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Title:
A CONTROLLABLE INDUCTOR
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1997/044795
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A controllable inductor comprises at least a tubular core, a main winding (1) surrounding the core and a control winding (3) passing substantially axially through the core. It is adapted for connection to a three phase alternating current network and has for this sake for each phase (14-16) a main winding (1) for connection to the phase, a core and a control winding, and the control windings of the three phases are electrically connected in series to each other.

Inventors:
Valdemarsson
Stefan, Liljestrand
Lars
Application Number:
PCT/SE1997/000802
Publication Date:
November 27, 1997
Filing Date:
May 16, 1997
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ASEA BROWN BOVERI AB VALDEMARSSON
Stefan, Liljestrand
Lars
International Classes:
H01F29/14; (IPC1-7): H01F29/14
Foreign References:
CH510932A
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Claims:
Claims
1. A controllable inductor comprising at least a tubular core (2) , a main winding (1) surrounding the core and a con trol winding (3) passing substantially axially through said core, characterized in that is adapted for connection to a threephase alternating current network and it has for that sake for each phase a main winding (1) for connection to the phase, a core (2) and a control winding (3), and that the control windings of the three phases are electrically connected in series with respect to each other.
2. An inductor according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one of the cores (2) has a second control winding (9) passing substantially axially therethrough, said second control winding being separated from the first control winding (3) connected in series and that the second control winding is connected to a voltage source (10) of its own for individually regulating the control current therein inde pendently of the regulation of the control current in the control windings connected in series.
3. An inductor according to claim 2, characterized in that all the three cores (2) are provided with a second control winding (9) and a voltage source (10) connected thereto for said individual regulation each.
4. An inductor according to claim 2 or 3, characterized in that the number of turns of the first control winding (3) connected in series is brought through the respective core (2) is great with respect to the corresponding number of turns of the second control winding (9) .
5. An inductor according to any of claims 24, characterized in that the voltage source (10) connected to said second control winding (9) is a direct voltage source adapted to generate a direct current of an adjustable intensity in the second control winding.
6. An inductor according to any of claims 15, characterized in that the control winding (3) connected in series is connected to a direct current source (8) adapted to generate a direct current of adjustable intensity in this control winding.
7. An inductor according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that it comprises at least one said direct current source (8, 10) being bipolar and means controllable to reverse the sign of the voltage applied over the control winding through said direct voltage source.
8. An inductor according to claims 5 and 6, characterized in that said bipolar direct voltage source (10) is the one con¬ nected to the second control winding (9) .
9. An inductor according to claims 6 and 7, characterized in that said bipolar direct voltage source (10) is the one con¬ nected to the control winding (3) connected in series.
10. An inductor according to any of claims 19, character ized in that it comprises a yoke (5) of a material having a high magnetic permeability, which is in common to and closes the substantially axially main magnetic flux generated by the respective main winding (1) through all cores (2) and forms the main magnetic flux pathes between all cores.
11. An inductor according to any of claim 110, character¬ ized in that at least the control winding (3) connected in series is formed by plates of a material having a good electric conductivity.
Description:
A controllable inductor

FIELD OF THE INVENTION AND PRIOR ART

The present invention relates to a controllable inductor comprising at least a tubular core, a mam winding surround¬ ing the core and a control winding passing substantially axially through said core.

Such controllable inductors may through the main winding thereof be connected to any electrical circuit, such as a power line, so as to provide this circuit with an induc¬ tance, for example for extinguishing higher harmonic currents generated in the circuit. The magnetic permeability of the core and by that the inductance of the inductor may then be controlled by changing the electric control current brought to flow axially through the core in said control winding. By connecting such a controllable inductor in series to a capacitor may a so called harmonic filter be obtained, which is already known through for example WO 94/11891 of the applicant and in which the impedance may be controlled to be low for certain frequencies by controlling the inductance of the inductor for eliminating higher harmonic currents having a frequency being a multiple, for example 11, of the fundamental frequency of the network.

Another conceivable field of use for a controllable inductor of this type, in the case that this may deliver an indue- tance being sufficiently high, is the switching in thereof into alternating current power lines, which have a high ca-

pacitance stored therein, for example cable networks. By an intercoupling of such an inductor an inductance of a desired size may then be connected thereto and the reactance of the power line may by that be reduced for a more efficient energy transfer through the line.

These controllable inductors have of course only a useful influence upon an alternating voltage, but it is not com¬ pletely necessary that the main winding is connected to an alternating voltage, but it could also be connected to a di¬ rect voltage with an alternating voltage superposed. A disadvantage of such controllable inductors already known consists in the fact that the alternating voltage in the main winding induces an alternating voltage in the control winding having a frequency being twice the fundamental frequency in the main winding. This voltage gives rise to harmonic currents in the network and causes losses in the core.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The object of the present invention is to provide a control¬ lable inductor defined in the introduction, in which the problems mentioned above have been solved to a large extent.

This object is according to the invention obtained by adapting such an inductor for connection to a three-phase alternating current network and it has for that sake for each phase a main winding for connection to the phase, a core and a control winding, the control windings of the three phases are electrically connected in series with respect to each other.

Thanks to the provision of one and the same controllable inductor with means - main winding, core and control winding

- for connection of a controllable inductance to all the

three phases of an alternating current network and the control winding of the three phases are connected in series to each other, an inductor may be formed, in which the voltages induced through the alternating voltage in the re- spective phase of the respective control winding will cancel each other out, since the sum thereof in the control winding connected in series will be zero thanks to the displacement of the alternating voltages of the phases by 120 electrical grades with respect to each other. By this the problems men- tioned above and deriving from voltages induced in the control winding are not created, and the control current in the control winding will not be influenced by the alternat¬ ing current network and for example in the case of a direct current remain a direct current.

According to a preferred embodiment of the invention at least one of the cores has a second control winding passing substantially axially therethrough, said second control winding being separated from the first control winding connected in series, and the second control winding is connected to a voltage source of its own for individually regulating the control current therein independent of the regulation of the control current in the control windings connected in series. A possibility to a regulation of the magnetic permeability in all the three cores through a regulation of the control current in the control winding connected in series is in this way achieved while avoiding an induction of alternating voltages in this control wind¬ ing, at the same time as the possibility to an individual regulation of the permeability of that or the cores having a second control winding is provided, but this regulation will then give rise to an induced voltage of said type in exactly that control winding with harmonic currents in the current of that phase and losses in the core as a consequence, although these problems will be considerably lower than would be the case at an individual regulation of a core for

each phase. It is of course aimed at achieving regulation through the main winding in common connected in series and only carry out a "fine regulation" through the second control winding, so that the problems of the induced volt¬ ages therein may be minimised. It may during certain periods be advantageous to refrain from sending any control current through the second control winding at all and have it only as an extra regulation possibility when suddenly extreme situations are resulted.

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention all the three cores are provided with a second control winding and the voltage source connected thereto for said individual regulation each. A possibility to individually regulating the permeability of each separate core is ob¬ tained in this way, besides the regulation in common, and the consequences thereof are those mentioned above in the embodiment just discussed.

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention the number of turns of the first control winding led through the respective core is high with respect to the correspond¬ ing number of turns of the second control winding. The main controllability is by that provided by said control winding connected in series while a second control winding provides a small individual controllability within a restricted range, and the size of the voltage induced in the second winding, which is proportional to said number of turns as mentioned, is kept at a low level and will be a so called ripple voltage.

According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention the voltage source connected to the second control winding is a direct voltage source adapted to generate a direct cur- rent of a controllable intensity in the second control winding, while in another preferred embodiment of the

invention the control winding connected in series is con¬ nected to the direct voltage source adapted to generate a direct current of a controllable intensity in said control winding. It is true that it is common to utilise a direct current as control current in controllable inductors of this type, which implies a simple regulation, but this may here be done while maintaining this direct current without any or only an unessential influence thereupon by the voltage of the alternating current network.

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention the inductor comprises at least one said direct voltage source being bipolar and means controllable to reverse the sign of the voltage applied over the control winding through this direct voltage source. It will by this be possible to solve the problem arising when using unipolar direct voltage sources, in which the control current increases much faster than it decreases. It will namely be possible to reverse the sign of the voltage upon a desire of a reduction of the con- trol current and keep this so reversed until the control current has reached a desired level, in which substantially the same speed may be obtained for the reduction of the con¬ trol current as for the increase thereof.

According to another preferred embodiment of the invention the inductor comprises a yoke of a material having a high magnetic permeability, which is in common to and closes the substantially axially main magnetic flux generated by the respective main winding through all cores and forms the main magnetic flux pathes between all cores. A very good control¬ lability of the inductance of the controllable inductor within a wide range is by this obtained, since substantially all the energy stored thereby will be present in the con¬ trollable core legs, i.e. the materia having a low magnetic permeability, at the same time as the magnetic flux passing through the respective core may be distributed on the two

other, so that the sum of the magnetic flux gets zero in each moment .

Further advantages and preferred characteristics of the m- vention appears from the following description and the other dependent claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

With reference to the appended drawings, below follows a de¬ scription of preferred embodiments of the invention cited as examples .

In the drawings :

Fig. 1 is a simplified, partially sectioned side eleva¬ tion of a controllable inductor according to a first preferred embodiment of the invention,

Fig. 2 is a simplified circuit diagram illustrating the control function of an inductor according to the preferred embodiment of the invention,

Fig. 3 is a diagram illustrating the connection between the control current and the permeability of a core m an inductor according to the invention for control in common and individual control thereof according to Fig. 2,

Fig. 4 is a simplified circuit diagram illustration a part of the control windings, namely the control winding for individual control of the permeabil¬ ity of a core, in a controllable inductor accord¬ ing to the invention, and

Figs. 5a and 5b are two diagrams illustrating the development of the control current versus the control voltage applied over a control winding according to Fig 4 when using a unipolar and a bipolar direct volt¬ age source, respectively.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION

It is schematically illustrated in Fig. 1 how an inductor according to the invention for connection to a three-phase alternating current network having control windings for each core connected in series may look like. The inductor has a main winding 1, a core 2 arranged substantially coaxially thereto and a control winding 3 extending axially through the core for each phase of the three-phase network. Thus, each such main winding 1 is connected to one of the phases of its own of said alternating current network and has an upper end being on high potential, the voltage falling in the direction towards the opposite end being the lower one in Fig. 1 which may be on ground potential, but that has not to be the case. The control windings 3 are connected in se¬ ries to each other through parts 4 extending therebetween and schematically illustrated, said parts 4 and the parts of the control windings extending through the cores being made of plates of a material having a high electric conductivity, such as copper plates, and a control winding in the form of such plates means a stable mechanical construction and a good possibility to guide the control windings in desired paths. The different cores 2 are magnetically connected to each ocher through yokes 5 arranged at the respective core end and being of a material having a high magnetic perme¬ ability, which are in common to and close the substantially axially main magnetic flux generated by the respective main

windings through all cores and form main magnetic flux paths between all the cores.

A direct voltage source for generating a direct current through the control windings connected in series is prefer¬ ably connected by its terminals at 6 and 7, respectively, in Fig. 1, these connections being of course carried out to different layers of control winding plates being mutually isolated so that the current flows from one of these connec- tions and then through all the control windings in the entire control winding connected in series and then back to the other of the connections. The control current in the control winding 3, 4 will generate a magnetic flux directed tangentially and transversely to the main magnetic flux gen- erated by the main winding in the respective core and in this way reduce the permeability thereof of for the longitu¬ dinal magnetic flux of the main winding. Accordingly by in¬ creasing the current in the control winding the permeability of the core may be reduced and the inductance of the indue- tor by that be reduced. This is the main principle according to which a controllable inductor of this type functions. Typical intensities of the control current and the voltage over the main winding are 100-500 A and 1-400 kV, respec¬ tively.

It is illustrated in Fig. 2 how the controllability of an inductor of the type shown in Fig. 1 may be realised accord¬ ing to a preferred embodiment of the invention, and it is shown that the three control windings 3 of the respective core and by that for the respective phase main winding 1 are connected in series to each other and connected to a common controllable direct voltage source 8. The all three phases, or more exactly the cores, are in addition thereto provided with a second control winding 9 passing substantially axially therethrough and which is separated from the first control winding connected in series and is connected to a

controllable direct voltage source 10 of its own for individual control of the control current therein independently of the control of the control current in the control windings connected in series. It is the magnetic permeability in the respective core that is regulated through varying the control current therethrough, and it is illustrated in Fig. 3 how the permeability P decreases with increasing control current I, wherein within a first larger area, which is indicated with the longer arrow 11, the permeability is intended to be regulated through varying the control current through the control winding connected in series, in which voltages induced by the voltage of the net work cancel each other out, and an individual regulation of the permeability is intended to take place within a smaller area, which is indicated through the shorter arrow 12, and this individual regulation gives rise to such induced voltages in the respective second control winding. A considerably lower number of winding turns in the second control winding than in the first one means low induced alternating voltages, so called ripple voltages, with a frequency being twice the fundamental frequency of the net work in the second control winding. The arrow 12 may actually be replaced by a double arrow directed in the opposite direction from the dashed line at the end of the arrow 11 for fast regulation of the permeability in the respective core through plus or minus influence through a second control winding. However, the second control winding would usually only be used for regulation in the direction of permeability reduction so as to not generate unnecessary heat losses in the control windings.

It is shown in Fig. 4 how a controllable direct voltage source 10 is connected to a control winding 9 for regulation of the permeability of a core in a controllable inductor of the type discussed above. It is further illustrated in Fig. 5a how the control current I is changing over the time t

depending upon the voltage IT connected over the control winding through the direct voltage source 10, in the case of a unipolar direct voltage source. It appears that an in¬ crease of the control current will be much faster than a de- crease, so that the adaptability to a desired control current level 13 will be inferior at a desire to reduce the control current prevailing than when this is to be in¬ creased.

However, it is illustrated in Fig. 5b what's happening in the case of a bipolar direct voltage source 10 as in a preferred embodiment of the invention, so that the sign of the voltage applied over the control winding may be reversed when desired, and it appears from this diagram that such a possibility to reverse the voltage over the control winding until the control current has been reduced to a desired level 13 results in a regulation speed for the control current being just as high upwardly as downwardly. Such a bipolar direct voltage source may be connected to the second control windings 9 and/or to the first control windings 3 connected in series.

The invention is of course not in any way restricted to the preferred embodiments described above, but many possibili- ties to modifications thereof would be apparent to a man skilled in the art without departing from the basic idea of the invention.