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Title:
CONCRETE STRUCTURE FOR MARINE OR RIVER APPLICATIONS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/042240
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A concrete structure and its production process for marine or river applications comprising a first layer or outer layer of highly porous concrete and a second layer or inner core integrally formed with or bonded to the first layer, said second layer or inner core being made of low-porous or dense seawater or river resistant concrete. Such a structure can be produced by a process comprising pouring a mixture of cement, sand aggregates and water into a mould, allowing a portion of the cement paste to segregate from an upper region to a lower region of the mould, thereby forming the first layer in the upper part and the second layer in the lower part, curing the mixture and demoulding the concrete structure. An alternative process for producing such a concrete structure comprises pouring a first fresh concrete mixture comprising cement, sand aggregates and water into a formwork, curing the concrete to obtain said first layer of porous concrete, relocating one wall of the formwork so as to enlarge the same, pouring a second fresh concrete mixture comprising cement, aggregates and water into the enlarged formwork between the first layer and the relocated wall of the formwork, curing the concrete to obtain said second layer of non-porous concrete.

Inventors:
DUBOIS-BRUGGER, Isabelle (Lafarge Centre de Recherche, 95 rue du Montmurie, BP15 Saint-Quentin-Fallavier Cedex, 38291, FR)
DUCHAND, Sylvain (Lafarge Centre de Recherche, 95 rue du Montmurie, BP15 Saint-Quentin-Fallavier Cedex, 38291, FR)
HORGNIES, Matthieu (Lafarge Centre de Recherche, 95 rue du Montmurie, BP15 Saint-Quentin-Fallavier Cedex, 38291, FR)
MORIN, Vincent (Lafarge Centre de Recherche, 95 rue du Montmurie, BP15 Saint-Quentin-Fallavier Cedex, 38291, FR)
DELARRARD, François (Lafarge Centre de Recherche, 95 rue du Montmurie, BP15 Saint-Quentin-Fallavier Cedex, 38291, FR)
LECOMTE, Gilles (Lafarge Centre de Recherche, 95 rue du Montmurie, BP15 Saint-Quentin-Fallavier Cedex, 38291, FR)
Application Number:
IB2017/000973
Publication Date:
March 08, 2018
Filing Date:
August 16, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
HOLCIM TECHNOLOGY LTD (Zürcherstrasse 156, Jona, CH-8645, CH)
International Classes:
A01K61/70; A01K61/77; E02B3/04
Foreign References:
EP0134855A11985-03-27
JP2006081501A2006-03-30
Other References:
None
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
KESCHMANN, Marc (Haffner und Keschmann, Patentanwälte GmbHSchottengasse 3a, Vienna, A-1010, AT)
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Claims:
Claims :

1. A concrete structure for marine or river applications comprising a first, preferably outer, layer of highly porous concrete and a second layer, which preferably forms an inner core, integrally formed with or bonded to the first layer, said first layer being made of low-porous or dense seawater-resistant or river resistant concrete.

2. A concrete structure according to claim 1, wherein the porous concrete of the first layer has a void content of > 15 vol.%, preferably > 20 vol.%, more preferably > 25 vol.%.

3. A concrete structure according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the porous concrete of the first layer comprises fine aggregates, such as sand aggregates, having a narrow particle size distribution of preferably 2-4 mm or 1-3 mm, with no coarse aggregates nor ultrafine particles being present .

4. A concrete structure according to claim 3, wherein the fine aggregates have a maximum particle size of 4 mm.

5. A concrete structure according to claim 3 or 4, wherein the fine aggregates have a minimum particle size of lmm.

6. A concrete structure according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the thickness of the first layer corresponds

7. A concrete structure according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the second layer comprises coarse aggregates having a particle size between 4 mm and 25 mm and sand aggregates having a particle of size below 4mm.

8. A concrete structure according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the concrete of the second layer and/or the concrete of the first layer is made from CEM I, II, III, or V cements of the. class PM or PM-ES or PM-ES-CP2 as defined in European (French) standard NF P 15-317.

9. A process for producing a concrete structure according to any one of claims 1 to 8, the process comprising

a) preparing a fresh concrete mixture, said concrete mixture comprising cement, sand aggregates and water,

b) pouring the fresh concrete mixture into a mould, c) allowing a portion of the cement paste to

segregate from an upper region to a lower region of the mould, thereby forming the first layer in the upper part and the second layer in the lower part,

d) allowing the concrete to set and cure and

e) demoulding the concrete structure.

10. A process according to claim 9, wherein said

segregation step is carried out by gravity, optionally assisted by vibrating the concrete mix in the mould.

11. A process according to claim 9 or 10, wherein the concrete structure, after step e) , is immersed partially or completely in seawater or river.

12. A process for producing a concrete structure according to any one of claims 1 to 8, the process comprising a) preparing a first fresh concrete mixture, said concrete mixture comprising cement, sand aggregates and water,

b) pouring the first fresh concrete mixture into a formwork,

c) allowing the concrete to set and cure so as to obtain said first layer of porous concrete,

d) relocating one wall of the formwork so as to enlarge the same,

d) preparing a second fresh concrete mixture, said concrete mixture comprising cement, aggregates and water, e) pouring the second fresh concrete mixture into the enlarged formwork between the first layer and the relocated wall of the formwork,

f) allowing the concrete to set and cure so as to obtain said second layer of non-porous concrete.

13. Use of a concrete structure according to any one of claims 1 to 8 for marine applications in contact with seawater or for river applications.

14. Use according to claim 13 for building harbour

infrastructures, artificial reefs, foundations of off-shore windmills, breakwater, breakwater pre-casted blocks

(accropodes) , piers, jetties, underwater pipes, seawalls, or riverbank stabilization.

Description:
Concrete structure for marine or river applications

The invention refers to a concrete structure for marine or river applications as well as a process for producing the concrete structure.

When concrete is used for marine or river infrastructures, it needs to satisfy specific requirements, such as density, good durability in aggressive environments, and high mechanical strength. The conventional concrete mix designs used to fulfil these requirements result in structures that have a dense microstructure, a smooth surface, and a low porosity .

Nowadays, there is a strong tendency to take into account ecological aspects in the development of a new marine or river infrastructure. This new market related to "eco- engineering" aims at developing technical infrastructures that will have a positive impact on the marine or river environment. This positive impact refers to the promotion of biodiversity and thus of the micro-macro algae and fish population growth. One well-known way to promote marine biodiversity is the construction and installation of artificial reefs.

Artificial structures generally lack the environmental heterogeneity and surface roughness that is usually present on natural rocky shores, enabling them to support greater numbers of individuals and species. Thus, the fast and durable colonization of marine or river structures by aquatic life requires that the concrete structures have sufficient surface roughness. The colonization and growth of aquatic life is also promoted by higher levels of open- porosity at the surface of the structures and by using concrete compositions that do not have a too high pH and that do not have a high level of leaching of compounds. It is therefore clear that conventional concrete elements used in traditional marine or river infrastructures are not compatible with the development of a rich and diverse aquatic fauna and flora.

It has already been suggested to add organic bioactive agents, such as wood, and nutriments to the concrete mixture, in Order to enhance the growth of aquatic life. Further, it is known to use marine by-products, in

particular marine by-products based on limestone, or aggregates (shells, coral, etc.) as an addition to the concrete mixture or as an application to the surface of the concrete structure.

However, the drawback of these solutions is that an extra component has to be added to the concrete, which results in increased costs and higher logistic efforts due to the difficulties to supply these additions on a regular basis and with similar compositions and worldwide availability. Further, such additions might negatively affect the

durability of the concrete structure.

Thus, the purpose of this invention is to provide a

concrete structure and composition that satisfy all

structural requirements in terms of durability, strength and density in marine or river environment, and also enhance and facilitate the colonization of the concrete surface with aquatic life, once the structures are

partially or completely immersed. In order to solve these and other objects, the invention provides a concrete structure for marine and river

applications comprising a first, preferably outer, layer of a highly porous concrete and a second layer, which

preferably forms an inner core, integrally formed with or bonded to the first layer, said first layer being made of low-porous or dense seawater-resistant or river resistant concrete .

By providing a two layer concrete structure, the first layer may be designed to provide optimized conditions for the colonization and growth of aquatic life. Such

conditions are realized by using a highly porous concrete for forming the first layer of the concrete structure. The resulting structure therefore has a high degree of open- porosity, wherein a preferred embodiment provides that the porous concrete has a total void content of > 15 vol.%, preferably > 20 vol.%, more preferably > 25 vol.%. The first layer also has a high surface roughness. The second layer, in contrast is made of a low-porous or dense

concrete that is resistant to seawater and river

environment. The invention therefore does not negatively affect the durability and the strength of the concrete structure, which are mainly provided by the second layer. The void content of the low-porous or dense concrete of the second layer is significantly lower than that of the first layer. Preferably, the void content of the second layer is < 50 %, preferably < 25%, more preferably < 10%, of the void content of the first layer. In order to provide sufficient strength to the concrete structure, the thickness of the first layer preferably corresponds to < 1/4 of the thickness of the second layer.

The two layers of the concrete structure are integrally formed, which means that they together form a unitary block of concrete.

The invention does not exclude the presence of further layers in the concrete structure. In a preferred

embodiment, however, the concrete structure is comprised of only said first and said second layer.

Generally, concrete is made from a mixture comprising cement, aggregates and water, wherein the cement mass constitutes the binder that bonds together the aggregates once the concrete has cured. Usually both, fine aggregates as well as coarse aggregates, are used, wherein the fine aggregates, such as sand, together with cement forms mortar, which fills the gaps between the coarse aggregate particles. Fine aggregates are defined as aggregate

particles that have a particle size of < 4 mm. In contrast, coarse aggregates are defined as aggregate particles that have a particle size of > 4 mm.

The porous concrete of the first layer is preferably made without using coarse aggregates, but only using fine aggregates, in particular sand aggregates, with a narrow particle size distribution of preferably 2-4 mm or 1-3 mm, and without any ultrafine particles being used that can fill the porosity except cement, in order to obtain a fine pore size that will be suitable to catch and protect aquatic life and thus promote its growth. The cement paste coats the fine aggregates and leaves voids between the individual coated particles of the fine aggregates. In this regard, a preferred embodiment of the invention provides that the porous concrete of the first layer comprises sand aggregates that are bonded together by a hydraulic binder, in particular a pure or blended Portland cement.

With regard to the second layer, in a first embodiment the components are identical to those of the first layer, but with a higher amount of cement paste that will fill the porosity between sand aggregates. In a second embodiment, the second layer is made from a concrete made with coarse aggregates that may have a wider particle size

distribution, in particular comprising a particle size between 1 mm and 25 mm and sand aggregates and cement. In order to withstand the ambient conditions present in seawater, a suitable concrete is preferably used, wherein the concrete preferably corresponds to the exposure class XS as defined in European Standard EN 206-1.

As to the cement used for the second layer and/or the first layer, some other cements such as alumina cement, calcium sulphoaluminate cement and belite calcium sulphoaluminate cement can also be used in particular cases with the advantage to provide low pH surface of the concrete.

The inventive concrete structure may be obtained by

different methods. According to a first method the process for producing the concrete structure comprises

a) preparing a fresh concrete mixture, said concrete mixture comprising cement, sand aggregates and water,

b) pouring the fresh concrete mixture into a mould, c) allowing a portion of the cement paste to segregate from an upper region to a lower region of the mould, thereby forming the first layer in the upper part (porous layer) and the second layer in the lower part (dense layer) ,

d) allowing the concrete to set and cure and e) demoulding the concrete structure.

Thus, the two layers of the concrete structure can be obtained in a single step. The fresh concrete used in this method is of the type suitable for obtaining a porous concrete and therefore comprises a specific and narrow particle size distribution of sand between 1.6 to 3 mm or 2 to a maximum 4 mm without any ultrafine particles that can fill the porosity except cement. Preferably, a fresh concrete mixture is prepared, that has a lower amount of cement paste than is required to fill the total porosity and which is allowed to segregate as describe above to form an upper porous layer and a lower dense layer.

Preferably, said segregation step is carried out by

gravity, optionally assisted by vibrating the concrete mix in the mould.

According to a second method the process for producing the concrete structure comprises:

a) preparing a first fresh concrete mixture, said concrete mixture comprising cement, sand aggregates and water,

b) pouring the first fresh concrete mixture into a formwork,

c) allowing the concrete to set and cure so as to obtain said first layer of porous concrete, d) relocating one wall of the formwork so as to enlarge the same,

d) preparing a second fresh concrete mixture, said concrete mixture comprising cement, sand and coarse aggregates and water,

e) pouring the second fresh concrete mixture into the enlarged formwork between the first layer and the relocated wall of the formwork,

f) allowing the concrete to set and cure so as to obtain said second layer of non-porous concrete.

Thus, the two layers of the concrete structure are obtained in two separate consecutive steps.

According to another aspect, the invention refers to the use of a concrete structure as described above for marine applications in contact with sea water or river

applications .

The concrete structure is preferably used for building harbour infrastructures, artificial reefs, foundations of off-shore windmills, breakwater, breakwater pre-casted blocks (accropodes) , piers, jetties, underwater pipes, seawalls, or riverbank stabilization.

The invention will now be described in more detail with reference to the following examples.

Example 1

A fresh mortar mass was mixed containing the following components:

The fresh concrete according to the above formulation has been obtained by means of a ZYCLOS type mixer. The whole operation has been carried out at 20°C. The method of preparation comprises the following steps:

At T = 0 seconds: charging the cement and the sand in the bowl mixer and mixing during 7 minutes (15 rpm);

At T = 7 minutes: adding water and half of the weight of additive and mix for 1 minute (15 rpm);

At T = 8 minutes: adding the rest of the additive and mix for 1 minute (15 rpm);

At T = 9 minutes: mixing for 8 minutes (50 rpm); and

At T = 17 minutes: mixing for 1 minute (15 rpm);

At T = 18 minutes: pouring the concrete on the level into a mould.

The fresh concrete mix was poured into a cylindrical mould. Subsequently the mould was subjected to vibrations, so that segregation occurred, wherein a portion of the cement paste segregated from an upper region to a lower region of the mould, thereby forming the first layer in the upper part and the second layer in the lower part. The segregation process is schematically shown in Figs. 1 and 2. Fig. 1 shows the mould 1 containing the fresh concrete, which comprises sand 2 that are coated by the cement paste 3. After segregation, a portion of the cement paste 3 has moved to the lower -part of the mould 1 and has filled the voids 4 that previously were present between the individual particles of the sand 2, thereby forming a dense, non- porous concrete in the lower part of the mould.

After having hardened, the cylindrical concrete block 5 was demoulded as shown in Fig. 3, wherein a first layer 6 of porous concrete and a second layer 7 of dense, low-porous concrete has been formed.

Example 2

Example 2 corresponds to example 1, except that a different concrete mix was used. A fresh concrete mass was mixed containing the following components:

The fresh concrete according to the above formulation has been obtained by means of a ZYCLOS type mixer. The whole operation has been carried out at 20 °C. The method of preparation comprises the following steps: At T = 0 seconds: charging the cement and the sand in the bowl mixer and mixing during 7 minutes (15 rpm) ;

At T = 7 minutes: adding water and half of the weight of additive and mix for 1 minute (15 rpm);

At T = 8 minutes: adding the rest of the additive and mix for 1 minute (15 rpm);

At T = 9 minutes: mixing for 8 minutes (50 rpm); and

At T = 17 minutes: mixing for 1 minute (15 rpm);

At T = 18 minutes: pouring the concrete on the level into a mould.

The fresh concrete mix was again poured into a cylindrical mould. Subsequently the mould was subjected to vibrations, so that segregation occurred, with the effects shown in Figs. 1 and 2.

After having hardened, the cylindrical concrete block 5 was demoulded as shown in Fig. 4, wherein a first layer 6 of porous concrete and a second layer 7 of dense, low-porous concrete has been formed.

Example 3

A first fresh concrete mass was mixed containing the following components:

A second fresh concrete mass was mixed containing the following components:

In the above table, "Carriere de Cassis" means that the gravel originates from a quarry operated by the company Lafarge situated in Cassis, a commune situated east of Marseille in the department of Bouches-du-Rhone in the Provence-Alpes-C6te d'Azur region in southern France.

The numbers "11/22" mean that the respective portion of aggregates consists of particles having a particle size of between 11 and 22mm.

The fresh mixture according to the above formulation has been obtained by means of a ZYCLOS type mixer. The whole operation has been carried out at 20°C. The method of' preparation comprises the following steps: At T = 0 seconds: charging the cement, the sand and the gravels in the bowl mixer and mixing during 7 minutes (15 rpm) ;

At T = 7 minutes: adding water and half of the weight of additive and mix for 1 minute (15 rpm) ;

At T = 8 minutes: adding the rest of the additive and mix for 1 minute (15 rpm) ;

At T = 9 minutes: mixing for 8 minutes (50 rpm); and

At T = 17 minutes: mixing for 1 minute (15 rpm);

At T = 18 minutes: pouring the concrete on the level into a mould.

A formwork 8 was used as shown in Fig. 5 comprising a left formwork wall 9 and a right formwork wall 10. The first fresh concrete mass was poured into the formwork in order to produce a first concrete layer 11 made of porous concrete. Thereafter, the right formwork wall 10 was relocated so as to enlarge the space within the formwork (Fig. 6). The second fresh concrete mass was poured into the enlarged formwork 8 between the first layer 11 and the relocated wall 10 of the formwork in order to produce a second concrete layer 12 made of dense, low-porous concrete (Fig. 7). The two-layer concrete block 13 resulting after demoulding is shown in Fig. 8.