Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
COPOLYAMIDES OBTAINABLE FROM 3-(AMINOMETHYL)BENZOIC ACID
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/229127
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to copolyamides comprising 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid (3-AMBa). The present invention also relates to polymer compositions comprising such copolyamides, as well as articles comprising the same and methods of using said articles in automotive applications, LED packaging, mobile electronics, plumbing and oil and gas applications.

Inventors:
JEOL, Stéphane (4220 Granby Circle, Cumming, GA, 30041, US)
SINGLETARY, Nancy, J. (1820 Highgrove Club Drive, Alpharetta, GA, 30004, US)
Application Number:
EP2018/065657
Publication Date:
December 20, 2018
Filing Date:
June 13, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
SOLVAY SPECIALTY POLYMERS USA, LLC (4500 McGinnis Ferry Road, ALPHARETTA, GA, 30005-3914, US)
International Classes:
C08G69/14; B29C64/00; C08G69/26
Foreign References:
JPH0967517A1997-03-11
US3438948A1969-04-15
CN2016108997W2016-12-08
Other References:
JOHN MURPHY: "Additives for Plastics Handbook", pages: 43 - 48
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
FIORUCCI, Hélène (Rue de Ransbeek 310, 1120 Brussels, 1120, BE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

A copolyamide, having the following formula (I)

(I)

wherein :

nx, ny and nz are respectively the moles % of each recurring units x, y and z; recurring units x, y and z are arranged in blocks, in alternation or randomly; nx + ny + nz = 100;

5 < nx < 100;

Ri is selected from the group consisting of a bond, a C1-C15 alkyl and a

C6-C30 aryl, optionally comprising one or more heteroatoms and optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halogen, hydroxy, C1-C6 alkoxy, C1-C6 alkylthio, C1-C6 acyl, formyl, cyano, C6-C15 aryloxy and C6-C15 aryl;

R2 is selected from the group consisting of a C1-C20 alkyl and a C6-C30 aryl, optionally comprising one or more heteroatoms and optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halogen, hydroxy, C1-C6 alkoxy, C1-C6 alkylthio, C1-C6 acyl, formyl, cyano,

C6-C15 aryloxy and C6-C15 aryl; and

R3 is selected from the group consisting of a linear or branched C2-Ci4 alkyl, possibly comprising one or more heterotaoms and possibly substituted with one or more substituent selected from the group consisting of halogen, hydroxy, C1-C6 alkoxy, C1-C6 alkylthio, C1-C6 acyl, formyl, cyano,

C6-C15 aryloxy and C6-C15 aryl.

Claim 2. The copolyamide of claim 1 , wherein

Ri is selected from the group consisting of a C4-Cio alkyl and a C6-C12 aryl, optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halogen, hydroxy, C1-C6 alkoxy, C1-C6 alkylthio, C1-C6 acyl, formyl, cyano, C6-C15 aryloxy and C6-C15 aryl, R2 is selected from the group consisting of a C4-Ci2 alkyl and a C6-C12 aryl, optionally comprising one or more heteroatoms, and/or

R3 is selected from the group consisting of a linear or branched C3-C13 alkyl. Claim 3. The copolyamide of claim 1 or 2, wherein the copolyamide is the

condensation product of a mixture comprising at least 5 mol. % of

3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid (3-AMBa) or derivative thereof, and at least one of the component selected from the group consisting of :

- at least one dicarboxylic acid component or derivative thereof, and at least one diamine component,

- at least one aminocarboxylic acid and

- at least one lactam.

Claim 4. The copolyamide of any one of claims 1 -3, wherein the copolyamide is the condensation product of a mixture comprising :

- at least 5 mol. % of 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid (3-AMBa) or derivative thereof,

- a dicarboxylic acid component selected from the group consisting of adipic acid, azelaic acid, sebacic acid, isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid,

2,6-naphthalene dicarboxylic acid, 4,4'-bibenzoic acid, 5-hydroxyisophthalic acid, 5-sulfophthalic acid, and mixture thereof, and

- a diamine component selected from the group consisting of

1 ,4-diaminobutane, 1 ,5-diamonopentane, 2-methyl-1 ,5diaminopentane, hexamethylenediamine, 1 ,9-diaminononane, 2-methyl-1 ,8-diaminooctoane, 1 ,10-diaminedecane, H2N-(CH2)3-O-(CH2)2-O(CH2)3-NH2, /77-xylylene diamine, p-xylylene and mixture thereof.

Claim 5. The copolyamide of any one of claims 1 -4, wherein the copolyamide is the condensation product of a mixture comprising :

- at least 5 mol. % of 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid (3-AMBa) or derivative thereof,

- a dicarboxylic acid component selected from the group consisting of adipic acid, sebacic acid, terephthalic acid, isopthalic acid and mixture thereof, and

- a diamine component selected from the group consisting of

hexamethylenediamine, /77-xylylene diamine, 1 ,10-decamethylene diamine and mixture thereof. Claim 6. The copolyannide of any one of claims 1 -3, wherein the copolyamide is the condensation product of a mixture comprising :

- at least 5 mol. % of 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid (3-AMBa) or derivative thereof, and

- at least one lactam selected from the group consisting of caprolactam, dodecanolactam, laurolactam and mixture thereof.

Claim 7. The copolyamide of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the copolyamide is such that : 50 < nx < 100, preferably 60 < nx < 100, more preferably 70 < nx < 100.

Claim 8. The copolyamide of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the copolyamide has a glass transition temperature of at least 100°C, as determined according to ASTM D3418.

Claim 9. A copolyamide composition (C), comprising :

- at least one copolyamide according to any one of claims 1 -8,

- at one least one of components selected from the group consisting of reinforcing agents, tougheners, plasticizers, colorants, pigments, antistatic agents, dyes, lubricants, thermal stabilizers, light stabilizers, flame retardants, nucleating agents and antioxidants.

Claim 10. An article comprising the copolyamide of any one of claims 1 -8 or the composition (C) of claim 9.

Claim 1 1. Use of the article of claim 10 in air induction systems, cooling and heating systems, drivetrain systems and fuel systems.

Claim 12. Use of the article of claim 10 in mobile electronics, for example in a mobile electronic device.

Claim 13. A method for manufacturing a three-dimensional (3D) object with an additive manufacturing system, comprising :

- providing a part material comprising the copolyamide of any one of claims 1 -8 or the composition (C) of claim 9, and

- printing layers of the three-dimensional object from the part material.

Description:
Description

Copolyamides obtainable from 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid Related Applications

[0001] This application claims priority to U.S. provisional application

US 62/519,474 filed on June14, 2017 and to European application

EP 17188340.8 on August 29, 2017, the whole content of each of these applications being incorporated herein by reference for all purposes.

Technical Field

[0002] The present invention relates to copolyamides comprising at least

5 mol. % of 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid (3-AMBa). The present invention also relates to polymer compositions comprising such copolyamides, as well as articles comprising the same and methods of using said articles in automotive applications, LED packaging, electric and electronics devices, mobile electronics, gas barrier packaging, plumbing and oil and gas applications.

Background Art

[0003] In the polymer industry, attention is nowadays being paid to reduce the environmental footprint. One way to proceed is to identify biologic sources and define processes for converting these materials into valuable monomers, which are then converted into bio-based polymers.

[0004] While most polyamides are based on fossil resources, some bio-based polyamides are known and commercially available. Reference can notably be made to polyamide 1 1 (PA 1 1 ), produced by polymerization of

1 1 -aminoundecanoic acid, derived from castor oil; polyamide 1010

(PA 1010), produced by polymerization of decamethylene diamine and sebacid acid, both derived from castor oil; polyamide 10T (PA 10T), produced by polymerization of decamethylene diamine and terephthalic acid (fossil based) and thus partly based on renewable raw monomers.

[0005] Most of the commercially available biobased polyamides have a low glass transition temperature (Tg) which make them unsuitable in applications requiring a high temperature resistance. PA1 1 , commercially available under the trade name Rislan ® (Arkema) has a Tg around 45°C. All of the bio-based polyamides commercially available under the trade name Vestamid ® (Evonik), for example Vestamid ® Terra DS (PA1010), have a Tg lower than 50°C.

[0006] As described in co-pending patent application filed under number

PCT/CN2016/108997 on December 8, 2016, 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid (3-AMBa) is a monomer which can be derived from furfural, obtained from from biomass carbohydrates, such as cellulose, starch, hemicellulose, sugars and the like.

[0007] The applicant has identified that polyamides derived from this bio-sourced monomer present a high Tg temperature, which make them very-well suited for applications requiring a high temperature resistance, as for example for automotive applications.

Disclosure of the invention

[0008] The copolyamide of the present invention has the following formula (I) :

wherein :

n x , n y and n z are respectively the moles % of each recurring units x, y and z;

recurring units x, y and z are arranged in blocks, in alternation or randomly;

n x + n y + n z = 100;

5 < n x < 100;

Ri is selected from the group consisting of a bond, a C1-C15 alkyl and a C6-C30 aryl, optionally comprising one or more heteroatoms (e.g. O, N or S) and optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halogen (e.g. fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine), hydroxy (-OH), sulfo (-SO3M) (e.g. wherein M is H, Na, K, Li, Ag, Zn, Mg or Ca), C1-C6 alkoxy, C1-C6 alkylthio, C1-C6 acyl, formyl, cyano, C6-C15 aryloxy and C6-C15 aryl;

R2 is selected from the group consisting of a C1-C20 alkyl and a C6-C30 aryl, optionally comprising one or more heteroatoms (e.g. O, N or S) and optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halogen (e.g. fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine), hydroxy (-OH), sulfo (-SO3M) (e.g. wherein M is H, Na, K, Li, Ag, Zn, Mg or Ca), C1-C6 alkoxy, C1-C6 alkylthio, C1-C6 acyl, formyl, cyano, C6-C15 aryloxy and C6-C15 aryl; and

R3 is selected from the group consisting of a linear or branched C2-Ci 4 alkyl, optionally comprising one or more heteroatoms (e.g. O, N and S) and optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halogen (e.g. fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine), hydroxy (-OH), sulfo (-SO3M) (e.g. wherein M is H, Na, K, Li, Ag, Zn, Mg or Ca), C1-C6 alkoxy, C1-C6 alkylthio, C1-C6 acyl, formyl, cyano, C6-C15 aryloxy and C6-C15 aryl.

[0009] The expression "copolyamide" is hereby used for designating

copolyamides comprising 5 mol. % or more of recurring units x, for example derived from 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid (3-AMBa). The copolyamide of the present invention may for example comprise at least about 5 mol. % of recurring units x, for example derived from

3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid (3-AMBa), for example at least about

10 mol. %, at least about 15 mol. %, at least about 20 mol. %, at least about 25 mol. %, at least about 30 mol. %, at least about 35 mol. %, at least about 40 mol. %, at least about 45 mol. %, at least about 50 mol. %, at least about 55 mol. %, at least about 60 mol. %, at least about

65 mol. %, at least about 70 mol. %, at least about 75 mol. %, at least about 80 mol. %, at least about 85 mol. %, at least about 90 mol. %, at least about 95 mol. % or at least about 98 mol. %.

[0010] The copolyamides of the present invention may have a number average molecular weight Mn ranging from 1 ,000 g/mol to 40,000 g/mol, for example from 2,000 g/mol to 35,000 g/mol or from 4,000 to 30,000 g/mol. The number average molecular weight Mn can be determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) using ASTM D5296 with polystyrene standards.

[001 1] In the copolyamide of the present invention, the recurring unit y may be aliphatic or aromatic. For the purpose of the present invention, the expression "aromatic recurring unit" is intended to denote any recurring unit that comprises at least one aromatic group. The aromatic recurring units may be formed by the polycondensation of at least one aromatic dicarboxylic acid with an aliphatic diamine or by the polycondensation of at least one aliphatic dicarboxylic acid with an aromatic diamine, or by the polycondensation of aromatic aminocarboxylic acids. For the purpose of the present invention, a dicarboxylic acid or a diamine is considered as "aromatic" when it comprises one or more than one aromatic group.

[0012] In the copolyamide of the present invention, the recurring unit z is aliphatic and R3 is a linear or branched C2-Ci 4 alkyl, optionally comprising one or more heteroatoms (e.g. O, N and S) and optionally substituted with one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halogen, hydroxy, sulfo, C1-C6 alkoxy, C1-C6 alkylthio, C1-C6 acyl, formyl, cyano,

C6-C15 aryloxy and C6-C15 aryl.

[0013] The copolyamide of the present invention may be composed of recurring units x and y, or of recurring units x and z, or of recurring units x, y and z. Recurring units x, y and z are arranged in blocks, in alternation or randomly.

[0014] In the present application :

- any description, even though described in relation to a specific

embodiment, is applicable to and interchangeable with other embodiments of the present disclosure;

- where an element or component is said to be included in and/or selected from a list of recited elements or components, it should be understood that in related embodiments explicitly contemplated here, the element or component can also be any one of the individual recited elements or components, or can also be selected from a group consisting of any two or more of the explicitly listed elements or components; any element or component recited in a list of elements or components may be omitted from such list; and

- any recitation herein of numerical ranges by endpoints includes all numbers subsumed within the recited ranges as well as the endpoints of the range and equivalents.

[0015] Throughout this document, all temperatures are given in degrees

Celsius (°C).

[0016] Unless specifically limited otherwise, the term "alkyl", as well as derivative terms such as "alkoxy", "acyl" and "alkylthio", as used herein, include within their scope straight chain, branched chain and cyclic moieties.

Examples of alkyl groups are methyl, ethyl, 1 -methylethyl, propyl,

1 ,1 -dimethylethyl, and cyclo-propyl. Unless specifically stated otherwise, each alkyl and aryl group may be unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from but not limited to halogen, hydroxy, sulfo, C1-C6 alkoxy,Ci-C6 alkylthio, C1-C6 acyl, formyl, cyano, C6-C15 aryloxy or C6-C15 aryl, provided that the substituents are sterically compatible and the rules of chemical bonding and strain energy are satisfied. The term "halogen" or "halo" includes fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine, with fluorine being preferred.

[0017] The term "aryl" refers to a phenyl, indanyl or naphthyl group. The aryl group may comprise one or more alkyl groups, and are called sometimes in this case "alkylaryl"; for example may be composed of a cycloaromatic group and two C1-C6 groups (e.g. methyl or ethyl). The aryl group may also comprise one or more heteroatoms, e.g. N, O or S, and are called sometimes in this case "heteroaryl" group; these heteroaromatic rings may be fused to other aromatic systems. Such heteroaromatic rings include, but are not limited to furanyl, thienyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, triazolyl, isoxazolyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, isothiazolyl, pyridyl, pyridazyl, pyrimidyl, pyrazinyl and triazinyl ring structures. The aryl or heteroaryl substituents may be unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from but not limited to halogen, hydroxy,

C1-C6 alkoxy, sulfo, C1-C6 alkylthio, C1-C6 acyl, formyl, cyano,

C6-C15 aryloxy or C6-C15 aryl, provided that the substituents are sterically compatible and the rules of chemical bonding and strain energy are satisfied.

[0018] As described in co-pending patent application filed under number

PCT/CN2016/108997 on December 8, 2016, 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid (3-AMBa) is a monomer which can be derived from furfural, obtained from biomass carbohydrates, such as cellulose, starch, hemicellulose, sugars and the like. Copolyamides derived from this bio-sourced monomer, copolymerized with at least one co-monomer (e.g. aminoacid and/or lactam) and/or a diacid/diamine combination, present a high Tg

temperature, for example above 100°C, which make them very-well suited for applications requiring a high temperature resistance.

[0019] According to an embodiment, the copolyamide of the present invention is condensation product of a mixture comprising at least 5 mol. % of

3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid (3-AMBa) monomers or derivative thereof, and at least one of the components selected from the group consisting of :

- at least one dicarboxylic acid component (also called hereby diacid) or derivative thereof, and at least one diamine component,

- at least one aminocarboxylic acid, and

- at least one lactam.

[0020] The expression "at least" is hereby intended to denote "equals to or more than". For example, the expression "at least 5 mol. % of

3-AMBa monomers" hereby denotes that the copolyamide may comprise 5 mol. % of 3-AMBa monomers or more than 5 mol. % of 3-AMBa monomers. The expression "at least" therefore corresponds to the mathematical symbol "≥" in the context of the present invention.

[0021] The expression "less than" corresponds to the mathematical symbol "<" in the context of the present invention. For example, the expression "less than 100 mol. % of 3-AMBa monomers" hereby denotes that the copolyamide comprises strictly less than 100 mol. % of

3-AMBa monomers and therefore qualify as a copolyamide, made from 3-AMBa monomers and at least one another monomer or diamine/diacid combination. [0022] The expression "derivative thereof when used in combination with the expression "3-AMBa monomer" is intended to denote whichever derivative which is susceptible of reacting in polycondensation conditions to yield an amide bond. Examples of amide-forming derivatives include acyl groups, for example aliphatic acyl and aromatic acyl groups, substituted or unsubstituted. Examples of these acyl groups are formyl, acetyl, propionyl, butyryl, isobutyryl, valeryl, isovaleryl, pivaloyl, benzoyl, toluoyl and xyloyl.

[0023] According to this embodiment, the dicarboxylic acid component can be chosen among a large variety of aliphatic or aromatic components comprising at least two acidic moieties -COOH. According to this embodiment, the diamine component can be chosen among a large variety of aliphatic or aromatic components comprising at least two amine moieties -IMH2.

[0024] The expression "derivative thereof when used in combination with the expression "dicarboxylic acid" is intended to denote whichever derivative which is susceptible of reacting in polycondensation conditions to yield an amide bond. Examples of amide-forming derivatives include a mono- or di-alkyl ester, such as a mono- or di-methyl, ethyl or propyl ester, of such carboxylic acid; a mono- or di-aryl ester thereof; a mono- or di-acid halide thereof; a carboxylic anhydride thereof and a mono-or di-acid amide thereof, a mono- or di-carboxylate salt.

[0025] Non limitative examples of aliphatic diacarboxylic acids are notably oxalic acid (HOOC-COOH), malonic acid (HOOC-Ch -COOH), succinic acid [HOOC-(CH 2 )2-COOH], glutaric acid [HOOC-(CH 2 ) 3 -COOH],

2,2-dimethyl-glutaric acid [HOOC-C(CH 3 )2-(CH 2 )2-COOH], adipic acid [HOOC-(CH 2 )4-COOH], 2,4,4-trimethyl-adipic acid

[HOOC-CH(CH 3 )-CH2-C(CH 3 )2-CH2-COOH], pimelic acid

[HOOC-(CH 2 ) 5 -COOH], suberic acid [HOOC-(CH 2 ) 6 -COOH], azelaic acid [HOOC-(CH 2 ) 7 -COOH], sebacic acid [HOOC-(CH 2 ) 8 -COOH],

undecanedioic acid [HOOC-(CH2)9-COOH], dodecandioic acid

[HOOC-(CH 2 )io-COOH], tridecanedioic acid [HOOC-(CH 2 )n-COOH], tetradecanedioic acid [HOOC-(CH2)i2-COOH], pentadecanedioic acid [HOOC-(CH 2 )i 3-COOH], hexadecanedioic acid [HOOC-(CH 2 )i4-COOH], octadecanedioic acid [HOOC-(CH2)i 6-COOH]. Included in this category are also cycloalphatic dicarboxylic acid such as 1 ,4-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid.

[0026] Non limitative examples of aromatic diacids are notably phthalic acids, including isophthalic acid (IPA), terephthalic acid (TPA),

naphthalendicarboxylic acids (e.g. naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid), 4,4'-bibenzoic acid, 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, 3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, 2,2-bis(4-carboxyphenyl)propane, bis(4-carboxyphenyl)methane,

2,2-bis(4-carboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane,

2,2-bis(4-carboxyphenyl)ketone, 4,4'-bis(4-carboxyphenyl)sulfone, 2,2-bis(3-carboxyphenyl)propane, bis(3-carboxyphenyl)methane, 2,2-bis(3-carboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane,

2,2-bis(3-carboxyphenyl)ketone, bis(3-carboxyphenoxy)benzene.

[0027] Non limitative examples of aromatic diamines (NN ar ) are notably

/77-phenylene diamine (MPD), -phenylene diamine (PPD),

3,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (3,4'-ODA), 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (4,4'-ODA), -xylylene diamine (PXDA) and /77-xylylenediamine (MXDA).

[0028] Non limitative examples of aliphatic diamines (NN a i) are notably

1.2- diaminoethane, 1 ,2-diaminopropane, propylene-1 ,3-diamine,

1.3- diaminobutane, 1 ,4-diaminobutane (putrescine), 1 ,5-diaminopentane (cadaverine), 2-methyl-1 ,5-diaminopentane, hexamethylenediamine (or

1.6- diaminohexane), 3-methylhexamethylenediamine,

2,5-dimethylhexamethylenediamine, 2,2,4-trimethyl- hexamethylenediamine, 2,4,4-trimethyl-hexamethylenediamine,

1.7- diaminoheptane, 1 ,8-diaminooctane,

2,2,7,7-tetramethyloctamethylenediamine, 1 ,9-diaminononane, 2-methyl-

1.8- diaminooctane, 5-methyl-1 ,9-diaminononane, 1 ,10-diaminodecane, 1 ,1 1 -diaminoundecane, 1 ,12 diaminododecane, 1 ,13 diaminotridecane, 2,5-diamonotetrahydrofurane and N,N-Bis(3-aminopropyl)methylamine. Included in this category are also cycloaliphatic diamine such as isophorone diamine, 1 ,3-diaminocyclohexane, 1 ,4-diaminocyclohexane, bis-p-aminocyclohexylmethane, 1 ,3-bis(aminomethyl)cyclohexane and 1 ,4-bis(aminomethyl)cyclohexane.

[0029] The aliphatic diamines (NNal) can also be selected in the group of

polyetherdiamines. The polyetherdiamines can be based on an

ethoxylated (EO) backbone and/or on a propoxylated (PO) backbone and they can be ethylene-oxide terminated, propylene-oxide terminated or butylene-oxide terminated diamines. Such polyetherdiamines are for example sold under the trade name Jeffamine ® and Elastamine ®

(Hunstman).

[0030] According to an embodiment of the present invention, the copolyamide comprises at least one aminocarboxylic acid (recurring unit z), and/or at least one lactam (recurring unit z).

[0031] The aminocarboxylic acid may have from 3 to 15 carbon atoms, for

example from 4 to 13 carbon atoms. According to an embodiment, the aminocarboxylic acid is selected from the group consisting of 6-amino- hexanoic acid, 9-aminononanoic acid, 10-aminodecanoic acid,

1 1 -aminoundecanoic acid, 12-aminododecanoic acid, 13-aminotridecanoic acid and mixture thereof.

[0032] The lactam may have from 3 to 15 carbon atoms, for example from 4 to 13 carbon atoms. According to an embodiment, the lactam is selected from the group consisting of caprolactam, laurolactam dodecanolactam and mixture thereof.

[0033] According to an embodiment, the copolyamide is the condensation product of a mixture comprising :

- at least 5 mol. % of 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid (3-AMBa) monomers (recurring unit x) or derivative thereof,

- at least one dicarboxylic acid component and

- at least one diamine component,

wherein :

- the dicarboxylic acid component is selected from the group consisting of adipic acid, azelaic acid, sebacic acid, isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid, 2,6-naphthalene dicarboxylic acid, 4,4'-bibenzoic acid,

5-hydroxyisophthalic acid, 5-sulfophthalic acid, and mixture thereof, and - the diamine component is selected from the group consisting of

1 ,4-diaminobutane, 1 ,5-diamonopentane, 2-methyl-1 ,5diaminopentane, hexamethylenediamine, 1 ,9-diaminononane, 2-methyl-1 ,8- diaminooctoane, 1 ,10-diaminedecane, H2N-(CH2)3-O-(CH2)2-O(CH2)3-NH2, /77-xylylene diamine, p-xylylene and mixture thereof.

[0034] According to another embodiment, the copolyamide is the condensation product of a mixture comprising :

- at least 5 mol. % of 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid (3-AMBa) monomers (recurring unit x) or derivative thereof,

- at least one dicarboxylic acid component and

- at least one diamine component,

wherein :

- the dicarboxylic acid component is selected from the group consisting of adipic acid, terephthalic acid, isopthalic acid and mixture thereof, and

- the diamine component is selected from the group consisting of hexamethylenediamine, /77-xylylene diamine, 1 ,10-decamethylene diamine and mixture thereof.

[0035] According to another embodiment, the copolyamide is the condensation product of a mixture comprising :

- at least 5 mol. % of 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid (3-AMBa) or derivative thereof, and

- at least one lactam selected from the group consisting of caprolactam, laurolactam, dodecanolactam and mixture thereof.

[0036] The copolyamide of the present invention comprises at least 5 mol. % of 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid (3-AMBa) monomers or derivative thereof.

[0037] According to another preferred embodiment, the copolyamide comprises at least 50 mol. % of 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid (3-AMBa) monomers or derivative thereof, for example at least 60 mol. %, at least 70 mol. %, at least 75 mol. % of 3-AMBa or derivative thereof. According to this embodiment, the copolyamide is such that :

50 < n x < 100,

60 < n x < 100,

70 < n x < 100 or 75 < n x < 100.

[0038] The copolyannide of the present invention comprises less than 100 mol. % of 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid (3-AMBa) monomers or derivative thereof.

[0039] According to another preferred embodiment, the copolyamide comprises less than 99 mol. % of 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid (3-AMBa) monomers or derivative thereof, for example less than 98 mol. %, less than

97 mol. %, less than 96 mol. % of 3-AMBa. According to this embodiment, the copolyamide is such that :

5 < n x < 99,

5 < n x < 98,

5 < n x < 97 or

5 < n x < 96.

[0040] n x , n y and n z are respectively the moles % of each recurring units x, y and z. As an example of the different embodiments of the present invention, if the copolyamide of the present invention is composed exclusively of recurring units x and y, then n x + n y = 100 and n z =0. In this case, the recurring unit y is composed of a diamine component and a diacid component; the number of moles of diamines and the number of moles of diacids to be added to the condensation reaction are equal. For example, if the copolyamide is composed exclusively of 3-AMBa, as well as terephthalic acid and hexamethylenediame, with n x = 60 mol. % and n y = 40 mol. %, then substantially the same number of moles of terephtalic acid and hexamethylenediamine should be added to the condensation mixture, that is to say 40 mol. %. The term "substantially" is hereby intended to denote that the ratio diacid/diamine varies between 0.9 to 1.1 , for example between 0.95 and 1.05. According to an embodiment of the present invention, the copolyamide is amorphous, that-is-to-say that the

copolyamide does not show any thermal transition other than the glass transition temperature, as measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry at a heating rate of 10-20°C/g.

[0041] According to an embodiment, the copolyamide of the present invention has a glass transition temperature of at least about 100°C, as determined according to ASTM D3418. According to this embodiment, the copolyannide of the present invention may have for example a melting point of at least about 105°C, at least about 1 10°C or at least about 120°C.

[0042] According to an embodiment, the copolyamide of the present invention has a melting temperature (Tm) of at least about 280°C, as determined according to ASTM D3418. According to this embodiment, the

copolyamide of the present invention may have for example a melting temperature of at least about 285°C, at least about 290°C, at least about 295°C or at least about 300°C.

[0043] According to an embodiment of the present invention, the copolyamide is semi-crystalline and is the condensation product of a mixture comprising at least 90 mol. % of 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid (3-AMBa), and at least one of the component selected from the group consisting of :

- at least one dicarboxylic acid component or derivative thereof, and at least one diamine component,

- at least one aminocarboxylic acid, and/or

- at least one lactam.

[0044] According to this embodiment, the copolyamide is semi-crystalline with a high Tm, for example above 315°C or above 320°C and presents a biobased content higher than 60 % (or higher than 70 %, higher than 80 % or even higher than 90 %) according to ASTM 6866, that is to say the % of carbon atoms from renewable sources.

[0045] According to another embodiment of the present invention, the

copolyamide is amorphous and is the condensation product of a mixture comprising less than 90 mol. % of 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid (3-AMBa), and at least one of the component selected from the group consisting of :

- at least one dicarboxylic acid component or derivative thereof, and at least one diamine component,

- at least one aminocarboxylic acid, and/or

- at least one lactam.

[0046] The copolyamide of the present invention can be prepared by any

conventional method adapted to the synthesis of polyamides and polyphthalamides, for example by thermal polycondensation of aqueous solution of monomers and comonomers. The copolyamides may contain a chain limiter, which is a monofunctional molecule capable of reacting with the amine or carboxylic acid moiety, and is used to control the molecular weight of the copolyamide. For example, the chain limiter can be acetic acid, propionic acid and/or benzylamine. A catalyst can also be used. Examples of catalyst are phosphorous acid, ortho-phosphoric acid, meta- phosphoric acid, alkali-metal hypophosphite such as sodium

hypophosphite and phenylphosphinic acid.

[0047] Polyamide composition (C)

[0048] The polyamide composition (C) comprises the copolyamides of the

present invention, above described.

[0049] The copolyamides may be present in the composition (C) in a total amount of greater than 30 wt. %, greater than 35 wt. % by weight, greater than

40 wt. % or greater than 45 wt. %, based on the total weight of the polymer composition (C).

[0050] The copolyamides may be present in the composition (C) in a total amount of less than 90 wt. %, less than 80 wt. %, less than 70 wt. % or less than 60 wt. %, based on the total weight of the polymer composition (C).

[0051] The copolyamides may for example be present in the composition (C) in an amount ranging between 35 and 60 wt. %, for example between 40 and 55 wt. %, based on the total weight of the polyamide composition (C).

[0052] The composition (C) may also comprise one component selected from the group consisting of reinforcing agents, tougheners, plasticizers, colorants, pigments, antistatic agents, dyes, lubricants, thermal stabilizers, light stabilizers, flame retardants, nucleating agents and antioxidants.

[0053] A large selection of reinforcing agents, also called reinforcing fibers or fillers, may be added to the composition according to the present invention. They can be selected from fibrous and particulate reinforcing agents. A fibrous reinforcing filler is considered herein to be a material having length, width and thickness, wherein the average length is significantly larger than both the width and thickness. Generally, such a material has an aspect ratio, defined as the average ratio between the length and the largest of the width and thickness of at least 5, at least 10, at least 20 or at least 50. [0054] The reinforcing filler may be selected from mineral fillers (such as talc, mica, kaolin, calcium carbonate, calcium silicate, magnesium carbonate), glass fibers, carbon fibers, synthetic polymeric fibers, aramid fibers, aluminum fibers, titanium fibers, magnesium fibers, boron carbide fibers, rock wool fibers, steel fibers and wollastonite.

[0055] Among fibrous fillers, glass fibers are preferred; they include chopped

strand A-, E-, C-, D-, S- and R-glass fibers, as described in chapter 5.2.3, p. 43-48 of Additives for Plastics Handbook, 2nd edition, John Murphy. Preferably, the filler is chosen from fibrous fillers. It is more preferably a reinforcing fiber that is able to withstand the high temperature applications.

[0056] The reinforcing agents may be present in the composition (C) in a total amount of greater than 15 wt. %, greater than 20 wt. % by weight, greater than 25 wt. % or greater than 30 wt. %, based on the total weight of the polymer composition (C). The reinforcing agents may be present in the composition (C) in a total amount of less than 65 wt. %, less than

60 wt. %, less than 55 wt. % or less than 50 wt. %, based on the total weight of the polymer composition (C).

[0057] The reinforcing filler may for example be present in the composition (C) in an amount ranging between 20 and 60 wt. %, for example between 30 and 50 wt. %, based on the total weight of the polyamide composition (C).

[0058] The composition (C) of the present invention may also comprise a

toughener. A toughener is generally a low glass transition

temperature (T g ) polymer, with a T g for example below room temperature, below 0°C or even below -25°C. As a result of its low T g , the toughener are typically elastomeric at room temperature. Tougheners can be functionalized polymer backbones.

[0059] The polymer backbone of the toughener can be selected from elastomeric backbones comprising polyethylenes and copolymers thereof,

e.g. ethylene-butene; ethylene-octene; polypropylenes and copolymers thereof; polybutenes; polyisoprenes; ethylene-propylene-rubbers (EPR); ethylene-propylene-diene monomer rubbers (EPDM); ethylene-acrylate rubbers; butadiene-acrylonitrile rubbers, ethylene-acrylic acid (EAA), ethylene-vinylacetate (EVA); acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene rubbers (ABS), block copolymers styrene ethylene butadiene styrene (SEBS); block copolymers styrene butadiene styrene (SBS); core- shell elastomers of methacrylate-butadiene-styrene (MBS) type, or mixture of one or more of the above.

[0060] When the toughener is functionalized, the functionalization of the

backbone can result from the copolymerization of monomers which include the functionalization or from the grafting of the polymer backbone with a further component.

[0061] Specific examples of functionalized tougheners are notably terpolymers of ethylene, acrylic ester and glycidyl methacrylate, copolymers of ethylene and butyl ester acrylate; copolymers of ethylene, butyl ester acrylate and glycidyl methacrylate; ethylene-maleic anhydride copolymers; EPR grafted with maleic anhydride; styrene copolymers grafted with maleic anhydride; SEBS copolymers grafted with maleic anhydride; styrene-acrylonitrile copolymers grafted with maleic anhydride; ABS copolymers grafted with maleic anhydride.

[0062] The toughener may be present in the composition (C) in a total amount of greater than 1 wt. %, greater than 2 wt. % or greater than 3 wt. %, based on the total weight of the composition (C). The toughener may be present in the composition (C) in a total amount of less than 30 wt. %, less than 20 wt. %, less than 15 wt. % or less than 10 wt. %, based on the total weight of the polymer composition (C).

[0063] The composition (C) may also comprise other conventional additives

commonly used in the art, including plasticizers, colorants, pigments (e.g. black pigments such as carbon black and nigrosine), antistatic agents, dyes, lubricants (e.g. linear low density polyethylene, calcium or magnesium stearate or sodium montanate), thermal stabilizers, light stabilizers, flame retardants, nucleating agents and antioxidants.

[0064] The composition (C) may also comprise one or more other polymers, preferably copolyamides different from the copolyamide of the present invention. Mention can be made notably of semi-crystalline or amorphous polyamides, such as aliphatic polyamides, semi-aromatic polyamides, and more generally the polyamides obtained by polycondensation between an aromatic or aliphatic saturated diacid and an aliphatic saturated or aromatic primary diamine, a lactam, an amino-acid or a mixture of these different monomers.

[0065] Preparation of the polyamide composition (C)

[0066] The invention further pertains to a method of making the composition (C) as above detailed, said method comprising melt-blending the copolyamide and the specific components, e.g. a filler, a toughener, a stabilizer, and of any other optional additives.

[0067] Any melt-blending method may be used for mixing polymeric ingredients and non-polymeric ingredients in the context of the present invention. For example, polymeric ingredients and non-polymeric ingredients may be fed into a melt mixer, such as single screw extruder or twin screw extruder, agitator, single screw or twin screw kneader, or Banbury mixer, and the addition step may be addition of all ingredients at once or gradual addition in batches. When the polymeric ingredient and non-polymeric ingredient are gradually added in batches, a part of the polymeric ingredients and/or non-polymeric ingredients is first added, and then is melt-mixed with the remaining polymeric ingredients and non-polymeric ingredients that are subsequently added, until an adequately mixed composition is obtained. If a reinforcing agent presents a long physical shape (for example, a long glass fiber), drawing extrusion molding may be used to prepare a reinforced composition.

[0068] Articles and applications

[0069] The present invention also relates to articles comprising the copolyamide described above and to articles comprising the copolyamide

composition (C) described above.

[0070] The article can notably be used in automotive applications, for example in air induction systems, cooling and heating systems, drivetrain systems and fuel systems. The article can also be used in LED packaging, mobile electronics, oil and gas applications and plumbing. Examples of electric and electronics devices are connectors, contactors and switches. The copolyamide may also be used as a gas barrier material for packaging applications, in mono or multilayer articles. [0071] The article can be molded from the copolyamide or copolyamide composition (C) of the present invention, by any process adapted to thermoplastics, e.g. extrusion, injection molding, blow molding,

rotomolding or compression molding.

[0072] The article can be printed from the copolyamide or copolyamide

composition (C) of the present invention, by a process comprising a step of extrusion of the material, which is for example in the form of a filament, or comprising a step of laser sintering of the material, which is in this case in the form of a powder.

[0073] The present invention also relates to a method for manufacturing a three- dimensional (3D) object with an additive manufacturing system, comprising :

- providing a part material comprising the copolyamide or copolyaide composition (C) of the present invention, and

- printing layers of the three-dimensional object from the part material.

[0074] The copolyamide or copolyamide composition (C) can therefore be in the form of a thread or a filament to be used in a process of 3D printing, e.g. Fused Filament Fabrication, also known as Fused Deposition

Modelling (FDM).

[0075] The copolyamide or copolyamide composition (C) can also be in the form of a powder, for example a substantially spherical powder, to be used in a process of 3D printing, e.g. Selective Laser Sintering (SLS).

[0076] Use of the copolyamides, composition (C) and articles

[0077] The present invention relates to the use of the above-described

copolyamides, composition (C) or articles in air induction systems, cooling and heating systems, drivetrain systems and fuel systems or in in mobile electronics, for example in a mobile electronic device.

[0078] The present invention also relates to the use of the above-described

copolyamides or composition (C) for 3D printing an object.

[0079] Should the disclosure of any patents, patent applications, and publications which are incorporated herein by reference conflict with the description of the present application to the extent that it may render a term unclear, the present description shall take precedence. [0080] Examples

[0081] Raw materials

[0082] 3-AMBa : 3-(aminomethyl)benzoic acid monomers, obtained by the

process described in co-pending patent application filed under number PCT/CN2016/108997 on December 8, 2016, from biobased furfural derivatives (5 carbon atoms over 8 carbon atoms are from biobased sources).

[0083] Caprolactam (TCI, Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., LTD)

[0084] Terephthalic acid (Flint Hills Resources)

[0085] Adipic acid (Invista)

[0086] Hexamethylenediamine (Invista)

[0087] /77-xylylenediamine (Mitsubishi Gas Chemical America, Inc.)

[0088] Copolyamides preparation

[0089] All of the copolyamides were prepared according to a similar process in an electrically-heated autoclave reactor equipped with a distillate line fitted with a pressure regulation valve. In the preparation of example 1 , the reactor was charged with 3.186 g (21.1 mmol) of 3-AMBa, 0.1936 g (1.7 mmol) of caprolactam and 1 g of deionized water. The reactor was sealed, the pressure release valve was set to 17 bar and the reaction mixture was heated to 285°C. The pressure was reduced to atmospheric and the temperature was increased to 300°C. The reaction mixture was kept at 300°C for 15 min and then cooled down to 200°C within 1 hour and then to room temperature. The obtained products were further

polymerized for 4 hours at 210°C. In the preparation of example 10, 0.257 mol 3-AMBa, 0.064 mol isophthalic acid, 0.067 mol

hexamethylenediamine, 50 g water and 0.048 mmol phosphorous acid were reacted in an autoclave reactor equipped with an agitator. Following pressure reduction to atmospheric steam pressure, the reaction mixture was held at 300°C for 20 minutes followed by introduction and release of nitrogen pressure and continued heating at 300°C for 30 minutes.

[0090] Testing

[0091] Thermal transitions (Tg, Tm) The glass transition and melting temperatures of the various copolyamides were measured using differential scanning calorimetry according to ASTM D3418 employing a heating and cooling rate of 10°C/min. Three scans were used for each DSC test : a first heat up to 340°C, followed by a first cool down to 30°C, followed by a second heat up to 350°C. The Tg and the Tm were determined from the second heat up. The glass transition and melting temperatures are tabulated in Tables 1 and 3 (invention) and Table 2 (comparative) below.

Table 1 - mol. %

Table 2 - Mol % [0093] The number average molecular weight (Mn) of polymer product of

Example 10 was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), using hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) with 0.05 M NaFTA as a mobile phase. Two PL HFIP gel columns with a guard column were used for the separation. An ultraviolet detector of 237 nm was used to obtain the chromatogram. A flow rate of 0.25 ml/min and injection volume of 15 μΙ_ of a 0.5 w/v% solution in mobile phase was selected. Calibration was performed with a broad molecular weight polyterephthalamide reference polymer, 6T/6I/66 65/25/10 of Mw 27900 as determined by light scattering and Mn of 9340 as determined by chemical characterization. The number average molecular weight (Mn) was reported.

[0094] Tensile strength and modulus polymer product of Example 10 were

determined according to the ASTM D638 method with Type V bars.

Table 3 - Mol %

[0095] All of the above-prepared copolyamides present a high biobased content and a Tg above 1 15°C. The copolyamides of Examples 1 , 2 and 7 are semi-crystalline and present a Tm above 315°C with a molar content of biobased monomers higher than 90 mol. %. Compared to usual polyphthalamides structures of comparative examples Ex8C and Ex9C, the semi-crystalline copolyamide of the invention exhibit a similar melting point but present the advantage that they have a higher glass transition temperature, making them for example well-suited for under-the-hood applications in automotive, where the stiffness should be stay high at operating temperatures above 140°C. The copolyamides of examples 3- with a biobased monomer content varying between 75 mol. % and 90 mol. %, are amorphous and transparent, and have a high Tg, making then well-suited for applications such as glasses and sunglasses frames transparent containers for packaging.