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Title:
CONTACT AND INTRAOCULAR LENSES COMPRISING AN ADJUSTABLE FOCUS LENGTH
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2016/173620
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention relates to a lens (1) for vision correction, wherein the lens (1) is configured to be placed directly on the surface of an eye (2) of a person or to be implanted into an eye (2) of a person, and wherein the lens (1) further comprises: a transparent base element (10) having a back side (12) and a front side (11) facing away from the back side (12), a transparent and elastically expandable membrane (20) connected to said base element (10), wherein said membrane (20) comprises a back side (22) that faces said front side (11) of the base element (10), a ring member (30) connected to said back side (22) of the membrane (20) so that the ring member (30) defines a curvature-adjustable area (23) of the membrane (20), and wherein the lens (1) comprises a lens volume (41) adjacent said curvature-adjustable area (23) of the membrane (20), which lens volume (41) is delimited by the ring member (30), and wherein the lens (1) comprises a reservoir volume (42) adjacent a boundary area (24) of said membrane (20), wherein said two volumes (41, 42) are filled with a transparent liquid (50), and wherein said volumes (41, 42) are fluidly connected or fluidly connectable to each other such that, when the reservoir volume (42) is compressed, liquid (50) residing in the reservoir volume (42) is pressed into the lens volume (41) such that the curvature of said curvature-adjustable area (23) of the membrane (22) increases and the focal length of the lens (1) decreases. Further, the invention relates to a method for manufacturing a contact lens according to the invention.

Inventors:
ASCHWANDEN, Manuel (Feldbergstrasse 14b, Allenwinden, CH-6319, CH)
NIEDERER, David (Haselrainstrasse 7, Küttigen, CH-5024, CH)
SMOLKA, Stephan (Nordstrasse 23, Zürich, CH-8006, CH)
GRÄTZEL, Chauncey (2460 Waverley St, Palo Alto, CA, 94301, US)
STADLER, David (Nordstrasse 94, Zürich, CH-8037, CH)
PATSCHEIDER, Roman (Oberfeldstrasse 2, Winterthur, CH-8408, CH)
Application Number:
EP2015/059113
Publication Date:
November 03, 2016
Filing Date:
April 28, 2015
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
OPTOTUNE AG (Bernstrasse 388, Dietikon, CH-8953, CH)
International Classes:
G02C7/04; A61F2/16; B29D11/00; G02B3/14; G02C7/08
Domestic Patent References:
WO1991010154A11991-07-11
WO2014120928A22014-08-07
WO2008115251A12008-09-25
WO1998014820A11998-04-09
Foreign References:
US20110118834A12011-05-19
US20120059465A12012-03-08
US20080231799A12008-09-25
US20120268712A12012-10-25
US8755124B22014-06-17
Other References:
ALYRA J. SHAW ET AL: "Eyelid Pressure and Contact with the Ocular Surface", INVESTIGATIVE OPTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, vol. 51, no. 4, 1 April 2010 (2010-04-01), US, pages 1911, XP055235529, ISSN: 1552-5783, DOI: 10.1167/iovs.09-4090
WEI YUAN ET AL.: "Self-clearable carbon nanotube electrodes for improved performance of dielectric elastomer actuators", PROC. SPIE, vol. 6927, 2008, pages 69270P
M. ASCHWANDEN ET AL.: "Low voltage, highly unable diffraction grating based on dielectric elastomer actuators", PROC. SPIE, vol. 6524, 2007, pages 65241 N
S. ROSSET ET AL.: "Mechanical properties of electroactive polymer microactuators with ion-implanted electrodes", PROC. SPIE, vol. 6524, 2007, pages 652410
S. ROSSET: "Mechanical properties of electroactive polymer microactuators with ion-implanted electrodes", PROC. SPIE, vol. 6524, 2007, pages 652410
L. SEEMANN; A. STEMMER; N. NAUJOKS: "Local surface charges direct the deposition of carbon nanotubes and fullerenes into nanoscale patterns", NANO LETTERS, vol. 7, no. 10, 2007, pages 3007 - 3012
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SCHULZ, Ben, Jesko (Schulz Junghans Patentanwälte PartGmbB, Grossbeerenstrasse 71, Berlin, 10963, DE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1 . A lens (1 ) for vision correction, wherein the lens (1 ) is configured to be placed directly on the surface of an eye (2) of a person or to be implanted into an eye (2) of a person, and wherein the lens (1 ) further comprises:

a transparent base element (10) having a back side (12) and a front side (1 1 ) facing away from the back side (12),

a transparent and elastically expandable membrane (20) connected to said base element (10), wherein said membrane (20) comprises a back side (22) that faces said front side (1 1 ) of the base element (10),

a ring member (30) connected to said back side (22) of the membrane (20) so that the ring member (30) defines a curvature-adjustable area (23) of the membrane (20), and

wherein the lens (1 ) comprises a lens volume (41 ) adjacent said curvature- adjustable area (23) of the membrane (20), which lens volume (41 ) is delimited by the ring member (30), and wherein the lens (1 ) comprises a reservoir volume (42) adjacent a boundary area (24) of said membrane (20), wherein said two volumes (41 , 42) are filled with a transparent liquid (50), and

wherein said volumes (41 , 42) are fluidly connected or fluidly connectable to each other such that, when the reservoir volume (42) is compressed, liquid (50) residing in the reservoir volume (42) is pressed into the lens volume (41 ) such that the curvature of said curvature-adjustable area (23) of the membrane (22) increases and the focal length of the lens (1 ) decreases.

2. The lens according to claim 1 , characterized in that the lens volume (41 ) is configured to be compressed, wherein when the lens volume (41 ) is compressed, liquid (50) residing in the lens volume (41 ) is pressed into the reservoir volume (42) such that the curvature of said curvature-adjustable area (23) of the membrane (22) decreases and the focal length of the lens (1 ) increases.

3. The lens according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the reservoir volume (42) is fluidly connected or fluidly connectable to the lens volume (41 ) via at least one opening (60). The lens according to claim 3, characterized in that the at least one opening (60) is a circumferential gap defined by a face side (30a) of the ring member (30), which face side (30a) faces the front side (1 1 ) of the base element (10), and the base element (10), wherein particularly, when the curvature-adjustable area (23) of the membrane (20) assumes a maximal convex curvature, said face side (30a) of the ring member (30) contacts the front side (1 1 ) of the base element (10).

The lens according to claim 2 or 3, characterized in that the ring member (30) is also connected to the front side (1 1 ) of the base element (10), wherein the at least one opening (60) is a channel extending through the ring member (30), wherein particularly the ring member (30) comprises a plurality of openings (60) in the form of channels extending through the ring member (30), which channels fluidly connect the reservoir volume (42) to the lens volume (41 ).

The lens according to claim 2 or 3, characterized in that the ring member (30) is also connected to the front side (1 1 ) of the base element (10), wherein the at least one opening (60) is a channel delimited by the ring member (30) and the front side (1 1 ) of the base element (10).

Lens according to one of the claims 3 to 6, characterized in that the dimensions of the at least one opening (60) or said plurality of openings (60) are chosen such that a time period over which the reservoir volume (42) and/or the lens volume (41 ) have to be compressed in order to yield a change of the curvature of the curvature-adjustable area (23) of the membrane (20) is longer than a blink of an eyelid.

Lens according to one of the claims 3 to 7, characterized in that the dimensions of the at least one opening (60), of the reservoir volume (42) and of the lens volume (41 ) are selected such that the total amount of liquid (50) that is transferred from the lens volume (41 ) to the reservoir volume (42) during one complete blink of an eyelid (4) of an eye (2) on which the lens (1 ) is placed or into which the lens (1 ) is implanted is smaller than the amount of liquid (50) required to change the optical power of the lens (1 ) by more than 0.25 diopter, particularly by more than 0.1 diopter, particularly by more than 0.05 diopter.

9. Lens according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the lens volume (41 ) is configured to be compressed by an eyelid (4) of an eye (2) of the person when the lens (1 ) is arranged on the pupil (3) of said eye (2), particularly by fully closing said eyelid (4).

10. Lens according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the reservoir volume (42) is configured to be compressed by an eyelid (4) of an eye (2) of the person when the lens (1 ) is arranged on the pupil (3) of said eye (2), wherein particularly the reservoir volume (42) is arranged such in the lens (1 ) that the reservoir volume (42) is compressed and the curvature of the curvature-adjustable area (23) of the membrane (20) increases, when said person closes said eyelid (4) partially.

1 1 . Lens according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the reservoir volume (42) is delimited by a first surface (200) formed by the membrane (20) and by a second surface (100) formed by the base element (10), wherein said surfaces (200, 100) face each other, and wherein said surfaces (200, 100) are configured to stick to each other when making contact upon compression of the reservoir volume (42) such that a compressed state of the reservoir volume (42) can be maintained without an eyelid (4) pushing onto the reservoir volume (42).

12. Lens according to claim 1 1 , characterized in that the first surface (200) and second surface (100) stick to each other through electrostatic attraction, magnetic attraction or van der Waals forces.

13. Lens according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the lens (1 ) comprises at least one actuator (70) that is configured to compress the reservoir volume (42) so as to press liquid (50) from the reservoir volume (42) into the lens volume (41 ).

14. Lens according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the reservoir volume (42) is delimited by a first surface (200) formed by the membrane (20) and a second surface (100) formed by the base element (10), wherein the two surfaces (200, 100) face each other.

15. Lens according to claims 13 and 14, characterized in that the actuator (70) comprises at least a first electrode (71 ) attached to said first surface (200) and at least a second electrode (72) attached to said second surface (100) such that a gap (74) is formed between the electrodes (71 , 72) that is adjustable in size by means of a voltage applied to the electrodes such that, when the gap is reduced, liquid (50) is pressed from the reservoir volume (42) into the lens volume (41 ), and wherein, when the voltage applied to said electrodes (71 ,72) is decreased, a tension of the membrane causes liquid (50) to flow back from the lens volume (41 ) into the reservoir volume (42).

16. The lens according to claims 13 and 14, characterized in that the actuator (70) comprises one or a plurality of first electrodes (71 , 71 a, 71 b, 71 c, 7d) attached to said first surface (200) and a corresponding number of second electrodes (72) attached to said second surface (100) such that a pair of a first and a second electrode (71 , 72) or pairs of first and second electrodes (71 , 71 a, 71 b, 71 c, 7d, 71 e, 72) are formed, wherein each pair of electrodes (71 , 71 a, 71 b, 71 c, 71 d, 71 e, 72) delimits an associated gap (74) arranged between the respective first and second electrode (71 , 71 a, 71 b, 71 c, 71 d, 71 e, 72) that is closable by means of a voltage applied to the respective pair of electrodes such that, when the respective gap (74) is closed, liquid (50) is pressed from the reservoir volume (42) into the lens volume (41 ), and wherein, when the voltage applied to the respective pair of electrodes (71 , 71 a, 71 b, 71 c, 71 d, 71 e, 72) is decreased or turned off, the respective gap (74) opens and a tension of the membrane (20) causes a corresponding amount of liquid (50) to flow back from the lens volume (41 ) into the reservoir volume (42).

17. The lens according to claims 15 or 16, characterized in that the at least one first electrode (71 ) is electrically insulated with respect to the at least one second electrode (72), or that each first electrode (71 , 71 a, 71 b, 71 c, 71 d; 71 e) is electrically insulated with respect to the associated second electrode (72).

18. The lens according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the reservoir volume (42) is arranged in a boundary region (420) of the lens (1 ) so that, when the lens (1 ) is arranged with respect to an eye (2) as intended, the reservoir volume (42) faces the eyelid (4) of said eye (2) and said eyelid (4) is partially closable such that it only pushes onto the reservoir volume (42) but not on the lens volume (41 ).

19. The lens according to one of the claims 15 to 19, characterized in that for reducing an influence of an eyelid (4) on the reservoir volume (42) and said electrodes (71 , 71 a, 71 b, 71 c, 71 d, 71 e, 72), the reservoir volume (42) is arranged next to the lens volume (41 ) in a horizontal direction when the lens (1 ) is arranged with respect to an eye (2) as intended.

20. The lens according to claim 13 or according to one of the claims 14 to 19 when referring to claim 13, characterized in that the at least one actuator (70) extends circumferentially around the ring member (30).

21 . The lens according to one of the preceding claims, characterized that the ring member (30) is 5 times, particularly 10 times, particularly 50 times, particularly 100 times, particularly 1000 times stiffer than the membrane (20).

22. The lens according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the ring member (30) has a circularity and flatness better than 25μη"ΐ, particularly better than Ι Ομηη, particularly better than 5μηι at an interface between the ring member (30) and the membrane (20).

23. The lens according to claim 13 or one of the claim 14 to 22 when referring to claim 13, characterized in that the lens (1 ) comprises a sensor (80) configured to sense a movement of the person wearing the lens (1 ), and to provide an output signal in response to a pre-determined movement of said person, wherein particularly said movement is a movement of an eyelid (4) of an eye (2) of said person.

24. The lens according claim 23, characterized in that the sensor (80) is one of: a photosensitive element, a pressure sensing element, a capacitive sensing element, a thermal sensor, particularly a resistor.

25. The lens according to claim 23 or 24, characterized in that the sensor (80) is configured to sense a deformation of the lens (1 ), wherein the sensor (80) is built into the actuator (70), or formed by the actuator (70), or comprises parts thereof.

The lens according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the lens (1 ) further comprises a processing unit (90) that is configured to actuate the at least one actuator (70) in response to the output signal provided by the sensor (80) or in response to an output signal provided by an external device (81 ), wherein particularly the at least one actuator (70) is actuated by applying said voltage to said electrodes (71 , 72) of the at least one actuator (70).

27. The lens according to one of the claims 13 to 26, characterized in that the lens (1 ) comprises an electric energy source (1 10), particularly a battery, wherein particularly said electric energy source (1 10) is configured to be charged by means of one of: inductive charging; light, wherein particularly the lens (1 ) comprises a solar cell (120) or a photo diode (120); using the thermoelectrical effect, wherein particularly the lens (1 ) comprises a Peltier element (130); using an eye lid movement, wherein particularly the lens (1 ) comprises a flexible capacitance (140) for transforming said eye lid movement into electrical energy.

28. The lens according to one of the claims 12 to 27, characterized in that said surfaces (200, 100) are configured to stick to each other through a compressive force of the at least one actuator (70).

29. The lens according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the back side (12) of the base element (10) is configured to be placed on the surface of the eye (2) such that said back side (12) contacts said surface of the eye (2), or that the front side (21 ) of the membrane (20) is configured to be placed on the surface of the eye (2) such that said front side (21 ) contacts said surface of the eye (2).

System comprising a lens (1 ) according to one of the preceding claims and a container (300) for storing the lens (1 ) when the lens (1 ) is not placed on the surface of the eye (2) of a person, wherein said container (300) comprises an electrically conducting coil (302) for charging a battery (1 10) of the lens (1 ) by means of induction.

31 . Method for manufacturing a contact lens (1 ), particularly according to one of the preceding claims, comprising the steps of

Providing a base element (10),

Providing a transparent and elastically deformable membrane (20) comprising a ring member (30) connected to or integrated into a back side (22) of the membrane (20),

Bonding the base element (10) to the membrane (20) and thereby forming a lens volume and a reservoir volume of the contact lens, and

Filling said lens volume (41 ) and said reservoir volume (42) with a transparent liquid (50).

32. The method according to claim 31 , wherein one of the following is applied to the membrane (20) and/or the base element (10): a coating, at least one electrode (71 , 72), an insulation layer (73), an anti-stiction layer.

33. Method according to claim 31 or 32, characterized in that said filling is conducted using diffusion and osmotic pressure after said bonding has been performed.

34. Method according to claim 31 or 32, characterized in that said filling is conducted before said bonding, wherein said liquid (50) is filled into a dent (51 ) formed by the membrane (20), wherein thereafter said bonding is conducted, and wherein the lens volume (41 ) and/or reservoir volume (42) is freed from gas (53) residing therein after said bonding.

35. The method according to claim 31 , characterized in that the ring member (30) is connected to the deformable membrane (20) by plasma bonding.

36. The method according to claim 31 , characterized in that the ring member (30) is formed as an integral part of the membrane (20), wherein the ring member is stiffened by means of irradiating it with ultraviolet light, or wherein the membrane is softened by irradiating it with ultraviolet light.

The method according to claim 31 , characterized in that the ring member (30) is formed as an integral part of the membrane (20), wherein a primer is applied to the mold in which the ring member is formed, which primer is designed to chemically stiffen the ring member (30) during molding of the membrane (20) and integral ring member (30).

Description:
Contact and intraocular lenses comprising an adjustable focus length Specification

The present invention relates to a lens, particularly a contact lens or an intraocular lens, having an adjustable focal length.

More particularly, the present invention relates to designs and methods of how to use and control such dynamic lenses. The present invention is not only applicable to contact lenses or intraocular lenses that are to be implanted into an eye but also to other lenses that may be used in a variety of different applications.

One particular aspect of the present invention shows how excellent optical quality can be achieved using liquid filled membrane lenses while employing actuation systems that consume little or no power. Furthermore, an aspect of the present invention relates to a method for charging an energy source for the lens. Yet another aspect of the present invention relates to different methods for controlling the focal power or focal length of the lens. Further, a method to detect an input signal from the user is described. Particularly, some aspects of this invention aim at implementing a deformable contact or intraocular lens which allows correction of refractive and/or accommodation deficiencies of the eye of the user to deliver particularly high optical qualities. Furthermore, an aspect of the present invention relates to the control of focal power of the lens by means of a movement of the respective eyelid, wherein particularly a fast blinking motion of the eye lid can be decoupled from the focal power control movement of the eyelid, particularly be means of an (e.g. mechanical) low pass filter.

In WO20081 15251 a soft contact lens is described that has a body with a central zone aligned with the optical axis of the eye when a user wears the lens. In one embodiment the soft lens includes a chamber that extends from a lower portion of the lens to its central axis and is arranged such that when a person looks down, a fluid is squeezed from the reservoir and changes the optical characteristics of the lens.

Further, WO98/14820 describes a variable focus contact lens, which has a body with a first half and an opposite second half. The body also has a first peripheral surface, an opposite second peripheral surface and an associated focal length. The lens includes a first material that is resilient so that when a compressive force is applied to the first surface and the second surface, the focal length of the lens changes in proportion to the compressive force. A force-distributing structure is disposed for distributing forces within the lens so as to inhibit astigmatism in the lens.

Furthermore, the fluid-filled adjustable contact lens of US 2012/0268712 shows an exemplary contact lens which includes a lens chamber configured to be positioned on a pupil of a user wearing the contact lens; a reservoir fluidly connected to the lens chamber, an actuator configured to transfer fluid back and forth between the lens chamber and the reservoir; a sensor configured to sense movement from the user and transmit a control signal when a predetermined movement is performed by the user, and a processor configured to actuate the actuator upon receipt of the control signal from the sensor.

Further, US 8755124 describes an adjustable optical lens comprising a membrane, a support for the membrane, a fluid between the membrane and the support, an actuator for deforming the membrane, and a rigid ring connected to the membrane surrounded by the rigid ring where the rigid ring has a defined circumference.

Based on the above, the problem underlying the present invention is to provide an improved contact lens that particularly allows to precisely adjust the focal length of the contact lens and achieves a high optical quality.

This problem is solved by a contact lens having the features of claim 1 . Preferred embodiments of the present invention are stated in the corresponding sub claims or are described below.

According to claim 1 , the adjustable focus length lens is configured to be placed directly on the surface of an eye of a person (e.g. covering the pupil of said eye) or to be implanted into an eye of a person, and wherein the lens further comprises:

a transparent base element having a back side and a front side facing away from the back side,

a transparent and elastically expandable membrane connected to said base element, wherein said membrane comprises a back side that faces said front side of the base element,

a ring member connected to said back side of the membrane so that the ring member defines a curvature-adjustable area of the membrane, and wherein the lens comprises a lens volume adjacent said curvature- adjustable area of the membrane, which lens volume is delimited by the ring member, and wherein the lens comprises a reservoir volume adjacent a boundary area of said membrane, wherein said two volumes are filled with a transparent liquid, and

wherein said volumes are fluidly connected or fluidly connectable to each other such that, when the reservoir volume is compressed, liquid residing in the reservoir volume is pressed into the lens volume such that the curvature of said curvature-adjustable area of the membrane increases and the focal length of the lens decreases.

According to an embodiment, the lens is a contact lens. In this case, the base element may be configured to be placed directly on the surface of the eye of a person such that the back side of the base element contacts the eye. In an alternative embodiment it is also possible that the membrane is configured to contact the eye (with the front side of the membrane facing away from the back side of the membrane). Here, the incident light first passes through the base element then passes through the lens volume and finally through the membrane (i.e. through the curvature-adjustable area) before entering the eye on which it is placed.

Particularly, said ring member separates said lens volume adjacent or below the curvature-adjustable area of the membrane from the reservoir volume adjacent or below said boundary area of the membrane.

Further, particularly, the ring member may be integrally formed with the membrane and may protrude from said back side of the membrane.

Particularly, said curvature adjustable-area of the membrane is configured for passing light through the curvature adjustable-area which deflects the light passing through it according to the current curvature of said area of the membrane. Particularly, said curvature-adjustable area corresponds to the clear aperture of the lens according to the invention.

Further, particularly, the base element may form a base lens. Furthermore, particularly, the base element is stiffer than the membrane. Likewise, the ring member is preferably stiffer than the membrane so as to be able to define the shape of the lens (i.e. of said curvature adjustable area). Particularly, said ring member is a circular ring member.

Furthermore, according to an embodiment of the lens according to the invention, the back side of the base element comprises a concave curvature so that the back side of the base element can fully contact the eye of a person. Particularly, the base element can consist of or comprise one of the following materials:

• A glass,

• Polymers including elastomers (e.g. TPE, LCE, Silicones, e.g. PDMS, acrylics, urethanes),

• A Plastic including thermoplasts (e.g. ABS, PA, PC, PMMA, PET, PE, PP, PS, PVC) and duroplasts,

• A Gel (e.g. silicone hydrogel, polymacon or optical gel OG-1001 by Liteway).

Particularly, the membrane can consist of or comprise one of the following materials:

• A glass,

• A polymers including elastomers (e.g. TPE, LCE, Silicones, e.g. PDMS, acrylics, urethanes),

• A plastic including thermoplasts (e.g. ABS, PA, PC, PMMA, PET, PE, PP, PS, PVC) and duroplasts.

• A gel (e.g. silicone hydrogel, polymacon or optical gel OG-1001 by Liteway),

Further, particularly, the liquid can be or comprise one of the following substances: a fluorinated silicone, water, an ionic liquid, a silicone, a contact lens cleaning solution, a salty water solution, an oil, a solvent.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the lens volume is configured to be compressed, wherein when the lens volume is compressed, liquid residing in the lens volume is pressed into the reservoir volume such that the curvature of said curvature-adjustable area of the membrane decreases and the focal length of the lens increases.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the reservoir volume is fluidly connected or fluidly connectable with the lens volume via at least one opening. Fluidly connected means that there exists a flow connection such that liquid can pass via said connection from the lens volume to the reservoir volume and vice versa.

Further, according to an embodiment of the present invention, the at least one opening is a circumferential gap defined by a face side of the ring member (which face side faces the front side of the base element) and the base element, wherein particularly, when the curvature-adjustable area of the membrane assumes a maximal convex curvature, said face side of the ring member contacts the front side of the base element. Further, according to an embodiment of the present invention, the ring member is also connected to the front side of the transparent base element, particularly via its face side.

Particularly, the at least one opening is a channel extending (e.g. in or along a radial direction) through the ring member so that particularly a permanent flow connection is established between the lens volume and the reservoir volume.

According to a further embodiment, the ring member may also comprise a plurality of openings in the form of channels that fluidly connect the reservoir volume to the lens volume and that particularly extend in or along a radial direction through the ring member.

Further, said openings or channels may be delimited by the ring member and by the front side of the base element to which the ring member is attached, particularly via its face side facing the front side of the base element. Here, the openings can be formed by forming recesses into the edge or face side of the ring member to that channels result when the ring member is connected with its face side to the front side of the base element.

In the above embodiments, the dimensions of the at least one opening or said plurality of openings are chosen particularly such that a time period over which the reservoir volume or the lens volume have to be compressed in order to yield a change of the curvature of the curvature-adjustable area is longer than the blink of an eye lasts, particularly longer than 1 second, particularly longer than 0.9 seconds, particularly longer than 0.8 seconds, particularly longer than 0.6 seconds, preferably longer than 0.5 seconds.

In other words, in case the channels between the lens volume (e.g. optically clear aperture) and the reservoir volume are sufficiently small, an eye blinking movement of the person wearing the (e.g. contact) lens will be low-pass filtered and will thus not change the curvature of the lens. Only a slow enough actuation movement will result in a change of the focal power of the (e.g. contact) lens.

Further, according to an embodiment of the present invention, the reservoir volume is configured to be compressed by an eyelid of an eye of the person when the (e.g contact) lens is arranged on the pupil of said eye, wherein particularly the reservoir volume is arranged such in the lens that the reservoir volume is compressed and the curvature of the central area of the membrane increases, when said person closes said eyelid partially [e.g. at least over a pre-defined time period). The lens is particularly configured to maintain a compressed state of the reservoir. Such a state can be released e.g. by pushing on the lens volume.

Therefore, according to an embodiment of the present invention, the lens volume is configured to be deformed or compressed by the eyelid of the person when the contact lens is arranged on the pupil of the corresponding eye, particularly by closing said eyelid so as to press liquid from the lens volume back into the reservoir volume.

By selecting the geometries of the reservoir and lens volume appropriately, the overall change of the lens volume during the blinking of the eye is substantially zero. Here, substantially zero means that the focal power of the lens changes by not more than 0.25 diopter, and in particular not more than 0.1 diopter, and in particular not more than 0.05 diopter.

According to an embodiment, the reservoir volume is delimited by a first surface formed e.g. by the membrane and by a second surface formed e.g. by the base element, wherein said surfaces face each other, and wherein particularly said surfaces are configured to stick to each other when making contact upon compression of the reservoir volume such that a compressed state of the reservoir volume can be maintained.

Further, according to an embodiment of the present invention, the lens comprises at least one actuator that is configured to compress the reservoir volume so as to press liquid from the reservoir volume into the lens volume.

Further, particularly, according to an embodiment the present invention, the curvature-adjustable area of the membrane is configured to act as a spring so that liquid is pushed back from the lens volume into the reservoir volume when the actuator stops compressing the reservoir volume or acting on the reservoir volume (e.g. when the reservoir volume is released).

Further, according to an embodiment of the present invention, the reservoir volume is delimited by a first surface formed e.g. by the membrane and a second surface formed e.g. by the base element, wherein the two surfaces face each other.

Further, according to an embodiment of the present invention, the actuator comprises a particularly compliant (first) electrode attached to said first surface and an insulated (second) electrode attached to said second surface such that an e.g. tapered gap is formed between the electrodes, wherein, when a voltage is applied to said electrodes said gap is reduced by an amount depending on the magnitude of the applied voltage and liquid is pressed from the reservoir volume (e.g. out of said gap) into the lens volume. Of course also the first electrode or both electrodes can be insulated. It is merely advantageous to insulate the electrodes with respect to each other.

Further, according to an embodiment of the present invention, the electrodes of the actuator are split up into individual sections forming pairs of electrodes that are configured to be actuated individually in a discrete or in a continuous manner. Discrete means that two electrodes forming a pair are either apart from each other forming a gap or contact each other (no gap). Thus a discrete amount of liquid can be transferred between said volumes by such a pair of electrodes depending on the size of the gap. Continuous means that the gap between two electrodes is closed continuously so that an adjustable amount of liquid can be transferred between said volumes.

Further, particularly, the center of the lens (i.e. curvature-adjustable area) is configured to act as a spring that wants to open (e.g. unzip) the actuator(s), i.e. move the first and second electrode(s) apart from each other corresponding to the open state of the actuator in contrast to a closed state where the respective first and second electrode contact each other and the associated gap vanishes in particular.

Therefore, different equilibriums between these forces exist when different voltages are applied.

Further, according to an embodiment of the present invention, the electrodes or the insulation layers can be coated such that they do not stick to each other when making contact.

Further, according to an embodiment of the present invention, for reducing an influence of an eyelid on the reservoir volume and said electrodes, the reservoir volume is arranged next to the lens volume in a horizontal direction when the lens is arranged with respect to an eye as intended (in relation to an upright position of the head of the user).

Further, according to an embodiment of the present invention, the at least one actuator extends circumferentially around the ring member.

Further, according to an embodiment of the present invention, the ring member is at least 5 times, particularly at least 10 times, particularly at least 50 times, particularly at least 100 times, particularly at least 1000 times stiffer than the membrane .

Further, according to an embodiment of the present invention, the ring member has a circularity and flatness better than 25μη"ΐ, particularly better than Ι Ομηη, particularly better than 5μηι at an interface between the ring 20 member and the membrane. Further, according to an embodiment of the present invention, the lens comprises a sensor configured to sense a movement from the person wearing the lens, and to provide an output signal in response to a pre-determined movement of the user, wherein particularly said movement is a movement of an eyelid of an eye of said person, on which eye said contact lens is arranged

Further, the lens particularly comprises a processing unit that is configured to actuate the at least one actuator in response to the output signal provided by the sensor or in response to an output signal provided by an external device, wherein particularly the at least one actuator is actuated by applying said voltage or voltages to said electrodes of the at least one actuator as described above (e.g. for opening and closing gaps between associated first and second electrodes).

According to an aspect of the present invention a system may be provided comprising a lens according to the invention and an external device configured to provide said output signal.

Further, according to an embodiment of the present invention, said sensor is one of: a photosensitive element, a pressure sensing element, a capacitive sensing element, a thermal sensor, particularly a resistor. Particularly said resistor may extend along the periphery of the contact lens. When the person covers the resistor with an eyelid, the temperature of the resistor rises due to heat transferred from the eyelid to the resistor.

Further, according to an embodiment of the present invention, the contact lens comprises an electric energy source, particularly a battery.

Further, according to an embodiment of the present invention, said electric energy source is configured to be charged by means of one of:

inductive charging;

light, wherein particularly the contact lens comprises a solar cell or a photo diode;

using the thermoelectrical effect, wherein particularly the contact lens comprises a Peltier element;

harvesting eye lid movements, wherein particularly the contact lens comprises a flexible capacitance for transforming eye lid movements into electrical energy that can be stored in said energy source/battery.

Further, according to an embodiment of the present invention, said surfaces (e.g. of the membrane and base element, see above) are configured to stick to each other through a compressive force of the at least one actuator, meaning for instance that they are configured to stick to each other when brought to contact each other by means of the at least one actuator.

Further, according to an embodiment of the present invention, the back side of the base element is configured to be placed on the surface of the eye such that said back side contacts said surface of the eye, or that the front side of the membrane is configured to be placed on the surface of the eye such that said front side contacts said surface of the eye. Also in case of an intraocular lens, either the base element or the membrane may be configured to be passed first by incident light that hits the eye.

According to a further aspect of the present invention, a system is disclosed comprising a lens according to the invention as described or claimed herein and a container for storing the lens when the lens is not placed on the surface of an eye of the user, wherein said container comprises an electrically conducting coil for charging a battery of the lens by means of induction, when the lens is arranged in the container. Here, particularly, the lens may comprise an electrically conducting coil, too, that is connected to the energy source (e.g. battery) of the lens.

According to a further aspect of the present invention, a method for manufacturing a contact lens, particularly according to the invention, having the features of claim 31 is proposed, comprising the steps of:

providing a base element (e.g. by way of molding, e.g. out of a silicone hydrogel, or a silicone coated with silicone hydrogel),

providing an elastically deformable membrane (e.g. by way of molding, e.g. out of a silicone hydrogel or a silicone coated with silicone hydrogel) comprising a ring member connected to a back side of the membrane, bonding of the base element to the (e.g. back side of the) membrane and thereby forming a lens volume and a reservoir volume of the contact lens, and

filling said lens volume and said reservoir volume with a transparent liquid

Particularly, one of the following is applied to the membrane and/or the base element: a coating, at least one electrode, an insulation layer, an anti-stiction layer.

Particularly, the ring member can be plasma bonded to the membrane. Furthermore, the base element can be plasma bonded or glued to the membrane.

Further, particularly, the ring member can be integrally formed with the membrane (e.g. upon molding of the membrane), wherein the ring member can be stiffened by means of irradiating it with ultraviolet light or wherein the membrane can be softened by irradiating it with ultraviolet light. Materials that may be used for the ring member and membrane that can be stiffened by irradiating them with ultraviolet light are for example: silicones or urethanes. Further, materials that may be used for the membrane and ring member that can be softened by irradiating them with ultraviolet light are for example: silicones or urethanes).

Alternatively, a primer may be applied to the mold which is designed to chemically stiffen the ring member during molding of the membrane and integral ring member.

Further, according to an embodiment of the present invention, said filling is conducted using osmosis after said bonding has been performed.

For this, particularly, a pre-defined amount of water soluble salt is arranged on the base element or membrane before bonding so that said salt is arranged in the lens volume and/or lens reservoir after bonding, wherein then the bonded base element and membrane is soaked in the transparent liquid which enters the lens volume and reservoir volume by way of osmosis.

Further, according to an alternative embodiment of the present invention, said filling is conducted before said bonding, wherein said liquid is filled into a dent formed by the membrane, wherein thereafter said bonding is conducted, and wherein the lens volume and/or reservoir volume is freed from gas residing therein after said bonding.

Here, a glue, particularly a glue ring between the edge of the membrane and the edge of the base element, may be used, which glue is cured after freeing the lens volume/reservoir volume from said gas. This allows to adjust the initial focal length of the contact lens. Here, a glue that can be hardened by irradiating it with ultraviolet light may be used, wherein curing of the glue is then conducted by irradiating the glue with ultraviolet light after said degassing (i.e. freeing said volumes from the gas therein).

Furthermore, in an embodiment where filling is performed before bonding, the membrane may be provided (instead of molding) by vapor coating the liquid arranged on the base element by means of vapor depositing (coating) A material that can be used to vapor-deposit the membrane (the ring member is provided before (e.g. arranged on the base element) is e.g. parylene (i.e. chemically vapor deposited poly(p-xylylene) polymers). The present invention can be used in a large variety of applications, such as contact lenses or intraocular lenses, or in any other lens that requires an adjustable focal length.

The invention will be better understood and objects other than those set forth above will become apparent when consideration is given to the following detailed description thereof. Such description makes reference to the drawings, wherein:

Fig. 1 shows an embodiment of a contact lens according to the present invention;

Fig. 2 shows an actuation of the contact lens according to Fig. 1 by means of an eyelid;

Fig. 3 shows two different variants of openings in the ring member for fluidly connecting the lens volume and the reservoir volume;

Fig. 4 shows an embodiment of a contact lens according to the present invention using an actuator;

Fig. 5 shows a schematical cross sectional views of the actuator shown in

Fig. 4;

Figs. 6 to 12 show further embodiments of contact lenses according to the present invention;

Fig. 13 shows a means for charging a battery of a contact lens according to the invention;

Fig. 14 schematically shows a method for manufacturing a contact lens according to the invention

Fig. 15 shows an alternative method for manufacturing a contact lens according to the invention;

Fig. 16 illustrates low pass filtering of eye blinking movements;

Fig. 17 illustrates an interaction between a contact lens according to the invention and its sensor, actuator, and processing unit; and

Fig. 18 shows lenses according to the invention in form of intraocular lenses.

Fig. 1 shows an embodiment of a contact lens according to the invention that is designed to be actuated by means of an eyelid 4 of the person wearing the contact lens on the eye 2 associated to the eyelid used for actuating the contact lens. By means of this actuation, the focal length of the contact lens can be adjusted. In the following the lens may always also be formed as an intraocular lens as shown in Fig. 18 although here, an actuator 70 according to the invention will be particularly used in order to adjust the focal length of such an intraocular lens. The intraocular lens can be e.g. configured to replace the lens of an eye (shown in panel A of Fig. 18) or can be configured to be implanted in addition to the natural lens 1 1 1 of the eye 2 as shown in panel B of Fig. 18. The general design of the intraocular lens corresponds to that of a contact lens according to the invention. Further, an intraocular lens according to the invention may comprise an additional fastening means for fastening its position within the eye 2. In the following contact lenses according to the invention are described keeping in mind that these embodiments may also apply in the case of an intraocular lens.

As shown in Fig. 1 , the contact lens 1 comprises a base element 10 comprising a back side 12 that is adapted to be arranged on a pupil of a person. The base element 10 further comprises a front side 1 1 facing away from the back side 12 of the base element 10.

Furthermore, a transparent and elastically expandable membrane 20 is connected to said base element 10, wherein said membrane 20 comprises a back side 22 that faces said front side 1 1 of the base element 10.

For defining the shape of the deflected membrane 20, particularly of a curvature- adjustable (e.g. central) area 23 of the membrane 20, an e.g. circular ring member 30 is provided (also denoted as lens shaper) that is connected to the back side 22 of the membrane 20 and thus defines said (e.g. circular) area 23 of the membrane 20.

Particularly, the ring member 30 extends circumferentially about the optical axis (indicated by the dashed lines in Fig. 1 ).

Below this area 23, the contact lens 1 a so-called lens volume 41 which is surrounded by the ring member 30. Further the contact lens 1 comprises a reservoir volume 42 below a boundary area 24 of said membrane 20. These two volumes 41 , 42 of the contact lens 1 are filled with the same transparent liquid 50.

In order to be able to adjust the curvature of the curvature-adjustable area 23 of the membrane 22, which area 23 forms a convex bulge in Fig. 1 , said volumes 41 , 42 are fluidly connected or fluidly connectable to each other such that, when the reservoir volume 42 is compressed, liquid 50 residing in the reservoir volume 42 is pressed into the lens volume 41 such that the curvature of said curvature-adjustable area 23 of the membrane 20 increases and the focal length of the contact lens 1 decreases, and wherein, when the lens volume 41 is compressed, liquid 50 residing in the lens volume 41 is pressed into the reservoir volume 42 such that the curvature of said curvature-adjustable area 23 of the membrane 20 decreases and the focal length of the contact lens 1 increases.

As can be inferred from Fig. 1 , the reservoir volume 42 is arranged outside of the ring member 30 in a radial direction (i.e. on an outside of the ring member 30).

In order to actuate a change in curvature of the curvature-adjustable area 23, i.e. in the focal power of the contact lens 1 , the reservoir volume 42 is configured to be compressed by an eyelid 4 of an eye 2 of the person when the contact lens 1 is arranged on the pupil 3 of said eye 2 as intended, wherein the reservoir volume 42 is arranged such in the contact lens 1 that the reservoir volume 42 is compressed and the curvature of the curvature-adjustable area 23 of the membrane 20 increases, when said person closes said eyelid 4 partially as shown in Fig. 1 on the right side. Particularly, due to the eyelid 4 sliding onto the boundary region 24 of the membrane 20, the reservoir volume 42 residing below this area 24 is compressed and a corresponding amount of liquid 50 is squeezed into the lens volume 41 leading to an increased curvature of the central area 23 of the membrane 20.

A sequence A to E of such an actuation is shown in Fig. 2, wherein drawing D shows a closing movement of the eyelid 4, where the latter slides onto the central area 23 of the membrane and pushes liquid 50 back into the reservoir volume 42 as shown in panel E.

Preferably, in this embodiment (as shown in Fig. 1 on the left side) the reservoir volume 42 is delimited by a first surface 200 formed by the membrane 20 and by a second surface 100 formed by the base element 10, wherein said surfaces 200, 100 face each other and are configured to stick to each other (e.g. through stiction forces such as van der Waals forces) when making contact upon compression of the reservoir volume 42 such that a compressed state of the reservoir volume 42 can be maintained as indicated e.g. in panel C of Fig. 2. This stiction can be overcome by compressing the lens volume with an eyelid 4 as shown in panel D of Fig. 2.

Fig. 3 shows three different possibilities of establishing a flow connection between the two volumes 41 , 42.

According to Fig. 3 (A) the reservoir volume 42 can be fluidly connected to the lens volume 41 via at least one or several openings 60 in the form of channels that reach trough the ring member i.e. extend from an outside of the ring member 30 to an inside of the ring member 30 facing the lens volume 41 . Here, the ring member 30 is also connected to the front side 1 1 of the base element 10.

Alternatively, as shown in Fig 3 (B), the at least one opening 60 can also be circumferential opening (gap) defined by a face side 30a of the ring member 30 and the front side of the base element 10, wherein said face side 30a faces the front side 1 1 of the base element 10. Particularly, when the curvature-adjustable area 23 of the membrane 20 assumes a maximal convex curvature, said face side 30a of the ring member 30 may contact the front side 1 1 of the base element 10. Alternatively, as shown in Fig 3 (C) the ring member 30 may be attached to the membrane 20 and the base element 10 and comprises recesses formed in its face side 30a which form (e.g. radial) openings or channels 60 extending from the lens volume 41 to the reservoir volume 42. Here, these channels are delimited by the ring member 30 and the front side 1 1 of the base element 10. In such an embodiment, the ring member 30 may look like a viaduct.

Further, as illustrated in Fig. 16, the dimensions of the at least one opening 60 or said plurality of openings 60 described above are chosen such that a time period over which the reservoir volume 42 and/or the lens volume 41 have to be compressed in order to yield a change of the curvature of the curvature-adjustable area 23 of the membrane (20) is significantly longer than a typical eye blinking. Thus eye blinking that occurs unwanted will not change the focal power of the contact lens 1 .

Further, Figs. 6 and 7 show different possible configurations of the reservoir volume. According to Fig. 6, the contact lens may have an oval contour with a central lens volume 41 , wherein here the reservoir volume 42 can be arranged around the lens volume 41 and then as larger portions on either side of the lens volume 41 in the horizontal direction. Further, as shown in Fig. 7 the contact lens 1 may have a circular contour with a circular central lens volume 41 arranged over the pupil 3 of the user and a circular ring-shaped reservoir volume 42 extending around the lens volume 41. Further, as shown in Fig. 8, the reservoir volumes 42 may be located only on the two sides of the lens volume 41.

As an alternative to a powerless actuation of the contact lens 1 , the contact lens 1 may comprises at least one actuator 70 that is configured to compress the reservoir volume 42 so as to press liquid 50 from the reservoir volume 42 into the lens volume 41 . Again, this actuation may be undone by the eyelid movement shown in Fig. 2, panel D described above. Such an actuator 70 may be actuated/controlled as indicated in Fig. 17. According thereto, the contact lens 1 comprises a sensor 80 configured to sense a movement of the person (user) wearing the contact lens 1 , and to provide an output signal in response to a pre-determined movement of said person that is made accessible to a processing unit 90. Particularly said movement is a movement of an eyelid 4 of an eye 2 of said user that wears the contact lens 1. The processing unit 90 is configured to actuate the at least one actuator 70 in response to the output signal provided by the sensor 80 in order to transfer liquid from the reservoir volume 42 to the lens volume 41 or vice versa. Further, an electrical energy source 1 10 is arranged in the contact lens 1 that provides the necessary power for the components 70, 80, 90.

Particularly, the sensor 80 is one of: a photosensitive element, a pressure sensing element, a capacitive sensing element, a thermal sensor, particularly a resistor. For instance, a photosensitive element is arranged such in the contact lens that it can be covered by an eyelid and may thus generate a signal that can be used to control the processing unit 90. The resistor can be used to determine a position of the eyelid 4 since it is sensitive to heat that will be transferred from the eyelid 4 to the resistor. For instance, the resistor can extend along a periphery of the contact lens 1.

Further, the electric energy source 1 10 can be a battery that can be charged in a variety of different ways, already described above, for instance by means of inductive charging as indicated in Fig. 13. Here, the battery 1 10 is charged while it rests in a container 300 for the contact lens 1 which comprises a coil 302 connected to a power source which transfers energy to a coil 301 of the contact lens 1 that may extend along the periphery of the contact lens 1.

Further, a solar cell 120 may be used in order to charge the battery 1 10, which solar cell can be arranged, like the battery 1 10, besides the lens volume 41 outside the ring member 30 as shown in Fig. 9 and 10, for instance.

Further, the sensor 80 can also sense the status of the contact lens by for example measuring a capacitance of the actuator 70. This can be done by superimposing a high frequency sensing signal to the actuator signal. The sensing signal allows to measure the capacitance of the actuator.

An embodiment of an actuator 70 that can be controlled and powered as described above is shown in Figs. 4 and 5.

According thereto, the contact lens 1 , which may be particularly designed as shown in Fig. 1 and 3 (right hand side), has a reservoir volume 42 that delimited by a first surface 200 formed by the membrane 20 and a second surface 100 formed by the base element 10, wherein the two surfaces 200, 100 face each other, and wherein the actuator 70 comprises an electrode 71 attached to said first surface 200 and an insulated 73 electrode 72 attached to said second surface 100 such that a tapered gap 74 is formed between the electrodes 71 , 72, wherein. Now, in case a voltage is applied by the processing unit 90 to said electrodes 71 , 72 as indicated in Fig. 5 said gap 74 is reduced by an amount depending on the magnitude of the applied voltage and liquid 50 is pressed from the reservoir volume 42 into the lens volume 41 which increases the curvature of the curvature-adjustable area 23 of the membrane 20. According to Fig. 9 and Fig. 12 several such actuators 70 having first electrodes 71 , 71 a, 71 b, 71 c, 71 d and corresponding second electrodes or electrode (not shown since covered by the first electrodes) can be provided on either side of the central lens volume 41 so that a discrete change in curvature of the membrane 20 can be achieved by actuating individual actuator segments (e.g. 71 e in Fig. 12). It is for example possible to avoid a continuous adjustment of the actuator by fully closing or opening individual actuator segments. Closing one actuator segment 71 e results in a refractive power change of 0.25dpt or 0.5dpt. By powering different combinations of actuator segments a broad range of focal length combinations are achievable. These discrete changes may be triggered by certain movement pattern (e.g. of the eyelid 4 of the user) that can be processed accordingly by the processing unit 90.

As further shown in Fig. 10 one or several actuators 70 may only be arranged on one side of the lens volume 41 leaving space for other components such as a battery 1 10, a solar cell 120, a sensor 80 and a processing unit 90 on the other side of the lens volume 41 . Alternatively it is also possible to stack the actuator 70 and the battery 1 10 or other components on top of each other.

Further, Fig. 10 also indicates that the processing unit 90 may also be configured to actuate the at least one actuator 70 in response to the output signal provided by an external device 81 (e.g. a smart phone). Such an external device may also be used in conjunction with other embodiments of the present invention.

Further, Fig. 1 1 shows an embodiment in which the reservoir volume 42 is located on the side of the contact lens 1 on which the upper 4 and lower eyelid 4a are located. This allows to push on the reservoir volume without touching the curvature-adjustable area 23 of the membrane, when adjusting the lens curvature with the eyelid.

It is also within the spirit of this invention to have combinations of the discussed embodiments. For example the lens can be adjusted by mechanical pressure via eye lid and the electrostatic actuator is only required to maintain the adjusted curvature of the lens by attracting the boundary area 24 of said membrane 20 to the second surface 100 formed by the base element 10. Alternatively is is also possible to have an insulation layer on the electrode 71 but not on electrode 72. Furthermore it is possible to have the membrane 20 to be the surface in direct contact with the eye and the base element to face the outside world. Furthermore all contact lenses can be embedded in a hydrophilic encapsulation layer. Materials and manufacturing methods as suggested in the following hold for all embodiments described in the Figs. 1 to 18.

The electrodes 71 (71 a to 71 d, 71 e) and 72 preferably are deformable without being damaged. Advantageously, the first electrodes are therefore manufactured from one of the following materials:

• Carbon nanotubes (see "Self-clearable carbon nanotube electrodes for improved performance of dielectric elastomer actuators", Wei Yuan et al, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 6927, 69270P (2008));

• Carbon black (see "Low voltage, highly unable diffraction grating based on dielectric elastomer actuators", M. Aschwanden et al., Proc. SPIE, Vol. 6524, 65241 N (2007));

• Carbon grease/conducting greases;

• Metal ions (Au, Cu, Cr, . . . ) (see "Mechanical properties of electroactive polymer microactuators with ion-implanted electrodes", S. Rosset et al., Proc. SPIE, Vol. 6524, 652410 (2007));

• Liquid metals (e.g. Galinstan);

• Metallic powders, in particular metallic nanoparticles (Gold, silver, copper);

• Metal films

• Conducting polymers (intrinsically conducting or composites);

The electrodes 71 and 72 may be deposited by means of any of the following techniques:

• Spraying;

• Ion-implantation (see "Mechanical properties of electroactive polymer microactuators with ion-implanted electrodes", S. Rosset, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 6524, 652410 (2007));

• PVD, CVD; • Evaporation;

• Sputtering;

• Photolithography;

• Printing, in particular contact printing, inkjet printing, laser printing, and screen printing;

• Field-guided self-assembly (see e.g. "Local surface charges direct the deposition of carbon nanotubes and fullerenes into nanoscale patterns", L. Seemann, A. Stemmer, and N. Naujoks, Nano Letters 7, 10, 3007-3012, 2007);

• Brushing;

• Electrode plating;

To control the stiction behavior of the membrane 20 and the base element 10 the following coatings can be applied to the membrane 20, base element 10, electrodes 71 , 72 or insulation layer 73:

• Self assembled monolayer

• Teflon

• Perfluorocarbons.

• The self assembled monolayer (SAM) can, e.g., comprise molecules with

• Molecule tail groups comprising or consisting of regular or perfluorinated alkyl chains and/or

• Molecule head groups comprising or consisting of silane or phosphoric acid.

• Surface roughness adjustment by nano-structuring.

The insulation layer 73 can, e.g., comprise or consist of:

• AI203, Si02, Si3N4

• Parylene

• Epoxy, PVDF (Poly Vinylidene diFluoride)

• Electric resins: SU-8, Cyclotene (BCB based),

• High-k dielectrics such as Ti02, Hf02 or Zr02

• Nanocomposites consisting of high-k nanoparticles (such as BaTi03) in a polymer matrix. The insulation layer 73 can, e.g., be deposited by means of any of the following techniques:

• PVD (Evaporation, sputtering)

• CVD (ALD, PECVD, . . . )

• Spin-coating

• Anodization

• Spray pyrolysis

Further Fig. 14 and 15 show different method for manufacturing a contact lens 1 according to the invention.

Both principle embodiments shown in Figs. 14 and 15 comprise the steps of : providing a base element 10, providing a transparent and elastically deformable membrane 20 comprising a ring member 30 connected to a back side 22 of the membrane 20, applying coatings (e.g. 200, 100) on the base element 10 and membrane 20 (cf. Fig. 14 A and B and Fig. 15 A and B), bonding the base element 10 to the back side of membrane 20 and thereby forming a lens volume and a reservoir volume of the contact lens (cf. Fig. 14 D and Fig. 15 C), and Filling said lens volume 41 and said reservoir volume 42 with a transparent liquid 50 (cf. Fig. 14 E and Fig. 15 B).

Now, according to Fig. 14, said filling (cf. Fig. 15 E and F) is conducted using osmosis after said bonding has been performed. For this, a pre-defined amount of water soluble salt 222 is arranged on the base element 10 before bonding so that said salt 222is arranged in the lens volume 41 after bonding, wherein then the bonded base element 10 and membrane 20 is soaked in the transparent liquid 50 which enters the lens volume 41 and reservoir volume 42 by way of diffusion until the osmotic pressure on the inside and outside of the lens 1 is in equilibrium (cf. Fig. 14 F).

As an alternative, according to Fig.15, said filling (cf. Fig. 15 B and C) is conducted before said bonding, wherein said liquid is filled into a dent 51 formed by the membrane 20, which dent 51 may be formed using a vacuum V acting on the front side 21 of the membrane 20, wherein thereafter said bonding (Fig. 15 C) is conducted, and wherein the lens volume 41 and/or reservoir volume 42 is freed from gas residing therein after said bonding, which is denoted as degassing (cf. Fig. 15 D). The use of the lens according to the invention is very versatile and further includes without limitation devices such as: vision systems, ophthalmic lenses (contact lenses and intraocular lenses), ophthalmology equipment such as phoropter, refractometer, fundus cameras, ppt. biometrie, perimeter, refractometer, tonometer, anomaloskop, kontrastometer, endothelmicroscope, anomaloscope, binoptometer, OCT, rodatest, ophthalmoscope, RTA, slitlamp microscope, surgical microscope, auto-refractometer, keratograph, confocal imager, Scheimpflug camera, wavefront aberrometer, pupillometer, skin laser, eye laser, otoscope, laryngoscope, Raman spectrometer, portable spectrometer, photodynamic diagnosis; as well as lighting devices, lighting fixtures , devices for machine vision, laser processing devices, devices for conducting a light show, printers, metrology devices, (e.g. head-worn) glasses, medical devices, robot cams, motion tracking devices, microscopes, telescopes, endoscopes, binoculars, surveillance cameras, automotive devices, projectors, range finder, bar code readers, and web cams, fiber coupling, biometric devices, electronic magnifiers, motion tracking, intra-ocular lenses, mobile phones, military, digital still cameras, web cams, microscopes, telescopes, endoscopes, binoculars, research, industrial applications.

While there are shown and described presently preferred embodiments of the invention, it is to be distinctly understood that the invention is not limited thereto but may be otherwise variously embodied and practiced within the scope of the following claims.