were measured at 3, 6, and 24 hours. The resultant hEPO levels are summarized in Table 1 IB. Compositions including Compounds 18, 25, 30, 108-112, 60, and 122 yielded higher hEPO concentrations than MC3 formulations at 6 hr time point, (see also Figure 9.)

Table 11A. Evaluation of nanoparticle compositions including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ha), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Cytokine expression hEPO expression (pg/ml)

(pg/ml)

Compound 6 h 24 h IP-10 (6 h) IL-6 (6 h)

6 2.31E+06 3.17E+06 1.11E+06 116.66 10.15 18 3.00E+06 3.38E+06 1.80E+06 299.93 10.16 MC3 1.57E+06 1.83E+06 0.81E+06 117.94 19.85

Table 11B. Evaluation of nanoparticle compositions including compounds according to

Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

„ , Fold increase in hEPO

concentration relative to MC3

18 8.6

25 7.1

30 9.2

108 3.7

109 5.3

110 1.2

111 10.6

112 1.6

60 11.2

122 10.7

MC3 1

[00469] Table 12 compares the nanoparticle compositions including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) to the compositions including MC3 on the basis of expression and flux levels. As is evident in Table 12, both Compounds 6 and 18 outperform MC3 in both hEPO expression and average total flux. Thus, these lipids may be useful in nanoparticle composition therapeutics. Table 12. Comparison of nanoparticle compositions including compounds according to

Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Compound

Compound 6 MC3

18

Average hEPO concentration

3.17xl0 6 3.38xl0 6 1.83xl0 6

(pg/ml, 6 h)

Fold increase in hEPO

1.73 1.85 1

concentration relative to MC3

Average total flux (6 h, ffluc) 7.60xl0 9 2.13xl0 10 6.59xl0 9

Fold increase in average total

1.15 3.23 1

flux relative to MC3

Example 11 : Expression of hEPO induced by sample formulations in rat and residual lipid levels in the liver

[00470] The expression of hEPO and cytokine induction in rats intravenously administered a nanoparticle composition at a dose of 2.0 mpk was measured at 6 h.

[00471] At 48 h liver tissue was harvested for lipid quantification. To pre-weighed tissues, Milli-Q water was added (900 water per 100 mg tissue). Tissues were homogenized using an Omni probe homogenizer until uniform. 50 of samples and matrix calibration standards were aliquoted into a 96-well plate. 50 of blank matrix for matrix blanks and control blanks were aliquoted. 400 μί ^ IS spiking solution were manually added to all samples except matrix blanks. 400 μί ^ of 50:50 ACNTPA were manually added to matrix blanks. The plate was covered and the samples vortexed and centrifuged for 5 minutes at > 3000 rpm. 200 μΐ ^ of the samples were transferred into a clean 96-well plate for analysis. Samples were analyzed on a Waters Acquity UPLC using a Higgins Analytical Clipeus C8 column (5 μΜ, 30 x 2.1 mm) and a gradient of either 70-95% or 60-95% (Mobile Phase A: 5 mM ammonium formate in 50:50: 1 FhO MeOH: formic acid; Mobile Phase B: 5mM ammonium formate in 100: 1 MeOH:formic acid) over 1.3 min at 1.2 mL/min (column temperature 55 °C). Detection was based on electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive mode using a Sciex API5500 Mass Spectrometer. Table 13. Expression of hEPO induced by administration of nanoparticle compositions including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) in rat, 6 h, 2 mpk.

Compound hEPO expression (pg/mL)

3 1.74E+07

18 9.96E+06

24 1.44E+07

25 3.05E+07

30 1.63E+07

MC3 1.33E+07

Table 14. Cytokine induction 6 hours after administration of hEPO nanoparticle compositions including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Compound IP-10 (pg/mL)

3 542

18 517.3

24 323.5

25 533.5

30 214.5

MC3 688.3

Table 15. Liver levels in rats administered compositions including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) after 48 h.

Compound % remaining dose in liver,

3 14.2

18 <1

24 <1

25 1.3

30 <1

MC3 74

[00472] The expression of hEPO in rats intravenously administered a nanoparticle composition at a dose of 0.2 mpk or 2.0 mpk was measured at 6 hours. Table 16 summarize the ratio of hEPO expression levels using various nanoparticle compositions as compared to the hEPO expression level using MC3 formulation and the lipid levels in the liver measured 48 hours after administration, as described above. Tables 17 and 18 summarize the lipid levels in the liver and spleen measured 48 hours after administration of Compounds 28, 33, 53, and 54. Liver and spleen levels represent the average values calculated for 3 rats in each group. As is shown in Tables 17 and 18, less than 10% of Compounds 28, 33, 53, and 54 remained in the liver after 48 hours, while greater than 60% of MC3 remained.

Table 16. Ratio of expression of hEPO and lipid levels remaining in liver after 48 h.

*Assuming 300g rat and 15 g liver

Table 17. Liver levels in rats administered 0.2 mpk doses of compositions including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) after 48 h.

Liver level Spleen level

Compound

(ng/g) (ng/g)

28 49.6 268

33 n.d. 115

53 4810 1181 Liver level Spleen level

Compound

(ng/g) (ng/g)

54 6067 6357

MC3 25033 9440

Table 18. Liver levels in rats administered 2 mpk doses of compositions including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) after 48 h.

Liver level Spleen level

Compound

(ng/g) (ng/g)

28 665 551

33 103 287

53 47033 201333

54 56100 49367

MC3 285333 129000

Table 19A summarizes the hEPO expression, IP-10 induction, liver and spleen levels, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) measured upon

intravenous administration of formulations including Compounds 48, 49, and 50 to rat at 0.2 and 2 mpk and hEPO mR A. hEPO concentrations were measured 6 hours after administration, while cytokine induction and liver and spleen levels were measured 48 hours after

administration. hEPO and IP-10 concentrations are presented in pg/ml, while liver levels are provided in ng/g. ALT and AST levels are presented in international units.

Table 19A. hEPO expression, IP-10 induction, and liver levels measured after administration of compositions including compounds according to one of formulae (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Compound 48 Compound 49 Compound 50 MC3

0.2 mpk 2 mpk 0.2 mpk 2 mpk 0.2 mpk 2 mpk 0.2 mpk 2 mpk hEPO

expression 4.06E+06 3.57E+07 3.17E+06 3.04E+07 2.62E+06 2.81E+07 7.68E+06 9.29E+06

(pg/ml)

IP- 10

induction 134 970 66 932 20 1065 2 596

(pg/ml)

Liver

level 5448 34520 6490 61400 5822 79200 1 1300 140520

(ng/g) Compound 48 Compound 49 Compound 50 MC3

0.2 mpk 2 mpk 0.2 mpk 2 mpk 0.2 mpk 2 mpk 0.2 mpk 2 mpk

Spleen

level 0.31 0.21 0.36 0.37 0.22 0.17 0.74 0.65

(ng/g)

ALT 59.6 66.0 54.0 77.8 59.2 78.8 63.6 79.6

AST 140.8 131.2 99.4 132.4 143.2 158.4 134.8 139.0

Table 19B. hEPO expression and liver levels measured after administration of compositions including compounds according to one of formulas (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (He), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Example 12: Dose response of sample formulations in rats

[00473] The expression of hEPO induced by intravenous administration to rats of nanoparticle compositions at various doses was measured at 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 48 hour time points. Figures 3-6 respectively summarize the hEPO expression measured upon intravenous administration of formulations including Compounds 26, 18, 25, and MC3 to rat at various doses. The lipid levels of Compound 26 in the liver after 48 hours were about 19%.

[00474] Figure 7 shows the area under the curve for compositions including Compounds 18,

25, and 26 and MC3 at different dosages: 0.005 mpk, 0.01 mpk, 0.025 mpk, 0.05 mpk, 0.1 mpk,

0.25 mpk, 0.5 mpk, 1 mpk or 2 mpk.

Example 13: Pharmacokinetics of sample formulations in rats

[00475] The expression of hEPO and lipid levels in the liver and spleen in rats intravenously administered a nanoparticle composition at a dose of 0.2 mpk was measured at various time points. Compounds 18 and 25 were selected for comparison with MC3. Lipids were formulated according to the standard MC3 formulation described above. Rats were administered intravenously a single 0.2 mpk dose and expression monitored at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours after administration.

Table 20. Expression of hEPO induced by administration of nanoparticle compositions in rat, 6 h, 0.2 mpk.

hEPO expression Compound Compound

MC3

(pg/mL) 18 25

0.25 h 20227 0 0

0.5 h 20743 19553 42457

l h 194353 434299 93720

2 h 238107 2042807 524093

4 h 514807 3176560 601307

8 h 915320 2631633 1536833

24 h 412051 869374 703619

48 h 52361 103089 64687

Table 21. Lipid level in liver induced by administration of nanoparticle compositions in rat, 6 h, 0.2 mpk.

Compound Compound

Lipid level (ng/g) MC3

18 25

0.25 h 5374 12037 13180 Compound Compound

Lipid level (ng/g) MC3

18 25

0.5 h 6023 16447 20500

l h 6053 17900 16777

2 h 2037 1 1733 25967

4 h 839 6687 24730

8 h 296 2357 32633

24 h 5 199 33000

48 h 5374 12037 13180

[00476] Table 22. Lipid level in spleen induced by administration of nanoparticle compositions in rat, 6 h, 0.2 mpk.

Compound Compound

Lipid level (ng/g) MC3

18 25

0.25 h 1230 4037 4100

0.5 h 2017 6880 6237

l h 3213 8590 4197

2 h 3070 13733 8613

4 h 3770 20400 1 1920

8 h 1345 10787 21200

24 h 271 2023 19067

48 h 92 1547 1 1563

Example 14: Optimization of lipid :therapeutic agent ratios

[00477] The relative amounts of lipid component and therapeutic and/or prophylactic in a nanoparticle composition can be optimized according to considerations of efficacy and tolerability. For compositions including an RNA as a therapeutic and/or prophylactic, the N:P ratio can serve as a useful metric.

[00478] As the N:P ratio of a nanoparticle composition controls both expression and tolerability, nanoparticle compositions with low N:P ratios and strong expression are desirable. N:P ratios vary according to the ratio of lipids to RNA in a nanoparticle composition. Thus, the wt/wt ratio of total lipid to RNA is varied between 10: 1, 15: 1, 20: 1, 32: 1, 40: 1, 50: 1, and 60: 1 for a lipid formulation including about 50 mol % of a compound according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (lie), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III), about 10 mol % phospholipid (e.g. , DOPE or DSPC), about 38.5 mol % structural lipid (e.g. , cholesterol), and about 1.5 mol % PEG lipid (e.g., PEG-DMG). N:P ratios are calculated for each nanoparticle composition assuming a single protonated nitrogen atom. The encapsulation efficiency (EE), size, and polydispersity index of each composition are also measured.

[00479] Generally, compositions with higher total lipid:R A ratios yield smaller particles with higher encapsulation efficiencies, both of which are desirable. However, the N:P ratio for such formulations generally exceeds 4. Current standards in the art such as the MC3 formulation described above have N:P ratios of 5.67. Thus, a balance between the N:P ratio, size, and encapsulation efficiency should be struck.

[00480] In order to explore the efficacy of nanoparticle compositions with different N:P ratios, the expression of luciferase (Luc) or human erythropoietin (hEPO) in mice after low (0.05 mg/kg) or high (0.5 mg/kg) doses of intravenously administered nanoparticle compositions is examined. The concentration of Luc or hEPO expressed is measured 3, 6, and/or 24 hours after administration.

Example 15: Optimization of content of a compound according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III)

[00481] As smaller particles with higher encapsulation efficiencies are generally desirable, the relative amounts of various elements in lipid components of nanoparticle compositions are optimized according to these parameters.

[00482] A compound according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) is selected for optimization. The relative amount of the compound according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) is varied between 30 mol % and 60 mol % in compositions including DOPE or DSPC as phospholipids to determine the optimal amount of the compound according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (He), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) in the formulations. Formulations are prepared using a standardized process with a water to ethanol ratio in the lipid-mR A solution of 3 : 1 and a rate of injection of the lipid solution into the mRNA solution of 12 mL/min on a NanoAssemblr microfluidic based system. This method induces nano-precipitation and particle formation. Alternative processes including, but not limited to, T-junction or direct injection, may also be used to achieve the same nano-precipitation.

[00483] Formulations producing the smallest particles with the highest encapsulation efficiencies are generally preferred, however larger or smaller particle sizes may be desirable based on a given application (e.g. , based on the fenestration size of a target organ).

Compositions are also evaluated for their Luc or hEPO expression levels and cytokine profiles. Example 16: Optimization of phospholipid

[00484] The relative amount of phospholipid in a lipid component of a nanoparticle composition is varied to further optimize the formulation. A compound according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) is selected for use in the nanoparticle composition and DOPE and DSPC are selected as phospholipids. Additional phospholipids can also be evaluated. Nanoparticle compositions are prepared with the relative phospholipid content varying between 0 mol % and 30 mol %. Compositions are evaluated for their size, encapsulation efficiency, Luc or hEPO expression levels, and cytokine profiles.

Example 17: Optimization of structural lipid

[00485] The relative amount of structural lipid in a lipid component of a nanoparticle composition is varied to further optimize the formulation. A compound according to Formula

(I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) is selected for use in the nanoparticle composition and cholesterol is selected as a structural lipid. Additional structural lipids can also be evaluated. Nanoparticle compositions are prepared with the relative structural lipid content varying between 18.5 mol % and 48.5 mol %. Compositions are evaluated for their size, encapsulation efficiency, Luc or hEPO expression levels, and cytokine profiles.

Example 18: Optimization of PEG lipid

[00486] The relative amount of PEG lipid in a lipid component of a nanoparticle composition is varied to further optimize the formulation. A compound according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) is selected for use in the nanoparticle composition and PEG-DMG is selected as a PEG lipid. Additional PEG lipids can also be evaluated. Nanoparticle compositions are prepared with the relative PEG lipid content varying between 0 mol % and 10 mol %. Compositions are evaluated for their size, encapsulation efficiency, Luc or hEPO expression levels, and cytokine profiles.

[00487] Exemplary formulations useful in the optimization of nanoparticle composition formulations are presented in Table 23.

Table 23. Exemplary formulations including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB),

(II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Composition (mol %) Components

40:20:38.5 : 1.5 Compound : Phospholipid : Choi : PEG-DMG

45 : 15 :38.5 : 1.5 Compound : Phospholipid : Choi : PEG-DMG

50: 10:38.5 : 1.5 Compound : Phospholipid : Choi : PEG-DMG

55 :5 :38.5 : 1.5 Compound : Phospholipid : Choi : PEG-DMG Composition (mol %) Components

60:5:33.5:1.5 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

45:20:33.5:1.5 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

50:20:28.5:1.5 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

55:20:23.5:1.5 Compound : Phospholipid : Choi: PEG-DMG

60:20:18.5:1.5 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

40:15:43.5:1.5 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

50:15:33.5:1.5 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

55:15:28.5:1.5 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

60:15:23.5:1.5 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

40:10:48.5:1.5 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

45:10:43.5:1.5 Compound: Phospholipid : Choi: PEG-DMG

55:10:33.5:1.5 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

60:10:28.5:1.5 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

40:5:53.5:1.5 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

45:5:48.5:1.5 Compound Phospholipid : Choi: PEG-DMG

50:5:43.5:1.5 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

40:20:40:0 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

45:20:35:0 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

50:20:30:0 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

55:20:25:0 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

60:20:20:0 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

40:15:45:0 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

45:15:40:0 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

50:15:35:0 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

55:15:30:0 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

60:15:25:0 Compound Phospholipid : Choi :PEG-DMG

40:10:50:0 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

45:10:45:0 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

50:0:48.5:1.5 Compound: Phospholipid : Choi: PEG-DMG

50:10:40:0 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

55:10:35:0 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG

60:10:30:0 Compound:Phospholipid:Chol:PEG-DMG Example 19: Optimization of particle sizes

[00488] The fenestration sizes for different bodily organs often vary; for example, the kidney is known to have a smaller fenestration size than the liver. Thus, targeting delivery of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic (e.g. , specifically delivering) to a particular organ or group of organs may require the administration of nanoparticle compositions with different particle sizes. In order to investigate this effect, nanoparticle compositions with formulations such as those included in Table 23 are prepared with a variety of particle sizes using a Nanoassemblr instrument. Nanoparticle compositions include an RNA encoding Luc. Each differently sized nanoparticle composition is subsequently administered to mice to evaluate the effect of particle size on delivery selectivity. Luc expression in two or more organs or groups of organs can be measured using bioluminescence to evaluate the relative expression in each organ.

Example 20: Administration following pretreatment

[00489] Administration of nanoparticle compositions to subjects can result in inflammation, infusion related reactions, and other undesirable effects indicative of low tolerability. These effects can be attributed to undesirable immunoactivity.

[00490] In order to combat negative effects, nanoparticle compositions are co-administered with one or more substances (e.g., co-medications or additional therapeutic and/or

prophylactics) to subjects. Potentially useful additional therapeutic and/or prophylactics include steroids (e.g. , corticosteroids), anti-histamines, HI receptor blockers, H2 receptor blockers, antiinflammatory compounds, statins, BTK inhibitors, S 1P1 agonists, glucocorticoid receptor modulators (GRMs), and estradiols. Non-human primates are pretreated with one or more additional therapeutic agents selected from dexamethasone and acetaminophen. The additional therapeutic agent is administered either 24 hours, 1 hour, or both 24 hours and 1 hour before administration of a nanoparticle composition. Sample protocol are summarized in Table 24. Cytokine profiles, inflammation, and other parameters are measured and compared to evaluate the effectiveness of pretreatment.

Table 24. Sample protocol for pretreatment study.

Pretreatment Additional Therapeutic Agent(s)

Group

Time Administered

1 None None

2 24 hours Dexamethasone

3 24 hours Acetaminophen

4 24 hours Dexamethasone and Acetaminophen

5 1 hour Dexamethasone

6 1 hour Acetaminophen

7 1 hour Dexamethasone and Acetaminophen

24 hours and 1

8 Dexamethasone

hour

24 hours and 1

9 Acetaminophen

hour

24 hours and 1

10 Dexamethasone and Acetaminophen

hour

[00491] For example, a useful therapeutic treatment course may involve administering an additional therapeutic and/or prophylactic both the day before and the day of (one hour prior) to administration of a nanoparticle composition at a dose level of 1.3 mpk. Additional therapeutic and/or prophylactics can be formulated for delivery by a variety of different routes. For example, dexamethasone may be delivered orally. In general, additional therapeutic and/or prophylactics are administered at clinically approved or typical dosage levels.

Example 21: Administration to non-human primates

[00492] The tolerability and efficacy of nanoparticle compositions to non-human primates was evaluated in Cynomolgus monkeys. Monkeys were administered an optimized nanoparticle composition including an mRNA encoding hEPO once weekly for four weeks. The levels of hEPO protein, mRNA, and cytokine profiles were measured using ELISA-based techniques before and 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 120 hours after each administration.

[00493] The effects of pretreatment to non-human primates were evaluated using a standard MC3 formulation including an mRNA encoding hEPO. The study design is summarized in Table 25. Male monkeys were administered the nanoparticle composition once weekly for four weeks at a dose rate of 5 ml/kg/h and were pretreated with either methotrexate or

dexamethasone. Table 25. Protocol for pretreatment study in Cynomolgus monkeys.

Additional

Dose Dose

Therapeutic Number of

Group Test Material level concentration

Agent monkeys (mg/kg) (mg/ml)

Administered

1 MC3 0 None 0 3

hEPO mR A in

2 0.3 None 0.06 3

MC3

hEPO mRNA in

0.3 Methotrexate 0.06

MC3

hEPO mRNA in

0.3 Dexamethasone 0.06

MC3

[00494] Results of the pretreatment study are shown in Figure 1. As shown, in the absence of any pretreatment, maximal expression levels decreased nearly 70% over the course of the study. Methotrexate did not confer any particular beneficial effect. However, pre-administration of dexamethasone resulted in increased protein expression compared to treatment courses not involving pretreatment. Notably, minimal decrease in plasma/serum protein expression was observed over time for animals pretreated with dexamethasone. These results suggest that pretreatment of corticosteroids such as dexamethasone improves the tolerability and efficacy of nanoparticle compositions containing, for example, a compound according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

[00495] The tolerability and efficacy of nanoparticle compositions to non-human primates was also investigated using a sample formulation including Compound 18. The formulation was prepared according to the standard MC3 formulation described above and included an hEPO mRNA. Primates were administered a single dose of 0.05 (Group 1), 0.3 (Group 2), or 1.0 (Group 3) mpk via intravenous infusion for 60 minutes. Three primates were administered each dose. Expression of hEPO was measured prior to dosing and at 2, 6, 24, 48, and 96 hours post- treatment (Table 26). Pharmacokinetic parameters including Tmax, Cmax, and the AUC were also determined and are presented in Table 27. Table 28 includes levels of indicators of complement activation, while Table 29 includes cytokine induction data.

Table 26. hEPO expression measured at various time points upon administration of nanoparticle compositions to non-human primates. hEPO

Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 concentration

(0.05 mpk) (0.3 mpk) (1.0 mpk) (pg/ml)

Predose 1000 1000 1000

2 h 142588 363272 312006

6 h 379362 341285 502663

24 h 103055 148789 467598

48 h 25382 57095 175953

96 h 2084 6095 24795

Table 27. Pharmacokinetic parameters measured upon administration of nanoparticle compositions to non-human primates.

Group 1 Group 2 Group 3

(0.05 mpk) (0.3 mpk) (1.0 mpk)

Mean 3.79E+05 3.84E+05 5.51E+05

SD 2.64E+05 2.45E+05 6.24E+04

(pg/ml)

cv% 69.7 63.8 11.3

Mean 7.72E+06 1.02E+07 2.32E+07

AUCall

SD 6.26E+06 7.34E+06 4.20E+06

(hrpg/ml)

cv% 81.1 72.3 18.1

Table 28. Complement activation indicators measured at various time points upon administration of nanoparticle compositions to non-human primates.

Group 1 Group 2 Group 3

Time point

(0.05 mpk) (0.3 mpk) (1.0 mpk)

Predose 10600 9827 12792

2 h 19236 42897 75936

6 h 12385 32436 51996

24 h 11596 19721 35843

Day 5 11945 16207 19101

Predose 1375 1461 1529 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3

Time point

(0.05 mpk) (0.3 mpk) (1.0 mpk)

2 h 5341 5356 8849

Bb

6 h 3037 7157 12820 fragment

24 h 1496 3680 8601 (ng/ml)

Day 5 1273 2400 2834

Predose 169 157 238

2 h 1959 393 801

C5b9

6 h 786 1333 2928 (ng/ml)

24 h 265 614 4798

Day 5 163 405 534

Table 29. Cytokine induction measured at various time points upon administration of nanoparticle compositions to non-human primates.

Group 1 Group 2 Group 3

Time point

(0.05 mpk) (0.3 mpk) (1.0 mpk)

Predose 18.8 18.8 18.8

2 h 18.8 18.8 35.8

IFNg

6 h 18.8 18.8 38.9 (pg/ml)

24 h 18.8 18.8 18.8

Day 5 39.3 18.8 18.8

Predose 18.8 18.8 18.8

2 h 18.8 18.8 18.8

IFNa

6 h 18.8 18.8 18.8 (pg/ml)

24 h 18.8 18.8 18.8

Day 5 18.8 18.8 18.8

Predose 18.8 18.8 18.8

2 h 18.8 18.8 33.4

IL-lb

6 h 18.8 18.8 18.8

(pg/ml)

24 h 18.8 18.8 18.8

Day 5 18.8 18.8 18.8

Predose 18.8 18.8 18.8

IL-6

2 h 18.8 191 834 (pg/ml)

6 h 18.8 33.0 398 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3

Time point

(0.05 mpk) (0.3 mpk) (1.0 mpk)

24 h 18.8 18.8 31.4

Day 5 18.8 18.8 18.8

Predose 192 168 235

2 h 342 3018 4221

MCP-1

6 h 543 2011 3945

(pg/ml)

24 h 236 404 1444

Day 5 232 21 1 225

Predose 18.8 18.8 18.8

2 h 18.8 38.2 18.8

TNF-a

6 h 41.5 32.5 18.8

(pg/ml)

24 h 17.6 59.6 46.2

Day 5 63.5 18.8 41.9

[00496] In general, the formulation was tolerated similarly to the MC3 formulation with dose- response effects. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increased in the high dose group on Day 2 and returned to baseline by Day 5. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels did not increase, however. In general, lower doses were better tolerated. High doses induced body temperature elevation and hunched posture, which is similar to the behavior observed for primates administered higher doses of MC3 formulations. White blood cell counts were slightly elevated in animals in the high dose group, however all groups showed a marked increase in reticulocyte counts on Day 5, indicating a strong pharmacological response. Complement activation and cytokine release (IL-6 and MCP-1) were dose-related and reversible within 24 hours for the low and mid-dose groups and by Day 5 in the high dose group. hEPO levels were higher than those measured upon administration of comparable doses of MC3 formulations to non-human primates.

Example 22: Administration to non-human primates

[00497] The tolerability and efficacy of nanoparticle compositions to non-human primates was also investigated using sample formulations including Compounds 18, 25, 26, and 48 and MC3 to determine if these compounds are differentiated in terms of protein expression. The formulations were prepared according to the standard MC3 formulation described above and included an hEPO mRNA. Table 30 includes details of the compositions tested, while Table 31 summarizes the relative expression of Luc and hEPO mRNA in mice and rats. Expression was measured 6 hours after administration.

Table 30. Characteristics of nanoparticle compositions including compounds according to

Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Zeta

Size Osmolality

Compound PDI EE (%) pH potential

(nm) (mOsm/kg)

(mV)

18 102.6 0.230 85.56 7.64 312 -3.53

25 98.8 0.230 87.01 7.60 304 -3.88

26 79.2 0.120 95.60 7.54 305 -3.73

48 70.6 0.176 91.92 7.58 311 -3.61

MC3 106.0 0.220 91.66 7.52 318 -3.64

n.d. = not determined

Table 31. Comparison of nanoparticle compositions including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Compound Compound Compound Compound

MC3

18 25 26 48

Lipid MC3 Luc expression

3.23 1.89 4.24 10.0

(0.5 mpk dose to mouse)

Lipid/MC3 hEPO

expression n.d. 2.41 n.d. 5.39

(0.2 mpk dose to rat)

Lipid7MC3 hEPO

expression 0.81 2.13 4.95 3.84

(2 mpk dose to rat)

% lipid remaining in liver

0.018 1.32 20 11.4 87 after 48 hours

n.d.=not determined

[00498] Figure 2 shows the hEPO mRNA expression measured after intravenous administration of a 0.01 mpk dose with 60 minutes infusion to naive cynomolgus monkeys. As is evident in the figure, expression was highest 6 hours post administration for all formulations tested, and was highest for those formulations including Compound 18.

[00499] Table 32 summarizes pharmacokinetic parameters measured upon administration of 0.01 mpk doses of formulations to non-human primates. Table 32. Pharmacokinetic parameters measured upon administration of formulations including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (llf), (llg), or (III) to non-human primates.

T max AUC

c, max (ng/mL) AUC 0 . t (hr*n g/mL)

Lipid (hr) Lipid/MC3

Mean Mean SD CV% Mean SD CV% Ratio

MC3 8 14.1 2.36 16.8 284 97.4 34.2 1.0

Compound

8 91 34.7 38.1 1690 1060 63.1 6.0 18

Compound

6 56.9 15.1 26.5 930 249 26.8 3.3 25

Compound

6 28.2 17.7 62.7 365 302 82.7 1.3 26

Compound

6 17.7 9.49 53.6 245 117 47.9 0.9 48

Example 23: Administration to non-human primates

[00500] Results of hEPO expression studies were validated using a standard MC3 formulation and a nanoparticle composition containing Compound 18 including an mRNA encoding an anti-hemagglutinin (anti-HA) antibody. Cynomolgus monkeys were administered a single dose of 0.1 mpk or 0.3 mpk of a nanoparticle composition containing Compound 18 (see Table 33; prepared according to Example 2) including an mRNA encoding anti-HA antibody via intravenous infusion for 60 minutes.

Table 33

[00501] The results of anti-HA (anti-hemagglutinin) antibody expression are shown in Table 34 and in Figure 11.

Table 34

[00502] A five times higher protein expression was observed with the nanoparticle composition containing Compound 18 versus the MC3 counterpart, and a clear dose response between 0.1 and 0.3 mpk with Compound 18 was found (e.g., 0.3 mpk AUC is about three times of that from 0.1 mpk dose).

Example 24: Methods of treating diseases and disorders

[00503] A nanoparticle composition formulation having high tolerability (e.g., provoking a low immune response) and efficacy (e.g. , facilitating efficient and effective encapsulation of a therapeutic and/or prophylactic and delivery of the agent to a desired target) is selected for use. A therapeutic and/or prophylactic for formulation with the nanoparticle composition is selected for use based on the condition of a subject. For example, an mRNA encoding a vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) may be selected to promote angiogenesis to treat atherosclerotic renovascular disease, while an siRNA capable of knocking down apolipoprotein B (apoB) may be selected to treat a metabolic disease or disorder such as dyslipidemia.

[00504] A subject in need of treatment is pretreated with a small dose of dexamethasone one or more hours prior to treatment with the nanoparticle composition. The nanoparticle composition is preferably administered to the subject intravenously, however intramuscular, intradermal, subcutaneous, intranasal, or inhalation administration routes are also acceptable. Treatment is provided in a dose of about 0.001 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg of therapeutic and/or prophylactic and is repeated daily, weekly, biweekly, or monthly according to needs of the subject.

Example 25: Subcutaneous administration

[00505] The effect of the lipids of the disclosure on protein expression upon subcutaneous administration was studied. Formulations containing lipids of the disclosure and an mRNA expressing luciferase or hEPO were administered subcutaneously to female CD-I mice at 0.5 mpk. Expression levels were obtained via whole body luminescent imaging (BLI) at 3, 6 and 24 hours after injection and expression levels in liver, spleen and at the injection site were evaluated ex vivo after 24 hours. Reverse esters were found to outperform MC3, e.g. by a factor of 6.5 (Compound 30). See also Tables 35 and 36, and Figures 19 and 27.

[00506] Table 35 summarizes the luciferase expression levels using various nanoparticle compositions of the disclosure, and the luciferase expression levels using various nanoparticle compositions of the disclosure as compared to the luciferase expression level using an MC3 formulation after subcutaneous administration, as described above.

[00507] Table 36 summarizes the hEPO expression levels using various nanoparticle compositions of the disclosure as compared to the hEPO expression level using a formulation containing MC3 or Compound 18, following subcutaneous administration, as described above.

Table 35. Luciferase expression levels measured after subcutaneous administration of compositions including compounds according to one of formulas (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III).

Lipid AUC Lipid/MC3

(p/s)*h AUC ratio

20 6.8926E+10 4.02

24 8.9281E+10 5.21

25 2.9156E+10 1.70

30 1.0932E+1 1 6.38

72 3.4417E+10 2.01

75 5.2262E+10 3.05

1 10 1.2968E+10 0.76

1 12 2.0339E+10 1.19

1 13 7.3721E+10 4.30

122 5.8576E+10 3.42

MC3 1.7127E+10 1

Table 36. Expression of hEPO upon subcutaneous administration of formulations including compounds according to Formula (I), (IA), (IB), (II), (Ila), (lib), (lie), (lid), (He), (Ilf), (Ilg), or (III) relative to administration of formulations including MC3 or Compound 18.

Cpd Lipid/MC3 ratio Lipid/Compound 18

ratio

6 hr. AUC 6 hr. AUC

18 2.63 1.88 1 1

30 6.53 6.38 1.35 1.27

96 1.98 1.72

98 0.69 0.69 151 0.73 0.71

163 0.99 0.96

164 0.50 0.56

165 0.63 0.64

Example 26: Development of novel amino lipids with improved endosomal escape and sustained efficiency and safety in non-human primates

Materials and Methods

[00508] mRNA synthesis: The mRNA used in the experiments described herein was synthesized in vitro by T7 polymerase-mediated transcription from a linearized DNA template, which incorporates 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs), including a poly-A tail. The mRNA was purified and re-suspended in a citrate buffer at the desired concentration. A donor methyl group S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) was added to methylated capped RNA (cap-0), resulting in a cap-1 to increase mRNA translation efficiency.

[00509] Lipid Synthesis: The lipid compounds tested in the experiments described herein were synthesized as described in Example 1.

[00510] Preparation of LNP formulations: Lipids were dissolved in ethanol at molar ratios of 50: 10:38.5: 1.5 (ionizable lipid: DSPC: cholesterol:PEG-lipid). The lipid mixture was combined with a 6.25 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5) containing mRNA at a ratio of 3: 1 (aqueous: ethanol) using a microfluidic mixer. Formulations were dialyzed against phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) in dialysis cassettes for at least 18 hours. Formulations were concentrated via centrifugal filtration, passed through a 0.22-μπι filter and stored at 4 ° C until use. All formulations were tested for particle size, RNA encapsulation, and endotoxin and were found to be between 80 nm-100 nm in size, with greater than 90% encapsulation and <lEU/mL endotoxin. The apparent pK a of the LNP formulation was determined via a TNS assay.

[00511] TNS Assay: A master buffer stock (10 mM sodium phosphate, 10 mM sodium borate, 10 mM sodium citrate, 150 mM sodium chloride) was prepared and used to make buffers at various pH values for determining the apparent pK a of the LNP formulations. Using sodium hydroxide (1 M) and hydrochloric acid (1 M), 21 unique buffers were prepared from the master buffer stock at pH values between about 3 and 12. Next, a stock of 300 μΜ 6-(p-Toluidino)-2- naphthalene sulfonic acid sodium salt (TNS reagent) in DMSO was prepared and the LNP was mixed with the desired formulation buffer at a concentration of 0.04 mg/mL mRNA. This assay has been validated in lx PBS and 20 mM Tris w/ 8% sucrose buffer. The buffer solutions at various pH values were added to a 96-well plate in triplicate for each pH. To each well was added 3.26 μΐ ^ of LNP sample at a mRNA concentration of 0.04 mg/mL and 2.0 μΐ ^ of 300 μΜ TNS reagent solution. After careful mixing, the resulting fluorescence values were read for each plate to create a sigmoidal plot of the fluorescence values vs. buffer pH. The log of the inflection point of this curve is the apparent pK a of the LNP formulation.

In vivo studies

[00512] LNP administration to animals: mRNA-LNPs diluted in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were injected intravenously (5 mL/kg) into female CD-I female mice (18 to 22 g in body weight) and male Sprague-Dawley rats (225-250 g in body weight) via the tail vein using 29 g, 3/1 Occ insulin syringes (mice) or 27 g, 1 mL syringes (rats) after gentle warming of the animals using a heat lamp for 3 minutes.

[00513] Whole body and ex vivo organ bioluminescent imaging of mice: CD-I mice were injected 15 minutes prior to the imaging timepoint intraperitoneally (IP) with 200 Xenolight D-luciferin K+ salt, diluted in PBS just prior to use to a concentration of 15 mg/mL.. Ex vivo imaging of organs was completed within 25 minutes of luciferin administration. All images were quantified by region of interest for total flux.

[00514] Blood collection and analysis for hEPO. Blood was collected from mice or rats via the tail vein and hEPO concentrations were determined using a hEPO ELISA assay.

[00515] NHP studies: Nonhuman primate studies were conducted using naive cynomolgus monkeys (cynos), 2-4 years old, weighing 2-6 kg. No treatment randomization or blinding methods were used for any of the animal studies. Sample sizes were determined by the resource equation method. For injection, mRNA-LNPs in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were administered by 60-minute intravenous infusion using a temporary indwelling catheter inserted in a peripheral vein.

[00516] hEPO ELISA for NHP samples _Human Epo levels were measured using a human erythropoietin immunoassay. Cytokines levels were measured using a non-human primate cytokine kit.

[00517] Human IgG analysis for NHP samples: A 10.0-μί matrix aliquot is transferred to a low protein binding 96-well plate. A 25.0-μί aliquot of the working internal standard solution is added, and the sample aliquot is diluted with loading buffer. Human IgG and its internal standard are isolated using Protein A magnetic beads. After washing, the captured proteins are denatured using Rapigest, reduced using DTT, alkylated using iodoacetic acid, and digested with trypsin. The final extract is analyzed via HPLC with MS/MS detection using positive ion electrospray. A linear, 1 /concentration 2 weighted, least-squares regression algorithm is used to quantitate unknown samples.

[00518] Serum ALT and AST levels: Samples were analyzed using a Modular Analytics analyzer.

[00519] Serum C5b9 levels: C5b9 sample analysis was performed using an ELISA method. The kit used was Human C5b-9 ELISA Set and Reagent Set B from BD Bioscience. Study samples were analyzed in singlicate diluted 1/100.

[00520] bDNA for measurement of mRNA levels: mRNA sample analysis (bDNA method) was performed using the QuantiGene® 2.0 Reagent System kit from Affymetrix. Study samples were lysed prior to analysis using the QuantiGene Sample Processing Kit (Blood

samples). Study samples were analyzed in duplicate diluted between 1/100 and 1/1250000.

[00521] Quantification of Lipid by LC-MS/MS: Liver samples were homogenized following addition of 19 eq. (w/v) of water (DF=20). Protein was precipitated and analyzed against calibration standards prepared in matching blank. Chromatographic separation and quantification was accomplished with a LC-MS/MS System. Samples were injected and separated via HPLC A triple-quadrupole MS/MS system operated in positive ion mode was used for signal detection.

[00522] Metabolite Identification: Compound 18 (10 μΜ) was incubated with human plasma (29.0 mg protein/incubation) in incubation mixtures (200 final incubation volume) that consisted of 50/50 v/v neat plasma (undiluted)/substrate solution in 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.4). The plasma was obtained from male and female donors and contained K2EDTA anticoagulant. Reactions were started by addition of the substrate solution to human plasma and were stopped at four designated time points (0, 30, 60 and 90 min) by the addition of 600 of stop reagent (acetonitrile). Stopped incubation samples were centrifuged (e.g., 10,000 χ g for 10 min at 10 °C) and the supernatant fractions were analyzed by LC-MS/MS to characterize the metabolites formed from compound 18. Additional incubations were performed with the positive control procaine (5 μΜ) to establish competency of the test system. Samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS.

[00523] Microscopy-based assay for quantifying endosomal escape efficiency:

Fluorescently labeled LNPs (0.1% Rhodamine DOPE) encapsulating Firefly Luciferase chemically modified in-vitro transcribed mRNA (Rhod-Luc LNPs) were used to quantify LNP uptake, and single molecule FISH (smFISH) allowed quantification of the number of cytosolic mRNA molecules. HeLa cells were plated in 96-well plates using ATCC DMEM culture media, and upon reaching 80 % confluency the cells were incubated with cytoplasmic and nuclear detection labels, followed by transfection with Rhod-Luc LNPs at 25 ng (mRNA) per well in 100 ul volume. Cells were incubated with LNPs for 4 h, then the samples were fixed in 4 % paraformaldehyde and imaged in a high content screening system with confocal imaging (Opera Phenix High-Content Screening System).

[00524] In parallel, cells were electroporated with unformulated Luciferase mRNA.

Electroporated cells were seeded in wells adjacent to the LNP treated wells, and the entire plate was fixed at the same time. After the plate was imaged for LNP uptake, the samples were processed for smFISH hybridization. The plate was imaged using confocal imaging and object analysis was used to quantify the number of single molecule cytosolic mRNA (R, released from the endocytic organelles) in the LNP treated samples using the electroporated samples as a benchmark. Co-staining with endocytic markers EEA1 (early endosomes) and Lampl

(lysosomes) was used to confirm the intensity based analysis results.

[00525] Rhod-Luc LNPs were deposited directly on glass and imaged using the same acquisition settings used for the LNP treated cells. The intracellular LNP uptake (number of LNPs per cell, L) was computed as the ratio between the fluorescence intensity sum per cell in the Rhodamine channel (Cellint) and the average fluorescence intensity of single LNP objects on glass (LNPint). The endosomal escape ratio (EER), defined as the ratio between the number of cytosolic mRNA and internalized LNPs (R/L), was used to compare the endosomal escape efficiency between the two formulations used in this study (compound 18 and MC3).

[00526] Statistical Analysis: Means were compared using ordinary one-way ANOVA with post-hoc tests for multiple comparisons (Dunnett for comparing multiple conditions to a single reference or Sidak for comparing pairs of conditions). Areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated using the trapezoid rule and a z value calculated. For all tests, two-tailed P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant, and are shown in Figures as * < 0.05, ** < 0.005, or *** < 0.001. Prism 7.0b was used.

Optimization of lipid tail

[00527] Initial screening of a broad chemical space identified ethanolamine as an amino lipid head group which could effectively drive mRNA encapsulation and provide LNPs with superior physiochemical properties. Combining the ethanolamine head group with di-linoleic lipid tails (compound 281) generated an LNP with high encapsulation of luciferase mRNA, small particle size, and low polydispersity index. The LNP with compound 281 had a surface pKa (apparent value for the particle) in a range that has been shown to be optimal for siRNA delivery. (See Semple, S.C. et al., Nature Biotech. 2010. 28, 172-176, Jayaraman, M., et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 57, 8529-8533, the entire contents of each of which are incorporated by reference herein in their entireties). To evaluate the efficiency of the new amino lipids, LNPs using the novel compounds were tested in vivo in mice using luciferase mRNA as a reporter. An MC3 LNP was included as a control in each experiment, enabling the comparison of LNPs from experiment to experiment. Measured luciferase activity also enabled he determination of protein bio-distribution. Intravenous delivery of 0.5 mg/kg (mRNA dose) of compound 281-based LNPs to mice resulted in luciferase activity two-fold lower than an MC3 LNP control (Figure 29A). Whole body imaging demonstrated that the majority of protein expression was localized in the liver. The lipid had similar clearance to MC3 from liver tissue with 66% of the original dose remaining in liver tissue of mice 24 hours post dose (Table 37)

[00528] The effect of ester linkages in the lipid tails on tissue clearance was tested

(compounds 138 and 136). Ester linkages were previously reported to trigger metabolism by esterases in vivo. (See Fukami, T. et al. Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. 2012, 27, 466-477, the content of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety). This strategy has been shown to improve lipid clearance in a MC3-based lipid structure. (See Maier M.A., Mol. Ther. 2013, 21, 1570-1578, the content of which is incorporated herein in its entirety) First, the chemical stability of the lipids was evaluated by measuring ethanol stability at room temperature and 37 °C (Table 39). Less than 1% change in purity was observed for all lipids tested. LNPs formed with compound 138 were larger, with a surface pK a >7. Rapid tissue clearance was observed for these LNPs, with no lipid detected at 24 hours (Table 37). Removal of one ester function (compound 136) afforded LNPs with improved physiochemical characteristics and lower LNP surface pK a .

[00529] Improvement in protein expression was observed when a branched ester was introduced (compound 6). Equivalent expression to MC3 LNPs was observed, but the clearance rate was slower than for compounds 138 and 136 (67% lipid remaining, Table 37). Replacement of the linoleic tail with a primary ester-containing lipid tail (compound 18) provided increased expression (3-fold higher than MC3) and optimal tissue clearance (no lipid detected at 24 h, Table 37). To further increase expression, an additional branched ester was introduced

(compound 29), but this resulted in a lowering of the surface pK a to 6.00 and lower luciferase activity. In addition, the compound had a significantly slower tissue clearance with 68% remaining at 24 h. [00530] Compound 14 is one representative example in which the alcohol functionality was replaced with a dimethylamine. This generated an LNP with physiochemical properties comparable to those of compound 18, but complete loss of delivery efficiency (Figure 29A).

[00531] The lipid tail structure activity relationship was explored further, specifically the position of the primary ester, and its effect on delivery efficiency and tissue clearance (compare compound 18, compound 25 and 26, Table 37). In mice, using luciferase mRNA, we observed higher expression compared to MC3 after intravenous delivery of a 0.5 mg/kg dose with compound 25 and compound 26, with compound 26 providing the highest luciferase activity of the series (Figure 29A). Similar results were obtained in the Sprague Dawley rats using human erythropoietin (hEPO) encoding mRNA (Figure 29C). When determining the parent amino lipid levels in the liver at the termination of the rat study (48 h post dose) the clearance was found to be reduced as the primary ester was moved closer to the nitrogen (<1% compound 18, compound 25 and 20% compound 26, Table 37). Compound 18 and compound 25 provided a good balance of delivery efficiency and pharmacokinetics.

[00532] Without wishing to be bound by theory, multiple structural motifs of the amino lipid were found to be important for efficient in vivo performance of mRNA-containing lipid nanoparticles, including surface charge, structure, and position of the ester in the lipid tails, and structure of the head group. Lipids that enabled high levels of protein expression demonstrated rapid tissue clearance, and resulted in a toxicity profile that would support chronic therapeutic indications were sought. A variation on the surface pK a of the particles was observed, which tracked with efficiency of expression. An average value of 6.6 was determined as being optimal. However, being in the optimal pK a range was not the only requirement for efficient delivery as compound 14 demonstrated low levels of Luciferase expression (Table 37).

Introduction of a primary ester, similar to what has been observed with an MC3-based series, provided lipids which demonstrate rapid in vivo tissue clearance. Metabolite identification studies with compound 18 indicated hydrolysis of the primary ester as the first step in the metabolism of the lipid. For this hydrolysis to be efficient the sterics and electronics of the ester needed to be balanced. More substituted esters (compound 29) and less electrophilic esters (compound 26) each demonstrated slower liver clearance. The combination of the ethanol amine head group, a primary ester at the C8 position in one lipid tail, and a secondary ester in the second lipid tail appeared to provide a good balance of in vivo lipid clearance and protein expression.

Pharmacokinetic study [00533] A rat pharmacokinetic study which compared compound 18 and compound 25 to MC3 was performed (Figure 29B). In contrast to MC3, which was still present at high concentrations at 48 hours, compound 18 and compound 25 were efficiently cleared from liver tissue by 24 hours. Compound 18 was cleared from the liver tissue faster than compound 25 with a liver tissue half-life of 5.8 h versus 6.9 h respectively (for full PK parameters see Table 40). This fast clearance was in sharp contrast to the >50 h half-life of MC3. The favorable lipid degradation in vivo for compound 18 and compound 25 was also observed in spleen and plasma (Table 40).

[00534] Repeat dosing of mRNA in an MC3-based LNP for a therapeutic indication would be expected to lead to accumulation of MC3 in tissues, based on the measured half-life. Therefore it was investigated whether the favorable single dose pharmacokinetics of compound 18 were maintained with weekly dosing. Clearance of MC3 and compound 18 from multiple mouse tissues was measured after dosing 0.05 mg/kg mRNA on day 1, 8 and 15 (Figure 30A).

Following dosing with MC3 LNPs, lipid was detected in liver, spleen, plasma, kidney, heart and lung, with liver and spleen containing the largest concentrations (Figure 3 OA, for full panel of tissues see Figure35A). Accumulation of MC3 was observed after each dose. Liver and spleen had the highest levels of compound 18, however significantly lower levels than MC3.

Compound 18 was also detected in plasma, lung, and kidney, but not in heart (Figure 35A). Consistent levels of expression where observed when 0.5 mg/kg hEPO mRNA was delivered intravenously to mice in compound 18-based LNPs (Figure 30B), demonstrating the potential for repeat dosing.

[00535] In vitro metabolite identification studies using compound 18 were also performed. These studies showed that the initial step of metabolism of compound 18 was primary ester hydrolysis to compound 166 (Tables 41 and 42). The disappearance of parent compound 18 and the primary metabolite, compound 166, from mouse liver tissue was measured after dosing 0.25 mg/kg mRNA on days 1, 8, and 15. As can be seen in Figure 30C, rapid clearance of both parent compound 18 and the metabolite, compound 166, was observed.

Expression in non-human primates

NHP more closely approximates clinical responses for LNP-based systems than rodent (DeRosa, F., Guild, B., Karve, S., Smith, L., Love, K., Dorkin, J.R., et. al. Therapeutic efficacy in a hemophilia B model using a biosynthetic mRNA liver depot system. Gene Ther. 2016, 23, 699- 707, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties). In order to translate the findings from rodent to the non-human primate (NHP), the lipids were tested in NHP. For this purpose, it was evaluated whether the improved expression observed in mouse and rat with LNPs containing compound 18 could also be achieved in NHP after a single dose. Figure 31 shows results achieved with two different mRNA cargos. A dose of 0.01 mg/kg of hEPO-encoding mRNA was delivered via a 60 minute intravenous infusion. Relative to the MC3 LNP control five-fold higher exposure of hEPO protein was observed (Figure 31 A). Similarly, using a second mRNA cargo encoding for an anti-human IgG influenza A antibody, a 5 -fold increase in expression and a clear dose response was observed compared to an MC3 LNP (Figure 3 IB and Figure 36). A separate study evaluated the lipid tissue accumulation in NHP after a single dose. Consistent with results in rodents, MC3 residue was found in multiple tissues at 12 hours post dose, with the highest levels being detected in liver and spleen. In contrast, compound 18 was present at significantly lower levels (Figure 35B). These preliminary data demonstrate translation of improved efficiency of delivery and rapid elimination of compound 18 in the NHP.

[00536] The experiments demonstrate cross-species translatability. Multiple expression and pharmacokinetic (PK) studies across species showed similar profiles in mouse, rat and nonhuman primate. Intravenous delivery of mRNA containing compound 18-based LNPs in primate resulted in efficient expression of multiple proteins (Figures 31A and 3 IB) with similarly improved expression relative to MC3 as observed in rodent. In addition, the rapid clearance of lipid from tissue was also observed in NHP. Efficient expression with compound 18 LNPs over 5 weeks of dosing was demonstrated (Figure 31C).

Toxicology study in non-human primates

[00537] The level of expression provided by LNPs of the disclosure in a repeat dose experiment in primates was evaluated. A 0.2 mg/kg dose of hEPO mRNA in a compound 18- based LNP was delivered via a 60-minute intravenous infusion to cynomolgus monkeys (n = 4) once weekly for 5 weeks. Consistent exposure over the course of the experiment, was observed (Figure 31C), in line with the observations in rodent.

[00538] Next, tolerability and safety of the compound 18-based LNPs in vivo was tested. A full toxicological evaluation of compound 18-based LNPs in both Sprague Dawley rat and cynomolgus monkey was performed using a standard one-month study with weekly dosing at three dose levels in each species. Rats were dosed at 0.05, 0.5, and 2 mg/kg and a non-human primates was dosed at 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg. LNP -related toxicities associated with MC3-based LNP systems are generally associated with immunological (cytokine and complement activation) and hepatic injury. In the rat, there were no adverse findings with compound 18. Figures 32 and 33 highlight the day 30 levels of alanine transferase (ALT, Figure 32A) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Figure 32B), two indicators of liver damage. There is minimal elevation of either enzyme at any dose level relative to PBS control, and this trend is consistent for all the clinical chemistry, hematology, and immunological markers measured. This is in sharp contrast to the toxicity profile of an MC3-based mR A containing LNP, where at a 0.3 mg/kg dose mRNA, ALT and AST were elevated and pathology showed evidence of necrosis (Figure 37) (Sedic, M., Senn, J.J., Lynn, A., Laska, M., Smith, M., Platz, S.J., et al. Safety Evaluation of Lipid Nanoparticle-Formulated Modified mRNA in the Sprague-Dawley Rat and Cynomologus Monkey. Vet. Pathol. 2017, 55, 341-354., the content of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

[00539] Cynomolgus monkeys also showed minimal findings at all dose levels.

Measurement of circulating mRNA levels after each dose demonstrated consistent exposures over the course of the experiment (Figure 37). The ALT (Figure 32C) and AST (Figure 32D) levels for the 1 mg/kg dose at day 30 were at the same level as the control. Minimal elevation in markers of immune activation including complement and cytokines were observed. As shown in Figure 33 A, no significant change was observed in C5b9 levels, the terminal complement activation product after dose 1 or dose 5. Figure 33B shows the slight variation above baseline observed for monocyte chemo-attractive protein (MCP-1).

[00540] The optimization of the novel amino lipid series resulted in significant improvements in tolerability in rat and non-human primate as compared to MC3, which is in part due to the improved metabolic profile. In both rat and cynomolgus monkey at doses up to 2 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg dose respectively, no signs of liver damage or complement activation were detected after five weeks of weekly dosing. These data show that repeat dosing of mRNA containing lipid nanoparticles of the disclosure results in maintenance of circulating LNP levels without any signs of toxicity.

Evaluation of endosomal escape efficiency

[00541] Improved delivery efficiency, especially uptake and/or endosomal escape e.g., relative to MC3, was investigated. Expression studies in ApoE knockout mice and LDLr knockout mice with compound 18 based LNPs showed almost complete loss in expression indicating that this amino lipid series has a similar uptake mechanism as MC3 and functions in an ApoE-mediated LDLr dependent manner (Figure 38). {See Akinc, A. et al. Mol. Ther. 2010, 18, 1357-1364, the content of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety). To gain a better understanding of endosomal escape efficiency an in vitro cell-based assay was developed using rhodamine labelled LNPs to quantify cellular uptake and single molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect mRNA that egressed the endocytic compartments. As can be seen in Figure 34, cells treated with compound 18 based LNPs have a significantly lower amount of organelle aggregated mRNA (red) compared to cells treated with MC3 based LNPs. At the same time, the density of single molecule cytosolic mRNA objects is higher in the compound 18-based LNP treated cells. To quantitatively compare the endosomal escape efficiency for the two LNP formulations, the ratio between the number of cytosolic mRNA and the number of internalized LNPs at the single cell level was computed (Table 38). The results show a 6-fold increase in efficiency for compound 18 compared to MC3 in LNPs (ratio of 0.76 and 0.13 respectively).

[00542] It was previously estimated that less than 2 % of siRNA based LNPs that are taken up by the cell release their cargo into the cytosol. (See Gilleron, J. et al. Nature Biotech. 2013. 31, 638-646, the content of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.) Using single molecule fluorescence microscopy, the endosomal escape efficiency (calculated as the ratio between number of cytosolic mRNA and number of internalized LNPs per cell) was quantified in an in-vitro system. The efficiency for compound 18 was shown to be increased 6- fold compared to MC3 (ratio of 0.76 and 0.13 respectively). As these formulations encapsulate approximately 5 mRNA molecules per particle, the endosomal escape ratios reported here translate to 15 and 2.5 % endosomal escape efficiency for compound 18 and MC3 respectively.

[00543] The results of the study are summarized in Tables 37-42. Table 37 shows the physiochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles. Endosomal escape efficiencies are presented in Table 38. Lipid purities are summarized in Table 39. Table 40 shows mouse pharmacokinetic parameters. The results of metabolic profiling and characterization for compound 18 incubated with human hepatocytes or human plasma are summarized in Tables 41 and 42, respectively.

Table 37. Lipid nanoparticle physiochemical characterization and lipid tissue clearance a

138 91.8 ±0.9 179.4 ±4.2 0.14 ±0.05 7.39 ±0.07 0± N.T.

136 90.9 ±0.9 140.4 ± 2.4 0.11 ±0.05 6.95 ±0.13 0± N.T.

6 97.6 ± 1.2 73.1 ±2.1 0.07 ±0.05 6.32 ±0.05 67 ±9.8 N.T.

18 97.5 ±0.2 86.2 ± 1.7 0.04 ± 0.06 6.56 ±0.13 0 0.02 e

29 97.0 ±0.6 66.8 ± 1.1 0.11 ±0.03 6.00 ±0.24 68 ±9.2 N.T.

14 95.2 ±0.5 130.1 ±3.5 0.15 ±0.07 6.58±0.11 N.T. N.T.

25 95.8 ± 1.0 85.8 ± 1.0 0.10 ±0.05 6.68 ±0.29 N.T. 1.3 e

26 97.4 ±0.2 91.9 ± 1.5 0.16 ±0.03 6.64 ±0.14 N.T. 20 ± 4.0 f

MC3 97.3 ± 1.9 85.6 ±4.5 0.11 ±0.04 6.30 ±0.03 71 ±27 61 e N.T. = not tested, ± SD within one assay run. b Polydispersity index. c Percent of original lipid dose in CD-I mouse liver 24 h after 0.5 mg/kg bolus dose mRNA, n = 5 ± S.D . d Percent of original lipid dose in Sprague Dawley rat liver 48 h after 2 mg/kg bolus dose mRNA. e n = 2. f n = 3 ± S.D.

Table 38. Endosomal escape efficiency 3

N.A. = not applicable. b Number of cells analyzed = 1439 ± SEM. c Number of cells analyzed

SEM.

Table 39: Lipid purity

136 91.81 93.17 93.86

6 93.80 93.21 94.29

18 94.37 94.71 95.01

29 97.017 97.67 98.10

14 92.08 92.07 91.90

25 95.58 96.23 96.13

26 98.64 97.38 95.72

Table 40. Mouse pharmacokinetic parameters

PK analysis of the individual plasma and tissue concentration data was performed using a non-validated program (Phoenix WinNonlin®, Version 7.0 (Pharsight Corp., Mountain View, CA)). Kinetic parameters were estimated using a noncompartmental model (Plasma (200-202), Uniform weighting, extravascular dosing with sparse sampling). The AUC was calculated using the linear trapezoidal rule. All derived parameters are reported to 3 significant figures with the exception of time to peak concentration (Tmax) and halflife (HL), which are reported to one decimal place. No further statistical analyses were performed on the plasma concentration data or derived pharmacokinetic parameters.

Table 41 : Metabolite profiling and characterization data for Compound 18 ( 10 μΜ) incubated for up to 240 min with human hepatocytes ( 1 million cells/mL) Proposed

Compound No. biotransformati 0 min 60 min 120 min 240 min on

Ester hydrolysis

166 on the 17 carbon ND + + +

chain

18 - + + + +

+: Detected; ND: Not detected

Table 42: Metabolite profiling and characterization data for Compound 18 (10 μΜ) incubated for up to 90 min with human plasma (29.0 mg protein/incubation)

Detected; ND: Not detected

Equivalents

[00544] It is to be understood that while the present disclosure has been described in conjunction with the detailed description thereof, the foregoing description is intended to illustrate and not limit the scope of the present disclosure, which is defined by the scope of the appended claims. Other aspects, advantages, and alterations are within the scope of the following claims.