Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
CONCENTRATED SURFACTANT AND METHOD OF FORMING
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/206475
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A concentrated surfactant is formed using a method that includes providing an alkyl alcohol having the formula: ROH, wherein R is an alkyl group having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms and providing a sugar having the formula: [C6H12O6]n+1, wherein n is an average value of zero or greater. The method also includes providing a co-surfactant including water and combining the alkyl alcohol and the sugar to form an alkylpolyglucoside having the formula: [C6H11OS] [C6H10OS] nOR. The method further includes combining the co-surfactant and the alkylpolyglucoside to form the concentrated surfactant having a total weight percent of the co-surfactant and the alkylpolyglucoside of at least 40 wt % and a total weight percent water of at least 10 wt %. Moreover, the method is free of the step of diluting the alkylpolyglucoside with water prior to the step of combining the co-surfactant and the alkylpolyglucoside to form the concentrated surfactant.

Inventors:
ESPOSITO, James (100 Park Avenue, Florham Park, New Jersey, 07932, US)
DUROCHER, David (1609 Biddle Avenue, Wyandotte, Michigan, 48192, US)
BANNISTER, Austin (1520 Old Stage Road, Mauldin, South Carolina, 29662, US)
BHATT, Jay (540 White Plains Road, Tarrytown, New York, 10591, US)
Application Number:
EP2018/061640
Publication Date:
November 15, 2018
Filing Date:
May 07, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
BASF SE (Carl-Bosch-Strasse 38, Ludwigshafen am Rhein, 67056, DE)
International Classes:
C11D1/83; C11D1/835; C11D1/94; C11D10/04; C11D1/10; C11D1/12; C11D1/14; C11D1/29; C11D1/52; C11D1/66; C11D1/88; C11D1/90
Domestic Patent References:
WO2001037658A22001-05-31
WO1992001772A11992-02-06
WO2001037658A22001-05-31
WO1992001772A11992-02-06
Foreign References:
US5958868A1999-09-28
EP0728836A21996-08-28
US5925747A1999-07-20
US5932535A1999-08-03
US5258142A1993-11-02
US5883068A1999-03-16
US20140336094A12014-11-13
US5523016A1996-06-04
US20170044471A12017-02-16
US5958868A1999-09-28
EP0728836A21996-08-28
US5925747A1999-07-20
US5932535A1999-08-03
US5258142A1993-11-02
US5883068A1999-03-16
US20140336094A12014-11-13
US5523016A1996-06-04
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BASF IP ASSOCIATION (BASF SE, G-FLP - C006, Ludwigshafen, 67056, DE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAI MS is claimed is:

A method for forming a concentrated surfactant, said method comprising the steps of: A. providing an alkyl alcohol having the formula: ROH, wherein R is an alkyl group having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms;

B. providing a sugar having the formula: [CeH^Od n+i, wherein n is an average value of zero or greater;

C. combining the alkyl alcohol and the sugar to form an alkylpolyg lucoside having the formula: [CeHnOsHCeHwOs nOR;

D. providing a co-surfactant comprising water; and

E. combining the co-surfactant and the alkylpolyg lucoside to form the concentrated surfactant having a total weight percent of the co-surfactant and the alkylpolyglu¬ coside of at least 40 wt % and having a total weight percent water of at least 10 wt wherein said method is free of the step of diluting the alkylpolyglucoside with water prior to the step of (E) combining the co-surfactant and the alkylpolyglucoside to form the concentrated surfactant.

2. The method of claim 1 wherein the R has from 8 to 16 carbon atoms. 3. The method of claim 1 or 2 wherein the al kylpolyglucoside has the structure:

wherein n is an average value of 0.4 to 0.8. The method of claim 1 or 2 wherein the al kylpolyglucoside has the structure:

5. The method of any one of claims 1-4 wherein the concentrated surfactant has a total weight percent of the co-surfactant and the alkylpolyglucoside of from 60 to 75 wt % and a total weight percent water of from 25 to 40 wt %.

6. The method of any one of claims 1-4 wherein the concentrated surfactant has a total weight percent of the alkylpolyglucoside of from 15 to 50 wt %, a total weig ht percent of the co-surfactant of from 20 to 40 wt %, and a total weight percent of water of from 25 to 60 wt %.

7. The method of any one of claims 1-3 wherein the average of n+1 is the deg ree of polymerization of the alkylpolyglucoside and wherein n+1 is an average value of from 1.4 to 1.8.

8. The method of any one of claims 1-7 wherein the co-surfactant is a betaine.

9. The method of any one of claims 1-7 wherein the co-surfactant comprises an ampho- acetate, an alkanolamide, a sarcosinate, a sulfosuccinate, a carboxylate, a sulfate, or combinations thereof.

10. The method of any one of claims 1-9 wherein the co-surfactant and the alkylpolyglu¬ coside are utilized in a weight ratio of 1:2 to 2:1, based on the weight of the co-surfac¬ tant and the alkylpolyglucoside.

11. The method of claim 1 wherein R has from 8 to 10 carbon atoms, wherein the average of n+1 is the degree of polymerization of the alkylpolyg lucoside and wherein n+1 is an average value of from 1.4 to 1.8, wherein the co-surfactant is betaine, wherein the al¬ kylpolyglucoside has the structure:

wherein a total weight percent of the alkylpolyglucoside is of from 15 to 50 wt %, a total weight percent of the co-surfactant is of from 20 to 40 wt %, and a total weight percent of water is of from 25 to 55 wt %, and wherein the concentrated surfactant is free of a co-surfactant that is not an alkylpolyglucoside or betaine. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of providing the alkyl alcohol is further defined as providing a first alkyl alcohol having the formu la: ROH, wherein R is an al kyl group having 8 carbon atoms, and providing a second alkyl alcohol having the formula: R' OH, wherein R' is an alkyl group having 10 carbon atoms. A concentrated su rfactant comprising:

an alkylpolyglucoside having the formula: [C6H1105] [C6H1o05]nOR, wherein R is an al kyl group having 1 to 20 carbon atoms and n is an average value of zero or greater;

a betaine; and

water;

wherein a total weight percent of said betaine and said alkylpolyglucoside is at least 40 wt % and a total weight percent water is at least 10 wt %.

14. The concentrated surfactant of claim 13 wherein R has from 8 to 16 carbon atoms 15. The concentrated surfactant of claim 13 wherein R has from 8 to 12 carbon atoms. 16. The concentrated surfactant of claim 13 wherein R has from 8 to 10 carbon atoms. 17. The concentrated surfactant of any one of claims 13-16 wherein said alkylpolyglucoside has the structure:

wherein n is an average value of 0.4 to 0.8. 18. The concentrated surfactant of any one of claims 13-16 wherein said alkylpolyglucoside has the structure:

19. The concentrated surfactant of any one of claims 13-18 wherein having a total weight percent of said betaine and said alkylpolyglucoside of from 40 to 75 wt % and a total weight percent water of from 25 to 60 wt %.

20. The concentrated surfactant of any one of claims 13-18 having a total weig ht percent of said alkylpolyglucoside of from 15 to 50 wt %, a total weight percent of said betaine of from 20 to 40 wt %, and a total weight percent of said water of from 25 to 55 wt %.

21. The concentrated surfactant of any one of claims 13-18 wherein said betaine and said alkylpolyg lucoside are present in a weight ratio of 1:2 to 2:1, based on the weight of said betaine and said alkylpolyglucoside.

22. The concentrated surfactant of any one of claims 13-21 that is free of a co-surfactant that is not an alkylpolyglucoside or betaine.

23. The concentrated surfactant of any one of claims 13-22 that has a viscosity of less than or equal to 1000 cps measured at 25 °C using Brookfield RV4 viscometer at 20 rpm.

Description:
CONCENTRATED SURFACTANT AND METHOD OF FORMING

FIELD OF TH E DISCLOSURE

The present disclosure generally relates to concentrated surfactant and a method of forming the concentrated surfactant. More specifically, the method includes combining a co-surfactant and an alkylpolyglucoside to form the concentrated surfactant but is free of the step of diluting the alkylpolyglucoside with water prior to the step of combining.

BACKGROU ND

Alkylpolyglucosides (APGs) are used in numerous industries including personal care, home care, l&l, agricultural, and oil industries, to name a few. For example, in personal care products, APGs are chosen for their mildness on human skin, foam production, lather level, etc. I n other industries, APGs are chosen for their surfactant capabilities, etc. However, APGs are known to be extremely difficult to thicken. For that reason, APGs are typically combined with betaines, which readily thicken in the presence of salts. Thickened combinations of APGs and betaines can be used in a variety of products. Nevertheless, both the APGs and betaines are only commercially useable when highly diluted with water. For examples, APGs are typically only useable when diluted to about 48 wt % active in 52 wt % water. Moreover, betaine is not available anhydrous and is typically only useable when diluted to about 35 to 45 wt % active in about 55 to 65 wt % water. Therefore, it is very expensive and cumbersome to ship and use such compounds because most of the solution is water. Additionally, formulators could realize a more efficient supply chain by procuring the APG diluted to the precise water content used in commercial applications. Accordingly, there remains an opportunity for improvement.

US 5 958 868 A discloses a process for preparing a stable aqueous surfactant concentrate comprising combining a sugar surfactant comprising an alkyl or alenyl oligoglycoside or a fatty acid-N-al kyl polyhydroxyalkylamide and a betaine in an aqueous medium, in a weight ratio of 10:90 to 90:10.

EP 0 728 836 A2 discloses a storage-stable, concentrated, aqueous surfactant composition containing alkylglucosides and betaines in a weight ratio of 9: 1 to 1: 9, wherein the total surfactant content is at least 25 wt .-% solids content.

US 5 925 747 A relates to a process for the production of a pumpable aqueous surfactant concentrate consisting of water, at least one al kyl or alkenyl oligoglycoside and at least one amphoteric or zwitterionic surfactant wherein the concentrate has a solid content from about 30 to about 60% by weight.

US 5 932 535 A discloses light-colored, low-viscosity surfactant concentrates, made by mixing a sugar surfactant and a betaine, in a ratio of 90:10 to about 10:90, with the proviso that the sugar surfactant and betaine are present in the gel phase. WO 01/37658 A2 relates to a low-foaming wetting aid provided in the form of a highly concentrated flowable and pourable aqueous concentrate containing alkyl(poly) glucoside and low water-soluble alcohols. US 5 258 142 A discloses a concentrate consisting of 35 to 55% by weight water, 10 to 30% by weight of an alkyl glycoside, 10 to 30% by weight of an alkyl sulfate and 1 to 15% by weight of an alkane sulfonate.

WO 92/01772 A1 discloses a concentrate consisting of 30-70 % by weight of water, 15-50% by weight of an alkyl glucoside, 3-25 % by weight of an ethoxylated amide and optionally 10- 20% by weight of an alkyl sulphate.

US 5 883 068 A relates to pumpable water containing surfactant concentrates containing alkyl glycosides, sulfosuccinates and amphoteric surfactants and to their use for the production of surface-active formulations.

US 2014/336094 A1 discloses a cleaning composition for dishwashing comprising about 1 to 35 wt. % of an anionic su rfactant, about 1 to 35 wt. % of a nonionic surfactant and at least about 1 wt.% of lactic acid.

US 5 523 016 relates to a water containing flowable and pumpable surfactant alkyl g lycoside preparation consiting of about 20% to 60% by weight of an alkly polyg lucoside, about 0.1% to 3% by weight of an anionic surfactant of the sulfate or sulfonate type and about 37% by weight to about 79.9% by weight water, wherein the ratio by weight of said alkyl

polyglucoside ato said anionic surfactant is from about 200:1 to about 20:1.

SUMMARY OF TH E DISCLOSURE

This disclosure provides a method for forming a concentrated surfactant. The method in- eludes the steps of providing an alkyl alcohol having the formula: ROH, wherein R is an alkyl group having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms and providing a sugar having the formula:

[C6Hi 2 06]n + i, wherein n is an average value of zero or greater. The method also includes the steps of providing a co-surfactant including water and combining the al kyl alcohol and the sugar to form an alkylpolyglucoside having the formula: [C 6 H 11 05] [C 6 H 1 o0 5 ] n OR. The method also includes the step of combining the co-surfactant and the alkylpolyglucoside to form the concentrated surfactant having a total weight percent of the co-surfactant and the alkylpolyglucoside of at least 40 wt % and a total weight percent water of at least 10 wt %. Moreover, the method is free of the step of diluting the alkylpolyglucoside with water prior to the step of combining the co-surfactant and the alkylpolyg lucoside to form the concentrated surfactant.

This disclosure also provides a concentrated surfactant. In various embodiments, the concentrated surfactant includes an alkylpolyg lucoside having the formula:

[C 6 H 11 05] [C 6 H 1 o0 5 ] n OR, wherein R is an alkyl group having 1 to 20 carbon atoms and n is an average value of zero or g reater, betaine, and water. Typically, the total weight percent of the betaine and the alkylpolyglucoside in these embodiments is from 55 to 75 wt % and the total weight percent water is from 25 to 45 wt %. DETAI LED DESCRI PTION OF TH E DISCLOSURE

This disclosure provides a concentrated surfactant and a method of forming the concentrated surfactant. The concentrated surfactant is not particularly limited to any particular use or industry and may be used, for example, in personal care, home care, l&l, agricultu ral, and oil industries. The concentrated surfactant includes an alkylpolyglucoside (APG), a co-surfactant, and water. Each is described in g reater detail below.

Method:

The method of forming the concentrated surfactant includes the step of providing an alkyl alcohol having the formula: ROH, wherein R is an alkyl group having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The alkyl group may have any number of carbon atoms from 1 to 20 or any value or range of values therebetween. I n various embodiments, R is an alkyl group having 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16 carbon atoms. I n other embodiments, R is an alkyl group having 8 to 12 carbon atoms. In further embodiments, R is an alkyl group having 8 to 10 carbon atoms. The alkyl group may be linear, branched, or cyclic. I n various embodiments, the alkyl group is further defined as an alkenyl group having one or more C=C double bonds. The one or more C=C dou ble bonds may be present at any point in the alkenyl group.

I n various embodiments, the step of providing the alkyl alcohol is further defined as providing a first alkyl alcohol having the formula: ROH wherein R is an alkyl group having 1 to 20 carbon atoms and providing a second alkyl alcohol having the formula: R' OH, wherein R' is independently an alkyl group having 1 to 20 carbon atoms. Each of R and R' may be any value described above. I n various embodiments, R and/or R' is each independently 8, 10, 12, 14, or 16. In other embodiments, R and/or R' is each independently 9, 11, 13, 15, or 17.

Moreover, all values and ranges of values including and between those described above are hereby expressly contemplated for use in non-limiting embodiments.

I n a preferred embodiment, the step of providing the alkyl alcohol is further defined as providing a first alkyl alcohol having the formula: ROH, wherein R is an alkyl group having 8 carbon atoms, and providing a second alkyl alcohol having the formula: R' OH, wherein R' is an alkyl group having 10 carbon atoms.

The method also includes the step of providing a sugar having the formula: [CeH^Od n + i, wherein n is an average value of zero or greater. I n various embodiments, n is an average value of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8. In various embodiments, n is an average value from 0 to 8, 0.4 to 0.8, 1 to 7, 2 to 6, 3 to 5, or 4 to 5. I n various embodiments, n+1 has a value of from 1 to 3, from 1 to 2.5, from 1 to 2, from 1.5 to 3, from 1.5 to 2.5, from 1.5 to 2, from 1.2 to 2.5, from 1.1 to 1.9, from 1.2 to 1.8, from 1.3 to 1.7, from 1.4 to 1.6, from 1.4 to 1.8, or about 1.5. I n other embodiments, n+1 is an average value of 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, or 2.

Any sugar having the aforementioned formula or any isomer thereof may be utilized. For example, the sugar may be an aldohexose, or a ketohexose. I n various embodiments, the sugar is chosen from allose, altrose, galactose, glucose, gulose, idose, mannose, talose, and combinations thereof. I n other embodiments, the sugar is chosen from fructose, psicose, sorbose, tagatose, and combinations thereof. In even further embodiments, the sugar is chosen from g lucose, fructose and galactose. In further embodiments, the sugar is glucose, or fructose, or galactose. The sugar may be any one or more of the aforementioned sugars, each having the formula, C6Hi 2 C>6. Moreover, the sugar may be any one or more complexes of the aforementioned sugars when n is greater than zero. These complexes may be alternatively described as carbohydrates.

The method also includes the step of combining the alkyl alcohol and the sugar to form an alkylpolyglucoside having the formula: [CeHnOsHCeHioC I nOR. The method further includes the step of providing a co-surfactant including water and the step of combining the co- surfactant and the alkylpolyglucoside to form the concentrated surfactant having a total weight percent of the co-surfactant and the alkylpolyglucoside of at least 40 wt % and having a total weight percent water of at least 10 wt %. The method is free of the step of diluting the alkylpolyg lucoside with water prior to the step of (E) combining the co-surfactant and the alkylpolyg lucoside to form the concentrated surfactant.

Relative to the step of combining the al kyl alcohol and the sugar, these may be combined in any order and as a whole or in parts. Similarly, the step of providing the co-surfactant may be any known in the art. The co-surfactant and the alkylpolyg lucoside may be combined in any order and as a whole or in parts. After combination, the concentrated surfactant is formed that has a total weight percent of the co-surfactant and the alkylpolyglucoside of at least 40 wt % and alternatively at least 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, or 95, wt %. Also, the total weight percent water of the concentrated surfactant is at least 10 wt % and alternatively, at least 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 45, 45, 50, 55, or 60, wt %. Moreover, all values and ranges of values including and between those described above are hereby expressly contemplated for use in non-limiting embodiments.

I n an embodiment, the concentrated surfactant has a total weight percent of the alkylpolyg lu ¬ coside of from 15 to 50 wt %, a total weight percent of the co-surfactant of from 20 to 40 wt %, and a total weight percent of water of from 25 to 60 wt %. I n an embodiment, the concentrated surfactant has a total weight percent of the co- surfactant and the alkylpolyglucoside of from 60 to 75 wt % and a total weight percent water of from 25 to 40 wt %.

The method may also include the step of heating the surfactant or any one or more of the components. For example, any one or more of the components and/or the surfactant may be heated to reduce viscosity and aid pourability. For example, the step of heating may be further defined as heating up to any temperature up to about 60°C.

Alkylpolyglucoside (APG):

The APG is not particularly limited and typically has the formula [C6H 11 05] [C6H 1 o0 5 ] n OR . Each portion of the formula may be any isomer of C 6 H 12 0 6 . I n other words, any structure or form of C 6 H 12 0 6 may be used in either portion of the aforementioned formula. The "first" [C 6 H 12 0 6 ] may be a different isomer than the "second" [C 6 H 12 0 6 ] of the aforementioned formula. I n various additional non-limiting embodiments, all values and ranges of values between and including the aforementioned values are hereby expressly contemplated. I n addition, R may be any alkyl group, linear, branched, cyclic, etc. that has from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. I n other words, R may have 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, or 20, carbon atoms. I n various embodiments, R has 2 to 19, 3 to 18, 4 to 17, 5 to 16, 6 to 15, 7 to 14, 8 to 13, 9 to 10, 10 to 11, 10 to 12, 8 to 12, 8 to 10, 8 to 14, 10 to 14, 10 to 12, 6 to 14, 6, to 12, 6 to 8, 6 to 10, or 6 to 12, carbon atoms. I n one embodiment, R is linear and has 10 carbon atoms. I n other embodiments, R is Cs-Cio, C10-C12, C12-C14, Cs, C10, C12, C14, or C16, or any combination thereof. I n this formula, n is an average value or number of zero or greater. In various additional non-limiting embodiments, all values and ranges of values between and including the aforementioned values are hereby expressly contemplated.

I n various embodiments, the alkylpolyglucoside has the structure:

wherein n is as described above. In other embodiments, n is 1 or greater. I n various embodiments, the average of n+1 is the degree of polymerization of the al kylpolyglucoside and is from 1.2 to 2.5, from 1.3 to 1.7, or from 1.5 to 1.7. I n various embodiments, the average of n+1 is 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, or 2.5. I n various additional non- limiting embodiments, all values and ranges of values between and including the

aforementioned values are hereby expressly contemplated. further embodiments, the alkylpolyglucoside has the structu

wherein R may be any as described above, e.g. C 8 -Ci 6 or any therebetween.

Typically, the APG is formed from glucose, i.e., includes glucose as its building block. It is contemplated that any known isomer or anomer of glucose may be used. For example, glucose has four optic centers, such that glucose can have 15 optical stereoisomers, any of which may be utilized. In various embodiments, galactose, mannose, allose, altrose, gulose, idose, talose, psicose, fructose, sorbose, or tagatose may be used in either the D or L form. Moreover, any cyclic or acrylic version of glucose may be used. Even further, any hydrate of glucose may be used, e.g. fructose monohydrate.

The APG is typically provided neat but may be provided in a solvent, e.g. any described below. Therefore, the amount of the APG utilized may refer to the weight percent of the APG itself or the weight percent of the (APG+solvent). I n various embodiments, the APG itself (e.g. measured without the solvent) is utilized in an amou nt of greater than 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, or 95, weight percent based on a total weight of the surfactant. I n other embodiments, the weig ht percent of the APG itself (measured without solvent) is 14 to 45, 15 to 45, 20 to 40, 25 to 35, or 30 to 35, weight percent based on a total weight of the surfactant. I n various additional non-limiting embodiments, all values and ranges of values between and including the aforementioned values are hereby expressly contemplated.

Co-Su rfactant:

Referring now to the co-surfactant, the co-surfactant is typically chosen from betaines, amphoacetates, alkanolamides, sarcosinates, sulfosuccinates, carboxylates, su lfates, or combinations thereof. I n one embodiment, the co-surfactant is betaine. Betaine may be any neutral chemical compound with a positively charged cationic functional g roup such as a quaternary ammonium or phosphonium cation (e.g. onium ions) which bears no hydrogen atom and with a negatively charged functional g roup such as a carboxylate g roup which may not be adjacent to the cationic site. A betaine thus is a specific type of zwitterion. I n one embodiment, the betaine is Ν,Ν,Ν-trimethylglycine. I n another embodiment, the betaine is cocamidopropyl betaine.

The betaine is typically provided in water. Therefore, the amount of the betaine utilized may refer to the weight percent of the betaine itself or the weight percent of the (betaine+water). I n various embodiments, the betaine itself (e.g. measured without the water) is utilized in an amount of greater than 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, or 95, weig ht percent based on a total weight of the surfactant. I n other embodiments, the weight percent of the betaine itself (measured without water) is 20 to 40, 25 to 35, 30 to 35, or 35 to 40, weight percent based on a total weight of the surfactant. I n various additional non-limiting embodiments, all values and ranges of values between and including the aforementioned values are hereby expressly contemplated.

I n one embodiment, the surfactant has a total weight percent of the co-surfactant and the alkylpolyg lucoside of from 40 to 75 wt % and a total weight percent water of from 25 to 60 wt %. In another embodiment, the surfactant has a total weight percent of the co-surfactant and the alkylpolyg lucoside of from 65 to 75 wt % and a total weight percent water of from 25 to 35 wt %, wherein the concentrated surfactant is free of a co-surfactant that is not an alkylpolyglucoside or betaine, e.g. a butyl-APG, and/or any one of the co-surfactants described herein. I n other embodiments, the surfactant has a total weight percent of the alkylpolyg lucoside of from 15 to 50 wt %, a total weig ht percent of the co-su rfactant of from 20 to 40 wt %, and a total weight percent of water of from 25 to 60wt %. In various additional non-limiting embodiments, all values and ranges of values between and including the aforementioned values are hereby expressly contemplated. I n an embodiment, the concentrated surfactant includes an alkylpolyglucoside having the formula: [CeHnOsHCeHioOsJ nOR, wherein R is an alkyl group having 1 to 20 carbon atoms and n is an average value of zero or greater, betaine, and water; wherein the total weight percent of said betaine and said alkylpolyglucoside is at least 40 wt % and a total weig ht percent water is at least 10 wt %.

I n another embodiment, the co-surfactant is an amphoacetate. For example, the amphoace- tate may be made by reacting a compound of formula RCON H CH2CH2N HCH2CH2OH, where R is an aliphatic radical, with formaldehyde and a cyanide of formula: R 1 CN, wherein R 1 repre- sents a hydrogen atom or an alkali metal, and, when R 1 represents a hydrogen atom, then hy- drolyzing the nitrile obtained with an alkali. Alternatively, amphoacetate may be made by reacting long chain fatty acids, e.g. in the form of the mixture known as "coconut fatty acids " , with aminoethylethanolamine (AEEA), and reacting the product with a haloacetic acid or salt thereof in the presence of an alkali. Even further, the amphoacetate may be defined as a salt of an acetic acid that has a basic substituent, as chosen by one of skill in the art. Any amphoacetate known in the art may be utilized, e.g. sodium lauroamphoacetate. In other embodiments, the amphoacetate is disodium cocoamphodiacetate.

I n still another, the co-surfactant is an alkanolamide. For example, the alkanolamide may be chosen from coco monoethanolamide, lauramide DEA, and combinations thereof. I n a further embodiment, the co-surfactant is a sarcosinate. For example, the sarcosinate may be sodium lauroyl sarcosinate. I n another embodiment, the co-surfactant is a sulfosuccinate. For example, the sulfosuccinate may be disodium laureth sulfosuccinate. I n a further embodiment, the co-surfactant is a carboxylate. For example, the carboxylate may be sodium laureth-10 carboxylate. I n still another embodiment, the co-surfactant is a sulfate. For example, the sulfate may be sodium lauryl sulfate. I n another embodiment, the co-surfactant is a taurate. The taurate may be sodium methyl cocoyl taurate.

I n still other embodiments, the co-su rfactant may include, be, consist essentially of, or consist of, any one or more of the aforementioned co-surfactants. The language "consist essentially of" typically describes embodiments wherein the co-surfactant includes only one type of co- surfactant and is free of other additives or other co-surfactants. For example, if the co- surfactant consists essentially of a betaine, then it may include one or more betaines, may include only one betaine and be free of all other co-surfactants including other betaines, or may include two or more betaines and be free of all other co-surfactants. The co-surfactant, and the concentrated surfactant itself, may be free of, or include less than 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, or 0.5, weight percent of, one or more betaines, amphoacetates, alkanolamides, sarcosinates, sulfosuccinates, carboxylates, sulfates, or combinations thereof. I n various additional non- limiting embodiments, all values and ranges of values between and including the

aforementioned values are hereby expressly contemplated. The co-surfactant may be used in any amount so long as the concentrated surfactant has a total weig ht percent of the co- surfactant and the alkylpolyglucoside of at least 40 wt % and has a total weight percent water of at least 10 wt %. I n various embodiments. I n various embodiments, the APG is utilized with betaine and an additional co-surfactant described above in a weight ratio of 1:1:1, 1:2:1, 2:1:1, 1:1:2, etc. (APG:betaine:additional co-su rfactant).

I n an embodiment, APG has a structure wherein R has from 8 to 10 carbon atoms, wherein the average of n+1 is the degree of polymerization of the alkylpolyg lucoside and wherein n+1 is an average value of from 1.4 to 1.8, wherein the co-surfactant is betaine, wherein the al- kylpolyglucoside has the structure:

wherein a total weig ht percent of the alkylpolyglucoside is of from 15 to 50 wt %, a total weight percent of the co-surfactant is of from 20 to 40 wt %, and a total weight percent of water is of from 25 to 55 wt %, and wherein the concentrated surfactant is free of a co- surfactant that is not an alkylpolyglucoside or betaine.

I n various embodiments, the APG and the co-surfactant are utilized in a weight ratio of from 1:2 to 2:1 or about 1:1. These weight ratios may describe the weight of the APG and the co- surfactant neat or diluted in water or solvent. For example, if the ratios refer to a "neat" weight, this means that the weig ht is based on the compounds themselves not taking into account the total weight after dilution, e.g. if they are dispersed in water. In various additional non-limiting embodiments, all values and ranges of values between and including the aforementioned values are hereby expressly contemplated.

I n an embodiment, the betaine and alkylpolyglucoside are present in a weight ratio of 1:2 to 2:1, based on the weight of said betaine and said alkylpolyglucoside.

I n additional embodiments, the concentrated surfactant has a viscosity of less than or equal to 1500, 1,000, 750, or 500, cps measured at 25 °C using a Brookfield RV or LV viscometer with a spindle and RPM chosen to give a 20-80% torque range, e.g. using a Brookfield RV4 viscometer at 20 rpm, all measurements made at 25°C. I n various additional non-limiting embodiments, all values and ranges of values between and including the aforementioned values are hereby expressly contemplated.

I n other embodiments, the concentrated surfactant has a visual clarity evaluated at 25°C in a 1cm test tube. For example, the concentrated surfactant may be visually evaluated to be clear with no haze or non-homogeneity noted. I n further embodiments, the concentrated surfactants have a percent solids of from 55 to 75, 60 to 70, 60 to 65, or 65 to 70, %. In various additional non-limiting embodiments, all values and ranges of values between and including the aforementioned values are hereby expressly contemplated. Moreover, the concentrated surfactant may be homogeneous after standing for 21 days at room

temperature, as evaluated visually by one of skill in the art.

The concentrated surfactant may also include one or more co-solvents in addition to the water. Such co-solvents may include glycerine, propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol (PEG 600 or less), dipropylene glycol, diethyleneglycol, and combinations thereof. The co-solvent may be utilized in an amount of from 0 to 10 wt% based on a total weight of the concentrated surfactant. This disclosu re also provides a personal care composition that includes the concentrated surfactant. The personal care composition may be further defined as a body wash, face wash, or shampoo. The concentrated surfactant may be utilized in any amount in the personal care composition, e.g. in amount of from 0.1 to 10, 1 to 10, 1 to 5, or 5 to 10, parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of the personal care composition. I n still other embodiments, the disclosure provides a manual dishwashing composition that includes the concentrated surfactant. The concentrated surfactant may be utilized in any amount therein, e.g. in any of the amounts described above. I n various additional non-limiting embodiments, all values and ranges of values between and including the aforementioned values are hereby expressly contemplated. Any one of the aforementioned personal care and/or manual dishwashing compositions may be formed by a method that includes combining any one or more of the aforementioned compounds together to form the concentrated surfactant and combining any one or more additives therewith in proportions determined by one of skill in the art. EXAMPLES

The examples are created and evaluated to determine clarity and viscosity. Clarity is determined visually, by an experienced laboratory technician, and rated as clear or not-clear. Viscosity is determined by an experienced laboratory technician and desig nated as viscous, too thick, or pourable.

Surf. Surf. Surf. Surf. Surf. Surf.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Weight Ratio of APG:Betaine 1:1 2:1 1:2 1:1 2:1 1:2

APG Type APG 1 APG 1 APG 1 APG 1 APG 1 APG 1

Betaine Type B1 B1 B1 B2 B2 B2 g APG Solution 70 140 35 90 180 45

APG Active (Wt %) 100 100 100 100 100 100

APG Active (g) 70 140 35 90 180 45

Active Wt % APG in Final

25.90 41.20 14.90 31.00 47.30 18.40 Su rfactant

g Betaine Solution 200 200 200 200 200 200

Betaine Active (Wt %) 35 35 35 45 45 45

Betaine Active (g) 70 70 70 90 90 90

Active Wt % Betaine in Final

26.00 20.60 29.80 31.10 23.80 36.70 Su rfactant

Total Active Wt % (APG +

51.90 61.80 44.70 62.10 71.10 55.10 Betaine) in Final Surfactant

Total Wt % Water in Final

48.10 38.20 55.30 37.90 28.90 44.90 Su rfactant

Total Wt % of (APG + Betaine

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 + Water) in Final Surfactant

Clear/ Clear/ Clear/

Clear/ Clear/ Clear/

Visual Evaluation Results Too Too Too

Viscous Pourable Pourable

Thick Thick Thick Surf. Surf. Surf. Surf. Surf. Surf.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Approximate Viscosity of Final ~ 1000 >1000 ~ 500 >1000 > 1000 ~ 500 Su rfactant at 25 °C cps cps cps cps cps cps

Typically, any surfactant that has an approximate viscosity of 1000 cps or more at 25°C is deemed to be slowly pourable or not pourable at all, depending on the viscosity.

APG 1 has the following chemical structure wherein R is a mixture of Cs-Cio groups, as is appreciated in the art and n is approximately 0.5.

The betaines B1 and B2 have the chemical structure as shown below wherein R is a mixture of

C12-C14 groups, as appreciated in the art. Betaine B1 is a mixture of the betaine below and 65 wt% water. Betaine B2 is a mixture of the betaine below and 55 wt% water.

The data set forth above demonstrate that useable surfactants can be formed with increased concentrations of actives. This allows for final products to be formed with higher

concentrations of additives and decreases shipping costs associated with shipping water. All combinations of the aforementioned embodiments throughout the entire disclosure are hereby expressly contemplated in one or more non-limiting embodiments even if such a disclosure is not described verbatim in a sing le paragraph or section above. In other words, an expressly contemplated embodiment may include any one or more elements described above selected and combined from any portion of the disclosure.

One or more of the values described above may vary by + 5%, + 10%, + 15%, + 20%, + 25%, etc. U nexpected results may be obtained from each member of a Markush group

independent from all other members. Each member may be relied upon individually and or in combination and provides adequate support for specific embodiments within the scope of the appended claims. The subject matter of all combinations of independent and dependent claims, both singly and multiply dependent, is herein expressly contemplated. The disclosure is illustrative including words of description rather than of limitation. Many modifications and variations of the present disclosure are possible in light of the above teachings, and the disclosure may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described herein.

It is also to be understood that any ranges and subranges relied upon in describing various embodiments of the present disclosure independently and collectively fall within the scope of the appended claims, and are understood to describe and contemplate all ranges including whole and/or fractional values therein, even if such values are not expressly written herein. One of skill in the art readily recognizes that the enumerated ranges and subranges sufficiently describe and enable various embodiments of the present disclosure, and such ranges and subranges may be further delineated into relevant halves, thirds, quarters, fifths, and so on. As just one example, a range "of from 0.1 to 0.9" may be further delineated into a lower third, i.e. from 0.1 to 0.3, a middle third, i.e. from 0.4 to 0.6, and an upper third, i.e. from 0.7 to 0.9, which individually and collectively are within the scope of the appended claims, and may be relied upon individually and/or collectively and provide adequate support for specific embodiments within the scope of the appended claims. I n addition, with respect to the language which defines or modifies a range, such as "at least," "greater than," less than," "no more than," and the like, it is to be understood that such language includes subranges and/or an upper or lower limit. As another example, a range of "at least 10" inherently includes a subrange of from at least 10 to 35, a subrange of from at least 10 to 25, a subrange of from 25 to 35, and so on, and each subrange may be relied upon individually and/or collectively and provides adequate support for specific embodiments within the scope of the appended claims. Finally, an individual number within a disclosed range may be relied upon and provides adequate support for specific embodiments within the scope of the appended claims. For example, a range "of from 1 to 9" includes various individual integers, such as 3, as well as individual numbers including a decimal point (or fraction), such as 4.1, which may be relied upon and provide adequate support for specific embodiments within the scope of the appended claims.