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Title:
COMPOUNDS FOR THE DETECTION, CAPTURE AND/OR SEPARATION OF POLLUTING GASES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/109178
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A subject of the present invention is the use of a compound having the general formula (I): (I) wherein V, W, X4, X5, X6, X7, X'4, X'5, X'6, X'7, Y, Y', R3, R'3, R4 and R'4 are as defined in any one of claims 1 to 11, for the detection, capture and/or separation of polluting gases, in particular those selected from the group comprising carbon dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, linear hydrocarbons, linear mono-olefins and their mixtures, and preferably carbon dioxide. Another subject of the invention is a compound of formula (I) wherein V, W, X4, X5, X6, X7, X'4, X'5, X'6, X'7, Y, Y', R3, R'3, R4 and R'4 are as defined in any one of claims 12 to 21.

Inventors:
RAIMUNDO, Jean-Manuel (36 avenue Gay Lussac, Carnoux en Provence, Carnoux en Provence, 13470, FR)
DEMÉTRIO DA SILVA, Vinicius (2 rue Nazareth, Aix en Provence, Aix en Provence, 13100, FR)
LLEWELLYN, Philip Leslie (36 Traverse des Raymonds, Marseille, Marseille, 13011, FR)
RODRIGUEZ, Julien (La grande Vigne Bat A, Septemes les Vallons, 13240, FR)
SIRI, Olivier Yves Claude (Chemin du Coulet, Belcodène, 13720, FR)
Application Number:
EP2016/082568
Publication Date:
June 29, 2017
Filing Date:
December 23, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE - CNRS - (3 rue Michel Ange, Paris, Paris, 75016, FR)
UNIVERSITÉ D'AIX-MARSEILLE (58 Boulevard Charles Livon, Marseille, 13007, FR)
International Classes:
C07D225/04; C07C317/36; C07C323/65; C07D213/70; C07D281/00
Foreign References:
GB961305A1964-06-17
Other References:
MONTAUDO, G. ET AL: "Conjugative and steric factors affecting the conformational preference of some aromatic sulfides", JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, vol. 37, no. 3, 1 February 1972 (1972-02-01), pages 504 - 505, XP002758166, ISSN: 0022-3263, DOI: 10.1021/JO00968A042
BOCK, GUSTAV: "Chapman rearrangements. Synthesis of aromatic N,N'-diaryldiamines with o,o'-positioned carboxyl groups", CHEMISCHE BERICHTE, vol. 100, no. 9, 1967, pages 2870 - 2884, XP002758167, ISSN: 0009-2940
LIVINGSTON, A. ET AL: "Action of sulfinates on 1,5-dichloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene", JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY, 1 January 1937 (1937-01-01), pages 246 - 249, XP002758168, ISSN: 0368-1769, DOI: 10.1039/JR9370000246
TOUIL, MOUNIA ET AL: "Unprecedented N(H)-bridged tetraaza[1.1.1.1]m,p,m,p-cyclophanes", TETRAHEDRON, vol. 66, no. 24, 12 June 2010 (2010-06-12), pages 4377 - 4382, XP002758169, ISSN: 0040-4020, DOI: 10.1016/J.TET.2010.03.114
NUSSBAUM, MICHAEL ET AL: "Efficient Electronic Communication of Two Ruthenium Centers through a Rigid Ditopic N-Heterocyclic Carbene Linker", CHEMISTRY - A EUROPEAN JOURNAL, vol. 19, no. 51, 11 November 2013 (2013-11-11), pages 17517 - 17527, XP002758170, ISSN: 0947-6539, DOI: 10.1002/CHEM.201302688
STUHR-HANSEN, NICOLAI ET AL: "Sparing the ortho-position in nucleophilic aromatic substitution-specific displacement of the 4-SePh group in 2,4-bis(phenylseleno)nitrobenzene", HETEROATOM CHEMISTRY, vol. 20, no. 2, 13 March 2009 (2009-03-13), pages 101 - 108, XP002758171, ISSN: 1042-7163, DOI: 10.1002/HC.20519
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
CABINET PLASSERAUD (66 rue de la Chaussée d'Antin, Paris Cedex 09, 75440, FR)
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Claims:
CLAIMS

1. Use of a compound having general formula (I)

(I)

wherein

• represents:

• W has the same meaning as V or W is absent, and when W is absent then R4 and R'4 are also absent,

Xi, X2, X3, X'i, X'2, X'3, X4, Xs, Xe, Xv, X'4, X's, X'e, X'v, Xs and X9 are each independently N or a CH group,

• when W has the same meaning as V, then Y and Y' are each a carbon atom,

• when W is absent, then Y and Y' are each independently N or a CR group, with R representing H, Ra, NRaRb, ORa, SRa, C02Ra, CORa, CONHRa, CONRaR,, NHCORa, S02Ra, S02NHRa, S02NRaRb, PRaRb, P(0)RaRb, P(0)(ORa)(ORb), CH2PO(ORa)(ORb), COCH2CORa, CSORa, CSRa, CSNHRa, CSNRaRb, NHCSRa, P(S)RaRb, CSCH2CSRa, NHCONHRa, NHCSNHRa or a five or six-membered aromatic or heteroaromatic compound chosen from benzene, pyridine, diazine, triazine, tetrazine, pyrrole, thiophene, furan, azole, triazole or tetrazole,

with Ra and Rb being each independently H, OH; an alkyl radical having from 1 to 10 carbon atoms (alkyl C1-C10); a five or six-membered carbocycle chosen from cyclohexane, piperidine, piperazine, tetrahydrothiophene, tetrahydropyrrole or dihydroazole; or an aromatic or heteroaromatic compound chosen from pyridine, diazine, triazine, tetrazine, pyrrole, thiophene, furan, azole, triazole, tetrazole, benzoazole, benzotriazole or indole, • Ri represents O, S, S02, SO, CO, a NRa, SiRaRb, SnRJtb, BRa or a PRa group, Ra and Rb being as defined above,

• R2 and R'2 are each independently COORa, N02, CONRaRb, S02Ra, S03H, OS03H, CORa, P03H2, OP03H2 or CN, Ra and Rb being as defined above,

• R3, R'3, R4 and R'4 are each independently S, NRa, P, Se or Te, Ra being as defined above, for the detection, capture and/or separation of polluting gases, in particular those selected from the group comprising carbon dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, linear hydrocarbons, linear mono-olefms and their mixtures, and preferably carbon dioxide.

2. Use according to claim 1, wherein in the compound of formula (I):

• V represents:

• X4, X5, Χβ, X7, X'4, X'5, X'6 and X'7 are each independently N or CH,

• when W has the same meaning as V, then Y and Y' are each a carbon atom,

• when W is absent, then Y and Y' are each independently N or a CR group, R being H, NRaRb, C02Ra, P(0)(ORa)(ORb), CH2PO(ORa)(ORb),

• Ri represents S, S02, NRa or O,

• R2 and R'2 are each independently N02, COORa, CORa or CONRaRb,

• R3, R'3, R4 and R'4 are each independently S or NRa,

with Ra and Rb are each independently H or an alkyl C1 -C10.

3. Use of a compound of formula (I) according to claim 1 or claim 2, characterized in that: W, R4 and R'4 are absent,

V represents:

Xi , X2, X3, X' i , X'2, X'3, X4, X5, X6, X7, X'4, X'5, X'6, X'7, Ri , R2, R'2, R3 and R'3 are as defined in claim 1 or claim 2,

Y and Y' are as defined in claim 1 or claim 2 when W is absent.

4. Use of a compound according to claim 3, which is selected from the group consisting of compounds of formula (I) wherein:

• Y = Y'= CNH2, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = N02 and R3 = R'3 = S (1),

• Y = Y'= CNH2, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = N02 and R3 = R'3 = NH (2),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = N02 and R3 = R'3 = S (3),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = N02 and R3 = R'3 = NH (4),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = COORa and R3 = R'3 = NH (5),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = COORa and R3 = R'3 = S (6),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S, R2 = R'2 = COORa and R3 = R'3 = S (7),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S, R2 = R'2 = COORa and R3 = R'3 = NH (8),

• Y = Y'= CNH2, Ri = S, R2 = R'2 = COORa and R3 = R'3 = NH (9),

• Y = Y'= CNH2, Ri = S, R2 = R'2 = COORa and R3 = R'3 = S (10),

• Y = Y'= CNH2, Ri = S, R2 = R'2 = CONRaRb and R3 = R'3 = S (11),

• Y = Y'= CNH2, Ri = S, R2 = R'2 = CONRaRb and R3 = R'3 = NH (12),

• Y = Y'= CNH2, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = CONRaRb and R3 = R'3 = NH (13),

• Y = Y'= CNH2, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = CONRaRb and R3 = R'3 = S (14),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = CONRaRb and R3 = R'3 = S (15),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = CONRaRb and R3 = R'3 = NH (16),

• Y = Y'= CCOOH, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = N02 and R3 = R'3 = S (17),

• Y = Y'= CCH2PO(OC2H5)2, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = N02 and R3 = R'3 = NH (18),

and in each compound (1) to (18):

Xi = X2 = X3 = X'i= X'2 = X'3 = X4 = X5 = X6 = X7 = X'4 = X's = X'6 = X'7 = CH,

Ra and Rb are each independently H or an alkyl C1-C10. 5. Compound of formula (I) according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that:

W has the same meaning as V,

V represents:

Xi, X2, X3, X'i, X'2, X'3, X4, X5, X6, X7, X'4, X's, X'6, X'7, Ri, R2, R'2, R3, R'3, R4 and R'4 are as defined in claim 1 or claim 2.

6. Use of a compound according to claim 5, which is selected from the group consisting compounds of formula (I) wherein:

Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R'3 = R4 = R'4 = NH (19),

• Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R4 = NH, R'3= R'4 = S (20),

• Ri = S, R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R'3 = R4 = R'4 = NH (21),

• Ri = S, R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R4 = NH, R'3= R'4 = S (22),

• Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R'3 = S, R4 = R'4 = NH (23),

• Ri = S, R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R'3 = S, R4 = R'4 = NH (24),

and in each compound (19) to (24):

Xi = X2 = X3 = X'i= X'2 = X'3 = X4 = X5 = X6 = X7 = X'4 = X'5 = X'6 = X'7 = CH.

7. Use of a compound of formula (I) according to claim 1 or claim 2, characterized

W, R4 and R'4 are absent,

V represents:

X4, X5, X6, X7, X'4, X'5, X'6, X'7, X8, X R2, R'2, R3 and R'3 are as defined in claim 1 or claim 2,

Y and Y' are as defined in claim 1 or claim 2 when W is absent.

8. Use of a compound according to claim 7, which is selected from the group consisting of compounds of formula (I) wherein:

. Y = Y'= N, R2 = R'2 = N02 and R3 = R'3 = S (25),

• Y = Y'= CPO(OH)2, R2 = R'2 = N02 and R3 = R'3 = NH (26),

• Y = Y'= CCH2PO(OC2H5)2, R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R'3 = NH (27),

• Y = Y'= CCOOH, R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R'3 = S (28),

• Y = Y'= CNH2, R2 = R'2 = C02Et, R3 = R'3 = S (29),

• Y = Y'= CCOOH, R2 = R'2 = C02Et, R3 = R'3 = S (30),

and in each compound (25) to (30):

X4 = X5 = X6 = X7 = X'4 = X'5 = X'6 = X'7 = Xs = X = CH.

9. Use of a compound of formula (I) according claim 1 or claim 2, characterized in that:

W has the same meaning as V, V represents: ,

X4, X5, X6, X7, X'4, X's, X'6, X'7, X8, X9, R-2, R'2, R3, R'3, R4 and R'4 are as defined in claim

1 or claim 2.

10. Use of a compound according to claim 9, which is selected from the group consisting of compounds of formula (I) wherein:

R2 = R'2 = NO2, R3 = R'3 = R4= R'4 = NH (31),

• R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R'3 = R4 = R'4 = S (32),

• R2 = R'2 = C02Et , R3 = R'3 = R4 = R'4 = S (33),

• R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R'3 = S, R4 = R'4 = NH (34),

and in each compound (31) to (34):

X4 = X5 = X6 = X7 = X'4 = X'5 = X'6 = X'7 = Xs = X = CH.

11. Process for the depollution of the air and/or toxic exhaust fumes, wherein the polluting agents present in said air and/or exhaust fumes are captured and/or separated into/by the compounds of general formula (I) such as defined in any one of claims 1 to 10.

12. Compound having the general formula I)

wherein

• V represents: or • W has the same meaning as V or W is absent, and when W is absent then R4 and R'4 are also absent,

Xi, X2, X3, X'i, X'2, X X4, Xs, Xe, Xv, X X's, X'e, X'v, Xs and X9 are each independently N or a CH group,

· when W has the same meaning as V, then Y and Y' are each a carbon atom,

• when W is absent, then Y and Y' are each independently N or a CR group, with R representing H, Ra, NRaRb, ORa, SRa, C02Ra, CORa, CONHRa, CONRaRb, NHCORa, S02Ra, S02NHRa, S02NRaRb, PRaRb, P(0)RaRb, P(0)(ORa)(ORb), CH2PO(ORa)(ORb), COCH2CORa, CSORa, CSRa, CSNHRa, CSNRaRb, NHCSRa, P(S)RaRb, CSCH2CSRa, NHCONHRa, NHCSNHRa or a five or six-membered aromatic or heteroaromatic compound chosen from benzene, pyridine, diazine, triazine, tetrazine, pyrrole, thiophene, furan, azole, triazole or tetrazole,

with Ra and Rb being each independently H, OH; an alkyl radical having from 1 to 10 carbon atoms (alkyl C1-C10); a five or six-membered carbocycle chosen from cyclohexane, piperidine, piperazine, tetrahydrothiophene, tetrahydropyrrole or dihydroazole; or an aromatic or heteroaromatic compound chosen from pyridine, diazine, triazine, tetrazine, pyrrole, thiophene, furan, azole, triazole, tetrazole, benzoazole, benzotriazole or indole,

• Ri represents O, S, S02, SO, CO, a NRa, SiRaRb, SnRaRb, BRa or a PRa group, Ra and Rb being as defined above,

· R2 and R'2 are each independently COORa, N02, CONRaRb, S02Ra, S03H, OSO3H, CORa,

P03¾, OP03¾ or CN, Ra and Rb being as defined above,

• R3, R R4 and R'4 are each independently S, NRa, P, Se or Te, Ra being as defined above, with the proviso that when W, R4, R'4 are absent, and V represents

then do not represent and with the proviso that the above formula (I) does not represent one of the seven following compounds wherein:

- W is absent, V represents X4 = X5 = X6 =

CH, and Y = Y' = CH, ¾ = S02, R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R'3 = NH ;

- W is absent, V represents , X4 = X5 = X6 =

CH, and Y = Y' = CNH2, Ri = = R'2 = S03H, R3 = R'3 = S

- W is absent, V represents , X4 =

CH, and Y = Y' = CNH2 ; Ri = = R'2 = S03H, R3

- W is absent, V represents X4 = X5 = X6 = X7 = X'4 = X'5 = X'e = X'v CH, and Y = Y' = CH, Ri = S02 ; R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R'3 = S ;

-W = V= ,X4 = X5 = X6 = X7 = X'4 = X'5 = X'6 = X'7 = CH, andY CH, R3 = R'3 = R = R'4 = S, R2 = R'2 = N02, X¾ = X9 = CH

-W = V= x4 = x5 = x6 = x7 = x'4 = x'5 = x'6 = x'7 = CH, andY = Y'

CH, R3 = R'3 = = R'4 = NH, R2 = R'2 = N02, X8 = X9 = CH ;

-W = V= X4 = X5 = X6 = X7 = X'4 = X'5 = X'6 = X'7 = CH, andY = Y'

CH, R3 = R'3 = R4 = R'4 = NCH3, R2 = R'2 = N02, X8 = X9 = CH. 13. Compound according to claim 12, wherein in the compound of formula (I):

• V represents:

X4, X5, Χβ, 7, X'4, X'5, X'6 and X'7 are each independently N or CH,

• when W has the same meaning as V, then Y and Y' are each a carbon atom,

• when W is absent, then Y and Y' are each independently N or a CR group, R being H, NRaRb, C02Ra, P(0)(ORa)(ORb), CH2PO(ORa)(ORb),

• Ri represents S, S02, NRa or O,

• R2 and R'2 are each independently N02, COORa, CORa or CONRaR,,

• R3, R'3, R4 and R'4 are each independently S or NRa,

with Ra and Rb are each independently H or an alkyl C1-C10.

14. Compound of formula (I) according to claim 12 or claim 13, characterized in that:

W, R4 and R'4 are absent,

V represents:

Xi, X2, X3j X'i, X'2, X'3j X4, X5, X6, X7, X'4, X'5, X'6, X'7, Ri, R2, R'2, R3 and R'3 are as defined in claim 12 or claim 13,

Y and Y' are as defined in claim 12 or claim 13 when W is absent.

15. Compound according to claim 14, which is selected from the group consisting of compounds of formula (I) wherein:

• Y = Y'= CNH2, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = N02 and R3 = R'3 = S (1),

• Y = Y'= CNH2, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = N02 and R3 = R'3 = NH (2),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = N02 and R3 = R'3 = S (3),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = N02 and R3 = R'3 = NH (4),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = COORa and R3 = R'3 = NH (5),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = COORa and R3 = R'3 = S (6),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S, R2 = R'2 = COORa and R3 = R'3 = S (7),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S, R2 = R'2 = COORa and R3 = R'3 = NH (8),

• Y = Y'= CNH2, Ri = S, R2 = R'2 = COORa and R3 = R'3 = NH (9),

• Y = Y'= CNH2, Ri = S, R2 = R'2 = COORa and R3 = R'3 = S (10), • Y = Y'= CNH2, Ri = S, R2 = R'2 = CONRaRb and R3 = R'3 = S (11),

• Y = Y'= CNH2, Ri = S, R2 = R'2 = CONRaRb and R3 = R'3 = NH (12),

• Y = Y'= CNH2, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = CONRaRb and R3 = R'3 = NH (13),

• Y = Y'= CNH2, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = CONRaRb and R3 = R'3 = S (14),

· Y = Y'= N, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = CONRaRb and R3 = R'3 = S (15),

. Y = Y'= N, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = CONRaRb and R3 = R'3 = NH (16),

• Y = Y'= CCOOH, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = N02 and R3 = R'3 = S (17),

• Y = Y'= CCH2PO(OC2H5)2, Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = N02 and R3 = R'3 = NH (18),

and in each compound (1) to (18):

Xi = X2 = X3 = X'i= X'2 = X'3 = X4 = X5 = X6 = X7 = X'4 = X'5 = X'6 = X'7 = CH,

Ra and Rb are each independently H or an alkyl C1-C10.

16. Compound of formula (I) according to claim 12 or claim 13, characterized

W has the same meaning as V,

V

Xi, X2, X3, X'i, X'2, X'3, X4, X5, X6, X7, X'4, X'5, X'6, X'7, Ri, R2, R'2, R3, R'3, R4 and R'4 as defined in claim 12 or claim 13.

17. Compound according to claim 16, which is selected from the group consisting of compounds of formula (I) wherein:

• Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R'3 = R4 = R'4 = NH (19),

• Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R4 = NH, R'3= R'4 = S (20),

• Ri = S, R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R'3 = R4 = R'4 = NH (21),

• Ri = S, R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R4 = NH, R'3= R'4 = S (22),

· Ri = S02, R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R'3 = S, R4 = R'4 = NH (23),

• Ri = S, R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R'3 = S, R4 = R'4 = NH (24),

and in each compound (19) to (24):

Xi = X2 = X3 = X'i= X'2 = X'3 = X4 = X5 = X6 = X7 = X'4 = X'5 = X'6 = X'7 = CH.

18. Compound of formula (I) according to claim 12 or claim 13, characterized in that: W, R4 and R'4 are absent,

V represents:

X4, X5, X6, X7, X'4, X's, X'6, X'7, X8, X9 R2, R'2, R3 and R'3 are as defined in claim 12 claim 13, Y and Y' are as defined in claim 12 or claim 13 when W is absent.

19. Compound according to claim 18, which is selected from the group consisting compounds of formula (I) wherein:

. Y = Y'= N, R2 = R'2 = NO2 and R3 = R'3 = S (25),

• Y = Y'= CPO(OH)2, R2 = R'2 = N02 and R3 = R'3 = NH (26),

• Y = Y'= CCH2PO(OC2H5)2, R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R'3 = NH (27),

• Y = Y'= CCOOH, R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R'3 = S (28),

• Y = Y'= CNH2, R2 = R'2 = C02Et, R3 = R'3 = S (29),

• Y = Y'= CCOOH, R2 = R'2 = C02Et, R3 = R'3 = S (30),

and in each compound (25) to (30):

X4 = X5 = X6 = X7 = X'4 = X'5 = X'g = X'7 = Xs = X = CH.

20. Compound of formula (I) according claim 12 or claim 13, characterized

W has the same meaning as V,

V represents: ,

X4, X5, X6, X7, X'4, X's, X'6, X'7, X8, X9, R2, R'2, R3, R'3, R4 and R'4 are as defined in claim 12 or claim 13.

21. Compound according to claim 20, which is selected from the group consisting of compounds of formula (I) wherein:

• R2 = R'2 = C02Et , R3 = R'3 = R4 = R'4 = S (33),

• R2 = R'2 = N02, R3 = R'3 = S, R4 = R'4 = NH (34),

and in each compound (33) to (34):

X4 = X5 = X6 = X7 = X'4 = X'5 = X'g = X'7 = Xs = X9 = CH.

Description:
Compounds for the detection, capture and/or separation of polluting gases Field of the invention

The present invention relates to new compounds and their use for the detection, capture and/or separation of polluting gases, in particular carbon dioxide.

Background of the invention

The escalating level of atmospheric carbon dioxide is one of the most pressing environmental concerns of our age. The prospect of a worsening climatic situation due to global warming is a subject of widespread public concern, with annual global emissions of C0 2 having escalated by approximately 80% between 1970 and 2004^. This drastic rise has been attributed to an increasing dependence on the combustion of fossil fuels (coal, petroleum and natural gas), which account for 86% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, the remainder arising from land use change (primarily deforestation) and chemical processing

The urgent need for strategies to reduce global atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases has prompted action from national and international governments and industries, and a number of high-profile collaborative programs have been established including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the United Nations Framework Commission on Climate Change, and the Global Climate Change Initiative. The capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide - the predominant greenhouse gas - is a central strategy in these initiatives, as it offers the opportunity to meet increasing demands for fossil fuel energy in the short - to medium- term, whilst reducing the associated greenhouse gas emissions in line with global targets (3) .

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) from large point sources such as power plants is one option for reducing anthropogenic C0 2 emissions; however, currently the capture alone will increase the energy requirements of a plant by 25-40%. The capture methods, which have the greatest likelihood of reducing C0 2 emissions to the atmosphere, are post-combustion (predominantly C0 2 /N 2 separation), pre-combustion (C0 2 /H 2 ) capture, and natural gas sweetening (C0 2 /CH 4 ). The key factor, which underlies significant advancements, lies in improved materials that perform the separations. In this regard, the most recent developments and emerging concepts in C0 2 separations are solvent absorption, chemical and physical adsorption, and membranes, amongst others, with particular attention on progress in the burgeoning field of metal-organic frameworks. However, despite the numerous challenges surrounding C0 2 capture, and the various political, regulatory and economic drivers which will ultimately dictate the time-to-deployment for new CSS schemes, there is still a need in solving the C0 2 capture problem (4) . In fact, the problem of the C0 2 capture is regarded as one of the grand challenges for the 21 st century

Summary of the invention

One of the objectives of the invention is thus to find novel means for the depollution of the environment.

More particularly, one of the objectives of the invention is to find novel means to reduce the concentration of polluting agents, which are present in the air and/or in biological areas, said polluting agents being in particular polluting gases.

The invention relates to a new class of semi-rigid mesoporous and non-planar molecules having variable cavities bearing functional chemical groups, which are able to interact specifically with gaseous or non-gaseous pollutants.

The molecules of the invention are of interest in environmental and biological areas for the detection, separation and/or sequestration of pollutants.

Detailed description of the invention

Use

A subject of the invention is the use of a com ound having the general formula (I):

wherein

• V represents: or • W has the same meaning as V or W is absent, and when W is absent then R4 and R' 4 are also absent,

Xi, X 2 , X 3 , X'i, X' 2 , X'3, X 4 , Xs, Xe, Xv, X'4, X's, X'e, X'v, Xs and X 9 are each independently N or a CH group,

· when W has the same meaning as V, then Y and Y' are each a carbon atom,

• when W is absent, then Y and Y' are each independently N or a CR group, with R representing H, Ra, NRaR b , ORa, SRa, C0 2 Ra, CORa, CONHRa, CONRaR b , NHCORa, S0 2 Ra, S0 2 NHRa, S0 2 NRaR b , PRaR b , P(0)RaR b , P(0)(ORa)(OR b ), CH 2 PO(ORa)(OR b ), COCH 2 CORa, CSORa, CSRa, CSNHRa, CSNRaR b , NHCSRa, P(S)RaR b , CSCH 2 CSRa, NHCONHRa, NHCSNHRa or a five or six-membered aromatic or heteroaromatic compound chosen from benzene, pyridine, diazine, triazine, tetrazine, pyrrole, thiophene, furan, azole, triazole or tetrazole,

with R a and R b being each independently H, OH; an alkyl radical having from 1 to 10 carbon atoms (alkyl C 1 -C 10 ); a five or six-membered carbocycle chosen from cyclohexane, piperidine, piperazine, tetrahydrothiophene, tetrahydropyrrole or dihydroazole; or an aromatic or heteroaromatic compound chosen from pyridine, diazine, triazine, tetrazine, pyrrole, thiophene, furan, azole, triazole, tetrazole, benzoazole, benzotriazole or indole,

• Ri represents O, S, S0 2 , SO, CO, a NRa, SiRaR b , SnRaR b , BRa or a PRa group, Ra and R b being as defined above,

· R 2 and R' 2 are each independently COORa, N0 2 , CONRaR,, S0 2 Ra, S0 3 H, OSO3H, CORa, P0 3 H 2 , OP0 3 H 2 or CN, Ra and R b being as defined above,

• R 3 , R' 3 , R4 and R' 4 are each independently S, NR a , P, Se or Te, Ra being as defined above, for the detection, capture and/or separation of polluting gases, in particular those selected from the group comprising carbon dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, linear hydrocarbons, linear mono-olefins and their mixtures, and preferably carbon dioxide.

When W is present then compounds of formula (I) are cyclic compounds. According to one embodiment of the invention, in compound of formula (I) as defined above, used for the detection, capture and/or separation of polluting gases:

• V represents:

• X 4 , X 5 , Χβ, X7, X'4, X's, X' 6 and X' 7 are each independently N or CH,

• when W has the same meaning as V, then Y and Y' are each a carbon atom,

• when W is absent, then Y and Y' are each independently N or a CR group, R being H, NRaRb, C0 2 Ra, P(0)(ORa)(OR b ), CH 2 PO(ORa)(OR b ),

• Ri represents S, S0 2 , NRa or O,

• R 2 and R' 2 are each independently N0 2 , COORa, CORa or CONRaR,,

• R3, R'3, R4 and R' 4 are each independently S or NRa,

with Ra and Rb are each independently H or an alkyl C1 -C10.

According to a particular embodiment of the invention, in compound of formula (I), X l s X 2 , X 3 , X' i , X' 2 , X' 3 , X 4 , Xs, δ, Xv, X'4, X's, X'e, X'v, Xs and X 9 are each CH.

According to another embodiment of the invention, in compounds of formula (I) as defined above, used for the detection, capture and/or separation of polluting gases:

W, R 4 and R' 4 are absent,

Xi, X 2 , X 3j X'i, X' 2 , X' 3j X 4 , X 5 , X 6 , Xv, X'4, X's, X' 6 , X'v, Ri , R 2 , R' 2 , R 3 and R' 3 are as defined above,

Y and Y' are as defined above when W is absent.

Said compounds can thus be represented by a general formula (1-1), which is more specific than (I) :

When:

Xi = X 2 = X 3 = X'i = X' 2 = X' 3 ,

X 4 = X 5 = X 6 = Xv = X'4 = X's = X' 6 = X'v, R 2 - R' 2 ,

R 3 = R' 3 and,

Y = Y',

then compounds of formula (I-l) are symmetrical compounds.

As an example of compound of general formula (I), and more particularly of formula (I-l), used for the detection, capture and/or separation of polluting gases, one can cited one of those selected from the group consisting of compounds of formula (I) wherein:

• Y = Y'= CNH 2 , Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 and R 3 = R' 3 = S (1),

• Y = Y'= CNH 2 , Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 and R 3 = R' 3 = NH (2),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 and R 3 = R' 3 = S (3),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 and R 3 = R' 3 = NH (4),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = COORa and R 3 = R' 3 = NH (5),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = COORa and R 3 = R' 3 = S (6),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S, R 2 = R' 2 = COORa and R 3 = R' 3 = S (7),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S, R 2 = R' 2 = COORa and R 3 = R' 3 = NH (8),

• Y = Y'= CNH 2 , Ri = S, R 2 = R' 2 = COORa and R 3 = R' 3 = NH (9),

• Y = Y'= CNH 2 , Ri = S, R 2 = R' 2 = COORa and R 3 = R' 3 = S (10),

• Y = Y'= CNH 2 , Ri = S, R 2 = R' 2 = CONRaRb and R 3 = R' 3 = S (11),

• Y = Y'= CNH 2 , Ri = S, R 2 = R' 2 = CONRaRb and R 3 = R' 3 = NH (12),

• Y = Y'= CNH 2 , Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = CONRaRb and R 3 = R' 3 = NH (13),

• Y = Y'= CNH 2 , Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = CONRaRb and R 3 = R' 3 = S (14),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = CONRaRb and R 3 = R' 3 = S (15),

• Y = Y'= N, Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = CONRaRb and R 3 = R' 3 = NH (16),

• Y = Y'= CCOOH, Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 and R 3 = R' 3 = S (17),

• Y = Y'= CCH 2 PO(OC 2 H 5 ) 2 , Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 and R 3 = R' 3 = NH

and in each compound (1) to (18):

Xi = X 2 = X 3 = X'i = X' 2 = X' 3 = X 4 = X 5 = X 6 = X 7 = X' 4 = X's = X' 6 = X'7 = CH,

Ra and Rb are each independently H or an alkyl C1-C10.

Compounds (1) to (18) of formula (I-l) are represented in Table 1 below.

Table 1 : 

According to a particular embodiment of the invention, compounds (1) and (2) responding to general formula (I-l) can be cited for their use for the detection, capture and/or separation of polluting gases.

According to another embodiment of the invention, in compounds of formula (I) as defined above, used for the detection, capture and/or separation of polluting gases:

W has the same meaning as V,

V represents:

Xi, X 2 , X 3 , X'i, X' 2 , X' 3 , X 4 , X 5 , X 6 , X7, X'4, X's, X' 6 , X y, Ri, R 2 , R' 2 , R 3 , R' 3 , R4 and R' 4 are as defined above.

Said compounds can thus be represented by a general formula (1-2), which is more specific than (I):

When:

Xi = X 2 = X 3 = X'i = X' 2 = X' 3 ,

X 4 = X 5 = X 6 = X7 = X'4 = X's = X' 6 = X'7,

R 2 = R' 2 , and

R 3 = R' 3 = R4 = R'4,

then compounds of formula (1-2) are symmetrical compounds. As an example of compound of general formula (I), and more particularly of formula (1-2), used for the detection, capture and/or separation of polluting gases, one can cited one of those selected from the group consisting of compounds of formula (I) wherein:

Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R' 3 = R4 = R' 4 = NH (19),

· Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R4 = NH, R' 3 = R' 4 = S (20),

• Ri = S, R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R' 3 = R 4 = R' 4 = NH (21),

• Ri = S, R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R 4 = NH, R' 3 = R' 4 = S (22),

• Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R' 3 = S, R 4 = R' 4 = NH (23),

• Ri = S, R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R' 3 = S, R 4 = R' 4 = NH (24),

and in each compound (19) to (24):

Xi = X 2 = X 3 = X'i = X' 2 = X' 3 = X 4 = X5 = X 6 = X7 = X' 4 = X'5 = X' 6 = X'7 = CH.

Compounds (19) to (24) of formula (1-2) are represented in Table 2 below.

Table 2:

According to another embodiment of the invention, in compounds of formula (I) as defined above, used for the detection, capture and/or separation of polluting gases:

W, R4 and R' 4 are absent,

V represents:

X 4 , X5, Χβ, X7, X'4, X's, X' 6 , X'7, Xs, X R2, R'2, R3 and R'3 are as defined above, and

Y and Y' are as defined above when W is absent.

Said compounds can thus be represented by a general formula (1-3), which is more specific than (I):

When:

X4 = X5 = X 6 = X7 = X'4 = X' 5 = Χ'δ = X'7,

R 2 = R'2,

R 3 = R' 3 and,

Y = Y\

then compounds of formula (1-3) are symmetrical compounds.

As an example of compound of general formula (I), and more particularly of formula (1-3), used for the detection, capture and/or separation of polluting gases, one can cited one of those selected from the group consisting of compounds of formula (I) wherein:

. Y = Y'= NJ R 2 = R ' 2 = N o 2 and R 3 = R' 3 = S (25),

• Y = Y'= CPO(OH) 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 and R 3 = R' 3 = NH (26),

• Y = Y'= CCH 2 PO(OC 2 H 5 ) 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R' 3 = NH (27),

• Y = Y'= CCOOH, R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R' 3 = S (28),

Y = Y'= CNH 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = C0 2 Et, R 3 = R' 3 = S (29),

• Y = Y'= CCOOH, R 2 = R' 2 = C0 2 Et, R 3 = R' 3 = S (30),

and in each compound (25) to (30):

X4 = X5 = X 6 = X 7 = X'4 = X'5 = X' 6 = X'7 = Xs = X = CH. Compounds (25) to (30) of formula (1-3) are represented in Table 3 below.

Table 3

According to another embodiment of the invention, in compounds of formula (I) as defined above, used for the detection, capture and/or separation of polluting gases:

W has the sam meaning as V,

V represents: ,

X 4 , X 5 , Xe, Xv, X'4, X's, X'e, X'v, Xs, X9, R2, R'2, R3, R'3 , R4 and R' 4 are as defined above. Said compounds can thus be represented by a general formula (1-4), which is more specific than (I):

When:

X4 = X5 = X 6 = X7 = X'4 = X'5 = Χ'δ = X'7,

R 2 = R' 2 ,

then compounds of formula (1-4) are symmetrical compounds.

As an example of compound of general formula (I), and more particularly of formula (1-4), used for the detection, capture and/or separation of polluting gases, one can cited one of those selected from the group consisting of compounds of formula (I) wherein:

R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R' 3 = R4= R'4 = NH (31),

• R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R' 3 = R4 = R' 4 = S (32),

• R 2 = R' 2 = COOC 2 H 5 , R 3 = R' 3 = R4 = R' 4 = S (33),

• R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R' 3 = S, R4 = R' 4 = NH (34),

and in each compound (31) to (34):

X4 — X5— X 6 — X 7 — X'4 - X'5 X' 6 X'7 Xs X CH.

Compounds (31) to (34) of formula (1-4) are represented in Table 4 below.

Table 4

According to one embodiment of the invention, compounds of formula (I), and more particularly of formula (1-1), (1-2), (1-3) and (1-4) are symmetrical compounds.

According to another embodiment of the invention, compounds of formula (I), and more particularly of formula (1-1), (1-2), (1-3) and (1-4) are not symmetrical compounds.

Compounds (I) of the invention, due to their structure, are particularly advantageous for their use for the detection, capture and/or separation of polluting gases. In fact, as mentioned above, compounds (I) are semi-rigid mesoporous and non-planar molecules having variable cavities bearing functional chemical groups which are able to interact specifically with gaseous or non- gaseous pollutants.

A subject of the invention is also a process for the depollution of the air and/or of toxic exhaust fumes, wherein the polluting agents present in said air and/or exhaust fumes are captured and/or separated into/by the compounds of general formula (I)) such as defined above, for their use for the detection, capture and/or separation of polluting gases.

The toxic exhaust fumes are for example those coming from the factories, the automobile or other transportation means, the indoor air pollution and also those found in biological fluids.

According to the invention, the polluting agents are gases selected from the group comprising carbon dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, linear hydrocarbons, linear mono-olefms and their mixtures, and are preferably carbon dioxide.

Compounds

Another subject of the invention is a compound having the general formula (I):

wherein

• V represents:

• W has the same meaning as V or W is absent, and when W is absent then R4 and R' 4 are also absent,

Xi, X 2 , X 3 , X'i, X' 2 , X'3, X 4 , Xs, Xe, Xv, X'4, X's, X'e, X'v, Xs and X 9 are each independently N or a CH group,

• when W has the same meaning as V, then Y and Y' are each a carbon atom,

• when W is absent, then Y and Y' are each independently N or a CR group, with R representing H, Ra, NRaR b , ORa, SRa, C0 2 Ra, CORa, CONHRa, CONRaR b , NHCORa, S0 2 Ra, S0 2 NHRa, S0 2 NRaR b , PRaR b , P(0)RaR b , P(0)(ORa)(OR b ), CH 2 PO(ORa)(OR b ), COCH 2 CORa, CSORa, CSRa, CSNHRa, CSNRaR b , NHCSRa, P(S)RaR b , CSCH 2 CSRa, NHCONHRa, NHCSNHRa or a five or six-membered aromatic or heteroaromatic compound chosen from benzene, pyridine, diazine, triazine, tetrazine, pyrrole, thiophene, furan, azole, triazole or tetrazole,

with R a and R b being each independently H, OH; an alkyl radical having from 1 to 10 carbon atoms (alkyl C 1 -C 10 ); a five or six-membered carbocycle chosen from cyclohexane, piperidine, piperazine, tetrahydrothiophene, tetrahydropyrrole or dihydroazole; or an aromatic or heteroaromatic compound chosen from pyridine, diazine, triazine, tetrazine, pyrrole, thiophene, furan, azole, triazole, tetrazole, benzoazole, benzotriazole or indole,

• Ri represents O, S, S0 2 , SO, CO, a NRa, SiRaR b , SnRaR b , BRa or a PRa group, Ra and R b being as defined above,

• R 2 and R' 2 are each independently COORa, N0 2 , CONRaR,, S0 2 Ra, S0 3 H, OSO3H, CORa, P03¾, OP03¾ or CN, Ra and R b being as defined above, • P 3, R'3, R4 and R'4 are each independently S, NR a , P, Se or Te, Ra being as defined above, with the proviso that when W, R 4 , R'4 are absent, and V represents

then

do not represent

and with the proviso that the above formula (I) does not represent one of the seven following compounds wherein:

- W is absent, V represents / , χ 4 = χ 5 = χ 6 = χ ν = χ' 4 = χ' 5 = χ' 6 = χ' ν

CH, and Υ = Υ' = CH, ¾ = S0 2 = R' 2 = Ν0 2 , R 3 = R'3 = NH ;

- W is absent, V represents , X 4 = X 5 = X 6 = X? = X' 4 = X's = X'e = X'v

CH, and Y = Y' = CNH 2 , Ri = = R' 2 = S0 3 H, R 3 = R' 3 = S

- W is absent, V represents , X 4 = X 5 = X 6 = X? = X' 4 = X's = X'e = X'v

= CH, and Y = Y' = CNH 2 ; ¾ = = R' 2 = S0 3 H, R 3 = R' 3 = S ; - W is absent, V represents X 4 = X 5 = X 6 = X? = X' 4 = X's = X'e = X'v

= CH, and Y = Y' = CH, ¾ = S0 2 ; R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R' 3 = S ;

- W = V = Y'

CH, R3 = R'3 = R 4 = R'4 = S, R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , X ¾ = X9 = CH - W = V = , X4 = X 5 = X6 = X7 = X'4 = X'5 = X'6 = X'7 = CH, and Y = Y' CH, R 3 = R' 3 = R4 = R'4 = NH, R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , X 8 = X 9 = CH ;

. W = V = ^ XT , X 4 = X 5 = Xe = Xv = X'4 = X's = X'e = X'v = CH, and Y = Y' =

CH, R 3 = R' 3 = R4 = R' 4 = NCH 3 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , X 8 = X 9 = CH.

According to an embodiment of the invention, in the compounds of formula (I) as defined in the paragraph "compounds" above:

• V represents:

· X 4 , X5, X5, Xv, X'4, X's, X' 6 and X' 7 are each independently N or CH,

• when W has the same meaning as V, then Y and Y' are each a carbon atom,

• when W is absent, then Y and Y' are each independently N or a CR group, R being H, NR a R b , C0 2 R a , P(0)(OR a )(OR b ), CH 2 PO(OR a )(OR b ),

• Ri represents S, S0 2 , NR a or O,

· R 2 and R' 2 are each independently N0 2 , COOR a , COR a or CONR a R b ,

• R 3 , R' 3 , R 4 and R' 4 are each independently S or NR a ,

with R a and R b are each independently H or an alkyl C 1 -C 10 .

In a particular embodiment of the invention, in compound of formula (I) as defined in the paragraph "compound" above, X X 2 , X 3 , ΧΊ, X' 2 , X' 3 , X 4 , X 5 , X 6 , X 7 , X' 4 , X's, X'e, X'v, Xs

According to another embodiment of the invention, in the compounds of formula (I) as defined in the paragraph "compounds" above:

W, R 4 and R' 4 are absent, V represents: Xi, X 2 , X 3 , X'i, X' 2 , X' 3j X 4 , X 5 , X 6 , X 7 , X' 4 , X' 5 , X' 6 , X'7, Rij R2, R'2, R 3 and R' 3 are as defined above, and Y and Y' are as defined above when W is absent.

Such compounds correspond to compounds of formula (I-l):

wherein X l s X 2 , X 3j ΧΊ, X' 2 , X' 3j X 4 , X5, X 6 , X 7 , X' 4 , X'5, X' 6 , X'7, Ri, R2, R'2, R 3 , R' 3 , Y and Y' are as defined above.

As an example of compound of general formula (I), and more particularly of formula (I-l), one can cited one of those selected from the group consisting of compounds of formula (I) wherein:

· Y = Y'= CNH 2 , Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R'2 = N0 2 and R 3 = R' 3 = S (1),

Y = Y'= CNH 2 , Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 and R 3 = R' 3 = NH (2),

Y = Y'= N, Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 and R 3 = R' 3 = S (3),

Y = Y'= N, Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 and R 3 = R' 3 = NH (4),

Y = Y'= N, Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = COORa and R 3 = R' 3 = NH (5),

· Y = Y'= N, Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = COORa and R 3 = R' 3 = S (6),

Y = Y' N, Ri = S, R 2 = R' 2 = COORa and R 3 = R' 3 = S (7),

Y = Y' N, Ri = S, R 2 = R' 2 = COORa and R 3 = R' 3 = NH (8),

Y = Y'= CNH 2 , Ri = S, R 2 = R' 2 = COORa and R 3 = R' 3 = NH (9),

Y = Y'= CNH 2 , Ri = S, R 2 = R' 2 = COORa and R 3 = R' 3 = S (10),

· Y = Y'= CNH 2 , Ri = S, R 2 = R' 2 = CONRaR b and R 3 = R' 3 = S (ll),

Y = Y'= CNH 2 , Ri = S, R 2 = R' 2 = CONRaR b and R 3 = R' 3 = NH (12),

Y = Y'= CNH 2 , Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = CONRaRb and R 3 = R' 3 = NH (13),

Y = Y'= CNH 2 , Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = CONRaRb and R 3 = R' 3 = S (14),

Y = Y'= N, Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = CONRaRb and R 3 = R' 3 = S (15),

· Y = Y'= N, Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = CONRaRb and R 3 = R' 3 = NH (16),

Y = Y'= CCOOH, Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 and R 3 = R' 3 = S (17),

Y = Y'= CCH 2 PO(OC 2 H 5 ) 2 , Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 and R 3 = R' 3 = NH (18), and in each compound (1) to (18):

Xi = X 2 = X 3 = X'i = X' 2 = X' 3 = X 4 = X5 = X 6 = X7 = X' 4 = X'5 = X' 6 = X'7 = CH, R a and R b are each independently H or an alkyl C 1 -C 10 .

Such compounds (1) to (18) are defined in Table 1 above.

According to another embodiment of the invention, in the compounds of formula (I) defined in the paragraph "compounds" above:

W has the same meaning as V,

V represents:

Xi, X 2 , X 3 , X'i, X' 2 , X' 3 , X 4 , X 5 , X 6 , X7, X'4, X's, X' 6 , X y, Ri, R 2 , R' 2 , R 3 , R' 3 , R4 and R' 4 are as defined above.

Such compounds correspond to co ):

wherein X l s X 2 , X 3 , ΧΊ, X' 2 , X' 3 , X 4 , X5, X 6 , X 7 , X'4, X's, X' 6 , X'7, Ri, R 2 , R' 2 , R 3 , R' 3 , R4, R' 4 are as defined previously.

As an example of compound of general formula (I), and more particularly of formula (1-2), one can cited one of those selected from the group consisting of compounds of formula (I) wherein:

• Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R' 3 = R 4 = R' 4 = NH (19),

• Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R 4 = NH, R' 3 = R' 4 = S (20),

• Ri = S, R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R' 3 = R 4 = R' 4 = NH (21),

· Ri = S, R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R4 = NH, R' 3 = R' 4 = S (22),

Ri = S0 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R' 3 = S, R4 = R' 4 = NH (23),

Ri = S, R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R' 3 = S, R4 = R' 4 = NH (24),

and in each compound (19) to (24):

Xi = X 2 = X 3 = X'i = X' 2 = X' 3 = X4 = X5 = X 6 = X7 = X'4 = X'5 = X' 6 = X'7 = CH.

Such compounds (19) to (24) are defined in Table 2 above According to another embodiment of the invention, in the compounds of formula (I) as defined in the paragraph "compounds" above:

W, R4 and R' 4 are absent,

V represents:

X 4 , X5, X 6 , X7, X'4, X's, X' 6 , X'7, Xs, X R2, R'2, R3 and R'3 are as defined above, and Y and Y' are as defined above when W is absent.

Such compounds correspond to compounds of formula (1-3):

wherein X 4 , X 5 , X 6 , Xy, X'4, X's, X'e, X'v, Xs, ¾, R2, R'2, R3, R'3, Y and Y' are as defined previously.

As an example of compound of general formula (I), and more particularly of formula (1-3), one can cited one of those selected from the group consisting of compounds of formula (I) wherein:

Y = Y'= N, R 2 = R' 2 = NO2 and R 3 = R' 3 = S (25),

Y = Y'= CPO(OH) 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 and R 3 = R' 3 = NH (26),

Y = Y'= CCH 2 PO(OC 2 H 5 ) 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R' 3 = NH (27),

Y = Y'= CCOOH, R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R' 3 = S (28),

Y = Y'= CNH 2 , R 2 = R' 2 = C0 2 Et, R 3 = R' 3 = S (29),

Y = Y'= CCOOH, R 2 = R' 2 = C0 2 Et, R 3 = R' 3 = S (30),

and in each compound (25) to (30):

X 4 = X5 = X 6 = X 7 = X' 4 = X'5 = X' 6 = X'7 = Xs = X = CH.

Such compounds (25) to (30) are defined in Table 3 above

According to another embodiment of the invention, in compounds of formula (I) as defined in the paragraph "compounds" above:

W has the same meaning as V, V represents: ,

X 4 , X 5 , Xe, Xv, X X's, X'e, X'v, Xs, X9, R2, R'2, R3, R'3, R4 and R' 4 are as defined above. Such compounds correspond to compounds of formula (1-4):

wherein X 4 , X 5 , X 6 , X 7 , X' 4 , X's, X'e, X'v, Xs, X9, R2, R'2, R3, R'3, R4, R are as defined previously.

As an example of compound of general formula (I), and more particularly of formula (1-4), one can cited one of those selected from the group consisting of compounds of formula (I) wherein:

• R 2 = R' 2 = C0 2 Et , R 3 = R' 3 = R4 = R'4 = S (33),

• R 2 = R' 2 = N0 2 , R 3 = R' 3 = S, R4 = R' 4 = NH (34),

and in each compound (33) to (34):

X 4 = X5 = X 6 = X 7 = X' 4 = X'5 = X' 6 = X'v = Xs = X = CH.

Compounds (33) and (34) are listed in Table 4 above.

Process

Another subject of the invention is also a process for the preparation of compounds of formula (I), such a process being for example such as defined in the following reaction scheme (one-pot or iterative synthesis): iterative synthesis

The process for the preparation of compounds of formula (I-l) can for example be defined by the followin reaction scheme:

LG is a leaving group, preferably selected from halogen, tosylate, mesylate or ammonium.

The process for the preparation of compounds of formula (1-2) can for example be defined by the following reaction scheme (via iterative pathway):

The process for the preparation of compounds of formula (1-3) can for example be defined by the following reaction scheme:

The process for the preparation of compounds of formula (1-4) can for example be defined by the following reaction scheme:

Further aspects and advantages of this invention will be disclosed in the following figures and examples, which should be regarded as illustrative and not limiting the scope of this application.

Brief description of the figures

Figure 1: adsorption isotherms of compounds (1) and (2) of general formula (I), and more particularly of formula (1-1), for carbon dioxide at 303°K.

Figure 2: adsorption isotherms of compounds (1) and (2) of general formula (I), and more particularly of formula (1-1), for methane at 303°K.

Figure 3: differential enthalpies of adsorption of carbon dioxide for compounds (1) and (2) of general formula (I), and more particularly of formula (1-1), at 303°K.

Figure 4: adsorption isotherms of compounds (2) (formula (1-1)) and (19) (formula (1-2)) of general formula (I), for carbon dioxide at 303°K.

Figure 5: adsorption isotherms of compounds (19) (formula (1-2)) and (31) (formula (1-4)) of general formula (I), for carbon dioxide at 303°K.

Figure 6: adsorption isotherms of compounds (25) and (28) of general formula (I), and more particularly of formula (1-3), for carbon dioxide at 303°K.

Examples Example 1: General synthesis protocol of compounds of general formula (I) 1. General synthesis protocol of compounds of general formulae (1-1) and (1-3)

To a solution of a di-halogenated (or an analogous) derivative (1 equiv.) in a polar solvent (or a mixture of polar solvents) was added a thiol or amino derivative (2.6 equiv.) and a base (such as DIPEA (diisopropylethylamine, Hiinig base), NaH, CS 2 CO 3 , K 2 CO 3 , NaOH etc. (2.6 equiv.)) or was added to the reaction mixture. The reaction was heated to reflux or stirred at room temperature and then cooled down to room temperature. The obtain precipitate was filtered off and washed successively with ethanol and water. The obtained solid was dried under vacuum affording the cyclic compound as a colored solid.

1.1. Synthesis of compound (1) of the invention (formula (1-1)):

To a solution of 0.80 g (2.30 mmol) of bis-(4-fluoro-3-nitrophenyl) sulfone in 50 mL of a mixture of ethanol/CH 3 CN (v:v) was added, at room temperature, 0.760 g (6.00 mmol) of 4- aminothiophenol. To this reaction mixture was added 0.980 mL of DIPEA. Within 2 min an orange precipitate appeared. The reaction was heated to reflux during 3h then cooled down to room temperature and then filtered off. The obtained solid was washed with ethanol (50 mL), then with hot water (50 mL) and finally with 50 mL of ethanol. After drying under reduced pressure, a yellow solid (1) was obtained in 92% yield. The melting point is 314.20°C. 1H NMR

(250 MHz, DMSO d 6 ) δ 8.63 (d, J = 1.9 Hz, 2H), 8.06 (dd, J = 8.7, 1.9 Hz, 2H), 7.18 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 4H), 6.99 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 2H), 6.68 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 4H), 5.82 (s, 4H). 13 C NMR (62.50 MHz, DMSO d 6 ) δ 151.46, 148.33, 143.51, 137.00, 136.15, 131.61, 128.95, 125.17, 115.26, 110.60. ESI-MS : 555.1 m/z [M+H] + . 577.1 m/z [M+Na] + . EA calculated for C 24 Hi 8 N 4 0 6 S 3 : N 10.10, C 51.97, H 3.27, S 17.34; found : N 9.89, C 51.77, H 3.21, S 17.98.

1.2. Synthesis of compound (2) of the invention (formula (1-1):

To a solution of 0.69 g (1 mmol) of bis-(4-fluoro-3-nitrophenyl) sulfone in 50 mL of a mixture of ethanol/CHsCN (20 : 30) was added simultaneously at 0 °C, 1.66 mL (10.00 mmol) of DIPEA and 1.08 g (6.00 mmol) of 1 ,4-diaminobenzene dihydro chloride. The reaction mixture was warmed up and heated under reflux over 18 hours. During the course of the reaction a dark brown precipitate was formed. The reaction mixture was cooled down to room temperature and then filtered off. The obtained brown precipitate was washed with ethanol (50 mL), then with hot water (50 mL) and finally with 50 mL of ethanol again. The brown solid was dried under reduced pressure, and a brown solid (2) is obtained in 71% yield. The melting point is 285.28 °C.

1H NMR (250 MHz, DMSO d 6 ) δ 9.74 (s, 2H), 8.51 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 2H), 7.79 (dd, J = 9.2, 2.2 Hz, 2H), 6.93 (dd, J = 8.9, 2.8 Hz, 6H), 6.61 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 4H), 5.27 (s, 4H). 13 C NMR (62.50 MHz, DMSO d 6 ) δ 147.57, 146.70, 132.58, 130.05, 126.76, 126.13, 124.81, 117.19, 113.95. ESI- MS : 521.1 m/z [M+H] + . 543.1 m/z [M+Na] + . EA calculated for C 24 H 2 oN 6 0 6 S: N 16.15, C 55.38, H 3.87, S 6.16 ; found : N 15.70, C 54.56, H 3.76, S 6.23.

1.3. Synthesis of compound (25) of the invention (formula (1-3):

(25)

To a solution of 1.500 g of 4-mercaptopyridine (13.5 mmol) in 20 mL of dry THF was slowly added, at 0°C under an argon atmosphere, 0.346 g of NaH (14.40 mmol, 60% in mineral oil). The reaction mixture was kept 1 hour under stirring then 1.25 g of l,5-difluoro-2,4- dinitrobenzene (6.14 mmol) in 10 mL of dry THF was added dropwise. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature over 18h. To the dark brown solution was added 50 mL of water and the precipitate obtained was filtered off and washed with ethanol (70 ml). The pale yellow solid was dried affording compound 25 in 68% yield. 1H NMR (250 MHz, DMSO) δ 9.02 (s, 1H), 8.52 (dd, J = 4.6, 1.3 Hz, 4H), 7.39 (dd, J = 4.5, 1.4 Hz, 4H), 6.42 (s, 1H). 13 C NMR (101 MHz, DMSO d6) δ 151.02, 141.88, 141.09, 138.16, 128.28, 126.63, 123.68. ESI-MS : 387 m/z [M+H . 393 m/z [M+Li . EA calculated for C16H10N4O4S2: N, 14.50; C, 49.73; H, 2.61; S, 16.60 found: N, 14.78; C, 49.06; H, 2.49; S, 16.46.

2. General synthesis protocol of compounds of general formulae (1-2) and (1-4) (cyclic compounds)

Iterative synthesis: To a solution of compound (formula 1-1 or 1-3) in a polar solvent was added a di-halogenated (or an analogous) derivative (1 equiv) followed by a base (2.5 equiv). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature or under reflux. Solvent was added or not to precipitate the cyclic derivative. The precipitate was filtered off and washed successively with water and a polar solvent such as ethanol. The solid was finally dried under reduce pressure to afford the pure compound.

One-pot synthesis: To a solution of a di-halogenated (or an analogous) derivative (1 equiv.) in a polar solvent (or a mixture of polar solvents) was added an aromatic compound bearing two acidic groups (such as SH, NH 2 , OH etc. (1 equiv.) followed by a base (2.5 equiv.). The reaction was heated to reflux or stirred at room temperature and then cooled down to room temperature. The obtain precipitate was filtered off and washed successively with ethanol and water. The obtained solid was dried under vacuum affording the corresponding compound as a solid.

2.1. Synthesis of compound (19) of the invention (formula (1-2):

To a solution of 0.91 mmol of compound 2 in 30 mL of dimethylformamide (DMF) was added, at room temperature, a solution of 1.05 mmol of bis-(4-fluoro-3-nitrophenyl)sulfone) in 5 mL of DMF and 2.91 mmol of diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA). The reaction mixture was heated (90°C) under magnetic stirring over 5 days. After that, 50 mL of acetonitrile (CH3CN) were added to precipitate the product and the material was filtered. The obtained solid was carefully washed with 100 mL of CH3CN. The dark red solid was dried under reduced pressure affording the macrocycle in 51%. 1H NMR (250 MHz, DMSO d6 ) δ (ppm) : 9.91 (s, 4H) ; 8.58 (s, 4H) ; 7.91 (d, J= 7.90 Hz, 4H) ; 7.41 (s, 8H) ; 7.19 (d, J= 8.80 Hz, 4H). ESI-MS (m/z) : 823 [M-H] + . EA calculated for C38H24N8O12S2: C: 52.43; H: 2.93; N: 13.59; S: 7.77; found: C: 52.53; H: 2.92; N: 12.84; S: 7.52.

2.2. Synthesis of compound (31) of the invention (formula (1-4):

To a solution of N, N'-(4,6-dinitro-l,3-phenylene)dibenzene-l,4-diamine in CH3CN in the presence of DIPEA (5 equiv) was added l,5-difluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (1 equiv.). The reaction mixture was refluxed under reflux to afford a precipitate of 31, which was isolated by filtration in 84% yield. 31 could not be characterized in solution by 1H NMR due its lack of solubility even in DMSO. MS (ESI): 543 [M-H] + ; EA calculated for C 2 4Hi 6 N 8 0 8 : C 52.95, H 2.96, N 20.58; found: C 52.44, H 3.07, N 20.22.

Example 2: Gas adsorption measurements of compounds of general formula (I)

Method:

Compounds of general formula (I), and more particularly of formula (1-1), (1-2), (1-3) and (I- 4) were tested for gas adsorption measurements, for instance C0 2 and CH 4 , and results are reported on figures 1 to 6.

0.40 g of sample was used. Prior to each experiment, samples were outgassed ex situ at 333°K for 16 h under a secondary vacuum of 10 "3 mbar. High-pressure gas adsorption measurements were carried out at 303 K (Kelvin) and up to 30 bars with C0 2 and CH 4 using a homemade high- throughput instrument However, most differences in the data are visible up to 2 bars. The gases were obtained from Air Liquide. Methane (CH 4 ) was of 99.9995%) purity, carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) was of 99.995% purity.

Gas adsorption is measured via a manometric gas dosing system on six samples in parallel with a point-by-point introduction of gas to the sample. The amounts of gas adsorbed are calculated by an equation of state using the Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties (REFPROP) software package 8.0 of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 1 ^. This experimental device is convenient because only 100 mg of sample is used, and each sample can be thermally activated individually in situ under primary vacuum, at a given final temperature overnight (here around 50-60°C).

Adsorption experiments were combined with microcalorimetry. The adsorption enthalpy was obtained by coupling that kind of system with a Tian-Calvet type microcalorimeter.

In this case, the experimental device allows the determination of the adsorption isotherm and the adsorption enthalpy simultaneously. An exothermic thermal effect accompanied each introduction. This peak in the curve of energy with time has to be integrated to provide an integral (or pseudo-differential) molar enthalpy of adsorption for each dose.

1. Gas adsorption measurements of compounds (1) and (2) (formula (1-1))

Figures 1 and 2 show respectively the adsorption isotherms of compounds (1) and (2) for carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) (fig. 1) and methane (CH 4 ) (fig. 2).

These measurements are relevant up to 20 bars approximately. Indeed, above 20 bars we observe a slight increase the amount adsorbed whereas we expect more something like a plateau, according to the global shape of the adsorption isotherm, indicating a kind of saturation of the sample. This behavior is more an artifact of the experimental device, which is more pronounced when the adsorption is weak.

The difference between compounds (1) and (2) provides from the replacement of two sulfurs present in compound (1) by two secondary amine functions in compound (2).

Compound (1) is most efficient for molecule adsorption than compound (2). It could be deduced than sulfur functions accompanied by primary amine function on phenyl groups are more efficient for molecule adsorption than other combinations.

The differential enthalpies of adsorption of carbon dioxide for compounds (1) and (2) are reported on figure 3. The enthalpy of adsorption for the samples in the low-pressure region is in the range -30 to -35 kJ.mol 1 . The enthalpies of adsorption decrease with increasing loading to reach a value at approximately -10 kJ.mol 1 .

This value is not representative of a real adsorption behavior because if adsorption is still occurring in a system the resulting enthalpies must be higher or at least equal to the enthalpy of liquefaction of C0 2 (-17.5 kJ.mol "1 ). When the energetic values measured/calculated drop below the enthalpy of liquefaction of C0 2 it means that the adsorption phenomenon is very poor and these values are a combination of various effects/errors, and couldn't help to the understanding of the system in this domain. These trends (the decreasing energetic profile) suggest that at low pressure, adsorption occurs on specific sites prior to coverage of the remaining surface. According to the literature ^ 7) , this value of -35 kJ mol "1 is in the same order of magnitude than that could be attempt for carbon dioxide adsorption with some metal-organic frameworks materials.

Regenerability of the sample has been evaluated under mild conditions. Indeed for each gas (C0 2 and CH 4 ) two measurements with the same parameters are performed on the sample. Between the first experiment and the second experiment, the sample is submitted to an evacuation step at 30°C and under primary vacuum during one hour. By this way, from the second gas adsorption measurement the regenerability/recovery of the sample can be checked under these conditions.

2. Gas adsorption measurements of compounds (25) and (28) (formula (1-3))

From figure 6 one can deduce that the chemical groups at the periphery affect dramatically the adsorption properties of the acyclic compounds regardless the cavity size. The chemical groups at the periphery will affect both the supramolecular intermolecular interactions and the interaction with the pollutant. Compound (28) is more efficient for C0 2 adsorption than compound (25). The only difference between the two open-chain structures is related to their end-substitution. The latter will modify the porosity of the bulk material through the formation of a possible 3D-supramolecular network, which will affect the adsorption properties in conjunction with its direct interaction with the pollutant.

3. Gas adsorption measurements of compounds (2) (formula (1-1)), (19) (formula (1-2) and (31) (formula (1-4))

One can deduce from figure 4 that compound (19) (cyclic compound) is most efficient for molecule adsorption than compound (2), which represents the open-chain analogue of compound (19). Thus the effect of the macrocyclic structure (compound 19) is to increase the ligand field strength. One can also deduce from figure 5 that compound (19) (cyclic compound) is most efficient for molecule adsorption than compound (31). Thus the larger cavity present in compound (19) (compared to the cavity present in compound (31)) led to greater amount of C0 2 adsorbed. Conclusion on the adsorption properties of compounds of formula (I)

Compounds of formula (I) have demonstrated efficient adsorption properties toward gaseous pollutant such as C0 2 and CH 4 for instance. Owing their non-planar structures, compounds of formula (I) lead to porous bulk material in which the adsorption efficiency can be governed and modulated by several structural factors. Generally speaking open-chain compounds of formula I- 1 and 1-3 exhibit a lower efficiency compared to their cyclic counterparts of formula 1-2 and 1-4. The peripheral substituents dramatically affect the adsorption properties by varying the bulk material porosity and governing the interactions with the pollutants. In addition, the cavity sizes of the compounds of formula (I) modulate the adsorption efficiency. Thus, compounds having larger cavities in conjunction with the appropriate substituents present the highest adsorption capabilities. Cyclic structures of formula 1-2 exhibit higher adsorption efficiencies compared to the cyclic structures of formula 1-3 due to larger cavities.

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