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Title:
COMPOUNDS FOR REVERSING AND INHIBITING PROTEIN AGGREGATION, AND METHODS FOR MAKING AND USING THEM
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2010/037135
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
The invention provides compositions for increasing the clearance of protein aggregates, and pharmaceutical compositions comprising them, and methods for making and using them, including methods for accelerating protein aggregate clearance in the CNS, e.g., for treating diseases that are characterized by protein aggregation - including some degenerative neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease. In one aspect, the compositions of the invention specifically target synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein aggregates, and the methods of the invention can be used to specifically prevent, reverse, slow or inhibit synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein aggregation. In alternative embodiments, the compositions and methods of the invention, are used to treat, prevent, reverse (partially or completely) or ameliorate (including slowing the progression of) degenerative neurological diseases related to or caused by protein aggregation, e.g., synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein aggregation. In one aspect, compositions and methods of this invention are used to treat, prevent or ameliorate (including slowing the progression of) Parkinson's disease, fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Lewy body disease (LBD) and Multiple system atrophy (MSA).

Inventors:
MASLIAH, Eliezer (4661 Corte Mar Del Corazon, San Diego, CA, 92130, US)
SPENCER, Brian (2912 Kalmia Street, San Diego, CA, 92104, US)
ROCKENSTEIN, Edward (2026 Terrakappa Avenue, Spring Valley, CA, 91977, US)
MARR, Robert (3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL, 60064, US)
Application Number:
US2009/058883
Publication Date:
April 01, 2010
Filing Date:
September 29, 2009
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA (1111 Franklin Street, 5th FloorOakland, CA, 94607-5200, US)
ROSALIND FRANKLIN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE AND SCIENCE (3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL, 60064, US)
MASLIAH, Eliezer (4661 Corte Mar Del Corazon, San Diego, CA, 92130, US)
SPENCER, Brian (2912 Kalmia Street, San Diego, CA, 92104, US)
ROCKENSTEIN, Edward (2026 Terrakappa Avenue, Spring Valley, CA, 91977, US)
MARR, Robert (3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL, 60064, US)
International Classes:
C07K19/00; A61K38/00; C07K14/47
Foreign References:
US20050170359A12005-08-04
US20050239062A12005-10-27
US20040038302A12004-02-26
Other References:
WILLIAM E. KLUNK ET AL.: 'Imaging Brain Amyloid in Alzheimer' s Disease with Pittsburgh Compound-B' ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY vol. 55, 2004, pages 306 - 319
ANGELA R. JONES ET AL: 'Blood-Brain Barrier Transport of Therapeutics via Receptor-Mediation' PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH vol. 24, no. 9, 2007, pages 1759 - 1771, XP019532601
SHINGO ITO ET AL.: 'Cerebral Clearance of Human Amyloid-beta Peptide (1-40) Across the Blood-brain Barrier is Reduced by Self-aggregation and Formation of Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein-1 Ligand Complexes' JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY vol. 103, 2007, pages 2482 - 2490
LAURA MORELLI ET AL.: 'The Degradation of Amyloid b As a Therapeutic Strategy in Alzheimer's Disease and Cerebrovascular Amyloidoses' NEUROCHEMICAL RESEARCH vol. 27, no. 11, 2002, pages 1387 - 1399
VINCENZO GIORDAN ET AL.: 'Systemic and Brain Metabolic Dysfunction As a New Paradigm for Approaching Alzheimer's Dementia' NEUROCHEMICAL RESEARCH vol. 32, 2007, pages 555 - 567
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
EINHORN, Gregory, P. (Gavrilovich, Dodd & Lindsey Llp4660 La Jolla Village Drive, Suite 75, San Diego CA, 92122, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. An isolated, synthetic or recombinant polypeptide or peptide comprising:

(a) (i) a first domain comprising, or consisting of, a ligand for a blood brain barrier (BBB) receptor or equivalent; and (ii) a second domain comprising, or consisting of an enzyme or composition that slows the rate of aggregation of a protein aggregate, inhibits the formation of a protein aggregate, or reverses, digests or dissolves a protein aggregate;

(b) the polypeptide or peptide of (a), wherein the first domain comprises a ligand or equivalent for:

(i) a BBB receptor or equivalent comprising a BB endothelial cell receptor, a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR), a low-density lipoprotein receptor- related protein-1 (LRPl), a very-low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL),; or,

(ii) a transferrin receptor, an insulin growth factor receptor, a megalin receptor and/or an apolipoprotein E receptor 2;

(c) the polypeptide or peptide of (a), wherein the ligand comprises or consists of an apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and/or an apolipoprotein E (ApoE);

(d) the polypeptide or peptide of (a), wherein the second domain comprises:

(i) a neprilysin (NEP) protein or a secreted neprilysin (NEP) protein (secNEP, a secreted NEP protein), an insulin degrading enzyme (IDE); an endothelin convertase enzyme (ECE), a Serine Endo-Peptidase (SEP, a metalo-endopeptidase), or enzymatically active fragments thereof;

(ii) an autophagy regulating protein, ATG7 autophagy related 7 homolog (Atg7), a Beclin, a Beclin 1 protein (coiled-coil, myosin-like BCL2 interacting protein), an autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 2 isoform A, an autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 2 isoform B, a cysteine protease ATG4D, an UCHLl, a C54 family autophagy-related protein, or enzymatically active fragments thereof;

(iii) an apolipoprotein E (ApoE);

(iv) a heat shock pathway protein (a Heat shock protein, or HSP), hsp90, hsp84, hsp70, hsp27 or hsp20;

(v) a protein of the ubiquitin/ proteosomal pathway, a ubiquitin, a proteosome, a proteosome 1 IS regulatory particle, a proteosome 19S particle or a proteosome 2OS particle; (vi) a protein involved in intracellular clearance of accumulated protein, or a transtherytin (TTR) protein; and/or

(vii) a protein or nucleic acid that regulates the production of APP, or an miR- 106b family micro RNA; (e) the polypeptide or peptide of any of (a) to (d), wherein the protein aggregate comprises or consists of a synuclein, an amyloid beta (AB) protein aggregate and/or a tau protein aggregate, and/or the protein aggregate comprises a neurofibrillary tangle;

(f) the polypeptide or peptide of any of (a) to (e), wherein the first domain ligand or equivalent specifically binds to: (i) a BBB receptor or equivalent comprising a BB endothelial cell receptor, a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR), a low-density lipoprotein receptor- related protein- 1 (LRPl), a very- low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL); or,

(ii) a transferrin receptor, an insulin growth factor receptor, a megalin receptor and/or an apolipoprotein E receptor 2; (g) the polypeptide or peptide of any of (a) to (f), wherein the second domain comprises a polypeptide or peptide that inhibits protein or peptide aggregation, or dissolves or reverses a protein or peptide aggregation;

(h) the polypeptide or peptide of any of (a) to (g), wherein the protein aggregation comprises or consists of a synuclein, a beta-amyloid or a tau protein; (i) the polypeptide or peptide of any of (a) to (h), wherein the polypeptide or peptide is chemically synthesized or is recombinantly produced, or is a fusion protein or a chemically fused chimeric protein;

(j) the polypeptide or peptide of any of (a) to (i), further comprising a heterologous protein or a non-protein moiety, domain or molecule; (k) the polypeptide or peptide of any of (a) to (j), further comprising at least one pharmaceutically acceptable excipient;

(1) the polypeptide or peptide of any of (a) to (k), wherein the polypeptide or peptide comprises an apoB-secNEP, an apoB-Beclin or an apoB-apoE polypeptide; or

(m) the polypeptide or peptide of any of (a) to (1), wherein the first domain ligand or equivalent comprises or is the equivalent of an antibody or antigen binding fragment that specifically binds to a BB endothelial cell receptor, a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR), a low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein- 1 (LRPl), a very-low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL), a transferrin receptor, an insulin growth factor receptor, a megalin receptor and/or an apolipoprotein E receptor 2.

2. A pharmaceutical formulation comprising: (a) at least one polypeptide or peptide of claim 1, or

(b) the pharmaceutical formulation of (a), formulated as an aqueous suspension, a solid, a liquid, a powder, an emulsion, a lyophilized powder, a spray, a cream, a lotion, a controlled release formulation, a tablet, a pill, a gel, a liposome, on a patch, in an implant, on a tape, a dragee, a capsule, a lozenge, a gel, a syrup, a slurry and/or a suspension.

3. A liposome comprising at least one polypeptide or peptide of claim 1, and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of claim 2.

4. A nanoparticle comprising at least one polypeptide or peptide of claim 1, and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of claim 2.

5. Use of at least one polypeptide or peptide of claim 1, and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of claim 2, for the manufacture of a medicament.

6. Use of at least one polypeptide or peptide of claim 1, and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of claim 2, for the manufacture of a medicament for (a) the clearance of a protein or peptide aggregation, or for the treatment, prevention or amelioration of diseases or conditions associated with a protein aggregation; (b) the clearance of a synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein or peptide aggregation, or preventing, reversing, slowing or inhibiting synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein aggregation; (c) preventing, reversing, slowing or inhibiting a neurodegenerative disease and/or its symptoms associated with synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein aggregation; or (d) cleaving an AB 1-42 protein.

7. Use of at least one polypeptide or peptide of claim 1, and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of claim 2, for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment, prevention or amelioration of Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Lewy body disease (LBD), a hereditary systemic amyloidosis or Multiple system atrophy (MSA), and/or any one or several of their symptoms.

8. A method for increasing the clearance of a protein or peptide aggregation or aggregate, or for the treatment, prevention or amelioration of a disease or a condition, and/or any one or several of their associated symptoms, associated with protein aggregation in an individual, comprising:

(a) administering an effective amount of at least one polypeptide or peptide of claim 1 , and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of claim 2, and/or at least one the liposome of claim 3, and/or at least one the nanoparticle of claim 4; or,

(b) the method of (a), wherein the protein or peptide aggregation or aggregate comprises or consists of a synuclein, an amyloid beta (AB) protein aggregate and/or a tau protein aggregate, and/or a protein aggregate comprising a neurofibrillary tangle, and/or an AB 1-42 protein.

9. The method of claim 8, wherein the method comprises (a) preventing, reversing, slowing or inhibiting synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein aggregation; or (b) preventing, reversing, slowing or inhibiting a neurodegenerative disease associated with protein aggregation.

10. The method of claim 8 or claim 9, wherein the disease or condition associated with protein aggregation is Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's Disease (AD), fronto- temporal dementia (FTD), Lewy body disease (LBD), a hereditary systemic amyloidosis and/or Multiple system atrophy (MSA).

11. A method for increasing the clearance of a protein or peptide aggregation or aggregate, or for preventing, inhibiting, reversing or slowing aggregation of a polypeptide or peptide, comprising

(a) contacting a cell with at least one polypeptide or peptide of claim 1, and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of claim 2, and/or at least one the liposome of claim 3, and/or at least one the nanoparticle of claim 4; or (b) the method of (a), wherein the protein or peptide aggregation or aggregate comprises or consists of a synuclein, an amyloid beta (AB) protein aggregate and/or a tau protein aggregate, and/or a protein aggregate comprising a neurofibrillary tangle.

12. A method for increasing the clearance of a protein or peptide aggregation or aggregate, or for preventing, inhibiting, reversing or slowing a neurodegenerative process, a disease or a condition, and/or any one or several of their associated symptoms, to an individual in need thereof, comprising

(a) administering to the individual at least one polypeptide or peptide of claim 1, and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of claim 2, and/or at least one the liposome of claim 3, and/or at least one the nanoparticle of claim 4;

(b) the method of (a), wherein the administration comprises contacting a nerve cell or a CNS tissue with at least one polypeptide or peptide of claim 1, and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of claim 2, and/or at least one the liposome of claim 3, and/or at least one the nanoparticle of claim 4;

(c) the method of (a) or (b), wherein the contacting is in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo.;

(d) the method of any of (a) to (c), wherein the CNS tissue comprises a nerve or a non- nerve cell;

(e) the method of (d), wherein the non-nerve cell is a glial cell; or (f) the method of (e), wherein the glial cell is a microglia cell, a macrophage, a macroglial cell, an ependymal cell, a radial cell, an oligodendrocyte, an astrocyte or a Schwann cell ; or

(g) the method of any of (a) to (f), wherein the protein or peptide aggregation or aggregate comprises or consists of a synuclein, an amyloid beta (AB) protein aggregate and/or a tau protein aggregate, and/or a protein aggregate comprising a neurofibrillary tangle.

13. A method for increasing the clearance of a protein or peptide aggregation or aggregate, or interfering in the accumulation of protein or peptide aggregation in a cell, or reversing protein or peptide aggregation in a cell, or preventing protein or peptide aggregation in a cell, comprising: (a) contacting the cell with an effective amount of at least one polypeptide or peptide of claim 1, and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of claim 2, and/or at least one the liposome of claim 3, and/or at least one the nanoparticle of claim 4;

(b) the method of (a), wherein the contacting is in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo; (c) the method of (a) or (b), wherein the cell is a central nervous system (CNS) cell;

(d) the method of (c), wherein the CNS cell is a nerve or a non-nerve cell;

(e) the method of (d), wherein the non-nerve cell is a glial cell;

(f) the method of (e), wherein the glial cell is a microglia cell, a macrophage, a macroglial cell, an ependymal cell, a radial cell, an oligodendrocyte, an astrocyte or a Schwann cell; or

(g) the method of any of (a) to (f), wherein the protein or peptide aggregation or aggregate comprises or consists of a synuclein, an amyloid beta (AB) protein aggregate and/or a tau protein aggregate, and/or a protein aggregate comprising a neurofibrillary tangle.

14. A kit comprising: (a) at least one polypeptide or peptide of claim 1 , and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of claim 2, and/or at least one the liposome of claim 3, and/or at least one the nanoparticle of claim 4; or (b) the kit of (a) further comprising instructions on how to use the polypeptide or peptide, pharmaceutical composition, liposome or nanoparticle; or (c) the kit of (a) or (b), wherein the instructions comprise how to practice any of the methods of claims 8 to 13, or any of the uses of claims 5 to 7 .

Description:
COMPOUNDS FOR REVERSING AND INHIBITING PROTEIN AGGREGATION, AND METHODS FOR MAKING AND USING THEM

TECHNICAL FIELD This invention generally relates to protein chemistry, cell biology, neuroscience and medicine. The invention provides compositions for increasing the clearance of protein aggregates such as amyloid beta protein (AB) aggregates, and pharmaceutical compositions comprising them, and methods for making and using them, including methods for accelerating protein aggregate clearance in the CNS, e.g., for treating diseases that are characterized by (e.g., caused or aggravated by) protein aggregation - including a degenerative neurological disease such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's Disease (AD), fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), Lewy body disease (LBD), a hereditary systemic amyloidosis and Multiple system atrophy (MSA). In one aspect, the compositions of the invention specifically target synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein aggregates, and the methods of the invention can be used to specifically prevent, reverse, slow or inhibit synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein aggregation.

In alternative embodiments, the compositions and methods of the invention, including the synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein aggregation inhibiting compositions of the invention, and the pharmaceutical compositions comprising them, are used to treat, prevent, reverse (partially or completely) or ameliorate (including slowing the progression of) degenerative neurological diseases related to or caused by protein aggregation, e.g., synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein aggregation. In one aspect, compositions and methods of this invention are used to treat, prevent, reverse and/or ameliorate (including slowing the progression of) Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's Disease (AD), fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), Lewy body disease (LBD) and Multiple system atrophy (MSA).

BACKGROUND

Abnormal accumulation of amyloid beta protein (AB) and/or tau in the nervous system results in progressive damage to neurons leading to Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and fronto- temporal dementia (FTD). These devastating disorders affect over 5 million people in the US alone. AB is a 40 to 42 amino acid long peptide derived from the proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the gamma and beta-secretases. Accumulation of oligomeric forms of AB promotes degeneration by damaging the synaptic connections among neurons. In AD, accumulation of AB oligomers may be the result of alterations in the balance between the rate of AB synthesis, aggregation and clearance. Although most recent therapies for AD have been focused at blocking synthesis or aggregation of AB, relatively less has been done to promote clearance. The clearance of AB depends on removal by: i) chaperones (e.g., apoE, beta-2M, HSP's), ii) degrading enzymes (e.g., neprilysin (NEP), insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), EDE), iii) non-lysosomal degradation (e.g., proteosome) and/or lysosomal degradation (e.g., by autophagy).

The use of polypeptides that can increase the clearance of AB aggregates via degradation (e.g., NEP, IDE), autophagy (e.g., Beclin), lysosomal enzymes (e.g., cathepsin) or binding molecules (e.g., apolipoprotein E (apoE), antibodies, beta-2M) has been described. The main problem in all of these cases is that the polypeptides of interest cannot enter into the CNS, or when they do they can only enter at very low levels - below their therapeutic value.

SUMMARY The invention provides compositions and methods for increasing the clearance of protein aggregates, such as synuclein, tau and/or beta-amyloid (e.g., AB) protein aggregates, by delivering to an individual in need thereof specific hybrid or chimeric polypeptides that selectively traffic into the central nervous system (CNS) and target protein aggregations, e.g., tau and/or AB, for degradation. The hybrid or chimeric polypeptides of this invention can be synthesized by recombinant technologies in vitro or in vivo or can be synthetic; e.g., hybrid or chimeric polypeptides of this invention can be delivered orally or enterally, e.g., intravascularly or directly into the CNS, or by in vivo synthesis, e.g., by gene therapy.

In one embodiment, a vector, e.g., a viral vector, drives the production of a fusion polypeptide of this invention in a peripheral organ or organs, e.g., liver and/or spleen. The unique feature of this embodiment is that it allows the trafficking of the specific hybrid or chimeric polypeptides of this invention into the CNS; which in one embodiment is mediated by a fusion with a fragment of the apoB protein, including apoB-secNEP, apoB-Beclin and/or apoB-apoE. Example 1 shows data from inventors' work on the treatment of AD with the exemplary hybrid or chimeric polypeptide of the invention, apoB-secNEP. The invention provide a novel therapy for AD and related neurodegenerative disorders by increasing the clearance of cytotoxic (e.g., neurotoxic) protein aggregates (e.g., synuclein, tau and/or beta-amyloid (e.g., AB) aggregates) via exogenous delivery of hybrid or chimeric polypeptides of the invention having the ability of crossing the blood brain barrier (BBB). The invention provides compositions for increasing the clearance of protein aggregates, and pharmaceutical compositions comprising them, and methods for making and using them, including methods for initiating and/or accelerating protein aggregate clearance in the CNS, e.g., for treating diseases or conditions that are characterized by protein aggregation - including some degenerative neurological diseases and conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's Disease (AD), fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), Lewy body disease (LBD) and Multiple system atrophy (MSA). In one aspect, the compositions of the invention specifically target synuclein, beta-amyloid (e.g., AB) and/or tau protein aggregates, and the methods of the invention can be used to specifically prevent, reverse, slow or inhibit synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein aggregation. In alternative embodiments, the invention provides isolated, synthetic or recombinant polypeptides or peptides comprising:

(a) (i) a first domain comprising, or consisting of a ligand for a blood brain barrier (BBB) receptor or equivalent; and (ii) a second domain comprising, or consisting of an enzyme or composition that slows the rate of aggregation of a protein aggregate, inhibits the formation of a protein aggregate, or reverses, digests or dissolves a protein aggregate;

(b) the polypeptide or peptide of (a), wherein the first domain comprises a ligand or equivalent for:

(i) a BBB receptor or equivalent comprising a BB endothelial cell receptor, a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR), a low-density lipoprotein receptor- related protein-1 (LRPl), a very-low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL),; or,

(ii) a transferrin receptor, an insulin growth factor receptor, a megalin receptor and/or an apolipoprotein E receptor 2;

(c) the polypeptide or peptide of (a), wherein the ligand comprises or consists of an apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and/or an apolipoprotein E (ApoE); (d) the polypeptide or peptide of (a), wherein the second domain comprises:

(i) a neprilysin (NEP) protein or a secreted neprilysin (NEP) protein (secNEP, a secreted NEP protein), an insulin degrading enzyme (IDE); an endothelin convertase enzyme (ECE), a Serine Endo-Peptidase (SEP, a metalo-endopeptidase), or enzymatically active fragments thereof;

(ii) an autophagy regulating protein, ATG7 autophagy related 7 homolog (Atg7), a Beclin, a Beclin 1 protein (coiled-coil, myosin-like BCL2 interacting protein), an autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 2 isoform A, an autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 2 isoform B, an UCHLl, a C54 family autophagy-related protein (e.g., autophagy-related protein APG4 autophagy 4 homolog C isoform 8, or APG4 autophagy 4 homolog C isoform 7), a cysteine protease ATG4D (or autophagy- related protein 4 homolog D), or enzymatically active fragments thereof; (iii) an apolipoprotein E (ApoE);

(iv) a heat shock pathway protein (a Heat shock protein, or HSP), hsp90, hsp84, hsp70, hsp27 or hsp20;

(v) a protein of the ubiquitin/ proteosomal pathway, a ubiquitin, a proteosome, a proteosome 1 IS regulatory particle, a proteosome 19S particle or a proteosome 2OS particle;

(vi) a protein involved in intracellular clearance of accumulated protein, or a transtherytin (TTR) protein; and/or

(vii) a protein or nucleic acid that regulates the production of APP, or a Racl (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) protein or an miR-106b family micro RNA (microRNAs in the miR-106b family are overexpressed in multiple tumor types and are correlated with the expression of genes that regulate the cell cycle); (e) the polypeptide or peptide of any of (a) to (d), wherein the protein aggregate comprises or consists of a synuclein, an amyloid beta (AB) protein aggregate (e.g., AB 1-42) and/or a tau protein aggregate, and/or the protein aggregate comprises a neurofibrillary tangle; (f) the polypeptide or peptide of any of (a) to (e), wherein the first domain ligand or equivalent specifically binds to:

(i) a BBB receptor or equivalent comprising a BB endothelial cell receptor, a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR), a low-density lipoprotein receptor- related protein- 1 (LRPl), a very- low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL); or, (ii) a transferrin receptor, an insulin growth factor receptor, a megalin receptor and/or an apolipoprotein E receptor 2; (g) the polypeptide or peptide of any of (a) to (f), wherein the second domain comprises a polypeptide or peptide that inhibits protein or peptide aggregation, or dissolves or reverses a protein or peptide aggregation;

(h) the polypeptide or peptide of any of (a) to (g), wherein the protein aggregation comprises or consists of a synuclein, a beta-amyloid (e.g., AB 1-42) or a tau protein;

(i) the polypeptide or peptide of any of (a) to (h), wherein the polypeptide or peptide is chemically synthesized or is recombinantly produced, or is a fusion protein or a chemically fused chimeric protein;

(j) the polypeptide or peptide of any of (a) to (i), further comprising a heterologous protein or a non-protein moiety, domain or molecule;

(k) the polypeptide or peptide of any of (a) to (j), further comprising at least one pharmaceutically acceptable excipient; or

(1) the polypeptide or peptide of any of (a) to (k), wherein the polypeptide or peptide comprises an apoB-secNEP (e.g., SEQ ID NO:1), an apoB-Beclin or an apoB-apoE polypeptide.

In one embodiment, the first domain ligand or equivalent comprises or is the equivalent of an antibody or antigen binding fragment that specifically binds to a BB endothelial cell receptor, a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR), a low-density lipoprotein receptor- related protein- 1 (LRPl), a very-low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL), a transferrin receptor, an insulin growth factor receptor, a megalin receptor and/or an apolipoprotein E receptor 2.

The invention provides isolated, synthetic or recombinant nucleic acids encoding these hybrid (chimeric) polypeptides of the invention, vectors comprising these nucleic acids, cells comprising the polypeptides and/or nucleic acids of the invention and/or the vectors of the invention; and/or non-human animals comprising the polypeptides and/or nucleic acids of the invention and/or the vectors of the invention, e.g., non- human transgenic animals.

The invention provides pharmaceutical formulations comprising:

(a) at least one polypeptide or peptide of the invention, or

(b) the pharmaceutical formulation of (a), formulated as an aqueous suspension, a solid, a liquid, a powder, an emulsion, a lyophilized powder, a spray, a cream, a lotion, a controlled release formulation, a tablet, a pill, a gel, a liposome, on a patch, in an implant, on a tape, a dragee, a capsule, a lozenge, a gel, a syrup, a slurry and/or a suspension. The invention provides liposomes comprising at least one polypeptide or peptide of the invention, and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of the invention.

The invention provides nanoparticles comprising at least one polypeptide or peptide of the invention, and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of the invention. The invention provides uses of at least one polypeptide or peptide of the invention, and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of the invention, for the manufacture of a medicament.

The invention provides uses of at least one polypeptide or peptide of the invention, and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of the invention, for the manufacture of a medicament for (a) the clearance of a protein or peptide aggregation, or for the treatment, prevention or amelioration of diseases or conditions associated with a protein aggregation; (b) the clearance of a synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein or peptide aggregation, or preventing, reversing, slowing or inhibiting synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein aggregation; (c) preventing, reversing, slowing or inhibiting a neurodegenerative disease and/or its symptoms associated with synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein aggregation; or (d) cleaving an AB 1-42 protein.

The invention provides uses of at least one polypeptide or peptide of the invention, and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of the invention, for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment, prevention or amelioration of Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Lewy body disease (LBD) or Multiple system atrophy (MSA), and/or any one or several of their symptoms.

The invention provides methods for increasing the clearance of (including e.g. preventing, reversing, slowing or inhibiting) a protein or peptide aggregation, or for the treatment, prevention or amelioration of a disease or a condition (e.g., a neurodegenerative disease or condition), and/or any one or several of their associated symptoms, associated with protein aggregation in an individual comprising administration of an effective amount of at least one polypeptide or peptide of the invention, and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of the invention, and/ or at least one the liposome of the invention, and/or at least one the nanoparticle of the invention. In alternative embodiments, the methods comprise (a) preventing, reversing, slowing or inhibiting synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein aggregation; or (b) preventing, reversing, slowing or inhibiting a neurodegenerative disease or condition associated with protein aggregation. In alternative embodiments, the disease or condition associated with protein aggregation is Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's Disease (AD), fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), Lewy body disease (LBD) and/or Multiple system atrophy (MSA).

The invention provides methods for increasing the clearance of (including e.g. preventing, reversing, slowing or inhibiting) a protein or peptide aggregation, or for preventing, inhibiting, reversing or slowing aggregation of a polypeptide or peptide (e.g., a neurotoxic polypeptide or peptide, e.g., a synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau polypeptide or peptide), comprising contacting a cell with at least one polypeptide or peptide of the invention, and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of the invention, and/or at least one the liposome of the invention, and/or at least one the nanoparticle of the invention.

The invention provides methods for increasing the clearance of (including e.g. preventing, reversing, slowing or inhibiting) a protein or peptide aggregation (e.g., a neurotoxic polypeptide or peptide, e.g., a synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau polypeptide or peptide), or for preventing, inhibiting, reversing or slowing a neurodegenerative process, a disease or a condition, and/or any one or several of their associated symptoms, to an individual in need thereof, comprising

(a) administering to the individual at least one polypeptide or peptide of the invention, and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of the invention, and/or at least one the liposome of the invention, and/or at least one the nanoparticle of the invention; (b) the method of (a), wherein the administration comprises contacting a nerve cell or a

CNS tissue with at least one polypeptide or peptide of the invention, and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of the invention, and/or at least one the liposome of the invention, and/or at least one the nanoparticle of the invention; or

(c) the method of (a) or (b), wherein the contacting is in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo. The invention provides methods for increasing the clearance of (including e.g. preventing, reversing, slowing or inhibiting) a protein or peptide aggregation, or interfering in the accumulation of protein or peptide aggregation (e.g., a neurotoxic polypeptide or peptide, e.g., a synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau polypeptide or peptide) in a cell (e.g., a nerve or a CNS cell), or reversing protein or peptide aggregation in a cell (e.g., a nerve or a CNS cell), or preventing protein or peptide aggregation in a cell (e.g., a nerve or a CNS cell), comprising: (a) contacting the cell with an effective amount of at least one polypeptide or peptide of the invention, and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of the invention, and/or at least one the liposome of the invention, and/or at least one the nanoparticle of the invention; or

(b) the method of (a), wherein the contacting is in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo. The CNS cell can be any cell in the central nervous system, including nerve or non-nerve cells, e.g., cells such as glial cells, including microglia (e.g., macrophages) or macroglial cells, e.g., ependymal cells, radial cells, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, Schwann cells and the like.

The invention provides kits comprising at least one polypeptide or peptide of the invention, and/or at least one pharmaceutical composition of the invention, and/or at least one the liposome of the invention, and/or at least one the nanoparticle of the invention. In alternative embodiments the kits of the invention further comprise instructions for using the polypeptide or peptide, pharmaceutical composition, liposome or nanoparticle; where in one embodiment the instructions comprise how to practice a method or use of this invention.

The details of one or more embodiments of the invention are set forth in the accompa- nying drawings and the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims.

All publications, patents, patent applications, GenBank sequences and ATCC deposits, cited herein are hereby expressly incorporated by reference for all purposes.

DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS The following drawings are illustrative of aspects of the invention and are not meant to limit the scope of the invention as encompassed by the claims.

Figure 1 illustrates a diagrammatic representation of an exemplary mode of action of the invention and in vivo proof of concept experiment in an APP tg model of AD pathology, as discussed in Example 1, below. Figure 2 illustrates expression of neprilysin ("Nep") from an exemplary expression construct of this invention comprising a lentivirus vector ("LV"): the upper panel illustrates how a hybrid or chimeric nucleic acid construct of this invention - a ApoBSecNep construct - was cloned into a 3 r generation lentivirus vector containing the CMV promoter (arrow) and the WPRE element (Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus (WHV) Posttranscriptional Regulatory Element) to aid transcription of the gene; the lower panel illustrates a protein analysis of cell lysates and supernatant from 293T cells infected with this exemplary expression construct, where proteins isolated from the cells are blotted and probed for the neprilysin ("N") protein, as discussed in Example 1, below.

Figure 3 illustrates data demonstrating that neprilysin protein expressed from the exemplary lentivirus expression construct of the invention in 293T cells is active in cleaving AB monomers: 293T cells were infected with the different lentiviruses ( for 72 hours and whole cell lysate was collected: Figure 3A (upper PAGE gel panel) illustrates neprilysin protein as detected by Western blot (A); Figure 3B (middle PAGE gel panel) illustrates analysis of activity against a N-terminal FITC tagged AB protein (B); and as illustrated in Figure 3C (lower PAGE gel panel) to ensure equal loading actin was analyzed in the protein samples (C); and as graphically illustrated in Figure 3D (i.e., the lower two panels or graphs), total neprilysin was quantified (by pixel intensity) and the N-terminal cleavage product (by pixel intensity) was quantified to analyze neprilysin activity (D) - the left panel graphically illustrates neprilysin protein activity and the right panel graphically illustrates Aβ cleavage product production, as discussed in Example 1, below. Figure 4 illustrates data demonstrating that neprilysin secreted from cells infected with and expressing the exemplary lentivirus construct of the invention is active in cleaving AB monomers: 293T cells were infected with the different lentiviruses for 72 hours and supernate was collected and filtered; the upper panel of Figure 4 (the Western blot gel radiograph) illustrates that neprilysin protein detection by Western blot (A), and the lower two panels of Figure 4 graphically illustrate analysis of activity against a N-terminal FITC tagged AB protein; the left panel (graph) illustrates quantifying (by pixel intensity) of total neprilysin, and the right panel (graph) illustrates quantifying of the AB N-terminal cleavage product to analyze neprilysin activity, as discussed in Example 1, below.

Figure 5 illustrates data demonstrating that neprilysin is detected in the brains of mice that received the exemplary construct of the invention, the exemplary expression construct of this invention, the recombinant LV-ApoBSecNep virus, by intraperitoneal (IP, or i.p.) injection. APPtg (APP transgenic) and non tg (non-transgenic) mice received a single i.p. injection of the exemplary lentivirus constructs of the invention expressing either SecNep, ApoBSecNep or ApoBGFP. Three (3) months after injection, mice were sacrificed and total brain protein was analyzed by Western blot for neprilysin, as illustrated in the upper Western blot gel panel, or bands were quantified by densitometry (by pixel intensity), as graphically illustrated in the lower panel, as discussed in Example 1, below. Figure 6 illustrates micrographs showing that the exemplary chimeric ApoBSecNep protein of the invention is found in association with neurons and astrocytes following an i.p. injection of the exemplary lentivirus construct of the invention expressing the exemplary chimeric ApoBSecNep protein. APP tg mice received a single i.p. injection of the exemplary lentivirus expressing the exemplary chimeric ApoBSecNep protein of the invention or a control. Three (3) months after injection, mice were sacrificed and the brain was section and stained for neprilysin (red) and NeuN (neuron-specific nuclear protein) (A, green) or GFAP (or Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, the "glial marker") (green, B), as discussed in Example 1, below. Figure 7 illustrates data showing that AB monomer is reduced in mice following a single i.p. injection of the exemplary lentivirus construct of the invention expressing the exemplary chimeric ApoBSecNep protein of the invention. APP tg mice were injected i.p. with either LV-ApoBSecNep or LV-control. Three (3) months after injection, total protein from the brain was analyzed by Western blot for APP and AB (A) - radiograph of Western blot is upper panel; to ensure even loading actin was analyzed on the same blots (middle radiograph panel); and as illustrated by the lower panel graph, AB monomer and oligomer bands were quantified (by pixel intensity) by densitometry (B); * - p<0.05 compared to tg control mice, as discussed in Example 1, below.

Figure 8 illustrates micrographs showing that the exemplary chimeric ApoBSecNep protein of the invention is associated with reduced plaques and with intracellular AB in vivo. APPtg mice received an i.p. injection of either the exemplary chimeric LV- ApoBSecNep or LV-control and 3 months later the brain was sectioned and stained for the exemplary chimeric ApoBSecNep by the FLAG epitope tag (red) and for AB (green); upper panels illustrate low power photos of the whole brain; and the lower panels illustrate higher power images of individual cells indicating co-localization of neprilysin (with intracellular AB), as discussed in Example 1, below.

Figure 9 graphically illustrates the behavioral effects of the exemplary composition of the invention LV-apoB-secNep in APP tg mice, as described in detail in Example 2, below.

Like reference symbols in the various drawings indicate like elements. DETAILED DESCRIPTION

In alternative embodiments, the invention provides novel approaches to the treatment, amelioration, reversal and/or prevention of a degenerative neurological disease characterized by a protein aggregation, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's Disease (AD), fronto- temporal dementia (FTD), Lewy body disease (LBD) and/or Multiple System Atrophy

(MSA). In alternative embodiments, compositions and methods of the invention are used to treat, prevent, reverse (partially or completely) and/or ameliorate, including ameliorating symptoms and/or delaying progression of the disease, after diagnosis (tentative or definitive) and/or one or more diagnostic symptoms have become apparent or are otherwise detected. In one embodiment, compositions and methods of the invention are used to reverse and/or prevent the formation of a protein aggregate, e.g., a neurofibrillary tangle or an aggregrate comprising a tau protein, an amyloid protein or fragment (e.g., Aβ, such as the AB 1-42 fragment) or a synuclein protein; for example, compositions and methods of the invention can be used to decrease the rate of formation of protein aggregates, e.g., neurofibrillary tangles, or to clear or dissolve them; wherein in one embodiment this can reverse, slow and/or prevent cell (e.g., neuron and/or CNS cell) damage, including damage associated with the destruction or impairment of cognitive function.

In one embodiment, compositions and methods of the invention reverse or prevent the (non-normal) accumulation of or aggregation of synuclein, tau and/or amyloid-beta (Aβ) (e.g., AB 1-42) protein, which can be the result of an imbalance in the synthesis, aggregation and clearance of the protein prior to the formation of an insoluble tangle or other pathological or toxic protein aggregation. In alternative embodiments, the invention provides specific polypeptides that can be delivered peripherally (directly, indirectly and/or via gene therapy) and cross the blood-brain barrier, or that are delivered directly into the CNS. In alternative aspects, the compositions and methods of the invention are used to specifically target tau, amyloid (including amyloid-beta (Aβ), such as AB 1-42) and/or synuclein aggregation. While the invention is not limited by any particular mechanism of action, amyloid-beta or synuclein aggregation is thought to be caused by a mis-alignment of the protein early in the disease process, which permits the formation of protein multimers due to head-to-head aggregation; as the monomer units increase, the aggregated proteins can take on a pore-like shape, which can embed in the membrane of the neuron, disrupting ion flow and homeostasis of the cell. While the invention is not limited by any particular mechanism of action, in alternative aspects, the compositions and methods of the invention are used to prevent tau, amyloid (including amyloid-beta (Aβ), e.g., AB 1-42) and/or synuclein aggregated proteins from taking on a pore-like shape that can disrupt ion flow and homeostasis.

The invention also provides methods comprising use of compositions of this invention for testing the efficacy of compositions, including small molecules and/or peptides, to block, reverse or inhibit protein, e.g., tau, amyloid-beta (Aβ), e.g., AB 1-42, or synuclein, aggregation in an in-vitro (cell free) system and in a neuronal cell line; assays have been conducted for aggregation, growth and survival of cells. The small molecules and/or peptides can be tested in synuclein (Syn) transgenic (Tg) mice.

Generating and Manipulating Nucleic Acids

In alternative aspects, the invention provides, e.g., isolated, synthetic and/or recombinant nucleic acids encoding the hybrid (chimeric) polypeptides of this invention (and their complementary sequences). The nucleic acids of the invention can be made, isolated and/or manipulated by, e.g., cloning and expression of cDNA libraries, amplification of message or genomic DNA by PCR, and the like.

The nucleic acids used to practice this invention, whether RNA, iRNA, antisense nucleic acid, cDNA, genomic DNA, vectors, viruses or hybrids thereof, may be isolated from a variety of sources, genetically engineered, amplified, and/or expressed/ generated recombinantly. Recombinant polypeptides (e.g., encoding the hybrid (chimeric) polypeptides of this invention) generated from these nucleic acids can be individually isolated or cloned and tested for a desired activity. Any recombinant expression system can be used, including bacterial, fungal, mammalian, yeast, insect or plant cell expression systems.

Alternatively, these nucleic acids can be synthesized in vitro by well-known chemical synthesis techniques, as described in, e.g., Adams (1983) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 105:661; Belousov (1997) Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3440-3444; Frenkel (1995) Free Radic. Biol. Med. 19:373-380; Blommers (1994) Biochemistry 33:7886-7896; Narang (1979) Meth. Enzymol. 68:90; Brown (1979) Meth. Enzymol. 68: 109; Beaucage (1981) Tetra. Lett. 22: 1859; U.S. Patent No. 4,458,066.

Techniques for the manipulation of nucleic acids, such as, e.g., subcloning, labeling probes (e.g., random-primer labeling using Klenow polymerase, nick translation, amplification), sequencing, hybridization and the like are well described in the scientific and patent literature, see, e.g., Sambrook, ed., MOLECULAR CLONING: A LABORATORY MANUAL (2ND ED.), VoIs. 1-3, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, (1989); CURRENT PROTOCOLS IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Ausubel, ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York (1997); LABORATORY TECHNIQUES IN BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: HYBRIDIZATION WITH NUCLEIC ACID PROBES, Part I. Theory and Nucleic Acid Preparation, Tijssen, ed. Elsevier, N. Y. (1993).

Another useful means of obtaining and manipulating nucleic acids used to practice the invention is to clone from genomic samples, and, if desired, screen and re-clone inserts isolated or amplified from, e.g., genomic clones or cDNA clones. Sources of nucleic acid used to practice the invention include genomic or cDNA libraries contained in, e.g., mammalian artificial chromosomes (MACs), see, e.g., U.S. Patent Nos. 5,721,118; 6,025,155; human artificial chromosomes, see, e.g., Rosenfeld (1997) Nat. Genet. 15:333-335; yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC); bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC); Pl artificial chromosomes, see, e.g., Woon (1998) Genomics 50:306-316; Pl-derived vectors (PACs), see, e.g., Kern (1997) Biotechniques 23:120-124; cosmids, recombinant viruses, phages or plasmids.

The invention provides and uses fusion proteins and nucleic acids encoding them. A polypeptide used to practice this invention (e.g., a fusion protein for increasing the clearance of protein aggregates or reversing aggregration of proteins) can be fused to a heterologous peptide or polypeptide, such as a peptide for targeting an inhibitory compound used to practice this invention; or the heterologous or chimeric peptide or polypeptide can be an N-terminal identification peptide which imparts a desired characteristic, such as fluorescent detection, increased stability and/or simplified purification.

Peptides and polypeptides used to practice this invention can also be synthesized and expressed as fusion proteins with one or more additional domains linked thereto for, e.g., producing a more immunogenic peptide, to more readily isolate a recombinantly synthesized peptide, to identify and isolate antibodies and antibody-expressing B cells, and the like. Detection and purification facilitating domains include, e.g., metal chelating peptides such as polyhistidine tracts and histidine -tryptophan modules that allow purification on immobilized metals, protein A domains that allow purification on immobilized immunoglobulin, and the domain utilized in the FLAGS extension/affinity purification system (Immunex Corp, Seattle WA). The inclusion of a cleavable linker sequences such as Factor Xa or enterokinase (Invitrogen, San Diego CA) between a purification domain and the motif-comprising peptide or polypeptide to facilitate purification. For example, an expression vector can include an epitope-encoding nucleic acid sequence linked to six histidine residues followed by a thioredoxin and an enterokinase cleavage site (see e.g., Williams (1995) Biochemistry 34:1787-1797; Dobeli (1998) Protein Expr. Purif. 12:404-414). The histidine residues facilitate detection and purification while the enterokinase cleavage site provides a means for purifying the epitope from the remainder of the fusion protein. Technology pertaining to vectors encoding fusion proteins and application of fusion proteins are well described in the scientific and patent literature, see e.g., Kroll (1993) DNA Cell. Biol., 12:441-53.

Nucleic acids or nucleic acid sequences used to practice this invention can be an oligonucleotide, nucleotide, polynucleotide, or a fragment of any of these, comprising DNA or RNA of natural (e.g., genomic) or synthetic origin which maybe single-stranded or double- stranded and may represent a sense or antisense strand, to peptide nucleic acid (PNA), or to any DNA-like or RNA-like material, natural or synthetic in origin. Compounds use to practice this invention include "nucleic acids" or "nucleic acid sequences" including oligonucleotide, nucleotide, polynucleotide, or any fragment of any of these; and include DNA or RNA (e.g., mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, iRNA) of genomic or synthetic origin which may be single-stranded or double-stranded; and can be a sense or antisense strand, or a peptide nucleic acid (PNA), or any DNA-like or RNA-like material, natural or synthetic in origin, including, e.g., iRNA, ribonucleoproteins (e.g., e.g., double stranded iRNAs, e.g., iRNPs). Compounds use to practice this invention include nucleic acids, i.e., oligonucleotides, containing known analogues of natural nucleotides. Compounds use to practice this invention include nuclei c- acid-like structures with synthetic backbones, see e.g., Mata (1997) Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 144: 189-197; Strauss-Soukup (1997) Biochemistry 36:8692-8698; Samstag (1996) Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev 6:153-156. Compounds use to practice this invention include "oligonucleotides" including a single stranded polydeoxynucleotide or two complementary polydeoxynucleotide strands that may be chemically synthesized. Compounds use to practice this invention include synthetic oligonucleotides having no 5' phosphate, and thus will not ligate to another oligonucleotide without adding a phosphate with an ATP in the presence of a kinase. A synthetic oligonucleotide can ligate to a fragment that has not been de- phosphorylated.

In alternative aspects, compounds used to practice this invention include genes or any segment of DNA involved in producing a polypeptide (e.g., a chimeric/ hybrid polypeptide of this invention); it can include regions preceding and following the coding region (leader and trailer) as well as, where applicable, intervening sequences (introns) between individual coding segments (exons). "Operably linked" can refer to a functional relationship between two or more nucleic acid (e.g., DNA, RNA) segments, hi alternative aspects, it can refer to the functional relationship of transcriptional regulatory sequence to a transcribed sequence. For example, a promoter can be operably linked to a coding sequence, such as a nucleic acid used to practice this invention, if it stimulates or modulates the transcription of the coding sequence in an appropriate host cell or other expression system.

In alternative aspects, promoter transcriptional regulatory sequences can be operably linked to a transcribed sequence where they can be physically contiguous to the transcribed sequence, i.e., they can be c/s-acting. In alternative aspects, transcriptional regulatory sequences, such as enhancers, need not be physically contiguous or located in close proximity to the coding sequences whose transcription they enhance.

In alternative aspects, the invention comprises use of "expression cassettes" comprising a nucleotide sequence used to practice this invention, which can be capable of affecting expression of the nucleic acid, e.g., a structural gene or a transcript (e.g., encoding a chimeric/ hybrid polypeptide of this invention) in a host compatible with such sequences. Expression cassettes can include at least a promoter operably linked with the polypeptide coding sequence or inhibitory sequence; and, in one aspect, with other sequences, e.g., transcription termination signals. Additional factors necessary or helpful in effecting expression may also be used, e.g., enhancers.

In alternative aspects, expression cassettes used to practice this invention also include plasmids, expression vectors, recombinant viruses, any form of recombinant "naked DNA" vector, and the like. In alternative aspects, a "vector" (e.g., expression vector or expression cassette) used to practice this invention can comprise a nucleic acid that can infect, transfect, transiently or permanently transduce a cell. In alternative aspects, a vector used to practice this invention can be a naked nucleic acid, or a nucleic acid complexed with protein or lipid. In alternative aspects, vectors used to practice this invention can comprise viral or bacterial nucleic acids and/or proteins, and/or membranes (e.g., a cell membrane, a viral lipid envelope, etc.). In alternative aspects, vectors used to practice this invention can include, but are not limited to replicons (e.g., RNA replicons, bacteriophages) to which fragments of DNA may be attached and become replicated. Vectors thus include, but are not limited to RNA, autonomous self-replicating circular or linear DNA or RNA (e.g., plasmids, viruses, and the like, see, e.g., U.S. Patent No. 5,217,879), and can include both the expression and non-expression plasmids. In alternative aspects, the vector used to practice this invention can be stably replicated by the cells during mitosis as an autonomous structure (e.g., as an episomal entity), or can be incorporated (e.g., stably integrated) within the host's genome.

In alternative aspects, "promoters" used to practice this invention include all sequences capable of driving transcription of a coding sequence in a cell, e.g., a mammalian cell such as a brain cell. Thus, promoters used in the constructs of the invention include c/s-acting transcriptional control elements and regulatory sequences that are involved in regulating or modulating the timing and/or rate of transcription of a gene. For example, a promoter used to practice this invention can be a c/s-acting transcriptional control element, including an enhancer, a promoter, a transcription terminator, an origin of replication, a chromosomal integration sequence, 5' and 3' untranslated regions, or an intronic sequence, which are involved in transcriptional regulation. These cis-acting sequences typically interact with proteins or other biomolecules to carry out (turn on/off, regulate, modulate, etc.) transcription.

Constitutive promoters used to practice this invention can be those that drive expression continuously under most environmental conditions and states of development or cell differentiation. "Inducible" or "regulatable" promoters used to practice this invention can direct expression of the nucleic acid of the invention under the influence of environmental conditions or developmental conditions. Examples of environmental conditions that may affect transcription by inducible promoters used to practice this invention include the presence of an inducing factor administered to a subject. "Tissue-specific" promoters used to practice this invention can be transcriptional control elements that are only active in particular cells or tissues or organs, e.g., in a nerve, CNS, glial (e.g., a microglia cell, a macrophage, a macroglial cell, an ependymal cell, a radial cell, an oligodendrocyte, an astrocyte or a Schwann cell) or brain cell. Tissue-specific regulation may be achieved by certain intrinsic factors that ensure that genes encoding proteins specific to a given tissue, e.g., brain, are expressed.

Polypeptides and peptides

In alternative embodiments, the invention provides polypeptides and peptides comprising: a first domain comprising, or consisting of a ligand for a blood brain barrier

(BBB) receptor; and, a second domain comprising, or consisting of an enzyme or composition that slows the rate of aggregation of a protein aggregate, inhibits the formation of a protein aggregate, or reverses, digests or dissolves a protein aggregate.

Polypeptides and peptides used to practice the invention can be isolated from natural sources, be synthetic, or be recombinantly generated polypeptides. Peptides and proteins can be recombinantly expressed in vitro or in vivo. The peptides and polypeptides used to practice the invention can be made and isolated using any method known in the art. Polypeptide and peptides used to practice the invention can also be synthesized, whole or in part, using chemical methods well known in the art. See e.g., Caruthers (1980) Nucleic Acids Res. Symp. Ser. 215-223; Horn (1980) Nucleic Acids Res. Symp. Ser. 225-232; Banga, A.K., Therapeutic Peptides and Proteins, Formulation, Processing and Delivery Systems (1995) Technomic

Publishing Co., Lancaster, PA. For example, peptide synthesis can be performed using various solid-phase techniques (see e.g., Roberge (1995) Science 269:202; Merrifield (1997) Methods Enzymol. 289:3-13) including any automated polypeptide synthesis process known in the art. The peptides and polypeptides used to practice the invention can also be glycosylated. The glycosylation can be added post-translationally either chemically or by cellular biosynthetic mechanisms, wherein the later incorporates the use of known glycosylation motifs, which can be native to the sequence or can be added as a peptide or added in the nucleic acid coding sequence. The glycosylation can be O-linked or N-linked.

In alternative embodiments, compositions used to practice the invention comprise an oligopeptide, peptide, polypeptide, or protein sequence, or to a fragment, portion, or subunit of any of these and to naturally occurring or synthetic molecules, hi alternative aspects, polypeptides used to practice the invention comprise amino acids joined to each other by peptide bonds or modified peptide bonds and may comprise modified amino acids other than the 20 gene-encoded amino acids. The polypeptides may be modified by either natural processes, such as post-translational processing, or by chemical modification techniques that are well known in the art. Modifications can occur anywhere in the polypeptide, including the peptide backbone, the amino acid side-chains and the amino or carboxyl termini. It will be appreciated that the same type of modification may be present in the same or varying degrees at several sites in a given polypeptide. In alternative embodiments, a polypeptide used to practice the invention can have one or more of many types of modifications, e.g., modifications including acetylation, acylation, ADP-ribosylation, amidation, covalent attachment of flavin, covalent attachment of a heme moiety, covalent attachment of a nucleotide or nucleotide derivative, covalent attachment of a lipid or lipid derivative, covalent attachment of a phosphatidylinositol, cross-linking cyclization, disulfide bond formation, demethylation, formation of covalent cross-links, formation of cysteine, formation of pyroglutamate, formylation, gamma-carboxylation, glycosylation, GPI anchor formation, hydroxylation, iodination, methylation, myristolyation, oxidation, pegylation, phosphorylation, prenylation, racemization, selenoylation, sulfation and transfer-RNA mediated addition of amino acids to protein such as arginylation. See for example, Creighton, T.E., Proteins - Structure and Molecular Properties 2nd Ed., W.H. Freeman and Company, New York (1993); Posttranslational Covalent Modification of Proteins, B.C. Johnson, Ed., Academic Press, New York, pp. 1-12 (1983)).

In alternative embodiments, peptides and polypeptides used to practice the invention can comprise any "mimetic" and/or "peptidomimetic" form, hi alternative embodiments, peptides and polypeptides used to practice the invention can comprise synthetic chemical compounds which have substantially the same structural and/or functional characteristics of natural polypeptides. The mimetic used to practice the invention can be either entirely composed of synthetic, non-natural analogues of amino acids, or, is a chimeric molecule of partly natural peptide amino acids and partly non-natural analogs of amino acids. The mimetic can also incorporate any amount of natural amino acid conservative substitutions as long as such substitutions also do not substantially alter the mimetic' s structure and/or activity. Routine experimentation will determine whether a mimetic is effective for practicing the invention; e.g., increasing the clearance of protein aggregates such as tau, synuclein and/or amyloid beta protein (AB) aggregates.

Polypeptide mimetic compositions for practicing the invention can comprise any combination of non-natural structural components. In alternative aspects, mimetic compositions for practicing the invention can comprise one or all of the following three structural groups: a) residue linkage groups other than the natural amide bond ("peptide bond") linkages; b) non-natural residues in place of naturally occurring amino acid residues; or c) residues which induce secondary structural mimicry, i.e., to induce or stabilize a secondary structure, e.g., a beta turn, gamma turn, beta sheet, alpha helix conformation, and the like. For example, a polypeptide can be characterized as a mimetic when all or some of its residues are joined by chemical means other than natural peptide bonds. Individual peptidomimetic residues can be joined by peptide bonds, other chemical bonds or coupling means, such as, e.g., glutaraldehyde, N-hydroxysuccinimide esters, bifunctional maleimides, N,N'- dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) or N,N'-diisopropylcarbodiimide (DIC). Linking groups that can be an alternative to the traditional amide bond ("peptide bond") linkages include, e.g., ketomethylene (e.g., -C(=O)-CH 2 - for -C(O)-NH-), aminomethylene (CH 2 -NH), ethylene, olefin (CH=CH), ether (CH 2 -O), thioether (CH 2 -S), tetrazole (CN 4 -), thiazole, retroamide, thioamide, or ester (see, e.g., Spatola (1983) in Chemistry and Biochemistry of Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins, Vol. 7, pp 267-357, "Peptide Backbone Modifications," Marcell Dekker, NY). A polypeptide can also be characterized as a mimetic by containing all or some non- natural residues in place of naturally occurring amino acid residues. Non-natural residues are well described in the scientific and patent literature; a few exemplary non-natural compositions useful as mimetics of natural amino acid residues and guidelines are described below. Mimetics of aromatic amino acids can be generated by replacing by, e.g., D- or L- naphylalanine; D- or L- phenylglycine; D- or L-2 thieneylalanine; D- or L-I, -2, 3-, or 4- pyreneylalanine; D- or L-3 thieneylalanine; D- or L-(2-pyridinyl)-alanine; D- or L-(3- pyridinyl)-alanine; D- or L-(2-pyrazinyl)-alanine; D- or L-(4-isopropyl)-phenylglycine; D- (trifluoromethyl)-phenylglycine; D-(trifluoromethyl)-phenylalanine; D-p-fluoro- phenylalanine; D- or L-p-biphenylphenylalanine; D- or L-p-methoxy-biphenylphenylalanine; D- or L-2-indole(alkyl)alanines; and, D- or L-alkylainines, where alkyl can be substituted or unsubstituted methyl, ethyl, propyl, hexyl, butyl, pentyl, isopropyl, iso-butyl, sec-isotyl, iso- pentyl, or a non-acidic amino acids. Aromatic rings of a non-natural amino acid include, e.g., thiazolyl, thiophenyl, pyrazolyl, benzimidazolyl, naphthyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, and pyridyl aromatic rings.

Mimetics of acidic amino acids can be generated by substitution by, e.g., non- carboxylate amino acids while maintaining a negative charge; (phosphono)alanine; sulfated threonine. Carboxyl side groups (e.g., aspartyl or glutamyl) can also be selectively modified by reaction with carbodiimides (R' -N-C-N-R') such as, e.g., l-cyclohexyl-3(2-morpholinyl-(4- ethyl) carbodiimide or l-ethyl-3(4-azonia- 4,4- dimetholpentyl) carbodiimide. Aspartyl or glutamyl can also be converted to asparaginyl and glutaminyl residues by reaction with ammonium ions. Mimetics of basic amino acids can be generated by substitution with, e.g., (in addition to lysine and arginine) the amino acids ornithine, citrulline, or (guanidino)- acetic acid, or (guanidino)alkyl-acetic acid, where alkyl is defined above. Nitrile derivative (e.g., containing the CN-moiety in place of COOH) can be substituted for asparagine or glutamine. Asparaginyl and glutaminyl residues can be deaminated to the corresponding aspartyl or glutamyl residues. Arginine residue mimetics can be generated by reacting arginyl with, e.g., one or more conventional reagents, including, e.g., phenylglyoxal, 2,3-butanedione, 1,2-cyclo- hexanedione, or ninhydrin, e.g., under alkaline conditions. Tyrosine residue mimetics can be generated by reacting tyrosyl with, e.g., aromatic diazonium compounds or tetranitromethane. N-acetylimidizol and tetranitromethane can be used to form O-acetyl tyrosyl species and 3- nitro derivatives, respectively. Cysteine residue mimetics can be generated by reacting cysteinyl residues with, e.g., alpha-haloacetates such as 2-chloroacetic acid or chloroacetamide and corresponding amines; to give carboxymethyl or carboxyamidomethyl derivatives. Cysteine residue mimetics can also be generated by reacting cysteinyl residues with, e.g., bromo-trifluoroacetone, alpha-bromo-beta-(5-imidozoyl) propionic acid; chloroacetyl phosphate, N-alkylmaleimides, 3-nitro-2-pyridyl disulfide; methyl 2-pyridyl disulfide; p- chloromercuribenzoate; 2-chloromercuri-4 nitrophenol; or, chloro-7-nitrobenzo-oxa-l,3- diazole. Lysine mimetics can be generated (and amino terminal residues can be altered) by reacting lysinyl with, e.g., succinic or other carboxylic acid anhydrides. Lysine and other alpha-amino-containing residue mimetics can also be generated by reaction with imidoesters, such as methyl picolinimidate, pyridoxal phosphate, pyridoxal, chloroborohydride, trinitro- benzenesulfonic acid, O-methylisourea, 2,4, pentanedione, and transamidase-catalyzed reactions with glyoxylate. Mimetics of methionine can be generated by reaction with, e.g., methionine sulfoxide. Mimetics of proline include, e.g., pipecolic acid, thiazolidine carboxylic acid, 3- or 4- hydroxy proline, dehydroproline, 3- or 4-methylproline, or 3,3,-dimethylproline. Histidine residue mimetics can be generated by reacting histidyl with, e.g., diethylprocarbonate or para-bromophenacyl bromide. Other mimetics that can be used include, e.g., those generated by hydro xylation of pro line and lysine; phosphorylation of the hydro xyl groups of seryl or threonyl residues; methylation of the alpha-amino groups of lysine, arginine and histidine; acetylation of the N-terminal amine; methylation of main chain amide residues or substitution with N-methyl amino acids; or amidation of C-terminal carboxyl groups.

Polypeptides used to practice this invention can comprise signal sequences, i.e., leader sequences, e.g., for secreting a chimeric/ hybrid polypeptide of the invention, or a recombinant antibody used to practice the invention, from a production host cell.

Antibodies In alternative embodiments, the first domain ligand or equivalent of a polypeptide or peptide of the invention comprises or is the equivalent of an antibody that specifically binds to a BB endothelial cell receptor, a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR), a low- density lipoprotein receptor-related protein- 1 (LRPl), a very- low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL), a transferrin receptor, an insulin growth factor receptor, a megalin receptor and/or an apolipoprotein E receptor 2. In alternative aspects, an antibody or fragment for practicing the invention can comprise a peptide or polypeptide capable of specifically binding to an epitope of any of these proteins, see, e.g. Fundamental Immunology, Third Edition, W.E. Paul, ed., Raven Press, N. Y. (1993); Wilson (1994) J. Immunol. Methods 175:267-273; Yarmush (1992) J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 25:85-97. In alternative aspects, an antibody or fragment thereof for practicing the invention includes antigen-binding portions, i.e., "antigen binding sites," (e.g., fragments, subsequences, complementarity determining regions (CDRs)) that retain capacity to bind antigen (e.g., a BB endothelial cell receptor protein, or immunogenic fragments thereof) including (i) a Fab fragment, a monovalent fragment consisting of the VL, VH, CL and CHl domains; (ii) a F(ab')2 fragment, a bivalent fragment comprising two Fab fragments linked by a disulfide bridge at the hinge region; (iii) a Fd fragment consisting of the VH and CHl domains; (iv) a Fv fragment consisting of the VL and VH domains of a single arm of an antibody, (v) a dAb fragment (Ward et al., (1989) Nature 341 :544-546), which consists of a VH domain; and (vi) an isolated complementarity determining region (CDR). Single chain antibodies are also included by reference in the term "antibody."

Methods of immunization, producing and isolating antibodies (polyclonal and monoclonal) are known to those of skill in the art and described in the scientific and patent literature, see, e.g., Coligan, CURRENT PROTOCOLS IN IMMUNOLOGY, Wiley/Greene, NY (1991); Stites (eds.) BASIC AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY (7th ed.) Lange Medical Publications, Los Altos, CA ("Stites"); Goding, MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES:

PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE (2d ed.) Academic Press, New York, NY (1986); Kohler (1975) Nature 256:495; Harlow (1988) ANTIBODIES, A LABORATORY MANUAL, Cold Spring Harbor Publications, New York. Antibodies also can be generated in vitro, e.g., using recombinant antibody binding site expressing phage display libraries, in addition to the traditional in vivo methods using animals. See, e.g., Hoogenboom (1997) Trends Biotechnol. 15:62-70; Katz (1997) Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 26:27-45. In alternative embodiments, antibodies or antigen binding fragments thereof used to practice this invention comprise "affinity matured" antibodies, e.g., antibodies or antigen binding fragments comprising with one or more alterations in one or more hypervariable regions which result in an improvement in the affinity of the antibody or antigen binding fragment for antigen; e.g., a BB endothelial cell receptor protein, or immunogenic fragments thereof. In alternative embodiments, antibodies or antigen binding fragments used to practice this invention are matured antibodies or antigen binding fragments having nanomolar or even picomolar affinities for the target antigen, e.g., a targeted transcriptional activating factor. Affinity matured antibodies or antigen binding fragments can be produced by procedures known in the art.

Pharmaceutical compositions

The invention provides compositions as described herein, including pharmaceutical compositions, e.g., in the manufacture of medicaments for preventing, reversing, slowing or inhibiting protein aggregation, e.g., for treating diseases or conditions that are characterized by protein aggregation - including degenerative neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's Disease (AD), fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), Lewy body disease

(LBD) and Multiple system atrophy (MSA).

In alternative embodiments, the compositions (e.g., hybrid or chimeric polypeptides) of the invention are formulated with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. In alternative embodiments, the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention can be administered parenterally, topically, orally or by local administration, such as by aerosol or transdermally.

The pharmaceutical compositions can be formulated in any way and can be administered in a variety of unit dosage forms depending upon the condition or disease and the degree of illness, the general medical condition of each patient, the resulting preferred method of administration and the like. Details on techniques for formulation and administration are well described in the scientific and patent literature, see, e.g., the latest edition of Remington's Pharmaceutical

Sciences, Maack Publishing Co, Easton PA ("Remington's").

Therapeutic agents of the invention can be administered alone or as a component of a pharmaceutical formulation (composition). The compounds may be formulated for administration in any convenient way for use in human or veterinary medicine. Wetting agents, emulsifiers and lubricants, such as sodium lauryl sulfate and magnesium stearate, as well as coloring agents, release agents, coating agents, sweetening, flavoring and perfuming agents, preservatives and antioxidants can also be present in the compositions.

Formulations of the compositions (e.g., hybrid polypeptides) of the invention include those suitable for oral/ nasal, topical, parenteral, rectal, and/or intravaginal administration. The formulations may conveniently be presented in unit dosage form and may be prepared by any methods well known in the art of pharmacy. The amount of active ingredient which can be combined with a carrier material to produce a single dosage form will vary depending upon the host being treated, the particular mode of administration. The amount of active ingredient which can be combined with a carrier material to produce a single dosage form will generally be that amount of the compound which produces a therapeutic effect.

Pharmaceutical formulations of this invention can be prepared according to any method known to the art for the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. Such drugs can contain sweetening agents, flavoring agents, coloring agents and preserving agents. A formulation can be admixtured with nontoxic pharmaceutically acceptable excipients which are suitable for manufacture. Formulations may comprise one or more diluents, emulsifiers, preservatives, buffers, excipients, etc. and may be provided in such forms as liquids, powders, emulsions, lyophilized powders, sprays, creams, lotions, controlled release formulations, tablets, pills, gels, on patches, in implants, etc.

Pharmaceutical formulations for oral administration can be formulated using pharmaceutically acceptable carriers well known in the art in appropriate and suitable dosages. Such carriers enable the pharmaceuticals to be formulated in unit dosage forms as tablets, pills, powder, dragees, capsules, liquids, lozenges, gels, syrups, slurries, suspensions, etc., suitable for ingestion by the patient. Pharmaceutical preparations for oral use can be formulated as a solid excipient, optionally grinding a resulting mixture, and processing the mixture of granules, after adding suitable additional compounds, if desired, to obtain tablets or dragee cores. Suitable solid excipients are carbohydrate or protein fillers include, e.g., sugars, including lactose, sucrose, mannitol, or sorbitol; starch from corn, wheat, rice, potato, or other plants; cellulose such as methyl cellulose, hydroxypropylmethyl-cellulose, or sodium carboxy- methylcellulose; and gums including arabic and tragacanth; and proteins, e.g., gelatin and collagen. Disintegrating or solubilizing agents may be added, such as the cross-linked polyvinyl pyrrolidone, agar, alginic acid, or a salt thereof, such as sodium alginate. Dragee cores are provided with suitable coatings such as concentrated sugar solutions, which may also contain gum arabic, talc, polyvinylpyrrolidone, carbopol gel, polyethylene glycol, and/or titanium dioxide, lacquer solutions, and suitable organic solvents or solvent mixtures. Dyestuffs or pigments may be added to the tablets or dragee coatings for product identification or to characterize the quantity of active compound (i.e., dosage). Pharmaceutical preparations of the invention can also be used orally using, e.g., push- fit capsules made of gelatin, as well as soft, sealed capsules made of gelatin and a coating such as glycerol or sorbitol. Push- fit capsules can contain active agents mixed with a filler or binders such as lactose or starches, lubricants such as talc or magnesium stearate, and, optionally, stabilizers. In soft capsules, the active agents can be dissolved or suspended in suitable liquids, such as fatty oils, liquid paraffin, or liquid polyethylene glycol with or without stabilizers.

Aqueous suspensions can contain an active agent (e.g., a chimeric polypeptide or peptidomimetic of the invention) in admixture with excipients suitable for the manufacture of aqueous suspensions. Such excipients include a suspending agent, such as sodium carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, sodium alginate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, gum tragacanth and gum acacia, and dispersing or wetting agents such as a naturally occurring phosphatide (e.g., lecithin), a condensation product of an alkylene oxide with a fatty acid (e.g., polyoxyethylene stearate), a condensation product of ethylene oxide with a long chain aliphatic alcohol (e.g., heptadecaethylene oxycetanol), a condensation product of ethylene oxide with a partial ester derived from a fatty acid and a hexitol (e.g., polyoxyethylene sorbitol mono-oleate), or a condensation product of ethylene oxide with a partial ester derived from fatty acid and a hexitol anhydride (e.g., polyoxyethylene sorbitan mono-oleate). The aqueous suspension can also contain one or more preservatives such as ethyl or n-propyl p-hydroxybenzoate, one or more coloring agents, one or more flavoring agents and one or more sweetening agents, such as sucrose, aspartame or saccharin. Formulations can be adjusted for osmolarity.

Oil-based pharmaceuticals are particularly useful for administration of the hydrophobic active agents of the invention, including compositions (e.g., hybrid polypeptides) of the invention. Oil-based suspensions can be formulated by suspending an active agent in a vegetable oil, such as arachis oil, olive oil, sesame oil or coconut oil, or in a mineral oil such as liquid paraffin; or a mixture of these. See e.g., U.S. Patent No. 5,716,928 describing using essential oils or essential oil components for increasing bioavailability and reducing inter- and intra-individual variability of orally administered hydrophobic pharmaceutical compounds (see also U.S. Patent No. 5,858,401). The oil suspensions can contain a thickening agent, such as beeswax, hard paraffin or cetyl alcohol. Sweetening agents can be added to provide a palatable oral preparation, such as glycerol, sorbitol or sucrose. These formulations can be preserved by the addition of an antioxidant such as ascorbic acid. As an example of an injectable oil vehicle, see Minto (1997) J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 281 :93-102. The pharmaceutical formulations of the invention can also be in the form of oil-in- water emulsions. The oily phase can be a vegetable oil or a mineral oil, described above, or a mixture of these. Suitable emulsifying agents include naturally-occurring gums, such as gum acacia and gum tragacanth, naturally occurring phosphatides, such as soybean lecithin, esters or partial esters derived from fatty acids and hexitol anhydrides, such as sorbitan mono-oleate, and condensation products of these partial esters with ethylene oxide, such as polyoxyethylene sorbitan mono-oleate. The emulsion can also contain sweetening agents and flavoring agents, as in the formulation of syrups and elixirs. Such formulations can also contain a demulcent, a preservative, or a coloring agent.

In practicing this invention, the pharmaceutical compounds can also be administered by in intranasal, intraocular and intravaginal routes including suppositories, insufflation, powders and aerosol formulations (for examples of steroid inhalants, see Rohatagi (1995) J. Clin. Pharmacol. 35: 1187-1193; Tjwa (1995) Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 75:107-111). Suppositories formulations can be prepared by mixing the drug with a suitable non- irritating excipient which is solid at ordinary temperatures but liquid at body temperatures and will therefore melt in the body to release the drug. Such materials are cocoa butter and polyethylene glycols.

In practicing this invention, the pharmaceutical compounds can be delivered by transdermally, by a topical route, formulated as applicator sticks, solutions, suspensions, emulsions, gels, creams, ointments, pastes, jellies, paints, powders, and aerosols.

In practicing this invention, the pharmaceutical compounds can also be delivered as microspheres for slow release in the body. For example, microspheres can be administered via intradermal injection of drug which slowly release subcutaneously; see e.g., USPN 6,689,118 or 6,569,143; Rao (1995) J. Biomater Sci. Polym. Ed. 7:623-645; as biodegradable and injectable gel formulations, see, e.g., Gao (1995) Pharm. Res. 12:857-863 (1995); or, as microspheres for oral administration, see, e.g., Eyles (1997) J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 49:669-674. In practicing this invention, the pharmaceutical compounds can be parenterally administered, such as by intravenous (IV) administration or administration into a body cavity or lumen of an organ. These formulations can comprise a solution of active agent dissolved in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Acceptable vehicles and solvents that can be employed are water and Ringer's solution, an isotonic sodium chloride. In addition, sterile fixed oils can be employed as a solvent or suspending medium. For this purpose any bland fixed oil can be employed including synthetic mono- or diglycerides. In addition, fatty acids such as oleic acid can likewise be used in the preparation of injectables. These solutions are sterile and generally free of undesirable matter. These formulations may be sterilized by conventional, well known sterilization techniques. The formulations may contain pharmaceutically acceptable auxiliary substances as required to approximate physiological conditions such as pH adjusting and buffering agents, toxicity adjusting agents, e.g., sodium acetate, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium lactate and the like. The concentration of active agent in these formulations can vary widely, and can be selected primarily based on fluid volumes, viscosities, body weight, and the like, in accordance with the particular mode of administration selected and the patient's needs.

For rv administration, the formulation can be a sterile injectable preparation, such as a sterile injectable aqueous or oleaginous suspension. This suspension can be formulated using those suitable dispersing or wetting agents and suspending agents. The sterile injectable preparation can also be a suspension in a nontoxic parenterally-acceptable diluent or solvent, such as a solution of 1,3-butanediol. The administration can be by bolus or continuous infusion (e.g., substantially uninterrupted introduction into a blood vessel for a specified period of time).

The pharmaceutical compounds and formulations of the invention can be lyophilized. The invention provides a stable lyophilized formulation comprising a composition of the invention, which can be made by lyophilizing a solution comprising a pharmaceutical of the invention and a bulking agent, e.g., mannitol, trehalose, raffinose, and sucrose or mixtures thereof. A process for preparing a stable lyophilized formulation can include lyophilizing a solution about 2.5 mg/mL protein, about 15 mg/mL sucrose, about 19 mg/mL NaCl, and a sodium citrate buffer having a pH greater than 5.5 but less than 6.5. See, e.g., U.S. patent app. no. 20040028670. Nanoparticles and Liposomes

The compositions and formulations of the invention can be delivered by the use of liposomes. By using liposomes, particularly where the liposome surface carries ligands specific for target cells, or are otherwise preferentially directed to a specific organ or cell type, one can focus the delivery of the active agent into target cells in vivo. See, e.g., U.S. Patent Nos. 6,063,400; 6,007,839; Al-Muhammed (1996) J. Microencapsul. 13:293-306; Chonn (1995) Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 6:698-708; Ostro (1989) Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 46:1576-1587.

The invention also provides nanoparticles and liposomal membranes comprising compounds of this invention which target specific molecules, including biologic molecules, such as polypeptide, including cell surface polypeptides. Thus, in alternative embodiments, the invention provides nanoparticles and liposomal membranes targeting BBB cells, such as BBB endothelial cells, or nerve or glial cells (e.g., microglia, macrophage, macroglial, ependymal, radial, oligodendrocyte, astrocyte or Schwann cells), including dysfunctional cells or cells affected by an intracellular or extracellular protein aggregation. In alternative embodiments, the invention provides nanoparticles and liposomal membranes comprising (in addition to comprising compounds of this invention) molecules, e.g., peptides or antibodies, that selectively or specifically target BBB cells, such as BBB endothelial cells, or nerve or glial cells, or diseased, infected, dysfunctional and/or normal nerve or glial cells. In alternative embodiments, the invention provides nanoparticles and liposomal membranes to targeted receptors on BBB cells, such as BBB endothelial cells, or nerve or glial cells. See, e.g., U.S. patent application publication no. 20060239968.

Thus, in one aspect, the compositions of the invention are specifically targeted for BBB cells, such as BBB endothelial cells.

The invention also provides nanocells to allow the sequential delivery of two different therapeutic agents with different modes of action or different pharmacokinetics, at least one of which comprises a composition of this invention. A nanocell is formed by encapsulating a nanocore with a first agent inside a lipid vesicle containing a second agent; see, e.g., Sengupta, et al., U.S. Pat. Pub. No. 20050266067. The agent in the outer lipid compartment is released first and may exert its effect before the agent in the nanocore is released. The nanocell delivery system may be formulated in any pharmaceutical composition for delivery to BBB cells, such as BBB endothelial cells, or nerve or glial cells, in patients suffering from a diseases or condition as described herein, e.g., such as an individual with a degenerative neurological disease related to or caused by protein aggregation, e.g., synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein aggregation.

The invention also provides multilayered liposomes comprising compounds of this invention, e.g., for transdermal absorption, e.g., as described in Park, et al., U.S. Pat. Pub. No. 20070082042. The multilayered liposomes can be prepared using a mixture of oil-phase components comprising squalane, sterols, ceramides, neutral lipids or oils, fatty acids and lecithins, to about 200 to 5000 nm in particle size, to entrap a composition of this invention.

A multilayered liposome of the invention may further include an antiseptic, an antioxidant, a stabilizer, a thickener, and the like to improve stability. Synthetic and natural antiseptics can be used, e.g., in an amount of 0.01% to 20%. Antioxidants can be used, e.g., BHT, erysorbate, tocopherol, astaxanthin, vegetable flavonoid, and derivatives thereof, or a plant-derived antioxidizing substance. A stabilizer can be used to stabilize liposome structure, e.g., polyols and sugars. Exemplary polyols include butylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, dipropylene glycol and ethyl carbitol; examples of sugars are trehalose, sucrose, mannitol, sorbitol and chitosan, or a monosaccharides or an oligosaccharides, or a high molecular weight starch. A thickener can be used for improving the dispersion stability of constructed liposomes in water, e.g., a natural thickener or an acrylamide, or a synthetic polymeric thickener. Exemplary thickeners include natural polymers, such as acacia gum, xanthan gum, gellan gum, locust bean gum and starch, cellulose derivatives, such as hydroxy ethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose, synthetic polymers, such as polyacrylic acid, poly-acrylamide or polyvinylpyrollidone and polyvinylalcohol, and copolymers thereof or cross-linked materials.

Liposomes can be made using any method, e.g., as described in Park, et al., U.S. Pat. Pub. No. 20070042031, including method of producing a liposome by encapsulating a therapeutic product comprising providing an aqueous solution in a first reservoir; providing an organic lipid solution in a second reservoir, wherein one of the aqueous solution and the organic lipid solution includes a therapeutic product; mixing the aqueous solution with said organic lipid solution in a first mixing region to produce a liposome solution, wherein the organic lipid solution mixes with said aqueous solution so as to substantially instantaneously produce a liposome encapsulating the therapeutic product; and immediately thereafter mixing the liposome solution with a buffer solution to produce a diluted liposome solution. The invention also provides nanoparticles comprising compounds of this invention to deliver a composition of the invention as a drug-containing nanoparticles (e.g., a secondary nanoparticle), as described, e.g., in U.S. Pat. Pub. No. 20070077286. In one embodiment, the invention provides nanoparticles comprising a fat-soluble drug of this invention or a fat- solubilized water-soluble drug to act with a bivalent or trivalent metal salt.

For example, in one embodiment, compositions and formulations of the invention are delivered by the use of liposomes having rigid lipids having head groups and hydrophobic tails, e.g., as using a polyethyleneglycol-linked lipid having a side chain matching at least a portion the lipid, as described e.g., in US Pat App Pub No. 20080089928. In another embodiment, compositions and formulations of the invention are delivered by the use of amphoteric liposomes comprising a mixture of lipids, e.g., a mixture comprising a cationic amphiphile, an anionic amphiphile and/or neutral amphiphiles, as described e.g., in US Pat App Pub No. 20080088046, or 20080031937. Amphoteric liposomes of the invention can comprise an active ingredient and at least one amphipathic cationic lipid, at least one amphipathic anionic lipid, and at least one neutral lipid, e.g., as described in USPN 7,371,404. In another embodiment, compositions and formulations of the invention are delivered by the use of liposomes comprising a polyalkylene glycol moiety bonded through a thioether group and an antibody also bonded through a thioether group to the liposome, as described e.g., in US Pat App Pub No. 20080014255. In another embodiment, compositions and formulations of the invention are delivered by the use of liposomes comprising glycerides, glycerophospholipids, glycerophosphinolipids, glycerophosphonolipids, sulfolipids, sphingolipids, phospholipids, isoprenolides, steroids, stearines, sterols and/or carbohydrate containing lipids, as described e.g., in US Pat App Pub No. 20070148220.

In one embodiment, compositions and formulations of the invention are delivered by the use of liquid-crystalline multi-molecular aggregates comprising a plurality of amphiphilic molecules dispersed in an aqueous solution, e.g., as described in USPN 7,368,129.

In one embodiment, compositions and formulations of the invention are delivered to the respiratory tract of an individual via inhalation, e.g., using a nebulized liposomal aerosol, e.g., comprising a dilauroylphosphatidylcholine liposome, e.g., as described in 7,348,025. In one embodiment, compositions and formulations of the invention are delivered via their formulation into a unimolecular multi-arm block copolymer comprising, e.g., a hydrophilic polymer segment such as poly(alkylene glycols), copolymers of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol, poly(olefinic alcohol), polyvinylpyrrolidone), poly(hydroxyalkylmethacrylamide), poly(hydroxyalkylmethacrylate), poly(saccharides), poly(.alpha. -hydroxy acid), poly(vinyl alcohol), polyphosphazene, polyoxazoline and poly(N- acryloylmorpholine), and the like, e.g., as described in U.S. Pat. App. Pub. No. 20080069902. In one embodiment, compositions and formulations of the invention are delivered via solid, biodegradable in-situ implants; e.g., by administering a liquid pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of a biocompatible, water-insoluble, biodegradable polymer and an effective amount of a peptide or polypeptide of this invention. In one aspect, a peptide or polypeptide of this invention covalently modified with one or more lipophilic or amphiphilic moieties, which are dissolved or dispersed in a biocompatible, water- soluble organic solvent, e.g., as described in U.S. Pat. App. Pub. No. 20080020016. Compositions and formulations of the invention can be delivered using any injectable liquid biodegradable polymeric composition, e.g., as an in situ forming implant to deliver a peptide or polypeptide of this invention, e.g., as described in U.S. Patent Nos. 6,565,874; 6,528,080; 6,461,631 ; 6,395,293; 6,355,657; 6,261,583; 6,143,314; 5,990,194; 5,945,115; 5,792,469; 5,780,044; 5,759,563; 5,744,153; 5,739, 176; 5,736,152; 5,733,950; 5,702,716; 5,681,873; 5,599,552; 5,487,897; 5,340,849; 5,324,519; 5,278,202; 5,278,201 ; 4,938,763.

In one embodiment, compositions and formulations of the invention are delivered via transdermal systems for sustained delivery, e.g., as described in U.S. Pat. App. Pub. No. 20070287949, Levin et al.. For example, compositions and formulations of the invention can be delivered via transdermal patches, and/or via an apparatus that generates micro-channels in the skin of a subject in combination with a transdermal patch, see e.g., Levin et al.

In one embodiment, compositions and formulations of the invention are delivered via orally administered formulations, e.g., as described in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,008,114; 5,505,962; 5,641,515; 5,681,811; 5,700,486; 5,766,633; 5,792,451; 5,853,748; 5,972,387; 5,976,569; and 6,051,561.

Therapeutically effective amount and dose

The compositions and formulations of the invention can be administered for prophylactic and/or therapeutic treatments for any degenerative neurological disease such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's Disease (AD), fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), Lewy body disease (LBD) and Multiple system atrophy (MSA), and/or any one or several of symptoms related to these diseases or conditions. In therapeutic applications, in alternative embodiments, compositions are administered to a subject already suffering from a condition, infection or disease in an amount sufficient to cure, alleviate or partially arrest the clinical manifestations of the condition, infection or disease and its complications (a "therapeutically effective amount"). In alternative embodiments of the methods of the invention, a pharmaceutical composition is administered in an amount sufficient to treat, prevent, reverse (partially or completely) or ameliorate (including slowing the progression of) degenerative neurological diseases related to or caused by protein aggregation, e.g., synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein aggregation. In one aspect, compositions and methods of this invention are used to treat, prevent, reverse (partially or completely) or ameliorate (including slowing the progression of) Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's Disease (AD), fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), Lewy body disease (LBD) and Multiple system atrophy (MSA), and/or any one or several of symptoms related to these diseases or conditions.

The amount of pharmaceutical composition of the invention adequate to accomplish this is defined as a "therapeutically effective dose." The dosage schedule and amounts effective for this use, i.e., the "dosing regimen," will depend upon a variety of factors, including the stage of the disease or condition, the severity of the disease or condition, the general state of the patient's health, the patient's physical status, age and the like. In calculating the dosage regimen for a patient, the mode of administration also is taken into consideration.

The dosage regimen also takes into consideration pharmacokinetics parameters well known in the art, i.e., the active agents' rate of absorption, bioavailability, metabolism, clearance, and the like (see, e.g., Hidalgo-Aragones (1996) J. Steroid Biochem. MoI. Biol. 58:611-617; Groning (1996) Pharmazie 51 :337-341 ; Fotherby (1996) Contraception 54:59-69; Johnson (1995) J. Pharm. Sci. 84:1144-1146; Rohatagi (1995) Pharmazie 50:610-613; Brophy (1983) Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 24:103-108; the latest Remington's, supra). The state of the art allows the clinician to determine the dosage regimen for each individual patient, active agent and disease or condition treated. Guidelines provided for similar compositions used as pharmaceuticals can be used as guidance to determine the dosage regiment, i.e., dose schedule and dosage levels, administered practicing the methods of the invention are correct and appropriate.

Single or multiple administrations of formulations can be given depending on the dosage and frequency as required and tolerated by the patient. The formulations should provide a sufficient quantity of active agent to effectively prevent, reverse, slow or inhibit a degenerative neurological disease related to or caused by protein aggregation, e.g., synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein aggregation, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's Disease (AD), fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), Lewy body disease (LBD) and Multiple system atrophy (MSA). For example, an exemplary pharmaceutical formulation for oral administration of a hybrid / chimeric polypeptide or peptidomimetic of the invention is in a daily amount of between about 0.1 to 0.5 to about 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 or 1000 or more Mg per kilogram of body weight per day. In an alternative embodiments, dosages are from about 1 mg to about 4 mg per kg of body weight per patient per day are used. Lower dosages can be used, in contrast to administration orally, into the blood stream, into a body cavity or into a lumen of an organ. Substantially higher dosages can be used in topical or oral administration or administering by powders, spray or inhalation. Actual methods for preparing parenterally or non-parenterally administrable formulations will be known or apparent to those skilled in the art and are described in more detail in such publications as Remington's, supra.

Initiation and assessment of efficacy of therapy

In alternative embodiments, compositions of this invention are used to treat dementia and dementia-type disorders related to protein aggregation, and any systems and/or methods for analyzing and assessing dementia and dementia-type disorders can be used to assess the efficacy of a composition of this invention on an individual, e.g., to determine and calibrate a dose or a dosage regimen; for example, by integrating the use of electroencephalography (EEG), neuropsychological or cognitive testing data, and cardiovascular risk factor data. In practicing this invention, systems and methods for early detection of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), vascular dementia (VAD), mixed dementia (AD and VAD), MCI, and other dementia- type disorders can be used. Accurate detection of mild dementia and some cases of mild cognitive impairment in addition to the detection of moderate to severe dementia can be assessed using any method or protocol, e.g., as described in U.S. Pat. App. Pub. No. 20070299360.

Any cognitive and/or clinical chemistry of imaging test or combination thereof can be used to tentatively diagnose AD, PD, VAD and the like, or predict the likelihood of an individual being disposed to getting or having AD, PD, VAD and the like, and thus trigger the initiation of therapy comprising use of compositions and methods of this invention. For example, elevated levels of tau and/or Aβ protein in the CNS, e.g., in cerebro-spinal fluid, can be sufficient to thus trigger the initiation of therapy comprising use of compositions and methods of this invention; e.g., as described in USPN 5,397,712, which describes use of immunoassays to diagnosis Alzheimer's disease. Tests indicating impaired cognition, or mild cognitive impairment or MCI, can trigger the initiation of therapy comprising use of compositions and methods of this invention; e.g., as described in USPN 6,964,638, or USPN 6,280,198, describing use of a computer for giving a series of cognitive dysfunction tests to an individual. Results from imaging tests, e.g., MRI or ultrasound imaging, can be used to trigger the initiation of therapy comprising use of compositions and methods of this invention; e.g., as described in USPN 6,875,176, describing methods for noninvasively inducing a detectable tissue displacement at a central nervous system (CNS) target tissue site by applying an ultrasound pulse; noninvasively determining the induced tissue displacement at or in proximity to the CNS target tissue site; and relating the induced tissue displacement with a physiological property of the CNS target tissue.

Another test that can be used to determine when to initiate a treatment or a prophylactic therapy comprising use of compositions and methods of this invention is described in USPN 7,335,652, which described methods for determining the stage of neurofibrillary degeneration associated with a tauopathy in a subject - aggregated paired helical filament (PHF) tau proteins are labeled. The tauopathy can be imaged in vivo, e.g., by positron emission tomography (PET).

Any test or assessment, e.g., as those described above, that can trigger the initiation of a therapy comprising use of compositions and methods of this invention also can be used to monitor the success of a treatment regimen of this invention; e.g., a dosage, frequency of administration, formulation or route of administration can be adjusted by one of skill in the art during the course of a therapeutic or prophylactic treatment comprising use of a composition or method of this invention.

Genetic markers of risk toward Alzheimer's disease (AD) also can be used to assess when to begin treatments comprising use of compositions and methods of this invention; such genetic markers include e.g. mutations in the APP gene such as mutations at position 717 and positions 670 and 671, referred to as the Hardy and Swedish mutations. Early-onset AD, also called familial AD (FAD), can be inherited. FAD can be caused by a number of different gene mutations, e.g., on chromosomes 21, 14, and 1; these mutations may cause abnormal proteins and protein aggregates to be formed. Mutations on chromosome 21 may cause the formation of abnormal amyloid precursor protein (APP). A mutation on chromosome 14 may cause abnormal presenilin 1 to be made, and a mutation on chromosome 1 may lead to abnormal presenilin 2.

A predisposing genetic risk factor in late-onset AD may indicate an increase in a person's risk of developing the disease - thus triggering initiation of use of a composition or method of this invention. For example, in one embodiment, this increased risk is associated with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene found on chromosome 19. APOE comes in several different alleles, where APOE ε2, APOE ε3, and APOE ε4 occur most frequently. APOE ε2 is relatively rare and may provide some protection against the disease. IfAD does occur in a person with this allele, it develops later in life than it would in someone with the APOE ε4 gene. APOE ε3 is the most common allele. It may plays a neutral role in AD. APOE ε4 occurs in about 40 percent of all people who develop late-onset AD and is present in about 25 to 30 percent of the population. People with AD are more likely to have an APOE ε4 allele than people who do not develop AD.

Other markers of risk for AD are mutations in the presenilin genes, PSl and PS2, and ApoE4, family history of AD, hypercholesterolemia or atherosclerosis, to name just a few.

Drug combinations and co-administrations The compositions and formulations of the invention can further comprise other drugs or pharmaceuticals, e.g., other compositions for treating or palliative for a degenerative neurological disease related to or caused by protein aggregation, e.g., synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein aggregation, e.g., fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Lewy body disease (LBD), a hereditary systemic amyloidosis and/or Multiple system atrophy (MSA) and related symptoms or conditions. For example, the methods and/or compositions and formulations of the invention can be co-formulated with and/or co-administered with antibiotics (e.g., antibacterial or bacteriostatic peptides or proteins), e.g., those effective against gram negative bacteria, fluids, cytokines, immunoregulatory agents, anti- inflammatory agents, complement activating agents, such as peptides or proteins comprising collagen-like domains or fibrinogen-like domains (e.g., a ficolin), carbohydrate -binding domains, and the like and combinations thereof. The compositions and formulations of the invention can be co-administered with another therapeutic or prophylactic therapy or therapeutic agent, e.g., for an Alzheimer's disease, a Parkinson's disease, a hereditary systemic amyloidosis etc., including treatment or palliative drugs such as an antibody to Aβ peptide (see e.g., USPN 6,913,745), tacrine (Cognex), donepezil (Aricept), rivastigmine (Exelon) galantamine (Reminyl), physostigmine, neostigmine, Icopezil (CP-118954, 5,7-dihydro-3-[2-[l-(phenylmethyl)-4-piperidinyl]ethyl]- 6H-pyrrolo-[4,5-f- ]-l,2-benzisoxazol-6-one maleate), ER-127528 (4-[(5,6-dimethoxy-2- fluoro-l-indanon)-2-yl]methyl-l-(3-fluorobenzyl)pipe- ridine hydrochloride), zanapezil (TAK- 147; 3-[l-(phenylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl]-l -(2,3, 4,5-tetrahydro- IH-I -benzazepin— 8-yl)-l- propane fumarate), Metrifonate (T-588; (-)-R-.alpha.-[[2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy]methyl] benzo[b]thiophene-5 -methanol hydrochloride), FK-960 (N-(4-acetyl-l-piperazinyl)-p- fluorobenzamide-hydrate), TCH-346 (N-methyl-N-2-pyropinyldibenz[b,f]oxepine- 10- methanamine), SDZ-220-581 ((S)-.alpha.-amino-5-(phosphonomethyl)-[l,l'-biphenyl]-3- propionic acid), memantine (Namenda/Exiba) and 1,3,3,5,5-pentamethylcyclohexan-l-amine (Neramexane), tarenflurbil (Flurizan), tramiprosate (Alzhemed), clioquinol, PBT-2 (an 8- hydroxyquinilone derivative), l-(2-(2-Naphthyl)ethyl)-4-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)-l,2,3,6- tetrahydropyr- idine, Huperzine A, posatirelin, leuprolide or derivatives thereof, ispronicline, (3-aminopropyl)(n-butyl)phosphinic acid (SGS-742), N-methyl-5-(3-(5-isopropoxypyridinyl))- 4-penten-2-amine (ispronicline), 1 -decanaminium, N-(2 -hydro xy-3-sulfopropyl)-N-methyl -N- octyl-, inner salt (zt-1), salicylates, aspirin, amoxiprin, benorilate, choline magnesium salicylate, diflunisal, faislamine, methyl salicylate, magnesium salicylate, salicyl salicylate, diclofenac, aceclofenac, acemetacin, bromfenac, etodolac, indometacin, nabumetone, sulindac, tolmetin, ibuprofen, carprofen, fenbufen, fenoprofen, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, ketorolac, loxoprofen, naproxen, tiaprofenic acid, suprofen, mefenamic acid, meclofenamic acid, phenylbutazone, azapropazone, metamizole, oxyphenbutazone, sulfinprazone, piroxicam, lornoxicam, meloxicam, tenoxicam, celecoxib, etoricoxib, lumiracoxib, parecoxib, rofecoxib, valdecoxib, nimesulide, arylalkanoic acids, 2-arylpropionic acids (profens), N-arylanthranilic acids (fenamic acids), pyrazolidine derivatives, oxicams, COX-2 inhibitors, sulphonanilides, essential fatty acids, and/or Minozac (2-(4-(4-methyl-6-phenylpyridazin-3-yl)piperazin-l- yl)pyrimidine dihydrochloride hydrate).

Kits The invention provides kits comprising compositions (including the pharmaceutical compositions and formulations) of this invention and methods of the invention, instructions (regarding the methods of the invention to treat, prevent, reverse (partially or completely) or ameliorate (including slowing the progression of) degenerative neurological diseases related to or caused by aggregation, e.g., synuclein, beta-amyloid and/or tau protein aggregation), or any combination thereof. As such, kits, nanoparticles and the like are provided herein.

The invention will be further described with reference to the following examples; however, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to such examples.

EXAMPLES

Example 1 : TARGETING POLYPEPTIDES TO THE CNS FOR CLEARANCE OF AGGREGATED PROTEINS

This example presents data demonstrating that exemplary compounds of this invention are effective in accelerating protein aggregation removal from the CNS.

While the invention is not limited by any particular mechanism of action, abnormal accumulation of proteins in the CNS can cause or aggravate neurodegenerative disease. AB is a 40-42 amino acid long peptide derived from the proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the gamma and beta-secretases. Abnormal accumulation amyloid beta protein (AB) and tau in the nervous system results in progressive damage to neurons leading to Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and fronto-temporal dementia (FTD). These devastating disorders affect over 5 million people in the US alone.

In alternative aspects, administration of compositions of this invention can prevent or reverse the accumulation of oligomeric forms of AB proteins which promote nerve degeneration by damaging the synaptic connections among neurons. In AD, accumulation of AB oligomers is the results of alterations in the balance between the rate of AB synthesis, aggregation and clearance. Although most recent therapies for AD have been focused at blocking synthesis of aggregation of AB relatively less has been done to promote clearance. The clearance of AB depends on removal by: i) chaperones (e.g.: apoE, beta-2M, HSP's), ii) degrading enzymes (e.g.: neprilysin (NEP), IDE, EDE), iii) non-lysosomal degradation (e.g.: proteosome) and lysosomal degradation (e.g.: autophagy, e.g., Beclin). In one embodiment, practicing the compositions and methods of this invention increases the clearance of AB by delivering specific hybrid polypeptides that selectively traffic into the CNS and target AB for degradation (figure 1). In alternative embodiments, the hybrid polypeptides of this invention can be synthesized by recombinant technologies and delivered intravascularly or by gene therapy.

In one embodiment, a vector, e.g., a viral vector, containing the gene sequence for the fusion protein of interest can be administered by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. In one embodiment, a vector, e.g., a viral vector, drives the production of the fusion polypeptide in a tissue in vivo, e.g., in a peripheral organ or organs (e.g., liver and spleen), as illustrated in Figure 1. This embodiment allows the trafficking of these specific hybrid polypeptides into the CNS because of the fusion with a fragment of the apoB protein. We show data from our work on the treatment of AD with the exemplary hybrid polypeptide of the invention apoB-secNEP. However the invention provides a number of additional polypeptides to reduce accumulation of AB, including the hybrid polypeptides apoB-secNEP, apoB-Beclin and apoB-apoE. In one embodiment, the invention provides therapies for AD and related neurodegenerative disorders by increasing the clearance of toxic AB aggregates via exogenous delivery of hybrid polypeptides with the ability of crossing the blood brain barrier (BBB).

In one embodiment, this invention provides molecules that act in AD by direct injection into the CNS. In one embodiment, this invention provides a peripherally administered therapy that can penetrate into the CNS and increase the clearance of AB aggregates. In one embodiment, this invention provides a peripherally administered therapy that allows the trafficking of peripherally administered hybrid polypeptides or equivalent gene vectors into the CNS. In one embodiment, these hybrid polypeptides selectively activate clearance pathways that remove AB aggregates, therefore reducing the neuronal damage. In alternative embodiments, the invention combines the use of the apoB peptide with polypeptides that promote the clearance of AB aggregates for the treatment of AD and related disorders.

In alternative embodiments, the invention provides therapeutic approaches for AD and related disorders focused at the clearance of AB aggregates. In alternative embodiments, the invention provides approaches for increasing clearance of AB by the administration of a polypeptide of the invention or the administration of a gene vector of the invention without need for its direct injection or insertion into the brain. This indirect administration allows relatively large molecules to enter into the CNS when administered peripherally. In alternative embodiments, the invention also provides use of conventional constructs expressing hybrid compositions of this invention, e.g., NEP and other Aβ-degrading enzymes, administered peripherally and/or injected directly into the brain.

In alternative embodiments, the invention provides compositions for crossing the BBB, these compositions comprising fusion proteins using the TAT sequence of HIV, ferritin and other carrier molecules. In alternative embodiments, the invention provides compositions for crossing the BBB comprising highly efficient hybrid fusion polypeptide expressing AB degrading enzymes to enter the CNS and reduce protein aggregation, including ameliorating AD-associated pathology. In alternative embodiments, the invention provides compositions, or constructs, comprising two basic components, a fragment of ApoB or equivalent which allows trafficking into the CNS and a protein aggregate degrading enzyme of interest, e.g., an AB degrading enzyme of interest (e.g., NEP).

In alternative embodiments, the invention provides novel strategies and methods for delivery of the compositions of this invention. In alternative embodiments, the invention is used for targeted, personalized medicine, to provide for the directed, focused administration of a therapeutic strategy that targets the degradation of aggregated protein, e.g., AB, by the specific biochemical action that degrades it in nature.

In alternative embodiments, the invention is used to complement other therapeutic strategies being developed to treat degenerative neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's Disease (AD), fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), Lewy body disease (LBD), a hereditary systemic amyloidosis and/or Multiple system atrophy (MSA). For example, compositions and methods of this invention can be used with any vaccine against AB and/or the use of molecules to dissociate the aggregation, providing a full three pronged approach to AD treatment, by stopping AB synthesis, by blocking AB aggregation and by enzymatic clearance of these toxic peptides.

In alternative embodiments, the invention provides biological therapies for degenerative neurological diseases such as PD, AD and the like, that are capable to transit a therapeutic composition of this invention across the BBB into the CNS; in alternative embodiments the invention based on the concept of utilizing hybrid proteins comprising part of an apoB sequence linked to AB clearing agents. In alternative embodiments, the invention provides means to overcome the BBB control of the passage of substances from the blood into the central nervous system. In alternative embodiments, the invention provides a treatment of brain disorders that overcomes the impediment of delivery of therapeutic macromolecules to the brain. In alternative embodiments, the invention provides for vascular distribution of a therapeutic protein of this invention. In alternative embodiments, the invention targets any well-characterized BBB receptor, including a low-density lipoprotein receptor, transferrin receptor, and/or insulin growth factor receptor. In alternative embodiments, the invention can use any member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family, which is a group of cell surface receptors that bind lipoprotein complexes for internalization to the lysosomes.

In alternative embodiments, the invention can use any one of ten different receptors, e.g., a low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), a low-density lipoprotein related receptor (LRP), a very-low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL), a megalin and/or an apolipoprotein E receptor 2. In alternative embodiments, the compositions of the invention bind to receptors expressed in a tissue specific manner, e.g., bind to receptors that bind (have as ligands) apolipoprotein complexes, e.g., including apolipoproteins such as apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE), function to bind lipids in the blood stream and target them for lysosomal degradation. In alternative embodiments, the compositions of the invention comprise apolipoproteins or their fragments that bind to their respectively receptors, e.g., an LDL receptor, on the cell surface of a targeted cell, wherein then the complex is endocytosed. While the invention is not limited by any particular mechanism of action, conversion to an early endosome and subsequent lowering of the compartmental pH, results in release of the compositions of the invention (e.g., comprising the apolipoprotein) and recycling of the receptor to the cell surface. While the invention is not limited by any particular mechanism of action, at the BBB, LDLR binds compositions of the invention (e.g., comprising the apolipoprotein), resulting in transcytosis to the abluminal side of the BBB where the compositions of the invention (e.g., comprising the apolipoprotein) are released to be taken up by neurons and/ or astrocytes. We have shown that the addition of the apolipoprotein B LDL receptor-binding domain to a lysosomal enzyme such as glucocerebrosidase could target the enzyme for passage across the BBB and uptake into neurons and astrocytes (see reference 1, below). The protein was subsequently shown to target to the lysosomes of these cells.

Data in this Example demonstrate that compositions and methods of this invention can deliver the exemplary AB degrading enzyme, NEP utilizing the invention's method of delivering proteins to the CNS by passage across the BBB. Specifically, we developed a secreted NEP protein (NEP is also known as neprilysin, membrane metallo-endopeptidase, neutral endopeptidase, CDlO) (secNEP) that was fused at the N-terminus peptide of ApoB

(figure 2). This relies on the addition of the secretory signal and the ApoB leader sequence to

NEP. We have previously shown (e.g., reference 1, below) that this apoB peptide facilitates the BBB transit. We believe that this construct can be applicable to almost any protein or peptide for delivery to the CNS. To date, we have not seen a molecular or physical size restriction to the transport of proteins by this method.

Although the description given here is focused on the delivery of NEP, the application of this invention is not limited to this specific AB degrading enzyme. Other AB degrading enzymes which may prove successful in the same CNS delivery method include: insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), endothelin convertase enzyme (ECE), and/or a Serine Endo-

Peptidase (SEP, a metalo-endopeptidase).

Additional embodiments comprise any protein, e.g., enzyme, that can degrade, e.g., clear, aggregrated proteins such as tau, syn AB include proteins involved in intracellular clearance of accumulated proteins.

We have recently shown that overexpression of Beclinl, the major autophagy regulating protein, can clear cells of the accumulated AB, thus showing that alteration in the autophagy pathway may be a valid approach for the clearance of accumulated AB. In alternative embodiments, other proteins that also can be used to practice this invention and be effective in regulating the autophagy pathway (and clear cells of accumulated AB) include:

ATG7 autophagy related 7 homolog (Atg7), Beclin (e.g., Beclin 1 protein (coiled-coil, myosin- like BCL2 interacting protein), and/or ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase Ll (ubiquitin thiolesterase) (UCHLl).

Additionally, other proteins may also be used to practice this invention and be effective at the clearing of accumulated AB include: proteins of the heat shock pathway (e.g., Heat shock proteins, or HSPs), proteins of the ubiquitin/ proteosomal pathway (e.g., a ubiquitin), and proteins that regulate the production of APP. The compositions and methods of this invention can deliver these and other proteins across the BBB for access to the whole CNS.

While the invention is not limited by any particular mechanism of action, Figure 1 illustrates a diagrammatic representation of an exemplary concept of the invention. A secreted NEP (secNEP) protein was generated by cloning the human NEP extracellular domain into the lentivirus plasmid, pBob. The secretory signal of pre-pro trypsin was cloned at the 5' end followed by the LDL-R binding domain of apoliprotein B. The resulting construct was designated pLV-ApoBSecNep. A control construct was generated that contained the secreted NEP without the ApoB LDL-R binding domain (pLV-SecNep). As a control for transported proteins, a virus was generated as described above with eGFP, pre-pro trypsin secretory signal and the ApoB LDL-R binding domain (pLV-GFPApoB).

The amino acid sequence for ApoBSecNep is:

M S A L L I L A L V G A A V A D Y K D D D D K T G S S V I D A L Q Y K L E G T T R L T R K R G L K L A T A L S L S N K F V E G S T G Y D D G I C K S S D C I K S A A R L I Q N M D A T T E P C R D F F K Y A C G G W L K R N V I P E T S S R Y G N F D I L R D E L E V V L K D V L Q E P K T E D I V A V Q K A K A L Y R S C I N E S A I D S R G G E P L L K L L P D I Y G W P V A T E N W E Q K Y G A S W T A E K A I A Q L N S K Y G K K V L I N L F V G T D D K N S V N H V I H I D Q P R L G L P S R D Y Y E C T G I Y K E A C T A Y V D F M I S V A R L I R Q E E R L P I D E N Q L A L E M N K V M E L E K E I A N A T A K P E D R N D P M L L Y N K M R L A Q I Q N N F S L E I N G K P F S W L N F T N E I M S T V N I S I T N E E D V V V Y A P E Y L T K L K P I L T K S A R D L Q N L M S W R F I M D L V S S L S R T Y K E S R N A F R K A L Y G T T S E T A T W R R C A N Y V N G N M E N A V G R L Y V E A A F A G E S K H V V E D L I A Q I R E V F I Q T L D D L T W M D A E T K K R A E E K A L A I K E R I G Y P D D I V S N D N K L N N E Y L E L N Y K E D E Y F E N I I Q N L K F S Q S K Q L K K L R E K V D K D E W I S G A A V V N A F Y S S G R N Q I V F P A G I L Q P P F F S A Q Q S N S L N Y G G I G M V I G H E I T H G F D D N G R N F N K D G D L V D W W T Q Q S A S N F K E Q S Q C M V Y Q Y G N F S W D L A G G Q H L N G I N T L G E N I A D N G G L G Q A Y R A Y Q N Y I K K N G E E K L L P G L D L N H K Q L F F L N F A Q V W C G T Y R P E Y A V N S I K T D V H S P G N F R I I G T L Q N S A E F S E A F H C R K N S Y M N P E K K C R V W (SEQ ID NO.1) The amino acid sequence for human neprilysin is (see e.g., Miners (2009) J.

Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.68(8), 902-914; or NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_009220.2):

1 mgksesqmdi tdintpkpkk kqrwtpleis Isvlvlllti iavtmialya tyddgickss 61 dciksaarli qnmdattepc tdffkyacgg wlkrnvipetssrygnfdil rdelevvlkd 121 vlqepktedi vavqkakaly rscinesaid srggepllkl Ipdiygwpva tenweqkyga

181 swtaekaiaq Inskygkkvl inlfvgtddk nsvnhvihid qprlglpsrd yyectgiyke 241 actayvdfmi svarlirqee rlpidenqla lemnkvmele keianatakp edrndpmlly 301 nkmtlaqiqn nfsleingkp fswlnftnei mstvnisitn eedwvyape yltklkpilt 361 kysardlqnl mswrfimdlv sslsrtykes rnafrkalyg ttsetatwrr canyvngnme 421 navgrlyvea afageskhvv edliaqirev fiqtlddltw mdaetkkrae ekalaikeri 481 gypddivsnd nklnneylel nykedeyfen iiqnlkfsqs kqlkklrekv dkdewisgaa 541 vvnafyssgr nqivfpagil qppffsaqqs nslnyggigm vigheithgf ddngrnfnkd 601 gdlvdwwtqq sasnfkeqsq cmvyqygnfs wdlaggqhln gintlgenia dngglgqayr 661 ayqnyikkng eekllpgldl nhkqlfflnf aqvwcgtyrp eyavnsiktd vhspgnfrii

721 gtlqnsaefs eafhcrknsy mnpekkcrvw (SEQ ID NO.2)

To determine if the newly generated secNEP was secreted and active, LV was produced and used to infect 293T cells. Cells culture supernate and lysates was collected 72 hours after virus infection and analyzed by Western blot. The NEP antibody recognized a band at

-10OkDa in the lysates of the 293T cells infected with the LV-NEP, LV-SecNEP and the LV- ApoBSecNEP (Figure 2B). This band was not observed in uninfected 293T cells or cells infected with the LV-ApoBGFP virus indicating that neprilysin is not endogenously produced by the 293T cells. Cell culture supernate was analyzed by Western blot to determine if the protein was secreted. Cells infected with the LV-SecNEP and LV-ApoBSecNEP contained the expected neprilysin reacting band at 10OkDa whereas control cells or cells infected with the LV-NEP did not (Figure 2B).

In order to determine if the vector produced neprilysin protein constructs were enzymatically active, we incubated cell lysates or supernatant samples with a N-terminus FITC labeled AB (42) for 24 hours. Lysates of infected 293T cells showed increased neprilysin activity from all the NEP vectors tested with the normal neprilysin having a 6 fold increase in AB cleavage compared to uninfected 293T cells (Figure 3). Of particular note, the SecNep and ApoB-SecNep proteins were present at reduced levels in the lysates of the infected cells, however the NEP activity was as efficient as wild type NEP (SecNep) or even 50% more (ApoB- SecNep).

To test the activity of the secNEP, the supernate from uninfected 293T cells or cells infected with any of the three NEP vectors was filtered with a 0.22 μm filter to remove any contaminating cells and then was subjected to the same N-terminus FITC labeled AB cleavage assay (Figure 4). Little to no NEP product was observed from uninfected or LV-NEP infected cell supernate, however, as expected, NEP was present in the supernate of cells infected with either the LV-SecNEP or the LV-ApoBSecNEP vectors. The AB cleavage was detected at levels comparable to cell lysates activity only in those samples that had the secreted NEP. The AB cleavage was specific to the presence of NEP as the addition of thiorphan, a NEP specific blocker, reduced the formation of the AB cleavage product (data not shown).

In order to determine whether these vectors might be effective at reducing the levels of AB in vivo, we delivered 1 x 10 9 tdu of LV vector to APP tg mice via a single intra-peritoneal injection. Three months after injection, mice were sacrificed and brains were removed for analysis of AB and NEP.

Whole brain analysis by Western blot for the NEP protein showed a 2 fold increase in the brains of mice that had received the LV-ApoBSecNep virus compared to uninjected or control injected mice (Figure 5A). Immunocytochemical analysis of the brains of mice that had received either the LV-ApoBSecNEP or LV-control virus showed NEP specifically in the brains of mice that had received the ApoBSecNEP. Neprilysin protein co-localized with the neuronal marker, NeuN, in the dentate gyrus and the CAl region of the hippocampus (Figure 6A). In addition, there was considerable co-labeling of astrocytes (GFAP) and the NEP protein indicating that glia cells were also taking up the recombinant protein (Figure 6B). Quantitation of APP and its cleavage products in the brains of APP tg mice that received either the LV-ApoBSecNEP or LV-control, showed a significant reduction in AB monomer when mice were treated with the LV-ApoBSecNep (Figure 7). Similarly, there was a slight reduction in the AB oligomers in these same mice. In contrast, there was no difference in APP or secreted APP (sAPP). In agreement with the western blot data, immunocytochemical analysis of these mice revealed a reduction in AB accumulation in the neocortex and hippocampus (Figure 8A). hi particular there was a reduction in visible plaques in the cortex and the hippocampus. Co- labeling for the recombinant NEP protein and AB in the CNS showed considerable co-staining of the two proteins indicating that the recombinant ApoBSecNEP is being taken up by cells that are loaded with the AB protein (Figure 8B).

To summarize, the LV vectors expressing SecNEP and ApoBSecNEP express the NEP protein and secrete the protein into the supernate of infected cells. In addition, these NEP constructs are active at cleaving the AB 1-42 protein in a similar manner to the wildtype NEP. The hybrid ApoBSecNEP produced from the LV in mice crosses the BBB and in APP tg reduces the levels of AD-like neuropathology including AB accumulation and neurodegeneration. The hybrid ApoBSecNEP was identified in neurons and glial cells and we demonstrated that it retained it high activity. Studies in APP tg mice can be used for: 1) further behavioral analysis; 2) testing of variant potentially more efficient constructs with AAV and LV and regulatable promoters; 3) peripheral injections of the recombinant ApoBSecNEP; 4) novel hybrid peptides expressing other AB degrading enzymes (IDE), lysosomal proteins (cathepsin D), autophagy molecules (Beclin) and proteosomal components (UCHL-I).

The amino acid and nucleic acid sequences used to make the constructs and hybrid/ chimeric proteins of this invention are well known in the art, e.g., as noted for human neprilysin, above. For example, other exemplary sequences that can be used in full or in part to construct a hybrid/ chimeric protein of this invention includes, e.g.: The amino acid sequence for human beclin 1 is (see e.g., Zalckvar (2009) Autophagy 5

(5), 720-722 (2009); or NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_003757.1):

1 megsktsnns tmqvsfvcqr csqplkldts fkildrvtiq eltaplltta qakpgetqee 61 etnsgeepfi etprqdgvsr rfipparmms tesansftli geasdggtme nlsrrlkvtg 121 dlfdimsgqt dvdhplceec tdtlldqldt qlnvtenecq nykrcleile qmneddseql 181 qmelkelale eerliqeled veknrkivae nlekvqaeae rldqeeaqyq reysefkrqq

241 lelddelksv enqmryaqtq Idklkktnvf natfhiwhsg qfgtinnfrl grlpsvpvew 301 neinaawgqt vlllhalank mglkfqryrl vpygnhsyle sltdkskelp lycsgglrff 361 wdnkfdhamv afldcvqqfk eevekgetrf clpyrmdvek gkiedtggsg gsysiktqfn 421 seeqwtkalk fmltnlkwgl awvssqfynk (SEQ ID NO:3)

The amino acid sequence for human insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) is: (see also e.g.,

NCBl Reference Sequence: NM 004%9.2):

MRYRLAWLLHPALPSTFRSVLGARLPPPERLCGFQKKTYSKMNN PAIKRIGNHITKSPEDKREYRGLELANGIKVLLISDPTTDKSSAALDVHIGSLSDPPN IAGLSHFCEHMLFLGTKKYPKENEYSQFLSEHAGSSNAFTSGEHTNYYFDVSHEHLEG ALDRFAQFFLCPLFDESCKDREVNAVDSEHEKNVMNDAWRLFQLEKATGNPKHPFSKF GTGNKYTLETRPNQEGIDVRQELLKFHSAYYSSNLMAVCVLGRESLDDLTNLVVKLFS EVENKNVPLPEFPEHPFQEEHLKQLYKIVPIKDIRNLYVTFPIPDLQKYYKSNPGHYL GHLIGHEGPGSLLSELKSKGWVNTLVGGQKEGARGFMFFIINVDLTEEGLLHVEDIIL HMFQYIQKLRAEGPQEWVFQECKDLNAVAFRFKDKERPRGYTSKIAGILHYYPLEEVL TAEYLLEEFRPDLIEMVLDKLRPENVRVAIVSKSFEGKTDRTEEWYGTQYKQEAIPDE VIKKWQNADLNGKFKLPTKNEFIPTNFEILPLEKEATPYPALIKDTAMSKLWFKQDDK FFLPKACLNFEFFSPFAYVDPLHCNMAYLYLELLKDSLNEYAYAAELAGLSYDLQNTI YGMYLSVKGYNDKQPILLKKIIEKMATFEIDEKRFEIIKEAYMRSLNNFRAEQPHQHA MYYLRLLMTEVAWTKDELKEALDDVTLPRLKAFIPQLLSRLHIEALLHGNITKQAALG IMQMVEDTLIEHAHTKPLLPSQLVRYREVQLPDRGWFVYQQRNEVHNNCGIEIYYQTD MQSTSENMFLELFCQIISEPCFNTLRTKEQLGYIVFSGPRRANGIQGLRFIIQSEKPP HYLESRVEAFLITMEKSIEDMTEEAFQKHIQALAIRRLDKPKKLSAECAKYWGEIISQ QYNFDRDNTEVAYLKTLTKEDIIKFYKEMLAVDAPRRHKVSVHVLAREMDSCPVVGEF PCQNDINLSQAPALPQPEVIQNMTEFKRGLPLFPLVKPHINFMAAKL (SEQ ID NO:4) The amino acid sequence for human autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 2 isoform A is: (see also e.g., NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_443168.2):

1 mesvlskyed qitiftdyle eypdtdelvw ilgkqhllkt ekskllsdis arlwftyrrk 61 fspiggtgps sdagwgcmlr cgqmmlaqal icrhlgrdws wekqkeqpke yqrilqcfld 121 rkdccysihq maqmgvgegk sigewfgpnt vaqvlkklal fdewnslavy vsmdntvvie 181 dikkmcrvlp lsadtagdrp pdsltasnqs kgtsaycsaw kplllivplr lginqinpvy 241 vdafkecfkm pqslgalggk pnnayyfigf lgdelifldp httqtfvdte engtvndqtf 301 hclqspqrmn ilnldpsval gffckeekdf dnwcslvqke ilkenlrmfe lvqkhpshwp 361 pfvppakpev tttgaefids teqleefdle edfeilsv (SEQ ID NO:5)

The amino acid sequence for human autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 2 isoform B is: (see also e.g., NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_840054.1):

1 mesvlskyed qitiftdyle eypdtdelvw ilgkqhllkt ekskllsdis arlwftyrrk 61 fspiggtgps sdagwgcmlr cgqmmlaqal icrhlgrdws wekqkeqpke yqrilqcfld 121 rkdccysihq maqmgvgegk sigewfgpnt vaqvlkklal fdewnslavy vsmdntvvie 181 dikkmcrvlp lsadtagdrp pdsltasnqs delifldpht tqtfvdteen gtvndqtfhc 241 lqspqrmnil nldpsvalgf fckeekdfdn wcslvqkeil kenlrmfelv qkhpshwppf 301 vppakpevtt tgaefidste qleefdleed feilsv (SEQ ID NO:6)

The amino acid sequence for the C54 family autophagy-related protein APG4 autophagy 4 homolog C isoform 8 is: (see also e.g., NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_835739.1):

1 meatgtdevd klktkfisaw nnmkyswvlk tktyfsrnsp vlllgkcyhf kyededktlp 61 aesgctiedh viagnveefr kdfisriwlt yreefpqieg salttdcgwg ctlrtgqmll 121 aqglilhflg rawtwpdaln iensdseswt shtvkkftas feaslsgere fktptislke 181 tigkysddhe mrnevyhrki iswfgdspla lfglhqliey gkksgkkagd wygpavvahi 241 lrkaveearh pdlqgitiyv aqdctvynsd vidkqsasmt sdnaddkavi ilvpvrlgge 301 rtntdylefv kgilsleycv giiggkpkqs yyfagfqdds liymdphycq sfvdvsikdf 361 pletfhcpsp kkmsfrkmdp sctigfycrn vqdfkrasee itkmlkfssk ekyplftfvn 421 ghsrdydfts tttneedlfs edekkqlkrf steefvll (SEQ ID NO:7)

The amino acid sequence for human cysteine protease ATG4D (or autophagy-related protein 4 homolog D) is: (see also e.g., Swiss-Prot: Q86TL0.1): 1 mnsvspaaaq yrssspedar rrpearrprg prgpdpnglg psgasgpalg spgagpsepd 61 evdkfkakfl tawnnvkygw vvksrtsfsk issihlcgrr yrfegegdiq rfqrdfvsrl 121 wltyrrdfpp lpggcltsdc gwgcmlrsgq mmlaqglllh flprdwtwae gmglgppels 181 gsaspsryhg parwmpprwa qgapeleqer rhrqivswfa dhprapfglh rlvelgqssg 241 kkagdwygps lvahilrkav escsdvtrlv vyvsqdctvy kadvarlvar pdptaewksv 301 vilvpvrlgg etlnpvyvpc vkellrcelc lgimggkprh slyfigyqdd fllyldphyc 361 qptvdvsqad fplesfhcts prkmafakmd psctvgfyag drkefetlcs eltrvlssss 421 aterypmftl aeghaqdhsl ddlcsqlaqp tlrlprtgrl lrakrpssed fvfl

(SEQ ID NO:8) The amino acid sequence for human ubiquitin is: (see also e.g., GenBank:

CAA44911.1):

1 mqifvktltg ktitleveps dtienvkaki qdkegippdq qrlifagkql edgrtlsdyn 61 iqkestlhlv lrlrggakkr kkksyttpkk nkhkrkkvkl avlkyykvde ngkisrlrre 121 cpsdecgagv fmashfdrhy cgkccltycf nkpedk (SEQ ID NO.9)

The amino acid sequence for human transtherytin (TTR) protein is: (see also e.g., NCBI Reference Sequence: NM_000371.3):

MASHRLLLLCLAGLVFVSEAGPTGTGESKCPLMVKVLDAVRGSP AINVAVHVFRKAADDTWEPFASGKTSESGELHGLTTEEEFVEGIYKVEIDTKSYWKAL GISPFHEHAEVVFTANDSGPRRYTIAALLSPYSYSTTAVVTNPKE (SEQ ID NO.10)

The amino acid sequence for human Racl (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) protein is: (see also e.g., NCBI Reference Sequence: NM_018890.3): MQAIKCVVVGDGAVGKTCLLISYTTNAFPGEYIPTVFDNYSANV

MVDGKPVNLGLWDTAGQEDYDRLRPLSYPQTVGETYGKDITSRGKDKPIADVFLICF S LVSPASFENVRAKWYPEVRHHCPNTPIILVGTKLDLRDDKDTIEKLKEKKLTPITYPQ GLAMAKEIGAVKYLECSALTQRGLKTVFDEAIRAVLCPPPVKKRKRKCLLL (SEQ ID NO.11)

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27. Boren, J., et al., Identification of the low density lipoprotein receptor-binding site in apolipoprotein BlOO and the modulation of its binding activity by the carboxyl terminus in familial defective apo-B100. J Clin Invest, 1998. 101(5): p. 1084-93. 28. Hussain, M.M., D. K. Strickland, and A. Bakillah, The mammalian low-density lipoprotein receptor family. Annu Rev Nutr, 1999. 19: p. 141-72. Example 2 : Administration of compositions of the invention improve memory and learning deficits in individuals with Alzheimer's Disease (AD)

Using an art-recognized animal model for Alzheimer's Disease (AD), this example presents data demonstrating that administration of exemplary compositions of the invention can improve memory and learning deficits in individuals with Alzheimer's Disease (AD).

Experimental Procedure

In order to evaluate the functional effects of long term treatment with ApoB-sec-Nep groups of APP tg animals received IP injections with the following lentiviruses: a) empty control, b) secNep, c) ApoB-secNep, d) ApoB-GFP. A total of 4 animals per group (age 6 months) were included.

After 3 months of the injections, mice were tested in the water maze for behavioral performance. For this purpose, a pool (diameter 180 cm) was filled with opaque water (24°C) and mice were first trained to locate a visible platform (days 1-3) and then a submerged hidden platform (days 4-7) in three daily trials 2-3 min apart. Mice that failed to find the hidden platform within 90 s were placed on it for 30 s. The same platform location was used for all sessions and all mice. The starting point at which each mouse was placed into the water was changed randomly between two alternative entry points located at a similar distance from the platform. On day 8, another visible platform trial was performed to exclude differences in motivation and fatigue. Time to reach the platform (latency), path length, and swim speed were recorded with a Noldus Instruments ETHO VISION™ video tracking system (San Diego Instruments, San Diego, CA) set to analyze two samples per second. All experiments described were approved by the animal subjects committee at the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) and were performed according to NIH recommendations for animal use. After the water maze mice were sacrificed and the brains removed for biochemical and neuropathological examination.

Results

This experiment showed that control non-tg mice treated with LV-control performed normally in the maze and after 3 days of learning in the visible platform. From days 4 to 7 the non-tg mice showed spatial learning recognition and memory curve intact.

In contrast APP tg mice treated with displayed poor performance in the invisible platform. Similarly APP tg mice treated with LV-GFP displayed impaired ability to find the invisible platform after the 3 days of training. The learning curves for days 4-7 were statistically different (one way ANOVA poshoc Dunnet, p<0.05) between the nontg and the APP tg treated with LV-control or LV-GFP.

In contrast, APP tg mice treated with LV-apoB-sec NEP, displayed an improved performance in terms of spatial learning and memory on days 4-7. The slope of the learning curve in the APP tg treated with LV-apoB-sec NEP was statistically different (one way ANOVA poshoc Dunnet, p<0.05) when compared to the APP tg treated with LV-control or LV-GFP. The APP tg mice treated with treated with LV-secNep showed a trend toward an improvement, however this was not statistically significant. After the completion of the behavioral analysis, mice were sacrificed and the brains removed. Neuropatho logical examination corroborated that in the mice that received LV-apoB-sec NEP, the hybrid protein was present in the brain and accumulated in the hippocampus. The levels of Abeta in the hippocampus were reduced in the mice that received LV-apoB-sec NEP compared to APP tg treated with LV-control or LV-GFP. In conclusion, when expressed at sufficiently high levels from the periphery, the exemplary composition of the invention apoB-sec NEP is capable of crossing into the CNS and ameliorating the behavioral deficits in APP tg mouse models of AD. Thus, because this is an art-accepted model of AD, these data demonstrate that exemplary compositions of the invention are effective in ameliorating the deleterious behavioral and/or memory or learning effects of AD; and exemplary compositions of the invention are effective in reversing and improving the memory or learning deficits caused by AD.

Figure 9 illustrates the behavioral effects of LV-apoB-secNep in APP tg mice. Mice were tested in the water maze for 7 days. The first 3 days was training in the visible platform and days 4 to 7 was learning and memory testing in the invisible platform test. Non-tg mice (blue) performed normally as expected and display a learning curve from days 4-7. APP tg mice treated with control (light blue) or ApoB-GFP (orange) performed poorly. APP tg mice treated with LV-apoB-secNep (red) performed at comparable levels to the non-tg.

A number of embodiments of the invention have been described. Nevertheless, it will be understood that various modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, other embodiments are within the scope of the following claims.