Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
CURRENT DRIVER SYSTEM
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/217153
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
One example includes a current driver system. The system includes a current source configured to provide a source current to a transition node. The system also includes a Josephson latch comprising at least one Josephson junction stage. The at least one Josephson junction stage can be configured to conduct the source current from the transition node as a current-clamped bias current in a deactivated state of the Josephson latch. The Josephson latch can be configured to activate in response to the bias current and a trigger pulse to switch the at least one Josephson junction stage to a voltage state to conduct at least a portion of the source current from the transition node as an output current to a load in response to activation of the Josephson latch.

Inventors:
MILLER, Donald L. (17 Pheasant Run Drive, Export, Pennsylvania, 15632, US)
HERR, Quentin P. (8987 Furrow Avenue, Ellicott City, Maryland, 21042, US)
Application Number:
US2019/030036
Publication Date:
November 14, 2019
Filing Date:
April 30, 2019
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS CORPORATION (2980 Fairview Park Drive, Falls Church, Virginia, 22042-4511, US)
International Classes:
H03K3/38
Foreign References:
US20150254571A12015-09-10
JP2004080129A2004-03-11
US8654578B22014-02-18
Other References:
None
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HARRIS, Christopher P. (Tarolli, Sundheim Covell & Tummino, LLP,1300 East Ninth Street,Suite 170, Cleveland Ohio, 44114, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A current driver system comprising:

a current source configured to provide a source current to a transition node; and a Josephson latch comprising at least one Josephson junction stage, the at least one Josephson junction stage being configured to conduct the source current from the transition node as a current-clamped bias current in a deactivated state of the Josephson latch, the josephson latch being configured to activate in response to the bias current and a trigger pulse to switch the at least one Josephson junction stage to a voltage state to conduct at least a portion of the source current from the transition node as an output current to a load in response to activation of the josephson latch.

2. The system of claim 1 , wherein the Josephson latch further comprises at least one current distribution stage each configured to provide a respective at least one portion of the bias current to the respective at least one Josephson junction stage each of the at least one current distribution stage comprises:

a bias inductor coupled to the transition node and being configured to conduct the respective at least one portion of the bias current; and

a clamping device coupled to the bias inductor and being configured to clamp the respective at least one portion of the bias current at a predetermined amplitude.

3. The system of claim 2, wherein the at least one current distribution stage comprises a first current distribution stage configured to conduct a respective first portion of the bias current to a respective first Josephson junction stage and at least one remaining current distribution stage configured to conduct a respective at least one remaining portion of the bias current to a respective at least one remaining Josephson junction stage, wherein the bias inductor associated with the first current distribution stages has an inductance that is less than the bias inductor associated with the remaining at least one current distribution stage to increase an amplitude of the first portion of the bias current relative to the at least one remaining portion of the bias current.

4. The system of claim 2, wherein the clamping device is configured as a Josephson junction configured to trigger at approximately the predetermined amplitude of the respective at least one portion of the bias current to clamp the at least one portion of the bias current at approximately the predetermined amplitude.

5. The system of claim 2, wherein the clamping device is configured as a tunable superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) configured to trigger at approximately the predetermined amplitude of the respective at least one portion of the bias current to clamp the at least one portion of the bias current at approximately the predetermined amplitude, wherein the predetermined amplitude is programmable.

6. The system of claim I wherein the Josephson latch comprises a plurality of current distribution stages configured to conduct a respective plurality of portions of the bias current to a respective plurality of Josephson junction stages.

7. The system of claim 6, wherein each of the plurality of current distribution stages comprises a current clamping device configured to clamp an amplitude of each of the respective plurality of portions of the bias current at a predetermined amplitude.

8. The system of claim 6, wherein the josephson latch further comprises at least one resistor that each interconnects a pair of the plurality of Josephson junction stages to substantially mitigate circulating currents in the Josephson latch.

9. The system of claim 6, wherein the josephson latch has a critical current threshold corresponding to an activation amplitude of the bias current that is associated with a quantity of the plurality of Josephson junction stages.

10. The system of claim 1 , wherein the Josephson latch further comprises an input Josephson junction coupled to a first Josephson junction stage of the at least one Josephson junction stage, the input Josephson junction being configured to cancel a negative fluxon generated by the trigger pulse that is provided as a reciprocal quantum logic (RQL) pulse.

11. A current driver system comprising:

a current source configured to provide a source current to a transition node; and a Josephson latch comprising a plurality of Josephson junction stages and at least one resistor that each interconnects a pair of the plurality of Josephson junction stages, the plurality of Josephson junction stages being configured to conduct the source current from the transition node as a respective plurality of bias currents in a deactivated state of the Josephson latch, the Josephson latch being configured to activate in response to the bias current and a trigger pulse to switch the at least one Josephson junction stage to a voltage state to conduct at least a portion of the source current from the transition node as an output current to a load in response to activation of the Josephson latch.

12. The syste of claim 11, wherein the Josephson latch further comprises a plurality of current distribution stages configured to provide the respective plurality of portions of the bias current to the respective plurality of Josephson junction stages each of the plurality of current distribution stages comprises:

a bias inductor coupled to the transition node and being configured to conduct the respective at least one portion of the bias current; and

a clamping device coupled to the bias inductor and being configured to clamp the respective at least one portion of the bias current at a predetermined amplitude.

13. The system of claim 12, wherein the plurality of current distribution stages comprises a first current distribution stage configured to conduct a respective first portion of the bias current to a respective first Josephson junction stage and at least one remaining current distribution stage configured to conduct a respective at least one remaining portion of the bias current to a respective at least one remaining Josephson junction stage, wherein the bias inductor associated with the first current distribution stages has an inductance that is less than the bias inductor associated with the remaining at least one current distribution stage to increase an amplitude of the first portion of the bias current relative to the at least one remaining portion of the bias current.

14. The system of claim 12, wherein the clamping device is configured as a Josephson junction configured to trigger at approximately the predetermined amplitude of the respective at least one portion of the bias current to clamp the at least one portion of the bias current at approximately the predetermined amplitude.

15. The system of claim 11, wherein the Josephson latch further comprises an input

Josephson junction coupled to a first Josephson junction stage of the at least one Josephson junction stage, the input Josephson junction being configured to cancel a negative f!uxon generated by the trigger pulse that is provided as a reciprocal quantum logic (RQL) pulse.

16. A current driver system comprising:

a current source configured to provide a source current to a transition node; and a Josephson latch coupled to the transition node and comprising:

a plurality of Josephson junction stages being configured to conduct the source current from the transition node as a respective plurality of bias currents in a deactivated state of the Josephson latch; and a plurality of current distribution stages each comprising a bias inductor, the plurality of current distribution stages being configured to conduct a respective plurality of portions of the bias current to the respecti ve plurality of Josephson junction stages, the bias inductor associated with a first one of the plurality of current distribution stages has an inductance that is less than the bias inductor associated with the remaining at least one of the plurality of current distribution stages;

wherein the Josephson latch is configured to activate in response to the bias current and a trigger pulse to switch the plurality of josephson junction stages to a voltage state to conduct at least a portion of the source current from the transition node as an output current to a load in response to activation of the Josephson latch.

17. The syste of claim 16, wherein each of the plurality of current distribution stages comprises a current clamping device configured to clamp an amplitude of each of the respective plurality of portions of the bias current at a predetermined amplitude.

18. The system of claim 17, wherein the clamping device is configured as a Josephson junction configured to trigger at approximately the predetermined amplitude of the respective at least one portion of the bias current to clamp the at least one portion of the bias current at approximately the predetermined amplitude.

19. The syste of claim 16, wherein the Josephson latch further comprises at least one resistor that each interconnects a pair of the plurality of Josephson junction stages to

substantially mitigate circulating currents in the Josephson latch.

20. The system of claim 16, wherein the Josephson latch further comprises an input

Josephson junction coupled to a first josephson junction stage of the at least one Josephson junction stage, the input Josephson junction being configured to cancel a negative fluxon generated by the trigger pulse that is provided as a reciprocal quantu logic (RQL) pulse.

Description:
CURRENT DRIVER SYSTEM

RELATED APPLICATIONS

[00011 This application claims priority from U.S. Patent Application Serial

No. 15/972995, filed 7 May 2019, which is incorporated herein in its entirety.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[00021 This disclosure relates generally to classical and quantum computing systems, and more specifically to a current driver system.

BACKGROUND

[00031 Current sources are an essential component of any computer architecture. For example, current sources are typically implemented to provide currents to select rows and columns of memory circuits, such as in an array of memory cells, to write data to and/or read data from the respective memory array. For example, in a Josephson Magnetic Random Access Memory (JMRAM) array, a write current can supply a magnetic field to control a direction of magnetization of a ferromagnetic layer which constitutes one component of the barrier in a magnetic barrier Josephson junction. Such write operations in a JMRAM array can require a sufficient current amplitude that can be provided from a current source, such as in the order of several milliamperes, and which can he significantly greater than a given threshold critical current for Josephson junctions that are currently able to be fabricated. Thus, such exemplary operations may require current drivers that are able to provide such amplitudes of current to a load, such as a row of memory cells.

SUMMARY

[0004] One example includes a current driver system. The syste includes a current source configured to provide a source current to a transition node. The system also includes a Josephson latch comprising at least one Josephson junction stage. The at least one Josephson junction stage can he configured to conduct the source current from the transition node as a current-clamped bias current in a deactivated state of the Josephson latch. The Josephson latch can he configured to activate in response to the bias current and a trigger pulse to switch the at least one Josephson junction stage to a voltage state to conduct at least a portion of the source current from the transition node as an output current to a load in response to activation of the Josephson latch.

[0005] Another example includes a current driver system. The system includes a current source configured to provide a source current to a transition node. The system also includes a josephson latch comprising a plurality of Josephson junction stages and at least one resistor that each interconnects a pair of the plurality of Josephson junction stages. The plurality of

Josephson junction stages can be configured to conduct the source current from the transition node as a respective plurality of bias currents in a deactivated state of the Josephson latch. The josephson latch can be configured to activate in response to the bias current and a trigger pulse to switch the at least one Josephson junction stage to a voltage state to conduct at least a portion of the source current from the transition node as an output current to a load in response to activation of the Josephson latch.

[0006] Another example includes a current driver system. The system includes a current source configured to provide a source current to a transition node. The system also includes a josephson latch coupled to the transition node. The Josephson latch includes a plurality of Josephson junction stages being configured to conduct the source current from the transition node as a respective plurality of bias currents in a deactivated state of the Josephson latch. The josephson latch also includes a plurality of current distribution stages each comprising a bias inductor. The plurality of current distribution stages can be configured to conduct a respective plurality of portions of the bias current to the respective plurality of Josephson junction stages. The bias inductor associated with a first one of the plurality of current distribution stages has an inductance that is less than the bias inductor associated with the remaining at least one of the plurality of current distribution stages. The Josephson latch can be configured to activate in response to the bias current and a trigger pulse to switch the plurality of Josephson junction

? stages to a voltage state to conduct at least a portion of the source current from the transition node as an output current to a load in response to activation of the Josephson latch.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0007] FIG. I illustrates an example of a current driver system.

[0008] FIG. 2 illustrates an example of a josephson latch.

[0009] FIG. 3 illustrates another example of a current driver system.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0010] This disclosure relates generally to classical and quantum computing systems, and more specifically to a current driver system. The current driver system can be implemented in any of a variety of quantum or classical computer applications that may require a current source of varying amplitude. For example, the current driver system can be implemented in a word- write or bit-write line driver for a memory circuit. The current driver system includes a current source that provides a source current to a transition node and a Josephson latch. As an example, the current source can correspond to a flux pump and/or a storage inductor that is configured to provide the source current. The transition node can be a node to which the current source, the Josephson latch, and an output stage are coupled. The Josephson latch can include at least one, or a plurality, of Josephson junction stages (e.g., josephson junction pairs). As an example, each pair of the Josephson junction stages can be interconnected via a resistor to mitigate circulating currents that may result in self-triggering of the Josephson junction stages.

[0011 ] As an example, the source current can be provided from the transition node to flow through the Josephson junction stages as a current-clamped bias current during a deactivated state of the Josephson latch. As an example, the bias current can be provided to the Josephson junction stages via a respective plurality of current distribution stages that include a current clamping device to mitigate self triggering of the Josephson junction stages. In response to a trigger signal (e.g., a single flux quantum (SFQ) pulse), the Josephson junction stages can trigger to activate the Josephson latch, corresponding to the Josephson junction stages repeatedly triggering in a voltage state in response, the Josephson latch provides a latching voltage at the transition node to divert at least a portion of the source current to be provided as an output current to the output stage. As a result, the bias current decreases, and thus deactivates the Josephson latch in response to decreasing to less than a predetermined threshold.

[0012] FIG. I illustrates an example of a current driver system 10. The current driver system 10 can be implemented in any of a variety of quantum or classical computer applications that may require a current source of varying amplitude. For example, the current driver system can be implemented in a word·· write or bit·· write line driver for a memory circuit.

[0013] The current driver system 10 includes a current source 12 that provides a source current Is to a transition node 14. As an example, the current source 12 can correspond to a flux pump and/or a storage inductor that is configured to provide the source current Is. The transition node 14 is demonstrated in the example of FIG. 1 as interconnecting the current source 12, a josephson latch 16, and a load inductor LLOAD that can correspond to an output stage. In the example of FIG. I the source current Is is demonstrated as flowing from the transition node 14 as a current clamped bias current IBIAS to the Josephson latch 16 and/or as an output current lour through the load inductor LLOAD. AS an example, the Josephson latch 16 can include at least one current clamping device and an arrangement of Josephson junctions that can trigger to provide a latching voltage VL, as described in greater detail herein.

[0014] As an example, the Josephson latch 16 can initially occupy a deactivated state. In the deactivated state of the Josephson latch 16, substantially all of the source current Is can be provided as the bias current IBIAS, such that the output current lou r can have an amplitude of approximately zero in the deactivated state of the Josephson latch 16. As described in greater detail herein, the Josephson latch 16 can include features to substantially mitigate unintended self-triggering in response to the bias current IBIAS, and thus unintended triggering. In the example of FIG. 1, a trigger system 18 is configured to provide a trigger signal, demonstrated as TRG, to the Josephson latch 16. As an example, the trigger signal TRG can correspond to a single flux quantum (SFQ) pulse, such as a reciprocal quantum logic (RQL) pulse pair that includes a fluxon and a complementary anti-fluxon. The trigger signal TRG can thus he provided to activate the Josephson latch 16.

[0015] For example, in response to the trigger signal TRG and the bias current IBIAS, the

Josephson junctions in the Josephson latch 16 repeatedly trigger to activate the Josephson latch 16. The repeatedly triggered josephson junctions can thus operate in the "voltage state" to provide the latching voltage V L at the transition node 14. In response, at least a portion of the source current Is is provided as the output current lour from the transition node 14.

Concurrently, the bias current IBIAS decreases as the output current IOIJT increases, such that the source current Is is linearly steered over time from being provided the bias current IBIAS to being provided as the output current lour- As the bias current IBIAS decreases to less than a

predetermined threshold (e.g., associated with the critical current of the Josephson junctions of the Josephson latch 16), the Josephson latch 16 can deactivate. As a result, the latching voltage V L can decrease to approximately zero as the Josephson junctions in the Josephson latch 16 return to the zero state.

[0016] As described previously, the josephson latch 16 can include at least one current clamping device and an arrangement of Josephson junctions. For example, the current clamping device(s) and the arrangement of Josephson junctions can be configured to mitigate self triggering of the Josephson junctions of the Josephson latch 16, as described in greater detail herein. As described herein, the term "self-triggering” of the Josephson junctions in the

Josephson latch 16 refers to an unwanted triggering of the Josephson junctions of the Josephson latch 16 in the absence of the trigger signal TRG (e.g. and thus based solely on the bias current IBIAS). Therefore, by mitigating the self-triggering of the Josephson junctions in the Josephson latch 16, the Josephson latch 16 can be activated reliably to provide the output current lour through the load inductor LLOAD solely in response to the bias current IBIAS and the trigger signal TRG.

[0017] FIG. 2 illustrates an example of a Josephson latch 50. The Josephson latch 50 can correspond to the Josephson latch 16 in the example of FIG. 1. Therefore, reference is to be made to the example of FIG. 1 in the following description of the example of FIG. 2. [0018] The Josephson latch 50 includes at least one current distribution stage 52 and a respective at least one Josephson junction stage 54. The current distribution stage(s) 52 are each configured to conduct a portion of the bias current IBIAS as N respective portions of the bias current IBIAS, demonstrated in the example of FIG. 2 as IBIAS l through IBIASN, where N is a positive integer. As an example, each of the bias currents IBIASI through IBIASN can have approximately equal amplitudes (e.g., with potential variation based on fabrication tolerance mismatches, as described in greater detail herein). As another example, one of the bias currents IBIASI through IBIASN can have an amplitude that is slightly greater than the amplitudes of the remaining approximately equal amplitude bias currents IBIASI through IBIASN, as described in greater detail herein.

[0019] In the example of FIG. 2, the current distribution stage(s) 52 each include a respective current clamping device 56 (demonstrated in the example of FIG. 2 as "current clamping device(s) 56"). The current clamping device(s) 56 can be configured to limit the amplitude of the bias currents IBIASI through IBIASN to a predetermined amplitude. As described in greater detail herein, the predetermined amplitude can be approximately slightly less than a predetermined critical current of a given one of the Josephson junction stage(s) 54. For example, each of the current clamping device(s) 56 can be configured as a shunted Josephson junction having a critical current that corresponds to the predetermined amplitude. As another example, each of the current clamping device(s) 56 can be configured as a tunable superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) having configured to trigger at approximately the predetermined clamping amplitude. Because the SQUID can be tunable, the predetermined amplitude can thus be programmable.

[0020] As described previously, the Josephson latch 50 includes the Josephson junction stage(s) 54 that receive the respective bias currents IBIASI through IBIASN, respective, from the current distribution stage(s) 52. As an example, each of the Josephson junction stage(s) 54 can include a parallel pair of unshunted Josephson junctions that collectively define a critical current of a given one of the Josephson junction stage(s) 54. As an example, the critical current associated with the Josephson latch 50 can be defined by the sum of the critical currents of the Josephson junction stage(s) 54, which can thus define a maximum amplitude of the source current Is that can be provided to the transition node 14 in the example of FIG 1, and thus the maximum amplitude of the output current lour. Accordingly, the number of Josephson junction stages 54 can define the amplitude of the output current lour that can be provided from the current driver system 10.

[0021] Similar to as described previously, in response to the trigger signal TRG and the bias currents IBIASI through IBIASN, the Josephson junctions in the Josephson junction stage(s) 54 repeatedly trigger to activate the Josephson latch 50. The repeatedly triggered Josephson junctions can thus operate in the "voltage state" to provide the latching voltage V L at the transition node (not shown in the example of FIG. 2), and thus from ground and across the Josephson junction stage(s) 54 and the current distribution stage(s) 52. In response, at least a portion of the source current Is i s provided as the output current I OUT fro the transition node, similar to as described in the example of FIG. 1. Concurrently, the bias current IBIAS, and thus the portions IBIASI through IBIASN, decreases as the output current lour increases. As the bias currents IBIASI through IBIASN decrease to less than respective predetermined thresholds (e.g., associated with the critical current of the Josephson junctions of the Josephson stage(s) 54), the Josephson latch 50 can deactivate. As a result, the latching voltage V L can decrease to approximately zero as the Josephson junctions in the Josephson latch 50 return to the zero state [0022] Because the current clamping device(s) 56 provide current-clamping of the bias currents IBIASI through IBLASN, the current clamping device(s) 56 can substantially mitigate self triggering of the Josephson junction stage(s) 54. For example, as described previously, the predetermined amplitude can be approximately slightly less than a predetermined critical current of a given one of the Josephson junction stage(s) 54. Therefore, the current clamping device(s) 56 can substantially clamp the amplitude of a given one of the bias currents IBIASI through IBLASN to have a maximum amplitude that is slightly less than the critical current of a given one of the Josephson junction stage(s) 54. Accordingly, the current clamping device(s) 56 can substantially mitigate the unwanted occurrence of self-triggering of the Josephson junction stage(s) 54. [0023] In addition, in the example of FIG. 2, the Josephson junction stage(s) 54 include one or more interconnecting resistors 58. As an example, in the example of the Josephson junction stage(s) 54 can include a plurality of Josephson junction stages 54, such that a given one of the interconnecting resistor(s) 58 interconnects a given pair of the Josephson junction stages 54. The interconnecting resistor(s) 58 can thus mitigate the presence of circulating currents that can cause unwanted self-triggering of the josephson junction stages 54. For example, when the Josephson junctions of the Josephson junction stage(s) 54 are in the voltage state during activation of the josephson latch 50, unequal occurrences of triggering of the Josephson junctions from one of the Josephson junction stages 54 to another can result in a circulating current in a given one of the Josephson junction stage(s) 54. The circulating current, when combined with a respective one of the bias currents IBIASI through IBIASN, could result in an unwanted self-triggering. However, the interconnecting resistor(s) 58 can dissipate a circulating current in a given one of the josephson junction stage(s) 54, thus mitigating the possibility of self-triggering. For example, the interconnecting resistor(s) 58 can each have a small resistance, such that the respective interconnecting resistor 58 can have a resistance (e.g., approximately one ohm) that is sufficiently high to dissipate the circulating current but is sufficiently low to allow an SFQ pulse to trigger the respective josephson junction stage 54.

[0024] Based on the arrangement of the current clamping device(s) 56 and the interconnecting resistor(s) 58, the josephson latch 50 can provide the latching function to provide the source current Is as the output current lour at the desired time based on the trigger signal TRG. Particularly, the arrangement of the current clamping device(s) 56 and the interconnecting resistor(s) 58 can be such that unwanted self-triggering can be mitigated, such that the Josephson latch 50 is only activated in response to the bias current IPJAS and the trigger signal TRG in combination.

[0025] FIG. 3 illustrates an example of a current driver system 100. The current driver syste 100 can be implemented in any of a variety of quantum or classical computer

applications that may require a current source of varying amplitude. For example, the current driver syste can be implemented in a w'ord-write or bit-write line driver for a memory circuit. [0026] The current driver system TOO includes a flux pump 102 that provides a source current Is to a transition node 104 The flux pump 102 can correspond to the current source 12 in the example of FIG. 1, and is demonstrated as providing the source current Is through a storage inductor Ls. The transition node 104 is demonstrated in the example of FIG. 3 as

interconnecting the storage inductor Ls, a Josephson latch 106, and a load inductor L LO A D that can correspond to an output stage. In the example of FIG. 3, the source current Is is

demonstrated as flowing from the transition node 104 as an aggregate bias current IBIAS to the josephson latch 106 and/or as an output current lour through the load inductor LLOAD to an output 108 (e.g., a word-write line).

[0627] As an example, the Josephson latch 106 can initially occupy a deactivated state.

In the deactivated state of the Josephson latch 106, substantially all of the source current Is can be provided as the aggregate bias current IBIAS, such that the output current lour can have an amplitude of approximately zero in the deactivated state of the josephson latch 106. In the example of FIG. 3, the aggregate bias current IBIAS is provided to a first current distribution stage 110, a second current distribution stage 112, a third current distribution stage 114, and a fourth current distribution stage 116. The first current distribution stage 110 includes a bias inductor L B J in series with a shunted Josephson j unction JJ , and is configured to conduct a first portion of the aggregate bias current IBIAS, demonstrated as IBIASI . The second current distribution stage 112 includes a bias inductor L B 2 in series with a shunted Josephson junction JJ2, and is configured to conduct a second portion of the aggregate bias current IBIAS,

demonstrated as IBIAS2. The third current distribution stage 114 includes a bias inductor L B 3 in series with a shunted josephson junction U3, and is configured to conduct a third portion of the aggregate bias current IBIAS, demonstrated as IBIASS. The fourth current distribution stage 116 includes a bias inductor L BA in series with a shunted Josephson junction JJ 4 , and is configured to conduct a fourth portion of the aggregate bias current IBIAS, demonstrated as IBIASA.

[6028] The Josephson latch 106 also includes a first Josephson junction stage 118, a second Josephson junction stage 120, a third Josephson junction stage 122, and a fourth

Josephson junction stage 124. The first Josephson junction stage 118 includes a pair of input inductors Ljsi and LJS2 between which the bias current IBIASI is provided via the current distribution stage 110, and includes a parallel pair of unslmnied Josephson junctions JJui and J J u2 - In addition, the first josephson junction stage 1 18 includes an activation Josephson junction JJs that interconnects the Josephson junction JJui and ground The second Josephson junction stage 120 includes a pair of input inductors L s .i and LI S 4 between which the bias current IBIAS2 is provided via the current distribution stage 112, and includes a parallel pair of unshunted Josephson junctions JJ LB and JJ . The third Josephson junction stage 122 includes a pair of input inductors Ljss and Ljse between which the bias current IBIAS J is provided via the current distribution stage 114, and includes a parallel pair of unshunted Josephson junctions JJus and JJu 6 - The fourth Josephson junction stage 124 includes a pair of input inductors LJS7 and LJSS between w ' hich the bias current IBIAS4 is provided via the current distribution stage 116, and includes a parallel pair of unshunted Josephson junctions J Ju ? and JJug.

[0029] In addition, the josephson junction latch 106 includes an interconnecting inductor

Ln and an interconnecting resistor Rn that are arranged in series between the first and second Josephson junction stages 118 and 120. The Josephson junction latch 106 also includes an interconnecting inductor L l2 and an interconnecting resistor Rn that are arranged in series between the second and third Josephson junction stages 120 and 122. The Josephson junction latch 106 further includes an interconnecting inductor LB and an interconnecting resistor RB that are arranged in series between the third and fourth Josephson junction stages 122 and 124.

[0030] The unshunted Josephson junctions JJui through JJug can define a critical current threshold of the Josephson latch 106 As an example, each of the josephson junction stages 118, 120, 122, and 124 can have an approximately equal critical current threshold that is defined by a sum of the critical currents of the respective pairs of Josephson junctions JJui and JJm, Jim and Jim, JJu5 and Jlue, and JJu7 and JJug. Therefore, the bias currents IBIASI through IBIAS4 can be provided at an amplitude that is slightly less than the critical currents of the respective Josephson junction stages 118, 120, 122, and 124, as described in greater detail herein. In addition, the critical current threshold of the Josephson latch 106, as a whole, can be defined by a sum of the critical currents of the josephson junctions JJm through JJug. Therefore, the source current Is can have an amplitude that is slightly less than the critical current threshold of the Josephson latch 106. As a result, the output current lour can he provided at an amplitude that is less than or equal to the source current Is, which can be sufficiently high to provide suitable function for the load (e.g., providing a magnetic field of sufficient amplitude to write data in a hysteretic magnetic josephson junction).

[0031 ] In the example of FIG. 3, the Josephson junctions JJi through JJ 4 of the current distribution stages 110, 112, 114, and 116 correspond to respective current clamping devices.

The Josephson junctions JJi through JJ 4 can be configured to limit the amplitude of the bias currents IBIASI through IBIAS4 to a predetermined amplitude. As an example, due to fabrication and/or tolerance mismatches, the bias inductors LBI through L B 4 may not be fabricated the same, thus resulting in a mismatch in amplitude of the bias currents IBIASI through IBIASC For example, in response to a given one of the bias currents IBIASI through IBIAS4 exceeding a predetermined threshold amplitude corresponding to a critical current of the respective Josephson junctions JJi through JJ 4 , the respective one of the Josephson junctions JJi through JJ 4 will trigger to clamp the amplitude of the respective one of the bias currents IBIASI through IBIAS4 to the predetermined threshold amplitude. As an example, the predetermined threshold amplitude can be less than the critical current of the respective one of the Josephson junction stages 118, 120, 122, and 124. Accordingly, by clamping the bias currents IBIASI through IBIAS4 to less than the critical current of the respective Josephson junction stages 1 18, 120, 122, and 124, the respective Josephson junction stages 118, 120, 122, and 124 are prevented from triggering absent the trigger signal TRG (as described in greater detail herein). While the current clamping devices are

demonstrated in the example of FIG. 3 as the Josephson junctions JJi through JJ 4 , it is to be understood that tunable SQUIDs can be implemented instead, with the tunable SQUIDs having a programmable critical current threshold and being configured to trigger at approximately the predetermined clamping amplitude.

[0032] In the example of FIG. 3, a trigger system 126, demonstrated as a Josephson transmission line (JTL), is configured to provide a trigger signal TRG, which can be provided as an RQL signal. In the example of FIG. 3, the trigger signal TRG is provided through a reflection Josephson junction JJ 6 to the first Josephson junction stage 118 to trigger the activation Josephson junction JJ 5 . Because the trigger signal TRG can be provided as an RQL signal, the reflection Josephson junction JJ 6 can mitigate reflection of the anti-fluxon back into the ITL 126.

[0033] In response to triggering, the activation Josephson junction JJs can provide an

SFQ pulse to the josephson junction .1.1 s 2. which can trigger to provide an SFQ pulse to the Josephson junction JJui, and to the Josephson junction JJus via the interconnecting inductor Ln and the interconnecting resistor Rn. The Josephson junction JJm can trigger to provide an SFQ pulse to the Josephson junction JJ via the interconnecting inductor Ln and the interconnecting resistor Rn, and can provide an SFQ pulse to trigger the Josephson junction JJm. The Josephson junction JJm can provide an SFQ pulse to the Josephson junction JJm and to the Josephson junction JJm via the interconnecting inductor La and the interconnecting resistor R12. Thus, the Josephson j unctions JJm through JJ sequentially generate SFQ pulses in response to being triggered. Because the Josephson junctions JJui through JJus are unshunted, the Josephson junctions JJui through JJus continue to sequentially trigger to provide repeated SFQ pulses that result in the voltage state until the bias currents IBIASI through IBIAS4 decrease to a predetermined amplitude (e.g., associated with the critical currents of the respective Josephson junction stages 118, 120, 122, and 124).

[0034] In addition, the current distribution stages 110, 112, 114, and 116 can be fabricated to facilitate the sequential triggering of the Josephson junctions JJui through JJus, such as in response to a smaller amplitude of the aggregate bias current IBIAS. For example, the bias inductor L B I in the current distribution stage 110 can have an inductance that is less than the bias inductors L BC through L B 4 in the respective current distribution stages 112, 114, and 116. As a result, the bias current IBIASI can have a disproportionately greater amplitude relative to the bias currents IBIAS2, IBIASB, and IBIAS4. AS a result, the aggregate bias current IBIAS can be provided at a smaller amplitude to provide the first bias current IBIASI at a sufficient amplitude to activate the Josephson latch 106 in response to the trigger signal TRG. In other words, because the relative inductance of the bias inductor LBI can be less than the inductance of the bias inductors LB2, LBS, and LB4, resulting in the relatively greater amplitude of the bias current IBIASI , the Josephson latch 106 can be activated at a greater range (e.g., lesser minimum amplitude) of the aggregate bias current IBIAS. The disproportionately greater bias current IBIASI can also provide preferential triggering of the first Josephson junction stage 1 18 to provide a proper triggering sequence of the Josephson junction stages 118, 120, 122, and 124.

[0035] During activation of the Josephson latch 106, the voltage state of the triggering of the Josephson junctions JJui through JJus can thus provide the voltage V L at the transition node 104 to decrease the amplitude of the aggregate bias current IBIAS leaving the transition node 104, and to thus increase the amplitude of the output current lour leaving the transition node 104, effectively steering the source current Is from being provided as the aggregate bias current IBIAS to being provided as the output current IOUT. AS described previously, the

Josephson junctions JJui through JJus continue to sequentially trigger to provide repeated SFQ pulses that result in the voltage state until the bias currents IBIASI through IBIASA decrease to a predetermined amplitude. Therefore, eventually the aggregate bias current IBIAS decreases to a sufficiently low amplitude, and thus the portions IBIASI through IBIASA likewise decrease to a sufficiently low amplitude, to deactivate the josephson junctions JJui through JJus, and thus to deactivate the Josephson latch 106. As a result, the aggregate bias current IBIAS can again increase as the output current IOUT is consumed by the load.

[0036] Because of the interconnect resistors Kn through Rn, any circulating currents that may reside in the deactivated josephson junction stages 118, 120, 122, and 124 is dissipated, thus mitigating any self-triggering that may result from the increase of the respective bias currents IBIASI through IBIASA. Additionally, as described previously, the Josephson junctions JJi through IJ4 in the respective current distribution stages 110, 112, 114, and 116 can clamp the amplitudes of the respective bias currents IBIASI through IBIASA, thus likewise mitigating any self triggering that may result from the increase of the respective bias currents IBIASI through IBIASA- Accordingly, even after the aggregate bias current IBIAS has sufficient amplitude, the Josephson latch 106 does not activate again until the trigger signal TRG is provided. As a result, the Josephson latch 106 can be reliably activated and predictably operated to control the flow of the output current IOUT to the load. What have been described above are examples of the disclosure. It is, of course, not possible to describe every conceivable combination of components or method for purposes of describing the disclosure, but one of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that many further combinations and permutations of the disclosure are possible. Accordingly, the disclosure is intended to embrace all such alterations, modifications, and variations that fall within the scope of this application, including the appended claims.