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Title:
CONNECTOR SOLUTION FOR DEVICE MANUFACTURED BY 3D PRINTING
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2020/104262
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention provides a kit of parts for providing e.g. a device (100), the kit of parts comprising a first part (51) and a second part (52), wherein the first part (51) and the second part (52) are configured to be functionally coupled, wherein: - the first part (51) comprises a 3D printed item (1), wherein the 3D printed item (1) comprises a plurality of layers (322) of 3D printed material (202), wherein the 3D printed item (1) comprises an elastic deformable portion (410) and a support portion (420) for supporting the elastic deformable portion (410); - the second part (52) comprises a body element (110); and - when the first part (51) and the second part (52) are functionally coupled to each other, the elastic deformable portion (410) exerts a force on the body element (110) either directly or via an intermediate element configured between at least part of the body element (110) and the elastic deformable portion (410) and elastically deforms relative to the support portion.

Inventors:
HIKMET RIFAT (NL)
VAN BOMMEL TIES (NL)
WOUTERS BERT (NL)
Application Number:
EP2019/081108
Publication Date:
May 28, 2020
Filing Date:
November 13, 2019
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
SIGNIFY HOLDING BV (NL)
International Classes:
B33Y80/00; B29C64/118; B33Y10/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2018188988A12018-10-18
WO2018177796A12018-10-04
WO2017207514A12017-12-07
WO2018072034A12018-04-26
WO2017040893A12017-03-09
Foreign References:
US20160368208A12016-12-22
US20160298833A12016-10-13
Other References:
TECHSTATIC: "Anti-vibration mounting pin for Raspberry Pi 3 / 3+ Techstatic cooler fan", 2 April 2018 (2018-04-02), XP055593099, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20190529]
PEDRO SANÍN PÉREZ: "A Study of Additive Manufacturing Applied to the Design and Production of LED Luminaires Contents", 28 April 2015 (2015-04-28), XP055593095, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20190529]
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
VAN DIJKEN, Albert et al. (NL)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS:

1. A kit (5) of parts comprising a first part (51) and a second part (52) that can be functionally coupled together to provide a device (100) having an electronic component (810) that is functionally coupled to a first electrically conductive element (111),

wherein the first part (51) comprises a 3D printed item (1) having a plurality of layers (322) of 3D printed material (202), the 3D printed item (1) comprising an elastic deformable portion (410) supported by a support portion (420),

wherein the second part (52) comprises a body element (110), wherein the first part (51), or the second part (52), or the first part (51) together with the second part (52) defines a channel (430) for hosting a second electrically conductive element (112) that is functionally coupled or can functionally be coupled to a source of electrical power,

wherein the elastic deformable portion (410) and the first electrically conductive element (111) are both configured at a channel opening (431) of the channel (430), and

wherein, when the second electrically conductive element (112) is hosted in the channel (430), and when the first part (51) and the second part (52) are functionally coupled to each other, the elastic deformable portion (410) of the first part (51) elastically deforms relative to the support portion (420) and exerts a force on the body element (110) of the seccond part (52) via the second electrically conductive element (112) and the first electrically conductive element (111) to keep the first electrically conductive element (111) and the second electrically conductive element (112) in contact with each other.

2. The kit (5) of parts according to claim 1, wherein the first part (51) comprises a first receptor part for hosting at least part of the second part (52), and/or wherein the second part (52) comprises a second receptor part for hosting at least part of the 3D printed item (1).

3. The kit (5) of parts according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the support portion (420) and the elastic deformable portion (410) define a plane (450), and wherein the elastic deformable portion (410) is movable relative to the plane (450).

4. The kit (5) of parts according to claim 3, wherein the elastic deformable portion (410) is partially embedded in the support portion (420), and wherein part of the elastic deformable portion (410) is physically separated from the support portion (420), thereby allowing elastic deformation relative to the support portion (420), and wherein the elastic deformable portion (410) comprises one or more edges (411) which are physically separated from the support portion (420).

5. The kit (5) of parts according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the elastic deformable portion (410) and the support portion (420) each independently comprise (i) a material selected from the group consisting of polycarbonate (PC), poly(p-phenylene oxide) (PPO), polyphenyl amide (PPA), polyether sulfone (PESU), polysulfone (PSU), poly phenyl sulfone (PPSU), polyether ketone (PEEK), polyphthalamide (PPA), polyether ketone (PEK), and liquid crystalline polymer (LCP), and (ii) optionally one or more fillers selected from the group consisting of glass particles, glass fibers, carbon black, carbon fibers, and mica particles.

6. The kit (5) of parts according to any one of claims 1 and 2, wherein the elastic deformable portion (410) is configured on the support portion (420), and wherein the elastic deformable portion (410) comprises an elastomeric material.

7. The kit (5) of parts according to claim 6, wherein:

the elastic deformable portion (410) comprises one or more of (i) a thermoplastic vulcanizate (TPV) blend based on olefin-based rubber and polyolefin thermoplastic material, (ii) a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) selected from the group consisting of a styrenic block copolymer, a thermoplastic polyolefin, a thermoplastic polyurethane, a thermoplastic copolyester, and a thermoplastic polyamide, and (iii) a vulcanized elastomer selected from the group consisting of vulcanized silicone rubber, vulcanized natural rubber, and cross-linked polyurethane; and

the support portion (420) comprises one or more of polycarbonate (PC), poly(p-phenylene oxide) (PPO), polyphenyl amide (PPA), polyether sulfone (PESU), polysulfone (PSU), poly phenyl sulfone (PPSU), polyether ketone (PEEK), polyphthalamide (PPA), polyether ketone (PEK), and liquid crystalline polymer (LCP), wherein the support portion (420) optionally further comprises one or more fillers selected from the group consisting of glass particles, glass fibers, carbon black, carbon fibers, and mica particles.

8. The kit (5) of parts according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the elastic deformable portion (410) comprises one or more 3D printed spring elements (412).

9. The kit (5) of parts according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein one or more of the following applies: (i) the 3D printed material (202) of the elastic deformable portion (410) is based on thermoplastic glassy or semi-crystalline material having a tensile modulus of at least 1 GPa, (ii) the 3D printed material (202) of the elastic deformable portion (410) is configured to act as spring having a spring constant of at least 10 N/mm, and wherein the stress relaxation of the elastic deformable portion (410) at 90 °C is at maximum 60% in 10 years, and (iii) the 3D printed material (202) of the elastic deformable portion (410) comprises an elastomeric material having a shore hardness of at least A70.

10. The kit (5) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the second part (52) comprises a heat sink.

11. A device (100) comprising the kit (5) of parts as defined in any one of the preceding claims, wherein the first part (51) and the second part (52) are functionally coupled together, wherein the device (100) further comprises the second electrically conductive element (112) hosted in the channel (430), and wherein the second electrically conductive element (112) and the first electrically conductive element (111) are configured between the elastic deformable portion (410) and the body element (110) so that the elastic deformable portion (410) exerts the force on the body element (110) via the second electrically conductive element (112) and the first electrically conductive element (111) to keep the first electrically conductive element (111) and the second electrically conductive element (112) in contact with each other.

12. A method for producing the kit (5) of parts as defined in any one of claims 1- 10, wherein the method includes manufacturing the 3D item (1) by means of fused deposition modelling, and wherein manufacturing the 3D item (1) by means of fused deposition modelling comprises 3D printing the elastic deformable portion (410) and the support portion (420) for supporting the elastic deformable portion (410).

Description:
CONNECTOR SOLUTION FOR DEVICE MANUFACTURED BY 3D PRINTING

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to a kit of parts including a 3D printed item. Further, the invention relates to a (lighting) device based on such kits of parts and/or including such 3D (printed) item. The invention relates to a method for manufacturing a 3D (printed) item.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The use of joiners for additive manufacturing is known in the art.

WO2018/072034, for instance, describes joiners, methods of joining, and related systems for additive manufacturing. The method of joining includes bulk depositing, by an additive manufacturing tool head, a joiner (anchor) of a second material in a receptacle in a body of a first material. Also, the method of joining includes depositing an anchor layer of a third material upon the anchor. Networks of joiners in 3D printed parts, multi-material parts comprising joiners, computer program products for providing joiners, joiner systems including trolleys, and related methods and systems are also provided. Further,

WO2018/072034 describe a system, and method, for securing a part to a build platform and separating the part from the build platform.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Within the next 10-20 years, digital fabrication will increasingly transform the nature of global manufacturing. One of the aspects of digital fabrication is 3D printing. Currently, many different techniques have been developed in order to produce various 3D printed objects using various materials such as ceramics, metals and polymers. 3D printing can also be used in producing molds which can then be used for replicating objects.

For the purpose of making molds, the use of polyjet technique has been suggested. This technique makes use of layer by layer deposition of photo-polymerisable material which is cured after each deposition to form a solid structure. While this technique produces smooth surfaces the photo curable materials are not very stable and they also have relatively low thermal conductivity to be useful for injection molding applications. The most widely used additive manufacturing technology is the process known as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is an additive manufacturing technology commonly used for modeling, prototyping, and production applications. FDM works on an "additive" principle by laying down material in layers; a plastic filament or metal wire is unwound from a coil and supplies material to produce a part. Possibly, (for thermoplastics for example) the filament is melted and extruded before being laid down. FDM is a rapid prototyping technology. Other terms for FDM are “fused filament fabrication” (FFF) or“filament 3D printing” (FDP), which are considered to be equivalent to FDM. In general, FDM printers use a thermoplastic filament, which is heated to its melting point and then extruded, layer by layer, (or in fact filament after filament) to create a three-dimensional object. FDM printers are relatively fast, low cost and can be used for printing complicated 3D objects. Such printers are used in printing various shapes using various polymers. The technique is also being further developed in the production of LED luminaires and lighting solutions.

Connectors may be used in luminaires for making contact with e.g. a PCB (printed circuit board) comprising LEDs and also other LEDs types, such as chip on board (CoB). A connector that may be used is a spring loaded connector where the electrical contact is at the wire where the spring loading is also realized. Such connectors may not fit into the digital manufacturing concept where customization is paramount.

Hence, it is an aspect of the invention to provide an alternative 3D printing method and/or 3D (printed) item which preferably further at least partly obviate(s) one or more of above-described drawbacks. It is also an aspect of the invention to provide an alternative (lighting) device which preferably further at least partly obviate(s) one or more of above-described drawbacks The present invention may have as object to overcome or ameliorate at least one of the disadvantages of the prior art, or to provide a useful alternative.

In embodiments, for this purpose it is herein suggested to use a digital manufacturing method for producing spring loading by providing an elastomer (rubbery material) and/or a 3D printed structure having a spring function. When an electrical wire is inserted on top of/in such structures, the wire can get pressed against the electrical contact points on the PCB or the LED package such as chip on board (COB). For this purpose, one could especially select from a class of materials which do not show fast stress relaxation such as a semi crystalline or glassy polymer with glass transition temperature preferably above 140 °C and/or thermoplastic elastomer subjected to relatively low deformations (up to 2% strain) so that a continuous reliable contact may be obtained. In this way, a discrete connector can be obtained which can eventually be integrated into e.g. a luminaire.

Hence, in a first aspect the invention provides a kit of parts comprising a first part and a second part, wherein the first part and the second part (and optionally one or more further parts) are configured to be functionally coupled together (such as via a connection) to provide a (lighting) device having an electronic component that is functionally coupled to a first electrically conductive element.

The first part comprises a 3D printed item. The 3D printed item comprises a plurality of layers of 3D printed material. The 3D printed item comprises an elastic deformable portion (in specific embodiments of 3D printed material) and a support portion (in specific embodiments of 3D printed material) supporting the elastic deformable portion. The second part comprises a body element.

The first part, or the second part, or the first part together with the second part defines a channel for hosting a second electrically conductive element that is functionally coupled or can functionally be coupled to a source of electrical power.

The elastic deformable portion and the first electrically conductive element are both configured at a channel opening of the channel.

When the second electrically conductive element is hosted in the channel, and when the first part and the second part are functionally coupled to each other, the elastic deformable portion of the first part elastically deforms relative to the support portion and exerts a force on the body element of the second part via the second electrically conductive element and the first electrically conductive element to keep the first electrically conductive element and the second electrically conductive element in contact with each other.

With such kit of parts it is e.g. possible to create a good connection between (two) electrical conductors, as they may be maintained together. When configured between at least part of the body element and the elastic deformable portion, the elastic deformable portion exerts a force on the (two) electrical conductors by which they may be maintained together and electrical conduction is maintained. However, the two (or more) parts of the kit of parts may also form other type of devices when configured coupled and may also keep other items at a fixed position between at least part of the body element and the elastic deformable portion. Due to the fact that an elastic deformable portion is applied, the portion may exert a stress over long periods of time, and may essentially not lose its elasticity, in contrast to options where e.g. a non-elastic material would be used, whereby such non-elastic portion would not return to its initial shape and size when these forces are removed. As indicated above, the invention provides a kit of parts comprising a first part and a second part. The term“kit of parts” especially refers to two or more items (parts) that may be distinct, but which are - in the context of the invention - designed to be used together. Especially, to two or more items (parts) may be designed to be arranged into a single arrangement, such as a device. Together, the two or more items may provide a desired effect. The desired effect, herein, is especially the pressure on one or more items configured between the first part and the second part. The term“kit of parts” may refer to the two or more items in a physical kit, but this is not necessarily the case.

The term“first part” may in embodiments also refer to a plurality of (different) first parts. In specific embodiments, the term“first part” may also refer to a plurality of parts that are or can be arranged into an arrangement being the first part (“first part arrangement”).

The term“second part” may in embodiments also refer to a plurality of (different) second parts. In specific embodiments, the term“second part” may also refer to a plurality of parts that are or can be arranged into an arrangement being the second part (“second part arrangement”).

Other parts may also be present (see further also below).

Hence, the first part and the second part are especially configured to be functionally coupled. For instance, to this end at least part of the first part and at least part of the second part may have complementary shapes. Hence, in embodiments one or more of (i) the first part comprises a first receptor part for hosting at least part of the second part (when the first part and the second part are functionally coupled to each other), and (ii) the second part comprises a second receptor part for hosting at least part of the first part (when the first part and the second part are functionally coupled to each other). For instance, by applying a first receptor part and/or second receptor part male-female arrangements may be provided. In embodiments, at least part of 3D printed item (see further below) and at least part of the second part may have complementary shapes, though alternatively or additionally - where applicable - another part of the first part and at least part of the second part may have complementary shape. Hence, in embodiments one or more of (i) the 3D printed item comprises a first receptor part for hosting at least part of the body element (when the first part and the second part are functionally coupled to each other), and (ii) the body element comprises a second receptor part for hosting at least part of the 3D printed item (when the first part and the second part are functionally coupled to each other).

The functional coupling of the first part and the second part may also include a connection. Hence, in embodiments the first part and the second part are functionally coupled to each other via a connection. In embodiments, the connection comprises a mechanical connection. Alternatively or additionally, the connection comprises a chemical connection. The term“connection” may also refer to a plurality of (different) connections. In

embodiments, the connection may comprise a fastener connection such as including a screw connection, a nut-bolt connection, an anchoring connection, such as known in the art. In embodiments, the connection may comprise an adhesive, such as glue. In embodiments, the connection may be based on a melting of one or both of the materials at an interface. Hence, in embodiments the functional coupling may be detachable; in other embodiments the functional coupling may essentially be irreversible. In specific embodiments, however, especially a mechanical connection is applied that allows decoupling (and again coupling, if desired) of the first part and the second part (and optionally further parts).

Hence, the phrase“the first part and the second part are functionally coupled to each other” and similar phrases especially indicate that the parts are configured in an arrangement, wherein the parts cannot be separated from each other or cannot be separated without an additional action such as removing a screw, removing a bolt, removing an anchoring element, etc. etc.

The phrase“the elastic deformable portion exerts a force on the body element” and similar phrases may thus essentially also indicate that the body element exerts a force on the elastic deformable portion. Hence, the phrase“the elastic deformable portion exerts a force on the body element” and similar phrases may also be indicated as“the elastic deformable portion exerts a force on the body element (and vice versa)”.

As indicated above, the first part comprises a 3D printed item. With 3D printing it may be possible to create easily an item comprising both the elastic deformable portion and the support portion. Both portions may be based on the same material (see below) or the portions may be based on different materials. The latter may be achieved by printing the portions consecutively with the same printer head but with different 3D printable materials, or by applying a 3D printer with two or more printer heads for using different 3D printable materials. Hence, in specific embodiments the first part comprises a 3D printed item. Especially, the 3D printed item comprises 3D printed material. The 3D printed item comprises a plurality of layers of 3D printed material. As indicated above, in specific embodiments the 3D printed item comprises an elastic deformable portion (of 3D printed material) and a support portion (of 3D printed material) for supporting the elastic deformable portion. When assembled, the second part and the first part provide a device having an electronic component. To this end, at least one of the first part and the second part may comprise the electronic component. Alternatively, the electronic component may be a separate part of the kit of parts, which together with the first part and the second part may be used to provide the device.

The term“electrical component” may e.g. refer to an integrated circuit, PCB, a battery, a driver, but also a light source, etc. Instead of an electrical component, the device may also comprise a magnetic component. The term magnetic component may e.g. refer to a magnetic connector, a coil, etc.. Especially, the electronic component comprises a solid state light source. For instance, the electronic component may comprise a COB (chip on board) (which comprises a plurality of solid state light sources).

A function of the second part (or at least part thereof) is to provide a body onto which the force may be exerted. Hence, especially the second part comprises a body element. In embodiments, the body element may be 3D printed, though this is not necessarily the case. Hence, in embodiments the second part may comprise or may consist of 3D printed material (which may in embodiments differ from the 3D printed material(s) of the 3D printed item of the first part.

The elastic deformable portion may exert a force on a stack of two electrical connectors, one being functionally coupled to a source of electrical power and one being connected to an electronic component, which may be functionally coupled to the first part or the second (or may be an additional part of the kit of parts), when the first part and the second part (and optionally further parts) are functionally coupled. These two electrical connectors may be arranged between part of the first part and part of the second part, more precisely between the elastic deformable portion and the body element. Hence, when the first part and the second part are functionally coupled to each other, the elastic deformable portion exerts a force on the body element via an intermediate element configured between at least part of the body element and at least part of the elastic deformable portion. Therefore, when the first part and the second part are functionally coupled to each other, the elastic deformable portion elastically deforms relative to the support portion. Hence, the second portion may essentially not elastically deform (when the elastic deformable portion deforms). Therefore, in embodiments the second portion may essentially be stiff. The elastic deformable portion may be a resilient portion. Hence, in embodiments when the first part and the second part are functionally coupled they may keep two or more elements pressed together, such as two electrical connectors may be pressed together, such that an electrical connection is maintained.

The term“intermediate element” may also refer to a plurality of (different) intermediate elements, such as 2-3 intermediate elements. Especially, the intermediate element may in embodiments comprise an electrically conductive element, such as a first electrically conductive element or a second electrically conductive element.

As indicated above, in embodiments two electrical conductors may be kept in contact with each other due to the pressure of the elastic deformable portion. One of the conductors may e.g. be provided as an elongated electrical conductor. For instance, an electrical wire may be provided of which an electrically conductive end may be in contact with an electrical conductor of an electrical device, such as in contact with a COB (or PCB). The elongated electrical conductor may extend beyond the device (formed by at least the first part and the second part. Hence, the first part or the second part may (together) provide a channel for hosting such (elongated) electrical conductor. Therefore, in embodiments the first part, or the second part, or the first part together with the second part, define a channel for hosting an elongated electrical conductor, wherein the channel has a channel opening, wherein the elastic deformable portion is configured at the channel opening.

The phrase“the elastic deformable portion is configured at the channel opening” and similar phrases in embodiments especially indicate that essentially directly downstream (or upstream) of the channel opening, the elastic deformable portion is configured. Hence, especially when an (elongated) electrical conductor within the channel extends from the channel out of the channel opening, when the first part and the second part are functionally coupled to each other, the elastic deformable portion may be configured to push part of the (elongated) electrical conductor extending from the opening against the body element of the second part.

In embodiments, the body element may comprise a second electric conductor (or second electrically conductive element) or such conductor may be functionally coupled to the body element.

In embodiments, the first part may comprise the channel. Alternatively or additionally, the second part comprises the channel. The“term” channel may also refer to a plurality of different channels.

Likewise, the term“elastic deformable portion” may also refer to a plurality of different elastic deformable portions, of which two or more may be functionally coupled to the same support portion. For instance, as in general two electrical wires, or three electrical wires, may be applied, there may be 2-3 different channels, and 2-3 different elastic deformable portions at the channel openings of the respective 2-3 different channels. The elastic deformable portions may exert a force to different parts of the body element.

As indicated above, the kit of parts may especially also comprises an electronic component. This electronic component may be functionally coupled to the first part or to the second part, of may be an additional part of the kit of parts (see also above). In specific embodiments, the electronic component comprises a light source, especially a solid state light source. Therefore, the invention provides also embodiments of the kit of parts further comprising (i) an electronic component, wherein the electronic component especially comprises a solid state light source, and (ii) a first electrically conductive element; wherein the first electrically conductive element and the electronic component are functionally coupled, wherein the first part, the second part, and the electronic component are configured to be functionally coupled to provide a device (i.e. a device comprising the first part, the second part, and the electronic component). In further specific embodiments, the first electrically conductive element is (also) configured at the channel opening.

As indicated above, the electronic component may comprise a light source. In a specific embodiment, the light source comprises a solid state LED light source (such as a LED or laser diode). The term“light source” may also relate to a plurality of light sources, such as 2-200 (solid state) LED light sources. Hence, the term LED may also refer to a plurality of LEDs. Further, the term“light source” may in embodiments also refer to a so- called chips-on-board (COB) light source. The term“COB” especially refers to LED chips in the form of a semiconductor chip that is neither encased nor connected but directly mounted onto a substrate, such as a PCB. Hence, a plurality of light semiconductor light source may be configured on the same substrate. In embodiments, a COB is a multi LED chip configured together as a single lighting module.

The elastic deformable portion may be configured in different ways. In general, it is configured in such a way that when the first part and the second part are functionally coupled, especially with e.g. two electrical conductive elements between the body element and the elastic deformable portion, the elastic deformable portion deforms (is deformed), and thereby exerts a force on the body element. The elastic deformable portion may extend from a plane, such as in embodiments the elastic deformable portion may extend from the support portion. In other embodiments, the support portion and the elastic deformable portion are in the same plane. In the former embodiments, the elastic deformable portion and the support portion may comprise different materials; in the latter embodiments the elastic deformable portion and the support portion may in embodiments comprise the same material.

In embodiments, the elastic deformable portion may be configured

compression spring-like. This may especially be the case when the elastic deformable portion may extend from a plane. In other embodiments, the elastic deformable portion may be configured tension (or extension), bending spring-like. The term“spring-like” may indicate that the elastic deformable portion may have a similar or identical function as the indicated spring, even though the elastic deformable portion may not have a coil like structure, such as in the case of classical springs.

Therefore, in embodiments the support portion and the elastic deformable portion may define a plane, wherein the elastic deformable portion is movable relative to the plane. Hence, the support portion and the elastic deformable portion may be in the same plane, and the elastic deformable portion may be deformed relative to the plane when it is elastically deformed when exerting a force. Hence, for instance one or more electrically conductive elements between the body element and the elastic deformable portion may deform the elastic deformable portion when the first part and the second part are functionally connected.

For instance, in embodiments the elastic deformable portion may be a portion that is partly associated to the support portion, but in such a way that it can be deformed relative to the support portion. Hence, in embodiments the elastic deformable portion is partially embedded in the support portion, and part of the elastic deformable portion is physically separated from the support portion, thereby allowing elastic deformation relative to the support portion. Especially, in embodiments the elastic deformable portion comprises one or more edges which are physically separated from the support portion.

In embodiments, the elastic deformable portion is thinner than the (at least partly) surrounding support portion.

In embodiments, the elastic deformable portion may be defined by a (through) slit in the support portion. One or more of such slits may form an element that is not completely surrounded by the one or more slits, such that it is supported by the support element. For instance, in an embodiment two parallel configured (through slits) may define an elastic deformable portion in a support portion. In this way, a bridge element may be provided, which may have the elastic deformable properties. In such embodiments, the edge(s) of the elastic deformable portion are provided by the one or more (through) slits. Especially, in embodiments the elastic deformable portion and the support portion each independently comprise a material selected from the group consisting of polycarbonate (PC)(like e.g. APEC from Covestro), poly(/ -phcnylcnc oxide) (PPO), polyphenyl amide (PPA), polyether sulfone (PESU), polysulfone (PSU), poly phenyl sulfone (PPSU), polyether ketone (PEEK), polyphthalamide (PPA), polyether ketone (PEK), and liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) (such as e.g. Vectra). In specific embodiments, the elastic deformable portion and the support portion each independently comprise a blend of one or more of the afore-mentioned polymers and one or more of ABS, PS, and PMMA.

Alternatively or additionally, the polymers comprised by the elastic deformable portion and the support portion, respectively, each independently comprise one or more fillers, such as selected from the group consisting of glass, glass fiber, carbon black, carbon fiber, mica, etc.

The above mentioned polymers may be used for the elastic deformable portion and the support portion. The composition of the material of the elastic deformable portion may differ from the composition of the material of and the support portion. By controlling the composition, also the stiffness and/or elasticity may be controlled. With 3D printing, it may be relatively easily possible to control composition of the 3D printable material, such as by using two or more 3D printer heads. However, in specific embodiments the compositions of the material of the elastic deformable portion and of the material of the support portion are essentially the same.

In specific embodiments, the support portion and a plurality of the elastic deformable portion may define a plane.

Above, amongst others embodiments were described wherein the deformable portion and support portion may essentially be of the same material and/or wherein these portions are in a same plane (in unstressed conditions). However, in other embodiments the elastic deformable portion may be configured on the support portion. Hence, in embodiments the elastic deformable portion may extend from the support function.

Especially, in such embodiments the elastic deformable portion may comprise an elastomeric material. For instance, in embodiments (see further also below), the elastomeric portion may comprise one or more of a vulcanized elastomer, a thermoplastic vulcanizate, and a thermoplastic elastomer.

Hence, alternatively or additionally, one may provide an elastic deformable portion by providing a portion with (3D printed) spring elements. Hence, in embodiments the elastic deformable portion comprises one or more 3D printed spring elements. For instance, such spring elements may include shapes selected from the group consisting of leaf springs and zig-zag structures. In embodiments, such spring elements may comprise a semi crystalline or amorphous polymeric material.

Nevertheless, in embodiments the elastic deformable portion and the support portion may essentially comprise the same material, but by physically separating the elastic deformable portion from the support portion, such as one or more edges with the support portion, a thickness thinner than the surrounding support portion, etc., the elastic deformable portion may deform relative to the support portion.

As indicated above, the elastic deformable portion and the support portion may in embodiments also comprise (essentially) different materials, wherein the former comprises a material that is relatively elastic and wherein the latter comprises a material that is relatively stiff. In specific embodiments, the elastic deformable portion comprises one or more of a vulcanized elastomer, a thermoplastic vulcanizate and a thermoplastic elastomer. A thermoplastic vulcanizate and a thermoplastic elastomer can be processed from the liquid phase. Vulcanized elastomers are solid rubbers thus they may be provided by picking and placing (and can thus not be 3D printed). Especially, such materials may provide the desired elastic deformable properties.

In specific embodiment, the elastic deformable portion may comprise a thermoplastic vulcanizate (TPV) blend based on olefin-based rubber and polyolefin thermoplastic material. Alternatively or additionally, in specific embodiment the elastic deformable portion may comprise a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) selected from the group consisting of a styrenic block copolymer (elastomer), a thermoplastic polyolefin (elastomer), a thermoplastic polyurethane (elastomer), a thermoplastic copolyesters (elastomer), and a thermoplastic polyamide (elastomer). Alternatively or additionally, in specific embodiment the elastic deformable portion may comprise a vulcanized elastomer, such as in embodiments selected from the group consisting of vulcanized silicone rubber, vulcanized natural rubber, and cross-linked polyurethane. Hence, in specific embodiments the elastic deformable portion comprises one or more of (i) a thermoplastic vulcanizate (TPV) blend based on olefin-based rubber and polyolefin thermoplastic material and (ii) a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) selected from the group consisting of a styrenic block copolymer (elastomer), a thermoplastic polyolefin (elastomer), a thermoplastic polyurethane (elastomer), a

thermoplastic copolyesters (elastomer), and a thermoplastic polyamide (elastomer), and (iii) a vulcanized elastomer, such as in embodiments selected from the group consisting of vulcanized silicone rubber, vulcanized natural rubber, and cross-linked polyurethane. The support portion may comprise a material selected from the group consisting of polycarbonate (PC)(like e.g. APEC from Covestro), poly(p-phenylene oxide) (PPO), polyphenyl amide (PPA), polyether sulfone (PESU), polysulfone (PSU), poly phenyl sulfone (PPSU), polyether ketone (PEEK), polyphthalamide (PPA), polyether ketone (PEK), and liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) (such as e.g. Vectra). In specific embodiments, the support portion comprises a blend of one or more of the afore-mentioned polymers and one or more of ABS, PS, and PMMA. Alternatively or additionally, the polymers comprised by the support portion comprises one or more additives, such as selected from the group consisting of glass, glass fiber, carbon black, carbon fiber, mica, etc.

In specific embodiments, the elastic deformable portion may extend relative to the support part. For instance, the elastic deformable portion may extend relative to a plane defined by the support part.

Additionally, one may provide an elastic deformable portion by providing a portion with (3D printed) spring elements. Hence, in embodiments the elastic deformable portion comprises one or more 3D printed spring elements. For instance, such spring elements may include shapes selected from the group consisting of leaf springs and zig-zag structures. This may further enhance the elastic properties of the elastic deformable portion.

In embodiments, a plurality of elastic deformable portion may extend relative to a plane defined by the support part.

In embodiments, the 3D printed material of the elastic deformable portion, especially where a thermoplastic glassy or semi-crystalline polymer is used, has a tensile modulus of at least 1 GPa. In embodiments, the 3D printed material of the elastic deformable portion has a tensile modulus of at maximum 40GPa, especially for a tilled polymer, such as a carbon fiber filled polymer. In embodiments, the 3D printed material of the elastic deformable portion has a stress relaxation at 90 °C of at maximum 60% at in 10 years.

Yet further, in embodiments the elastic deformable portion functions as a spring and has an (initial) spring constant of at least 10 N/mm and at maximum. The elastic deformable portion may have an initial spring constant of at maximum 400N/mm.

In embodiments, the applied strain to the elastically deformable portions is not higher than 2%, in order to stay in the elastic deformation regime.

In embodiments, where the deformable portion is of an elastomeric material, the shore hardness of the elastomer may be at least A70. The shore hardness may e.g. be measured with a shore durometer, as known to a person skilled in the art.

Therefore, in specific embodiments one or more of the following may apply: (i) the 3D printed material of the elastic deformable portion is based on thermoplastic glassy or semi-crystalline material having a tensile modulus of at least 1 GPa, (ii) the 3D printed material of the elastic deformable portion is configured to act as spring having a spring constant of at least 10 N/mm, and wherein the stress relaxation of the elastic deformable portion 90 °C is especially at maximum 60% in 10 years, and (iii) the 3D printed material of the elastic deformable portion comprises an elastomeric material having a shore hardness of at least A70.

The above indicated polymers may optionally also comprise one or more fillers. Hence, in embodiments the elastic deformable portion and the support portion may each independently optionally comprise, in addition to the polymeric material, one or more fillers selected from the group consisting of glass particles, glass fibers, carbon black, carbon fibers, and mica particles. Especially, the support portion may optionally further comprises one or more fillers selected from the group consisting of glass particles, glass fibers, carbon black, carbon fibers, and mica particles

As indicated above, the invention provides a kit of parts. Especially, the kit of parts is designed to provide a device by functionally coupling the first part and the second part (and optionally further parts, such as an electronic component). Therefore, in yet a further aspect the invention also provides a device comprising the first part and the second part as defined in any one of the preceding claims, wherein the first part and the second part are functionally coupled (e.g. also via the connection), and wherein the elastic deformable portion exerts a force on the body element either directly or via an intermediate element configured between at least part of the body element and (at least part of) the elastic deformable portion and is elastically deformed relative to the support portion. Especially during use of the device, the first part and the second part (and optionally one or more further parts, such as in embodiments a light source) are functionally coupled (e.g. also via the connection).

The device comprises an electronic component, such as a solid state light source, and the necessary electrical conductors, such as electrical wiring.

In such embodiments, the first part, the second part, and the electronic component may especially functionally be coupled. Further, in such embodiments the second electrically conductive element may be functionally coupled or can functionally be coupled to a source of electrical power. Yet further, in such embodiments the first electrically conductive element and the electronic component may be functionally coupled. Also, yet further the second electrically conductive element and the first electrically conductive element may be configured between the elastic deformable portion and the body element. Especially, in embodiments the elastic deformable portion exerts the force on the body element via the second electrically conductive element and the first electrically conductive element. Hence, especially the invention also provides a device further comprising (i) an electronic component, wherein the electronic component comprises a solid state light source, (ii) a second electrically conductive element, and (iii) a first electrically conductive element, wherein: (a) the first part, the second part, and the electronic component, are functionally coupled; (b) the second electrically conductive element is functionally coupled or can functionally be coupled to a source of electrical power; (c) the first electrically conductive element and the electronic component are functionally coupled; (d) the second electrically conductive element and the first electrically conductive element are configured between the elastic deformable portion and the body element; and (e) the elastic deformable portion exerts the force on the body element via the second electrically conductive element and the first electrically conductive element.

In embodiments, the source of electrical power may be comprised by the kit of parts. In embodiments, an infrastructure for the source of electrical power may be comprised by the kit of parts, and may be functionally coupled to the second part (or the first part). Such infrastructure may in embodiments comprise a battery holder and/or a photovoltaic cell.

In other embodiments (of e.g. the kit of parts or the device), the source of electrical power may be external of the device.

In embodiments, the second part comprises a heat sink. A heat sink (or “heatsink”) may especially be defined as a passive heat exchanger that is configured to transfer heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, such as air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature. In embodiments, the heat sink may be 3D printed. In yet other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise a metal body.

In yet a further aspect, the invention also provides a luminaire comprising the device as described herein.

In yet a further aspect, the invention provides a kit of parts comprising a first part and a second part that are, configured to be functionally coupled, wherein the first part comprises an elastic deformable part and a support part for supporting the elastic deformable part, wherein the second part comprises a body element, wherein, when the first part and the second part are functionally coupled to each other, the elastic deformable part exerts a force on the body element either directly or via an intermediate element configured between at least part of the body element and the elastic deformable part. In embodiments, especially the first part comprises a 3D printed item having a plurality of layers of 3D printed material, and wherein the 3D printed item comprises the elastic deformable part and the support part. In yet a further aspect, the invention also provides a kit of parts comprising a first part and a second part that are configured to be functionally coupled, wherein the first part comprises a first portion and a second portion, the second portion supporting the first portion, and the first portion having a lower elastic modulus than the second portion, wherein the second part comprises a body element, and wherein, when the first part and the second part are functionally coupled to each other, the first portion of the first part exerts a force on the body element. The first portion may in embodiments be an integrated spring element (such as e.g. schematically depicted in may in embodiments be a resilient element (such as e.g.

schematically depicted in Figs. 2e-2g). Embodiments described above in relation to the kit of parts or the device may also apply to these aspects. Further, in an aspect the invention also provides a device wherein the first part and the second part are functionally coupled, and wherein the elastic deformable portion exerts a force on the body element either directly or via an intermediate element configured between at least part of the body element and the elastic deformable portion and is elastically deformed relative to the support portion.

In yet a further aspect, the invention also provides a method for providing the 3D item as described herein. In yet a further aspect, the invention also provides a method of providing the device, wherein the method comprises functionally coupling the first part, the second part, and optionally further parts, to provide the device.

Hence, in an aspect the invention provides a method for producing the 3D printed item as defined herein, especially by means of fused deposition modelling, the method comprising a 3D printing stage comprising layer-wise depositing an extrudate comprising 3D printable material to provide the 3D item comprising 3D printed material, wherein the 3D item comprises a plurality of layers of 3D printed material, wherein the method comprises 3D printing the elastic deformable portion (of first 3D printed material) and the support portion (of second 3D printed material) for supporting the elastic deformable portion.

As indicated above, the method comprises depositing during a printing stage 3D printable material. Herein, the term“3D printable material” refers to the material to be deposited or printed, and the term“3D printed material” refers to the material that is obtained after deposition. These materials may be essentially the same, as the 3D printable material may especially refer to the material in a printer head or extruder at elevated temperature and the 3D printed material refers to the same material, but in a later stage when deposited. The 3D printable material is printed as a filament and deposited as such. The 3D printable material may be provided as filament or may be formed into a filament. Hence, whatever starting materials are applied, a filament comprising 3D printable material is provided by the printer head and 3D printed. The term“extrudate” may be used to define the 3D printable material downstream of the printer head, but not yet deposited. The latter is indicated as“3D printed material”. In fact, the extrudate comprises 3D printable material, as the material is not yet deposited. Upon deposition of the 3D printable material or extrudate, the material is thus indicated as 3D printed material. Essentially, the materials are the same material, as the thermoplastic material upstream of the printer head, downstream of the printer head, and when deposited, is essentially the same material.

Herein, the term“3D printable material” may also be indicated as“printable material. The term“polymeric material” may in embodiments refer to a blend of different polymers, but may in embodiments also refer to essentially a single polymer type with different polymer chain lengths. Hence, the terms“polymeric material” or“polymer” may refer to a single type of polymers but may also refer to a plurality of different polymers. The term“printable material” may refer to a single type of printable material but may also refer to a plurality of different printable materials. The term“printed material” may refer to a single type of printed material but may also refer to a plurality of different printed materials.

Hence, the term“3D printable material” may also refer to a combination of two or more materials. In general, these (polymeric) materials have a glass transition temperature T g and/or a melting temperature T m . The 3D printable material will be heated by the 3D printer before it leaves the nozzle to a temperature of at least the glass transition temperature, and in general at least the melting temperature. Hence, in a specific embodiment the 3D printable material comprises a thermoplastic polymer having a glass transition temperature (T g ) and /or a melting point (T m ), and the printer head action comprises heating the 3D printable material above the glass transition and if it is a semi-crystalline polymer above the melting temperature. In yet another embodiment, the 3D printable material comprises a (thermoplastic) polymer having a melting point (T m ), and the printer head action comprises heating the 3D printable material to be deposited on the receiver item to a temperature of at least the melting point. The glass transition temperature is in general not the same thing as the melting temperature. Melting is a transition which occurs in crystalline polymers. Melting happens when the polymer chains fall out of their crystal structures, and become a disordered liquid. The glass transition is a transition which happens to amorphous polymers; that is, polymers whose chains are not arranged in ordered crystals, but are just strewn around in any fashion, even though they are in the solid state. Polymers can be amorphous, essentially having a glass transition temperature and not a melting temperature or can be (semi) crystalline, in general having both a glass transition temperature and a melting temperature, with in general the latter being larger than the former. The glass temperature may e.g. be determined with differential scanning calorimetry. The melting point or melting temperature can also be determined with differential scanning calorimetry.

As indicated above, the invention thus provides a method comprising providing a filament of 3D printable material and printing during a printing stage said 3D printable material on a substrate, to provide said 3D item.

Materials that may especially qualify as 3D printable materials (especially for the support portion) may be selected from the group consisting of metals, glasses, thermoplastic polymers, silicones, etc. Especially, the 3D printable material comprises a (thermoplastic) polymer selected from the group consisting of ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), Nylon (or polyamide), Acetate (or cellulose), PLA (poly lactic acid), terephthalate (such as PET polyethylene terephthalate), Acrylic (polymethylacrylate, Perspex,

polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA), Polypropylene (or polypropene), Polycarbonate (PC), Polystyrene (PS), PE (such as expanded- high impact-Polythene (or polyethene), Low density (LDPE) High density (HDPE)), PVC (polyvinyl chloride) Polychloroethene, such as thermoplastic elastomer based on copolyester elastomers, polyurethane elastomers, polyamide elastomers polyolefine based elastomers, styrene based elastomers, etc..

Optionally, the 3D printable material comprises a 3D printable material selected from the group consisting of Urea formaldehyde, Polyester resin, Epoxy resin, Melamine

formaldehyde, thermoplastic elastomer, etc.. Optionally, the 3D printable material comprises a 3D printable material selected from the group consisting of a polysulfone. Elastomers, especially thermoplastic elastomers, are especially interesting as they are flexible and may help obtaining relatively more flexible filaments comprising the thermally conductive material. A thermoplastic elastomer may comprise one or more of styrenic block copolymers (TPS (TPE-s)), thermoplastic polyolefin elastomers (TPO (TPE-o)), thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV (TPE-v or TPV)), thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU (TPU)),

thermoplastic copolyesters (TPC (TPE-E)), and thermoplastic polyamides (TPA (TPE-A)).

Suitable thermoplastic materials, such as also mentioned in W02017/040893, may include one or more of polyacetals (e.g., polyoxyethylene and polyoxymethylene), poly(Ci- 6 alkyl)acrylates, polyacrylamides, polyamides, (e.g., aliphatic polyamides, polyphthalamides, and polyaramides), polyamideimides, polyanhydrides, polyarylates, polyarylene ethers (e.g., polyphenylene ethers), polyarylene sulfides (e.g., polyphenylene sulfides), polyarylsulfones (e.g., polyphenylene sulfones), polybenzothiazoles,

polybenzoxazoles, polycarbonates (including polycarbonate copolymers such as

polycarbonate-siloxanes, polycarbonate-esters, and polycarbonate-ester-siloxanes), polyesters (e.g., polycarbonates, polyethylene terephthalates, polyethylene naphtholates, polybutylene terephthalates, polyarylates), and polyester copolymers such as polyester-ethers),

polyetheretherketones, polyetherimides (including copolymers such as polyetherimide- siloxane copolymers), polyetherketoneketones, polyetherketones, polyethersulfones, polyimides (including copolymers such as polyimide- siloxane copolymers), poly(Ci- 6 alkyl)methacrylates, polymethacrylamides, polynorbomenes (including copolymers containing norbomenyl units), polyolefins (e.g., polyethylenes, polypropylenes,

polytetrafluoroethylenes, and their copolymers, for example ethylene- alpha- olefin copolymers), polyoxadiazoles, polyoxymethylenes, polyphthalides, polysilazanes, polysiloxanes, polystyrenes (including copolymers such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene (MBS)), polysulfides, polysulfonamides, polysulfonates, polysulfones, polythioesters, polytriazines, polyureas, polyurethanes, polyvinyl alcohols, polyvinyl esters, polyvinyl ethers, polyvinyl halides, polyvinyl ketones, polyvinyl thioethers, polyvinylidene fluorides, or the like, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing thermoplastic polymers. Embodiments of polyamides may include, but are not limited to, synthetic linear polyamides, e.g., Nylon-6,6; Nylon-6,9; Nylon-6,10; Nylon-6,12; Nylon-11; Nylon-12 and Nylon-4,6, preferably Nylon 6 and Nylon 6,6, or a combination comprising at least one of the foregoing. Polyurethanes that can be used include aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic, and polycyclic polyurethanes, including those described above. Also useful are poly(Ci- 6 alkyl)acrylates and poly(Ci- 6 alkyl)methacrylates, which include, for instance, polymers of methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, acrylamide, methacrylic acid, methyl methacrylate, n-butyl acrylate, and ethyl acrylate, etc. In embodiments, a polyolefine may include one or more of polyethylene, polypropylene, polybutylene, polymethylpentene (and co-polymers thereof), polynorbomene (and co-polymers thereof), poly 1 -butene, poly(3-methylbutene), poly(4-methylpentene) and copolymers of ethylene with propylene, 1 -butene, 1 -hexene, 1-octene, 1-decene, 4-methyl-l-pentene and 1- octadecene.

In specific embodiments, the 3D printable material (and the 3D printed material) comprise one or more of polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene (PE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polyoxymethylene (POM), polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), styrene-acrylonitrile resin (SAN), polysulfone (PSU), polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), and semi-crystalline polytethylene terephthalate (PET), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polystyrene (PS), and styrene acrylic copolymers (SMMA).

The term 3D printable material is further also elucidated below, but especially refers to a thermoplastic material, optionally including additives, to a volume percentage of at maximum about 60%, especially at maximum about 30 vol.%, such as at maximum 20 vol.% (of the additives relative to the total volume of the thermoplastic material and additives).

The printable material may thus in embodiments comprise two phases. The printable material may comprise a phase of printable polymeric material, especially thermoplastic material (see also below), which phase is especially an essentially continuous phase. In this continuous phase of thermoplastic material polymer additives such as one or more of antioxidant, heat stabilizer, light stabilizer, ultraviolet light stabilizer, ultraviolet light absorbing additive, near infrared light absorbing additive, infrared light absorbing additive, plasticizer, lubricant, release agent, antistatic agent, anti-fog agent, antimicrobial agent, colorant, laser marking additive, surface effect additive, radiation stabilizer, flame retardant, anti-drip agent may be present. The additive may have useful properties selected from optical properties, mechanical properties, electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties (see also above).

The printable material in embodiments may comprise particulate material, i.e. particles embedded in the printable polymeric material, which particles form a substantially discontinuous phase. The number of particles in the total mixture is especially not larger than 60 vol.%, relative to the total volume of the printable material (including the (anisotropically conductive) particles) especially in applications for reducing thermal expansion coefficient. For optical and surface related effect number of particles in the total mixture is equal to or less than 20 vol.%, such as up to 10 vol.%, relative to the total volume of the printable material (including the particles). Hence, the 3D printable material especially refers to a continuous phase of essentially thermoplastic material, wherein other materials, such as particles, may be embedded. Likewise, the 3D printed material especially refers to a continuous phase of essentially thermoplastic material, wherein other materials, such as particles, are embedded. The particles may comprise one or more additives as defined above. Hence, in embodiments the 3D printable materials may comprises particulate additives.

The printable material is printed on a receiver item. Especially, the receiver item can be the building platform or can be comprised by the building platform. The receiver item can also be heated during 3D printing. However, the receiver item may also be cooled during 3D printing.

The phrase“printing on a receiver item” and similar phrases include amongst others directly printing on the receiver item, or printing on a coating on the receiver item, or printing on 3D printed material earlier printed on the receiver item. The term“receiver item” may refer to a printing platform, a print bed, a substrate, a support, a build plate, or a building platform, etc.. Instead of the term“receiver item” also the term“substrate” may be used. The phrase“printing on a receiver item” and similar phrases include amongst others also printing on a separate substrate on or comprised by a printing platform, a print bed, a support, a build plate, or a building platform, etc.. Therefore, the phrase“printing on a substrate” and similar phrases include amongst others directly printing on the substrate, or printing on a coating on the substrate or printing on 3D printed material earlier printed on the substrate. Here below, further the term substrate is used, which may refer to a printing platform, a print bed, a substrate, a support, a build plate, or a building platform, etc., or a separate substrate thereon or comprised thereby.

Layer by layer printable material is deposited, by which the 3D printed item is generated (during the printing stage). The 3D printed item may show a characteristic ribbed structures (originating from the deposited filaments). However, it may also be possible that after a printing stage, a further stage is executed, such as a finalization stage. This stage may include removing the printed item from the receiver item and/or one or more post processing actions. One or more post processing actions may be executed before removing the printed item from the receiver item and/or one more post processing actions may be executed after removing the printed item from the receiver item. Post processing may include e.g. one or more of polishing, coating, adding a functional component, etc.. Post-processing may include smoothening the ribbed structures, which may lead to an essentially smooth surface.

Further, the invention relates to a software product that can be used to execute the method described herein. Therefore, in yet a further aspect the invention also provides a computer program product, when running on a computer which is functionally coupled to or comprised by a fused deposition modeling 3D printer, is capable of bringing about the method as described herein.

The herein described method provides 3D printed items. Hence, the invention also provides in a further aspect a 3D printed item obtainable with the herein described method. In a further aspect a 3D printed item obtainable with the herein described method is provided. Especially, the invention provides a The 3D printed item may comprise a plurality of layers on top of each other, i.e. stacked layers. The thickness and height of the layers may e.g. in embodiments be selected from the range of 100 - 3000 pm, such as 200-2500 pm, with the height in general being smaller than the width. For instance, the ratio of height and width may be equal to or smaller than 0.8, such as equal to or smaller than 0.6.

Layers may be core-shell layers or may consist of a single material. Within a layer, there may also be a change in composition, for instance when a core-shell printing process was applied and during the printing process it was changed from printing a first material (and not printing a second material) to printing a second material (and not printing the first material).

At least part of the 3D printed item may include a coating.

Returning to the 3D printing process, a specific 3D printer may be used to provide the 3D printed item described herein. Therefore, in yet a further aspect the invention also provides a fused deposition modeling 3D printer, comprising (a) a printer head comprising a printer nozzle, and (b) a 3D printable material providing device configured to provide 3D printable material to the printer head, wherein the fused deposition modeling 3D printer is configured to provide said 3D printable material to a substrate. The printer nozzle may include a single opening. In other embodiments, the printer nozzle may be of the core shell type, having two (or more) openings. The term“printer head” may also refer to a plurality of (different) printer heads; hence, the term“printer nozzle” may also refer to a plurality of (different) printer nozzles. The 3D printable material providing device may provide a filament comprising 3D printable material to the printer head or may provide the 3D printable material as such, with the printer head creating the filament comprising 3D printable material. Hence, in embodiments the invention provides a fused deposition modeling 3D printer, comprising (a) a printer head comprising a printer nozzle, and (b) a filament providing device configured to provide a filament comprising 3D printable material to the printer head, wherein the fused deposition modeling 3D printer is configured to provide said 3D printable material to a substrate.

Especially, the 3D printer comprises a controller (or is functionally coupled to a controller) that is configured to execute in a controlling mode (or“operation mode”) the method as described herein.

The system, or apparatus, or device may execute an action in a“mode” or “operation mode” or“mode of operation”. Likewise, in a method an action or stage, or step may be executed in a“mode” or“operation mode” or“mode of operation”. The term“mode” may also be indicated as“controlling mode”. This does not exclude that the system, or apparatus, or device may also be adapted for providing another controlling mode, or a plurality of other controlling modes. Likewise, this may not exclude that before executing the mode and/or after executing the mode one or more other modes may be executed.

However, in embodiments a control system may be available, that is adapted to provide at least the controlling mode. Would other modes be available, the choice of such modes may especially be executed via a user interface, though other options, like executing a mode in dependence of a sensor signal or a (time) scheme, may also be possible. The operation mode may in embodiments also refer to a system, or apparatus, or device, that can only operate in a single operation mode (i.e.“on”, without further tunability).

Instead of the term“fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer” shortly the terms“3D printer”,“FDM printer” or“printer” may be used. The printer nozzle may also be indicated as“nozzle” or sometimes as“extruder nozzle”.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Embodiments of the invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying schematic drawings in which corresponding reference symbols indicate corresponding parts, and in which:

Figs la-lc schematically depict some general aspects of the 3D printer and of an embodiment of 3D printed material;

Figs. 2a-2h schematically depict some aspects and embodiments; and

Figs. 3a-3e schematically depict some aspects and embodiments.

The schematic drawings are not necessarily to scale.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS

Fig. la schematically depicts some aspects of the 3D printer. Reference 500 indicates a 3D printer. Reference 530 indicates the functional unit configured to 3D print, especially FDM 3D printing; this reference may also indicate the 3D printing stage unit.

Here, only the printer head for providing 3D printed material, such as a FDM 3D printer head is schematically depicted. Reference 501 indicates the printer head. The 3D printer of the present invention may especially include a plurality of printer heads, though other

embodiments are also possible. Reference 502 indicates a printer nozzle. The 3D printer of the present invention may especially include a plurality of printer nozzles, though other embodiments are also possible. Reference 321 indicates a filament of printable 3D printable material (such as indicated above). For the sake of clarity, not all features of the 3D printer have been depicted, only those that are of especial relevance for the present invention (see further also below).

The 3D printer 500 is configured to generate a 3D item 1 by layer-wise depositing on a receiver item 550, which may in embodiments at least temporarily be cooled, a plurality of filaments 321 wherein each filament 310 comprises 3D printable material 201, such as having a melting point T m . The 3D printable material 201 may be deposited on a substrate 1550 (during the printing stage).

The 3D printer 500 is configured to heat the filament material upstream of the printer nozzle 502. This may e.g. be done with a device comprising one or more of an extrusion and/or heating function. Such device is indicated with reference 573, and is arranged upstream from the printer nozzle 502 (i.e. in time before the filament material leaves the printer nozzle 502). The printer head 501 may (thus) include a liquefier or heater. Reference 201 indicates printable material. When deposited, this material is indicated as (3D) printed material, which is indicated with reference 202.

Reference 572 indicates a spool or roller with material, especially in the form of a wire, which may be indicated as filament 320. The 3D printer 500 transforms this in a filament 321 downstream of the printer nozzle which becomes a layer 322 on the receiver item or on already deposited printed material. In general, the diameter of the filament 321 downstream of the nozzle is reduced relative to the diameter of the filament 322 upstream of the printer head. Hence, the printer nozzle is sometimes (also) indicated as extruder nozzle. Arranging layer 322 by layer 322 and/or layer 322t on layer 322, a 3D item 1 may be formed. Reference 575 indicates the filament providing device, which here amongst others include the spool or roller and the driver wheels, indicated with reference 576.

Reference A indicates a longitudinal axis or filament axis.

Reference C schematically depicts a control system, such as especially a temperature control system configured to control the temperature of the receiver item 550. The control system C may include a heater which is able to heat the receiver item 550 to at least a temperature of 50 °C, but especially up to a range of about 350 °C, such as at least 200 °C.

Alternatively or additionally, in embodiments the receiver plate may also be moveable in one or two directions in the x-y plane (horizontal plane). Further, alternatively or additionally, in embodiments the receiver plate may also be rotatable about z axis (vertical). Hence, the control system may move the receiver plate in one or more of the x-direction, y- direction, and z-direction.

Alternatively, the printer can have a head can also rotate during printing. Such a printer has an advantage that the printed material cannot rotate during printing.

Layers are indicated with reference 322, and have a layer height H and a layer width W.

Note that the 3D printable material is not necessarily provided as filament 320 to the printer head. Further, the filament 320 may also be produced in the 3D printer 500 from pieces of 3D printable material.

Reference D indicates the diameter of the nozzle (through which the 3D printable material 201 is forced).

Fig. lb schematically depicts in 3D in more detail the printing of the 3D item 1 under construction. Here, in this schematic drawing the ends of the filaments 321 in a single plane are not interconnected, though in reality this may in embodiments be the case. Reference H indicates the height of a layer. Layers are indicated with reference 203. Here, the layers have an essentially circular cross-section. Often, however, they may be flattened, such as having an outer shape resembling a flat oval tube or flat oval duct (i.e. a circular shaped bar having a diameter that is compressed to have a smaller height than width, wherein the sides (defining the width) are (still) rounded).

Hence, Figs la-lb schematically depict some aspects of a fused deposition modeling 3D printer 500, comprising (a) a first printer head 501 comprising a printer nozzle 502, (b) a filament providing device 575 configured to provide a filament 321 comprising 3D printable material 201 to the first printer head 501, and optionally (c) a receiver item 550. In Figs la-lb, the first or second printable material or the first or second printed material are indicated with the general indications printable material 201 and printed material 202.

Directly downstream of the nozzle 502, the filament 321 with 3D printable material becomes, when deposited, layer 322 with 3D printed material 202.

Fig. lc schematically depicts a stack of 3D printed layers 322, each having a layer height H and a layer width W. Note that in embodiments the layer width and/or layer height may differ for two or more layers 322. Reference 252 in Fig. lc indicates the item surface of the 3D item (schematically depicted in Fig. lc).

Referring to Figs la-lc, the filament of 3D printable material that is deposited leads to a layer having a height H (and width W). Depositing layer 322 after layer 322, the 3D item 1 is generated. Fig. 2a very schematically depicts an embodiment of a kit 5 of parts comprising a first part 51 and a second part 52. As shown, the first part 51 and the second part 52 are configured to be functionally coupled. One or more of (i) the first part 51 comprises a first receptor part for hosting at least part of the second part 52, and (ii) the second part 52 comprises a second receptor part for hosting at least part of the first part 51. Here, a first receptor part 47 is schematically depicted, which can host part of the second part 52.

The first part 51 and the second part 52 may be functionally coupled to each other (see right part of the drawing), thereby providing a device 100. Further parts may be available in the kit (and thus the device 100). References 53a and 53b schematically depict to an embodiment of a connection 53 (see also right part of the drawing) including a bolt and a nut, respectively.

The first part may include a 3D printed item. This is not shown in the very schematic drawing of Fig. 2a, but embodiments thereof are shown in more detail in Figs. 2b- 2h, and 3a-3c.

Fig. 2b (etc.) schematically depicts an embodiment wherein the first part 51 (or part thereof) comprises a 3D printed item 1, wherein the 3D printed item 1 comprises a plurality of layers of 3D printed material 202 (the individual layers are not shown in Fig. 2a and the next drawings for the sake of clarity, but see Figs la-lc). The 3D printed item 1 comprises an elastic deformable portion 410 and a support portion 420 for supporting the elastic deformable portion 410.

Fig. 2b schematically depicts a top view of an embodiment of the first part 51 (or part thereof), wherein the elastic deformable portion 410 comprises one or more edges 411 which are physically separated from the support portion 420.

Fig. 2c schematically depicts the same embodiment, but in cross-section.

Fig. 2d schematically depicts the same embodiment, in yet another cross- section, but now with a mass on the first portion 410, to show that this first portion 410 is elastic deformable. Hence, it exerts a force on the mass, indicated with the arrow. There will be an opposite force, which is also schematically depicted.

Figs. 2b-2d schematically depict an embodiment wherein the support portion 420 and the elastic deformable portion 410 define a plane 450, wherein the elastic deformable portion 410 is movable (elastically deformable) relative to the plane 450. In the schematically depicted embodiment the elastic deformable portion 410 is partially embedded in the support portion 420. Part of the elastic deformable portion 410 is physically separated from the support portion 420, thereby allowing elastic deformation relative to the support portion 420; see e.g. Fig. 2b-2d. Hence, here the elastic deformable portion 410 is a kind of bridge element. As shown in Figs. 2c and 2d, the elastic deformable portion 410 may have a smaller thickness than the support part 420. Figs. 2b-2d also schematically depict an embodiment wherein the elastic deformable portion 410 may be defined by (through) slits, indicated with references 413, in the support portion 420, which may thus - in embodiments - both be of the same material. The elastic deformable portion 410 is not completely surrounded by the slit(s) 413, such that it is supported by the support element 420. Here, two parallel configured (through slits) 413 define the elastic deformable portion 410 in the support portion 420.

The elastic deformable portion 410 and the support portion 420 may each independently comprise a material selected from the group consisting of polycarbonate PC, poly-phenylene oxide PPO, polyphenyl amide PPA, polyether sulfone PESU, polysulfone PSU, poly phenyl sulfone PPSU, polyether ketone PEEK, polyphthalamide PPA, polyether ketone PEK, and liquid crystalline polymer LCP. Especially, the deformable portion 410 and the support portion 420 are from the same material.

Figs. 2e-g schematically depict an embodiment wherein the elastic deformable portion 410 extends relative to the support part, here relative to the plane 450, which is defined by the support part 420.

Fig. 2e schematically depicts a top view, and Figs. 2f and 2g schematically depict different cross-sections, with in Fig. 2g with a mass on the first portion 410, to show that this first portion 410 is elastic deformable. Hence, it exerts a force on the mass, indicated with the arrow. There will be an opposite force, which is also schematically depicted.

Without deformation, the average height may be height h2. This average height h2 may decrease due to the presence of another element that exerts a force on the elastic deformable portion 410.

In these embodiments, the elastic deformable portion 410 may e.g. comprise one or more of a vulcanized elastomer, thermoplastic vulcanizate and a thermoplastic elastomer. For instance, the elastic deformable portion 410 may comprise one or more of (i) a thermoplastic vulcanizate TPV blend based on olefin-based rubber and polyolefin

thermoplastic material and (ii) a thermoplastic elastomer TPE selected from the group consisting of a styrenic block copolymer, a thermoplastic polyolefin, a thermoplastic polyurethane, a thermoplastic copolyester, and a thermoplastic polyamide, and (iii) a vulcanized elastomer selected from the group consisting of vulcanized silicone rubber, vulcanized natural rubber, and cross-linked polyurethane. Vulcanized elastomer may be cross-linked silicone rubber, x-linked polyurethane, vulcanized natural rubber. The support portion 420 may comprise one or more of polycarbonate PC, polyp-phenylene oxide PPO, polyphenyl amide PPA, polyether sulfone PESU, polysulfone PSU, poly phenyl sulfone PPSU, polyether ketone PEEK, polyphthalamide PPA, polyether ketone PEK, and liquid crystalline polymer LCP. Preferably the materials have Tg higher than 140C.

Fig. 2h (and Figs. 3a-3c (and 3d)) schematically depicts an embodiment wherein the first part 51 and the second part 52 are configured to be functionally coupled to provide a device 100.

The second part 52 comprises a body element 110, which may in embodiments comprise a heat sink. When the first part 51 and the second part 52 are functionally coupled to each other, as is schematically depicted in Fig. 2h, the elastic deformable portion 410 exerts a force on the body element 110 either directly or via an intermediate element configured between at least part of the body element 110 and the elastic deformable portion 410 and elastically deforms relative to the support portion.

Further, the first part 51 , or the second part 52, or the first part 51 together with the second part 52, define a channel 430 for hosting an elongated electrical conductor. Here, the second part 52 comprises the channel 430, though other embodiments may also be possible (see e.g. below). Here, an electrical wire, which is partly covered with isolation, enters the device 100 via the channel 430. The non-isolated part extends from a channel opening 431 of the channel 430. As shown, the elastic deformable portion 410 is configured at the channel opening 431.

Fig. 2h also shows an embodiment wherein the device 100 further comprises an electronic component 810. Here, by way of example the electronic component 810 comprises a solid state light source 10. Hence, the first part 51, the second part 52, and the electronic component 810 are configured to be functionally coupled to provide a device 100.

The device further comprises a first electrically conductive element 111, such as an electrically conductive track. Here, also a second electrically conductive element 112 is shown, which is provided by the electrical wire.

The first electrically conductive element 111 and the electronic component 810 are functionally coupled.

Hence, Fig. 2h schematically depicts an embodiment of a device 100 comprising the first part 51 and the second part 52 wherein the first part 51 and the second part 52 are functionally coupled, and wherein the elastic deformable portion 410 exerts a force on the body element 110 either directly or via an intermediate element configured between at least part of the body element 110 and the elastic deformable portion 410 and is elastically deformed relative to the support portion. Especially, Fig. 2h depicts an

embodiment wherein the electronic component 810 comprises a solid state light source 10, a second electrically conductive element 112, and a first electrically conductive element 111, wherein. The first part 51, the second part 52, and the electronic component 810 are functionally coupled. Further, the second electrically conductive element 112 is functionally coupled or can functionally be coupled to a source of electrical power (schematically indicated with“V”). Also, the first electrically conductive element 111 and the electronic component 810 are functionally coupled. Yet further, the second electrically conductive element 112 and the first electrically conductive element 111 are configured between the elastic deformable portion 410 and the body element 110. As schematically depicted, the elastic deformable portion 410 exerts the force on the body element 110 via the second electrically conductive element 112 and the first electrically conductive element 111.

Fig. 3a schematically depicts an embodiment of the device 100. Reference HS refers to a heat sink, which may be a separate part or which may be comprised by e.g. the second part 52. Reference R refers to a reflector, which may be a separate part, or which may be comprised by the first part 51. Solid state light source 10 may e.g. comprise a COB.

Fig. 3b schematically depicts an embodiment of the first part 51 having here also a receptor part for the electronic component 810.

Figs. 3c schematically depicts the arrangement of some items in part 51, with on the left the wire insertions (Fig. 3cA). Fig. 3cB shows in the middle a light source 10, such as a COB placed face down where wires make contact with the electrical contact pints of COB at the comers (not shown). Fig. 3cC, on the right, shows the arrangement flipped to see the top side. At the bottom, there is the second part52, which may be configured as a heat sink (). Furthermore, as a result of the presence of the wires the COB’s back surface is not in the same plane as the plane of part 51 but it sticks out. The part 51 is screwed onto the heat sink to obtain a good thermal contact with the heat sink and the COB. During the screwing action COB pushes 410 upwards so that surface of part 52 is in the same plane as the back surface of COB. This deformation of 410 in return applies force onto the electrical wires 112 and the electrical contact points of COB at its comers (not shown). Part 51 can also be designed so that it enables click or bayonet fitting of another component, such as a reflector and/or shade to the device. Fig. 3d schematically depicts how a device 100 in less detail may look like. The electronic component 810 comprises the light source 10. The light source 10 is configured to generate light source light 11.

Fig. 3e schematically depicts an embodiment wherein the elastic deformable portion 410 comprises one or more 3D printed spring elements 412.

For obtaining lowest electrical contact resistance the electrical contact surface from COB is a flat surface whereas the wires preferably have a cylindrical shape. For maintaining low electrical contact resistance preferably wires comprise coating pure silver, tin, nickel, also alloys like silver tin oxide, silver nickel, silver copper, silver copper nickel, etc..

The term“substantially” herein, such as“substantially consists”, will be understood by the person skilled in the art. The term“substantially” may also include embodiments with“entirely”,“completely”,“all”, etc. Hence, in embodiments the adjective substantially may also be removed. Where applicable, the term“substantially” may also relate to 90% or higher, such as 95% or higher, especially 99% or higher, even more especially 99.5% or higher, including 100%. The term“comprise” includes also

embodiments wherein the term“comprises” means“consists of’. The term“and/or” especially relates to one or more of the items mentioned before and after“and/or”. For instance, a phrase“item 1 and/or item 2” and similar phrases may relate to one or more of item 1 and item 2. The term "comprising" may in an embodiment refer to "consisting of' but may in another embodiment also refer to "containing at least the defined species and optionally one or more other species".

Furthermore, the terms first, second, third and the like in the description and in the claims, are used for distinguishing between similar elements and not necessarily for describing a sequential or chronological order. It is to be understood that the terms so used are interchangeable under appropriate circumstances and that the embodiments of the invention described herein are capable of operation in other sequences than described or illustrated herein.

The devices herein are amongst others described during operation. As will be clear to the person skilled in the art, the invention is not limited to methods of operation or devices in operation.

It should be noted that the above-mentioned embodiments illustrate rather than limit the invention, and that those skilled in the art will be able to design many alternative embodiments without departing from the scope of the appended claims. In the claims, any reference signs placed between parentheses shall not be construed as limiting the claim. Use of the verb "to comprise" and its conjugations does not exclude the presence of elements or steps other than those stated in a claim. The article "a" or "an" preceding an element does not exclude the presence of a plurality of such elements. The invention may be implemented by means of hardware comprising several distinct elements, and by means of a suitably programmed computer. In the device claim enumerating several means, several of these means may be embodied by one and the same item of hardware. The mere fact that certain measures are recited in mutually different dependent claims does not indicate that a combination of these measures cannot be used to advantage.

The invention also provides a control system that may control the apparatus or device or system, or that may execute the herein described method or process. Yet further, the invention also provides a computer program product, when running on a computer which is functionally coupled to or comprised by the apparatus or device or system, controls one or more controllable elements of such apparatus or device or system.

The invention further applies to a device comprising one or more of the characterizing features described in the description and/or shown in the attached drawings. The invention further pertains to a method or process comprising one or more of the characterizing features described in the description and/or shown in the attached drawings.

The various aspects discussed in this patent can be combined in order to provide additional advantages. Further, the person skilled in the art will understand that embodiments can be combined, and that also more than two embodiments can be combined. Furthermore, some of the features can form the basis for one or more divisional applications.

It goes without saying that one or more of the first (printable or printed) material and second (printable or printed) material may contain fillers such as glass and fibers which do not have (to have) influence on the on T g or T m of the material(s).