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Title:
CYCLIC AMIDOCARBOXY SURFACTANTS, SYNTHESIS AND USE THEREOF
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1991/001970
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
Cyclic amidocarboxy surfactants having general formula (I) wherein: R�1? and R�2? are independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C�1?-C�40? linear or branched, substituted or unsubsituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R�3?-O-R�4? groups, with R�3? and R�4? being independently selected from the group consisting essentially of C�1?-C�22? linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl and aryl groups; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation and is preferably selected from the groups consisting of H, Na, K, NH�4? [including (CH�3?CH�2?)�3?NH, (CH�3?CH�2?)�2?NH�2?, (HOCH�2?CH�2?)�3?NH, (HOCH�2?CH�2?)�2?NH�2? and similar ammonium derivatives], Ba, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Zr and mixtures thereof. These surfactants are useful in a variety of technical applications, such as fast-break emulsifiers in personal care products; destructible latex polymerization surfactants in manufacture and compounding of various coating or adhesive systems; domestic fabric softening agents; foodstuff emulsifiers; caustic-stabile surfactants; bleach-stabile surfactants; various domestic detergents and hard surface cleaners, emulsifiers for portland cement and concrete; floatation/benefication agents for mining/processing various mineral ores; additives for electroplating and/or surface finishing for metal goods; additives for plaster, gypsum and miscellaneous building materials; enhanced oil recovery additives; wetting and lubricating agents for industrial textile processing; compatibilizers/surfactants for polyurethane/isocyanurate foam systems, wood pulping additives; emulsifiers for various industrial surfactant systems, such as fatty alcohol/water emulsions; pour-point depressants for transporting petroleum crude oils, suspension agents for various particulate materials, such as anti-dandruff materials, i.e., sulfur, zinc pyrithone, etc. and other particulate materials, such as pulverized coal, and other similar uses.

Inventors:
Goze, Jean M. (757 N.E. Holcomb Drive, Mundelein, IL, 60060, US)
Bernhardt, Randal J. (1905 E. Fairfield Road, Lindenhurst, IL, 60046, US)
Hartlage, James A. (3926 Brittany Drive, Northbrook, IL, 60062, US)
Smith, Norman R. (90 East Atteridge Road, Lake Forest, IL, 60045, US)
Lietz, Dennis E. (935 Knollwood Road, Deerfield, IL, 60015, US)
Kay, James W. (Minehill Road, Durham, PA, 18039, US)
Breitbeil, Fred W. (831 S. Dryden Place, Arlington Heights, IL, 60005, US)
Sajic, Branco (5048 N. Ridgeway Ave, Chicago, IL, 60625, US)
Rockwell, Ned Miles (301 Neuman Ct, Lake Bluff, IL, 60044, US)
Mcconnell, Nina Montserrat (894 Burr Avenue, Winnetka, IL, 60093, US)
Mohring, William Richard (4400 Lake Avenue, Glenview, IL, 60025, US)
Application Number:
PCT/EP1990/001044
Publication Date:
February 21, 1991
Filing Date:
June 29, 1990
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
STEPAN COMPANY (22 West Frontage Road, Northfield, IL, 60093, US)
Holmes, Michael John (Imperial House, 15-19 Kingsway, London WC2B 6UZ, GB)
International Classes:
A01N37/22; A01N25/30; A01N37/18; A23L1/03; A23L1/035; A61K8/00; A61K8/31; A61K8/34; A61K8/37; A61K8/41; A61K8/42; A61K8/44; A61K8/60; A61K8/89; A61K8/891; A61K8/92; A61K8/97; A61K8/98; A61Q5/00; A61Q5/02; A61Q5/12; A61Q19/00; A61Q19/10; B01F17/00; B01F17/22; B01J13/00; C07C211/63; C07C215/40; C07C233/00; C07C233/65; C07C233/69; C07C235/84; C07D233/86; C08F2/26; C09D125/00; C09D125/04; C09D133/04; C09D133/06; C10L1/22; C10L1/32; C10L10/18; C10M133/16; C10M133/56; C11D1/10; C11D1/88; C11D3/00; D06M13/415; D06M15/693; C10N10/02; C10N10/04; C10N10/06; C10N10/08; C10N30/00; C10N30/02; C10N40/00; C10N40/20; (IPC1-7): C07C233/65; A01N37/24; A23L1/035; C07C233/69
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Holmes, Michael John (Frank B. Dehn & Co, Imperial House 15-19 Kingsway, London WC2B 6UZ, GB)
Download PDF:
Claims:
105-We claim:
1. A surfactant having the general formula: wherein: R, and R2 are independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C, C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R, O R_, groups, with Ra and B4 being independently selected from the group consisting essentially of C, C2 linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl and aryl groups; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation. A surfactant as defined in claim 1 wherein M is selected from the group consisting essentially of H, Na, K, NH< pnciuding (CHjCH^jNH, (CHjCH^NH^, (HOCH2CH2)3NH, (HOCH^CH^ tf^ and similar ammonium derivatives], Ba. Ca.
2. Mg, A!, Ti, Zr and mixtures thereof.
3. A surfactant as defined in daim 2 wherein M is selected from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH< [induding (CH3CH2)3NH, (CH3CH2)2NH2, (HOCH2CH2)3NH, (HOCH^CH^^NH^ and similar ammonium derivatives].
4. A surfactant as defined in daim 1 wherein R, and R2 are the same or different and selected from the g up consisting essentially of H or C, C^ alkyl groups.
5. A surfactant as defined in daim 1 wherein Rτ and Rg are the same or different and selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C, C7S alkyl groups.
6. A surfactant as defined in daim 1 wherein said surfactant is selected from the group consisting essentially of sodium Ndodecylphthalamate, sodium Noctadecylphthalamate, sodium Nhexadecylphthalamate, sodium Ntaliowphthalamate, sodium Ncocophthalamate, sodium Nisododecyloxypropyiphthalamate mixtures thereof and their corresponding potassium, ammonium, triethylammonium and triethanolammonium salts.
7. A surfactant as defined in daim 1 wherein said surfactant is selected from the group consisting essentially of sodium NmethylNdodecylphthalamate, sodium NmethylNoctadecyiphthalamate, sodium NmethylNhexadecyiphthalamate, sodium NmethylNtallowphthalamate, sodium NmethylNcocophthalamate, mixtures thereof and their corresponding potassium, ammonium, triethylammonium and triethanol ammonium salts.
8. A causticstabile surfactant having the general formula: wherein: R, and R2 are independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C, • C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R, O R4 groups, with R3 and R4 being independently selected from the group consisting essentially of C, C^ Gnear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl and aryl groups; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation.
9. A causticstabile surfactant as defined in claim 8 wherein M is selected from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH, [induding (CH3CH2)3NH, (CHjCH^ H^, (HOCH2CH2)3NH, (HOCH2CH2)2NH2 and similar ammonium derivatives], Ba, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Zr and mixtures thereof.
10. A causticstabile surfactant as defined in daim 8 wherein M is selected from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH4 [induding (CH3CH2)3NH, (CHjCH^NH^ (HOCH2CH2)3NH, (HOCH2CH2)2NH2 and similar ammonium derivatives].
11. A causticstabile surfactant as defined in daim 8 wherein R7 and R2 are the same or different an selected from the group consisting essentially of H or Cτ C78 alkyl groups.
12. A causticstabile surfactant as defined in daim 8 wherein said surfactant is selected from the group consisting essentially of sodium Ndodecylphthalamate, sodium Noctadecylphthalamate, sodium NhexadecylphthaJamate, sodium Ntallowphthalamate, sodium Ncocophthalamate, sodium Nisododecyloxypropylphthalamate mixtures thereof and their corresponding potassium, ammonium, triethylammonium and triethanolammonitirn salts.
13. A causticstabile surfactant as defined in daim 8 wherein said surfactant is selected from the group consisting essentially of sodium NmethylNdodecylphthalamate, sodium NmethylNoctadecylphthalamatβ, sodium NmethylNhexadecylphthalarnate. sodium NmethylNtaJlowphthaJamate, sodium NmethylNcocophthalamate, mixtures thereof and their corresponding potassium, ammonium, triethylammonium and triethanolammonium salts.
14. A chlorinestabile surfactant having the general formula: wherein: R, and f^ are independently selected from the group consisting essentially of C, C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryi or R, O • f^ groups, with R3 and R4 being independently selected from the group consisting essentially of C , C^ Bnear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl and aryl groups; y is an Integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation. 110 .
15. A chlorinestabile surfactant as defined in daim 14 wherein M is selected from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, H [induding (CH3CH2)3NH, (CHjCH^NHj, (HOCH2CH2)3NH, (HOCH2CH2)2NH2 and similar ammonium derivatives], Ba, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Zr and mixtures thereof.
16. A chlorinestabile surfactant as defined in daim 14 wherein M is selected from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH [induding (CH3CH2)3NH, (CH3CH2)2 H2, (HOCH2CH2)3NH, (HOCH2CH2)2NH2 and similar ammonium derivatives].
17. A chlorinestabile surfactant as defined in daim 14 wherein R, and R2 are the same or different and selected from the group consisting essentially of C, Cτβ alkyl groups.
18. A chlorinestabile surfactant as defined in daim 14 wherein said surfactant is selected from the group consisting essentially of sodium NmethylN dodecylphthalamate* sodium NmethyϊNHθctadecyiphthalamate, sodium NmethylN exadec^phthalamate, sodium NmethylNtallowpJτthalamatθ, sodium NmethylNcocophthalamate, mixtures thereof and their corresponding potassium, ammonium, triethylammonium and triethanolammonium salts.
19. A method of synthesizing a surfactant having the general formula: wherein: Rτ and R2 are independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C, C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, with R3 and R, being independently selected from the group consisting essentially of C, C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl and aryl groups; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation; comprising essentially of a reaction sequence defined by steps: A) contacting molten phthalic anhydride with at least a primary (R5NH2) amine, wherein R5 is selected from the group consisting essentially of C, CΛ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or RyOR, groups, with R3 and R, being defined as above, under reaction conditions conducive for formation of an imide between said anhydride and said amine; and B) adding to said imide a nucleophilic source yielding a cation selected from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH, and mixtures thereof under reaction conditions conducive to form the corresponding alkali salt .
20. A method as defined in daim 19 wherein after step (B), a hydroxide of an alkaline earth metal is added to form the corresponding alkalineearth salt.
21. A method as defined in claim 19 wherein after step (B), a mineral acid is added and thereafter a C C, alkoxide of a metal selected from the group consisting essentially of Al, Ti, Zr and mixture thereof or at least one amine is added to form the corresponding salt 2 '2.
22. A method as defined in daim 19 wherein said reaction conditions in step (A) indude applying heat in the range of about 90° to about 150°C while stirring under an inert atmosphere, and maintaining such conditions over a period of time ranging from at least about 30 minutes with removal of water and in step (B) indude applying heat' in the range of about 90° to about 150° and maintaining such conditions over a period of time ranging from at least about 30 minutes, with addition of water.
23. A method of synthesizing a surfactant having the general formula: wherein: R, and R2 are independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C, C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, with R3 and R, being independently selected from the group consisting essentially of C, n linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl and aryl groups; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation; comprising essentially of a reaction sequence defined by the steps: A) contacting molten phthalic anhydride with at least a secondary (R R JH) amine, wherein R5 and are independently selected from the group consisting essentially of C, C^ Enear or brandied, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or RJJO , groups, with R, and R< being defined as above, under reaction conditions conducive for formation of phthalamic add between said anhydride and said amine; and B) adding to said phthalamic acid a source yielding a cation selected from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH, [induding (CH3CH2)3NH, (CH3CH2)2NH2, (HOCH2CH2)3NH, (HOCH2CH2)2 and similar ammonium derivatives], Ba, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Zr and mixtures thereof to form the corresponding salt .
24. A method of synthesizing a surfactant having the general formula: wherein: R, and Rj are Independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C, C^ Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, * i groups, with Rj and R, being independently selected from the group consisting essentially of C, C^ Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl and any! groups; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation; comprising of a reaction sequence defined by steps: A) contacting phthalic anhydride with at least a tertiary Cr C,0 amine with stirring so as to obtain an admixture of said anhydride and said amine; and B) adding a primary or secondary (R5RβNH) amine to said admixture, with R5 and R6 being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or C, C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, with R3 and R, being defined as above, under reaction conditions conducive for formation of an alkylphthalamate salt .
25. A method as defined in daim 24 wherein R5 and R6 are independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or Ct Cr8 alkyl groups and mixtures thereof.
26. A method as defined in daim 24 wherein steps (A) and (B) occur substantially simultaneously. 116 .
27. A foodstuff emulsifier having the following general formula: wherein R, and R2 are independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or Cτ C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkyϊene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, and mixtures thereof with R3 and R, being independently selected from the group consisting essentially of Cτ C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof; y iss an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation.
28. A foodstuff emulsifier as defined in daim 27 wherein Rr and R2 are independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or Cτ Cτβ alkyl groups and mixtures thereof and M is sodium or potassium.
29. A foodstuff composition comprising: A) about 0.01 percent to about 5.0 percent by weight, on a 100 percent total composition weight basis, of a food emulsifier having the general formula: wherein: R, and R2 are independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C, C^ Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or RyOR, groups, and mixtures thereof with R3 and R, being independently selected from the group consisting essentially of C, Ca Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof, y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation; and B) an amount up to about 99.99 percent by weight, on a 100 percent total composition basis, of a food grade material.
30. A riiethod of emulsifying unprepared foodstuff ingredients to produce a prepared foodstuff, comprising: A) admixing seled unprepared foodstuff ingredients with about 0.01 to about 5.0 percent by weight, based on a 100 percent weight basis of total foodstuff ingredients, of a surfactant having the formula: wherein Rτ and Rg are independently seleded from the group consisting essentially e£H or C, C^, linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, and mixtures thereof with R3 and r being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of C, Ca Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation; and B) subjecting said admixture to preparation conditions suffident to produce a prepared foodstuff.
31. An emulsifier for skincare products having the general formula: wherein R7 and R2 are independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or Cτ C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, and mixtures thereof with R3 and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of C, C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation.
32. An emulsifier as defined in daim 31 wherein Rτ and R2 are the same or different and are seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or C7 Cτβ alkyl groups and mixtures thereof.
33. An emulsifier as defined in daim 31 wherein M is seleded from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH, [induding (CH3CH2)3NH, (CH3CH2)2NH2, (HOCH2CH2)3NH, (HOCH2CH2)2NH2 and similar ammonium derivatives] , Ba, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Zr and mixtures thereof.
34. A solventtolerant skincare composition, comprising: A) about 0.01 percent to about 10.0 percent by weight, on a 100 percent total composition weight basis, of a primary, cosmetic emulsifier having the general formula: where'iή: R, and R^ are independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or C, C^ Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, and mixtures thereof with R3 and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of Cτ C^ Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl aryl groups and mixtures thereof; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation; B) about 0.01 percent to about 10.0 percent by weight, of a secondary cosmetic emulsifier; and C) a sufficient amount of a cosmetic emollient to attain a ratio of emollient to emulsifier in the range of about 3:1 to about 30:1.
35. A skincare composition as defined in daim 34 wherein said composition is relatively salttolerant.
36. A skincare composition as defined in daim 34 wherein said composition exhibits a pH value in the range of about 5 to about 12.
37. A skincare composition as defined in daim 34 wherein Rr and R2 are the same or different and are seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or C, Cr8 alkyl groups and mixtures thereof.
38. A skincare composition as defined in daim 34 wherein M is seleded from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH, [induding (CH CH2)3NH, (CH3CH2)2NH2, (H0CH2CH2)3NH, (HOCH2CH2)2NH2 and similar ammonium derivatives] and mixtures thereof.
39. An emulsifier for skin/hair care products prepared by: A) contacting molten phthalic anhydride with at least a primary (R5NH2) amine, wherein R5 is seleded from the group consisting essentially of Cτ C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, with R3 and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of Cf C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof, under readion conditions conducive for formation of an imide between said anhydride and said amine; and B) adding to said imide a nudeophilic source yielding a cation seleded from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH, and mixtures thereof under reaction conditions conducive for formation of the corresponding alkali salt .
40. A haircare composition comprising: A) about 0.01 percent to about 10.0 percent by weight, on a a 100 percent total composition weight basis of a conditioning surfactant having the general formula: wherein Rτ and F^ are independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or C, C^, Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, and mixtures thereof with R3 and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of C, C^ Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation; 123 B) about 10.0 percent to about 25.0 percent by weight, on a 100 percent to composition weight basis, of a deaning material; and C) Q.S. 100 of an aqueous material.
41. A haircare composition as defined in daim 40 wherein R, and R2 are the same different and seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or Cτ C al groups and mixtures thereof.
42. A conditioning surfadant for haircare products prepared by: A) contacting molten phthalic anhydride with at least a primary (R5NH2) ami wherein R5 is independently seleded from the group consisting. essenti of Cr C,ø linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoal alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, with R3 and R, being independe seleded from the groups consisting essentially of Cτ C^ linear branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl aryl groups under reaction conditions conducive for formulation of an i between said anhydride and said amine; and B) adding to said imide a nudeophilic source yielding a cation seleded the group consisting essentialfy of Na, K, NH, and mixtures thereof u reaction conditions conducive for formation of the corresponding alkali .
43. A conditioning surfadant for haircare products as defined in daim 42 wherein said surfadant ' is seleded from the group consisting essentially of sodium N dodecylphthalamate, sodium Nodadecylphthalamate, sodium Nhexadecylphthalamate, sodium Ntatlowphthalamate, sodium Ncocophthalama!e, sodium Nisododecyloxypropylphthalamate mixtures thereof and their corresponding potassium, ammonium, triethylammonium and triethanolammonium salts.
44. A method' of treating skin comprising: applying a relatively salttolerant, relatively solventtolerant and relatively fast breaking arironϊd oilinwater cosmetic composition having a pH in the range of about 5 to 12 to a seled skin area, said cosmetic composition comprising: A) about 0.01 percent to about 10.0 percent by weight, on a 100 percent total composition weight basis, of a primary, relatively high HLB 'amulsifier having the general formula: whereiπ: Rτ and R2 are independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or Cτ CΛ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, and mixtures thereof with R3 and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of Cτ C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof; y is an integer of a value isatisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation; B) about 0.01 percent to about 10.0 percent by weight, of a secondary, relatively low HLB emulsifier; and C) a suffident amount of an emollient to attain a ratio of emollient to emulsifier in the range of about 3:1 to about 30:1 area; and rubbing said cosmetic composition into said skin area for a relatively brief period of time sufficient to break said composition and allow said emollient to penetrate said skin area.
45. A method of treating hair comprising: applying to wet hair a shampoo composition comprised of: A) about 0.05 percent to about 10.0 percent, by weight, on a 100 percent total composition weight basis, of a waterdispersable anionic surfactant having the general formula: wherein R7 and R2 are independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or C, C^, linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl. cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or ,0R, groups.and mixtures thereof with R3 and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of C, C^ Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation; B) about 10.0 percent to about 25.0 percent by weight, on a 100 percent ■total composition ha i , di a hairdeansinfl material; and C) Q.Sπoo of aqueous material; admixing said shampoo composition with said wet hair; and 3) rinsing the resultant hair with water to substantially remove any free shampoo composition.
46. An emulsified oilinwaler composition, comprising: A) about 0.01 to about 10.0 percent by weight, on a 100 percent total composition weight basis, of a relativefy high HLB emulsifier having the general formula: wherein: R, and R2 are independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or C, C^4_t0n Enear or brandied, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups and mixtures thereof with R3 and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of C, C^ Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation; B) about 0.01 to about 10.0 percent by weight, on a 100 percent total composition weight basis, of a relativefy tow HLB emulsifier; 128 C) up to about 80 percent by weight, on a 100 percent total composition weight basis, of art'oϊly material; and D) Q.S. 100 water.
47. An emulsified oilinwater composition as defined in daim 46 wherein said oily material is seleded from the group consisting essentially of crude petroleum oil, distilled petroleum oil, heavy paraffinic oil, asphaltene oil, tall oil, soybean oil alkyd, linseed oil alkyd, linseed oil, mineral oil, petrolatum, isopropyl palmitate, isopropyl myristate, capryHϊc/capric triglyceride, lanolin, acetylated lanolin alcohol, dimethicone, hydrogenated vegetable oil, sesame oil, safflower oil, avacodo oil, glycerin, propylene glycol, sorbitol, CJ2 C16 alcohol benzoates, cyclomethicone, dimethicone, cocoa butter, vitamin E acetate, squalane, sodium pyrolidone carboxylic acid, methyl glucose ether, panthenol, melanin and mixtures thereof.
48. An emulsifier for agricultural products having the general formula: wherein: Rr and Rj are independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of ,H or C, Q^ Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, and mixtures thereof with R3 and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of C, C^ Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M Is a cation.
49. An agricultural chemical composition comprising, in combination; an amount up to about 10 percent by weight, on a 100 percent total weight basis, of the emulsifier as defined in daim 48 and an effective amount of an active agricultural chemical in a suitable carrier.
50. A method of applying an active agricultural herbidde/pestidde to a growing crop so as to avoid postapplication washoff, comprising: A) produdng a sprayable emulsion containing an effective amount of an active agricultural herbidde/pestidde in a suitable carrier and an amount up to about 10 percent, by weight, on a 100 percent total weight basis, of a destructible surfactant having the general formula: wherein: R, and R2 are independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or C, CΛ Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, and mixtures thereof with R3 and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of C, C^ Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation. B) spraying said emulsion to said crop; and C) subjecting said sprayed emulsion to ambient temperature conditions whereby said surfadant chemically changes so as to become substantially water insensitive.
51. A fabric softener having the general formula: wherein: Rr and R^ are independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or C, CΛ Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or RjOR, groups, and mixtures thereof with R3 and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of C , C^ Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation.
52. A method of providing softness charaderistics to fabrics comprising: A) adding between about 0.01 and about 0.0 percent based on a 100 percent actives basis, of a surfactant to fabrics undergoing deansing in a domestic washing machine, said surfadant having the formula: wherein: R, and R^ are independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or 'C, C^ finear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or RjOR, groups, and mixtures thereof with R, and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of C, C^ finear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation; B) substantially uniformly dispersing said surfadant throughout said fabric; and C) drying said fabric.
53. A method as defined in daim 52 wherein said surfactant is added at a rinse cyde of said washing machine.
54. A method as defined in daim 52 wherein said surfactant is added at a wash cycle of said washing machine, along with a detergent composition.
55. A fabric softener prepared by: A) contacting molten phthalic anhydride with at least a primary (R5NH2) amine, wherein R5 is seleded from the group consisting essentially of Cτ C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, with R3 and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of Cτ C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl and aryl groups under reaction conditions conducive for formation of an imide between said anhydride and said amine; and B) adding to said imide a nudeophilic source yielding a cation seleded from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH, and mixtures thereof under readion conditions condu ve to form the corresponding alkali salt.
56. A fabric softener as defined in claim 55 wherein Rs is seleded from the group consisting essentially of C, C alkyl groups and mixtures thereof.
57. A fabric softener as defined in daim 55 wherein said NH, cation indudes (CH3CH2)3NH, (CHjCH^ H (H0CH2CH2)3NH, (HOC^CH^ ^ and similar ammonium derivatives and mixtures thereof.
58. A method of produdng a latex polymeric coating substantially devoid of water sensitive ingredients, comprising the steps: A) preparing a substantially uniform mixture of ethylenically unsaturated monomers, methacrylate esters, vinyl esters and other known latexforming monomers, along with initiators, base, water and a given amount of a surfadant having the general formula: wherein: R, and R^, are independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or C, C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryi or R30R, groups, and mixtures thereof, with R3 and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of C, C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation; B) subjecting said mixture to an emulsion polymerization reaction so as to obtain a stabile latex; * C) applying a coating of said latex to a surface; and D) subjeding said coated surface to drying conditions induding a temperature in the range of about 10° to about 300°C for a period of time suffident to chemically change said surfadant within said coating to render said coating substantially waterinsensitive.
59. A method as defined in daim 58 wherein step (B) indudes admixing other known ingredients for formation of a desired latex composition.
60. A method as defined in claim 58 wherein R, and R2 are independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or Cr Cτβ alkyl groups and mixtures thereof.
61. A method as defined in daim 58 wherein M is seleded from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH, [induding (CH3CH2)3NH, (CH3CH2)2NH2, (HOCH2CH2)3NH, (HOCH2CH2)2NH2 and similar ammonium derivatives] and mixtures thereof. .
62. A latex polymerization surfadant prepared by: A) contading molten phthalic anhydride with at least a primary (R5NH2) amine, wherein R5 is seleded from the group consisting essentially of C, C,0 linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, with R3 and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of Cτ C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl and aryl groups under readion conditions conducive for formation of an imide between said anhydride and said amine; and B) adding to said imide a nucleophilic source yielding a cation seleded from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH, and mixtures thereof under readion conditions condudve to formation of the corresponding alkali salt.
63. A method of producing an adhesive coating substantially devoid of watersensitive ingredients, comprising the steps: A) preparing a substantially uniform mixture of ethylenically unsaturated monomers, methacrylate esters, vinyl esters and other known latexforming monomers, along with initiators, base, water and a given amount of a surfadant having the general formula: wherein: Rf and R2 are independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or C, CΛ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, and mixtures thereof, with R3 and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of Cτ C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation. B) subjeding said mixture to an emulsion polymerization reaction so as to obtain a stabile adhesive mass; C) applying a coating of said adhesive mass to a surface; and D) subjecting said coated surface to drying conditions including a temperature in the range of about 10° to about 300° C for a period of time sufficient to chemically change said surfactant within said coating to render said coating waterinsensitive.
64. A method as defined in daim 63 wherein R, and R2 are independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or Cr CT8 alkyl groups and mixtures thereof.
65. A method as defined in claim 63 wherein M is seleded from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH, [including (CH3CH2)3NH, (CH3CH2)2NH2, (HOCH2CH2)3NH, (HOCH2CH2j2NH2 and similar ammonium derivatives] and mixtures thereof.
66. A method as defined in daim 63 wherein step (B) includes admixing other known ingredients for formation of a desired adhesive composition.
67. A latex polymerization surfadant prepared by: A) contading phthalic anhydride with at least a tertiary Cτ C,0 amine with stirring so as to obtain an admixture of said anhydride and said amine; and B) adding a primary or secondary (R5R6NH) amine to said admixture, with R5 and Rβ being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or CrC,0 linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryi^aryl or R30R, groups, with R3 and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of C7 C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixture thereof, under reaction conditions conducive for formation of an alkylphthalamate salt 138 .
68. A latex polymerization surfactant as defined in daim 67 wherein R6 and Rβ are independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or Cf C alkyl groups and mixtures thereof.
69. In a method of transporting relatively high viscosity crude petroleum oil, the improvement comprising: A) forming a relatively low viscosity emulsion from a seled crude petroleum oil, water and an emulsifier having the following general formula: wherein: R7 and Rj are independently seleded from the group consisting essentialfy of H or C, CΛ finear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoatkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, and mixtures thereof with R3 and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of C, C^j Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation; 139 B) transporting said emulsion to a desired location; and C) subjeding said emulsion to conditions suffident to chemically change said emulsifier to deadivate such emulsifier and thereby break said emulsion allowing ready separation of said oil from the admixture.
70. In a method as defined in daim 69 wherein said conditions suffident to chemically change said emulsifier involve heating said emulsion to temperatures of at least about 100°C.
71. In a method as defined in daim 69 wherein said conditions sufficent to chemically change said emulsifier involve adjusting the pH of said emulsion to below about.
72. In a method as defined in daim 69 induding recovering the chemically changed emulsifier and adjusting the pH of the sorecovered deactivated emulsifier to above about 7.5 and thereby reactivate said emulsifier.
73. An emulsifier for crude pefrdeum oil having the following general formula: wherein: R7 and R2 are independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or C, C^ finear or branched, substituted or unsubst'rfi ted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, and mixtures thereof, with R3 and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of C7 C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation. In a method of scouring textiles the improvement comprising: A) admixing an amount of up to about 50 percent by weight, based on a 100 percent total composition basis, a surfadant into a textile scouring bath, said surfactant having the general formula: wherein: R7 and ^ are independently seleded from the group consisting essentialfy of H or C, C^, Enear or brandied, substituted or unsubstituted elkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or RyOR, groups, and mixtures thereof with R3 and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of C7 C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation; and B) contading textiles with said bath to scour contaminants therefrom. In a method of treating textiles/fabrics wherein emulsified lubricants/softeners/dispersants are utilized, such as in spinfinishing, fiber finishing _, * .coning, winding or the like, with a surfactant, the improvement comprising wherein said surfactant has the general formula: wherein: R and Rj are independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or C, C^, Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, and mixtures thereof with R3 and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of C7 C^ Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation. 142 76 In a method of preparing pulp from a lignocellulosic material, such as wood chips, by subjecting said material to an alkaline pulping liquor at a seled temperature, pressure and time period to obtain a pulp having a seled Kappa number range, tiie improvement comprising: A) adding an amount up to about 10 percent by weight, based on a 100 percent weight basis of, dry pulp being produced, of a surfadant having the following general formula: wherein: R7 and R2 are independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or C, Q^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, and mixtures thereof with R3 and R, being independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of C7 C^ Enear or brandied, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups andmixtures thereof; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation, to said alkaline pulping liquor; and B) discharging said pulping liquor and the at least partially delignified lignocellulosic material; and C) displacing said pulping liquor from said partially delignified lignocellulosic material with water on an aqueous liquor to obtain a pulp having said seled Kappa number range. In a method of produdng a pofyurethane/isocyanurate foam, the improvement comprising: A) admixing an amount up to about 10 percent by weight, based on a 100 percent total composition basis, a surfadant with a polyurethane/ isocyanurate foamforming composition, said surfadant having the general formula: wherein: R, and R2 are independently seleded from the group consisting essentially of H or C, C^ Enear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R30R, groups, and mixtures thereof with R3 and R, being independently seieded from the group consisting essentially of C7 O^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cydoalkyi, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation; a foam from said admixture.
74. 78 A surfactant solution comprising an effective surfactant amount of a salt of the formula: wherein R2, R2, R3, and R4 are the same or different and represent straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms, or aryl straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms.
75. 79 A surf ctant solution according to claim 78 wherein the amount of said salt in the solution is about 0.05% to about 20%.
76. A surfactant solution according to claim 79 wherein the amount of said salt in the solution is about 0.5% to about 10%.
77. A surfactant solution according to claim.78wherein Rlt R2, R3 and R4 are tallow fatty alkyl groups.
78. A surfactant solution comprising an effective surfactant amount of a mixture of an acid of the formula: wherein Rx and R2 are the same or different and represent straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms, or aryl straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms; and a salt of the formula: wherein Rlt R2, R3 and R* are the same or different and represent straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms, or aryl straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms.
79. A surfactant solution according to claim 82,wherein the amount of said mixture of acid and salt in the solution is about 0.050 to about 20%. 84: ~' A surfactant solution according to claim 83,wherein the amount of said mixture of acid and salt in the solution is about 0.
80. 5% to about 10%.
81. A surfactant solution according to claim 82 wherein Rlt R2, R3 and * are tallow fatty alkyl groups.
82. A surfactant solution according to claim 82, wherein the acid and salt are present in said mixture in a ratio ranging from about 90:10 to about 10:90.
83. ".
84. A surfactant solution according to claim82, wherein the acid and salt are present in said mixture in a ratio ranging from about 70:30 to about 30:70.
85. A surfactant solution comprising an effective surfactant amount of an acid of the formula: wherein Rj amd R2 are the same or different and represent straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms, or aryl straight chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms.
86. A formulated conditioning shampoo comprising an effective conditioning amount of a salt of the formula: wherein Rlt R2, R3 and R4 are the same or different and represent straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms, or aryl straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms.
87. A formulated conditioning shampoo according to claim89 wherein the amount of said salt in the shampoo is about 0.05% to about 20%.
88. A formulated conditioning shampoo according to claim 90 wherein the amount of said salt in the shampoo is about 0.5% to about 10%.
89. A formulated conditioning shampoo according to claim 89 wherein said shampoo has a pH value ranging from 3.0 to about 9.0.
90. A formulated conditioning shampoo according to claim 92 wherein said shampoo has a pH value ranging from about 4.5 to about 6.5.
91. A formulated conditioning shampoo according to claim 89 wherein Rx, R2, R3 and R4 are tallow fatty alkyl groups.
92. A formulated conditioning shampoo according to claim 89 comprising an effective amount of N, di(hydrogenated tallow) phthalamic acid di(hydrogenated tallow) ammonium salt.
93. A formulated conditioning shampoo comprising an effective conditioning amount of a mixture of an acid of the formula: wherein R2 and R2 are the same or different and represent straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms, or aryl straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms, and a salt of the formula: wherein Rlt R2, R3 and R<, are the same or different and represent straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms, or aryl straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms.
94. A formulated conditioning shampoo according to claim 96 wherein the amount of said mixture of the acid and salt in the shampoo is about 0.05% to about 20%.
95. A formulated conditioning shampoo according to claim 97 wherein the amount of said mixture of the acid and salt in the shampoo is about 0.05% to about 10%.
96. A formulated conditioning shampoo according to claim 96 wherein said shampoo has a pH value ranging from about 3.0 to about 9.0.
97. A formulated conditioning shampoo according to claim 99 wherein said shampoo has a pH value ranging from about 4.5 to about 6.5.
98. A formulated conditioning shampoo according to claim 96 wherein Rx, R2, R3 and R<, are tallow fatty alkyl groups.
99. A formulated conditioning shampoo according to claim .96 wherein the acid and salt are present in said mixture in a ratio ranging from about 90:10 to about 10:90.
100. A formulated conditioning shampoo according to claim 96 wherein the acid and salt are present in said mixture in a ratio ranging from about 70:30 to about 30:70.
101. An emulsifier solution comprising an effective emulsifier amount of a salt of the formula: wherein j, R2, R3 and R4 are the same or different and represent straight* or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms," or aryl straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbσq atoms. *105.
102. An emulsifier solution according to claim 104 wherein Rlt R^ R3 and 4 are tallow fatty alkyl groups.
103. An emulsifier solution comprising an effective emulsifier amount of a mixture of an acid of the formula: wherein Rx and R2 are the same or different and represent straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms, or aryl straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms, and a salt of the formula: wherein Rlf R2, R3 and R4 are the same or different and represent straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms, or aryl straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms.
104. 01 „ An emulsifier solution according to claim.
105. 29 wherein Rlf R2, R3 and R4 are tallow fatty alkyl groups.
106. An emulsifier solution according to claim 30 wherein the acid and salt are present in said mixture in a ratio ranging from about 90:10 to about 10:90.
107. An emulsifier solution according to claim .30 wherein the acid and salt are present in said mixture in a ratio ranging from about 70:30 to about 30:70.
Description:
CYCLIC AMIDOCARBOXY SURFACTANTS , SYNTHESIS AND USE THEREOF

Field of the Invention

The invention relates to surfactants and somewhat more particularly, to improved amidocarboxy compounds, compositions containing such compounds, methods of preparing such compounds and compositions, as well as methods of using such compounds or compositions in a wide variety of technically useful fields.

Background of the Invention

A wide variety of surface active (surfactant) compounds are known and widely used. Further, certain relatively specific phthalamate derivatives are at least nominally disclosed in academic and patent literature. Some specific phthalamate derivatives have been suggested as being useful in plant growth regulator formulations, insect repellent formulations, bactericidal, fungicidal, herbicidal formulations, additives for improving low temperature flow characteristics of petroleum distillate fuels, solvent extraction formulations for certain heavy metal ions, catalyst systems for polyurethane foam formulations, additives for thermal recording materials, thickeners for silicone grease and oil-based drilling muds, additives for water-insensitive coatings, plasticizers, etc. For example, U.S. Patent 2,101,323 provides a scant disclosure of certain monoamides of particular dicarboxylic acids including cyclic amidocarboxy compounds and various phthalamate derivatives, solvent-based synthesis routes and a recitation of potential uses therefore. Somewhat similarly, U.S. Patent 2,467,192 provides a disclosure of certain ammonium salts of "amic" acids, including various phthalamate derivatives, synthesis thereof and a use therefore as a plasticizer which may involve forming water-insens ' rtive surfaces or films. Numerous other, relatively remote, disclosures involving phthalamic acids or

phthalamate derivatives include the following U.S. Patents: 2,554,249 (additive for insecticide! compositions); 2,582,670 (additive for vulcanization activators); 2,742,496 (additive for rust and corrosion inhibitor formulations); 3,095,286 (additive to screen- clogging prevention and rust inhibition formulations); 4,211,534 (additive for improving low temperative flow characteristics of petroleum fuel oils); 4,478,958 (additive to catalyst systems for polyurethane foam formulations); etc.

In addition, so-called fast-breaking personal-care compositions involving vinyl polymers are disclosed in European Patent Application Number 0268 164 A2. Further, an oil-in-water hair/skin conditioning composition containing certain water-insoluble, unctuous oleaginous materials and a water-dispersable hydrated polyvalent metal salt (i.e. Al), adjusted to a relatively low pH so as to invert to a water-in-oil emulsion when rubbed onto hair/skin and provide a moisturizing or protective barrier is disclosed in U.S. Patent 4,551,330.

Further, U.S. Patents 3,928,432 and 4,544,726 disclose certain monomeric latex polymerization surfactants, which during polymerization are chemically incorporated into the polymers so as to prevent migration thereof and thereby reduce water-sensitivity of the resulting polymeric mass.

U.S. Patent 4,741,855 describes shampoo compositions which comprise a synthetic surfactant, an insoluble, non-volatile silicone, a suspending agent, and water. The described suspending agents include long chain esters of ethylene glycol, esters of long chain fatty amine oxides and many others. There appear to be several key conditioning components in these compositions, including an insoluble, non-volatile, silicone, a suspending agent and a quaternary ammonium compound. The quaternary ammonium compounds, disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 4,741,855 as ingredients in a shampoo composition are di(hydrogenated tallow) dimethyl ammonium chloride and cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride.

The use of silicone material in shampoos has been described in a number of different publications. The manufacture of such compositions is extremely complicated and requires specialized mixing equipment, high shear pumps, a heat exchanger, several manufacturing tanks, etc.

Quaternary ammonium compounds derived from fatty acid amines such as tallow amine and di-tallow amine have been used as conditioners, surfactants and thickeners or emulsifiers in various shampoo and hair care products. For example, European Patent Application No.0067635A2 discloses conditioning shampoos containing quaternary ammonium compounds of the formula:

R 3 - N — R *

wherein the R 1 and R 2 groups contain an average of from abou t 16 to 22 carbon atoms, most preferably from about 16 to about 18 carbon atoms, R 3 and R* are C x to C^ alkyl or hydroxyalkyl groups, and X is any compatible anion, particularly one selected from the group consisting of halide, hydroxide, ethylsulf te, or acetate anions.

The shampoo compositions of that patent application also contain acyl derivatives which are long chain amides, alkanbla ides, esters of ethylene glycol and glycerine, esters of carboxylic acids, esters of thiodicarboxylic acids, and mixtures of these derivatives. The shampoo compositions of that patent application also contain surfactants which are represented by the formula:

wherein R 1 is a long chain alkyl radical having from about 10 to about 18 carbon atoms or an amido radical represented by the formula:

R s -CONH(CH 2 ) 3

wherein R 5 is a long chain alkyl radical, R 2 and R 3 are each alkyl radicals having from about 1 to about 3 carbon atoms, R* is an alkylene or hydroxy alkylene radical having from about 1 to about 4 carbon atoms, and X is a carboxylate radical.

European Patent Application No. 0152194 A2 discloses shampoo compositions containing quaternary ammonium salts of the formula:

wherein R x is hydrogen, or an aliphatic group of from ' l to 22 carbon atoms, or an aromatic, aryl or alkaryl group having 6 to 20 carbon atoms; R 2 is an aliphatic group having from 12 to 22 carbon atoms; R 3 and R 4 are each alkyl groups having from 1 to 3 carbon atoms; and X is an anion selected from halogen, acetate, phosphate, nitrate and methyl sulfate radicals. U.K. Patent Application No. GB 2196979 A provides hair care compositions comprising compounds of the formula:

wherein ~ ± and R 2 are aliphatic groups containing from about 12 to about 22 carbon atoms, R 3 and R 4 are hydrogen or short chain alkyl groups containing from about 1 to about 4 carbon atoms and X is anion selected from halogen, acetate, phosphate, nitrate and alkyl sulfate radicals. U.K. Patent Application No. GB 2124647 A teaches quaternary ammonium compounds useful in shampoo compositions. The ammonium compounds have the formula:

R 2 R J

R'- -R 5 R 1 — N-(R') y H R 5 or R 1

wherein R x is an aliphatic alkyl group containing an average of from about 16 to 22 carbon atoms, most preferably from about 16 to about 18 carbon atoms, the R 2 groups are Cj , to C 4 alkyl or hydroxylalkyl groups, the R 3 groups are alkylene oxtde groups, preferably propylene oxide, where y is 1-4 and X is any compatible anion, particularly one selected from the group consisting of halide, hydroxide, methylsulfate, or acetate anions.

European Patent Application No. 0294 894 discloses conditioning agents for delivery from shampoos comprising compounds of the formula:

wherein R α and R 2 can independently be C 16 to C 20 alkyl or alftenyl and R 3 is H or CH 3 , and A is an anionic surfactant selected from the group consisting of alkyl sulfonates, aryl sulfonates, alkylaryl sulfonates, alkyl sulf tes, alkyl ethoxylated sulf tes, dialkyl sulfosuccinates, ethoxylated alkyl sulfonates, alkyl oxybenzene sulfonates, acyl ise.thionates, acyl alkyl taurates, olefin sulfonates and paraffin sulfonates. A wide variety of surface active (surfactant) compounds are known and widely used. Further, certain relatively specific phehalamate derivatives are at least nominally disclosed in academic and patent literature. Some specific phthalamate derivatives have b en suggested as being useful in plant growth regulator formulations, ' insect repellent formulations, bactericidal, fungicidal, herbicidal formulations, additives for improving low temperature flow characteristics of petroleum distillate fuels, solvent extraction formulations for certain heavy metal ions, catalyst systems for polyurethane foam formulations, additives for

ther al recording materials, thickeners for silicone grease and oil- based drilling muds, additives for water-insensitive coatings, plasticizers, etc. Phthalamic acids or phthalamate derivatives have been used as additives for insecticidal compositions; additives for vulcanization activators; additives for rust and corrosion inhibitor formulations; additives to screen-clogging prevention and rust inhibition formulations; additives for improving low temperative flow characteristics of petroleum fuel oils; additives to catalyst systems for polyurethane foam formulations. Ammonium phthalamates have been used as additives in fuel oil compositions, blending agents for grease, lubricating oil additives, and thickening agents for lubricating oil compositions. These ammonium phthalamates have the formula

wherein R lt R 2 , R 3 and R are the C 16 -C 40 , preferably C 16 -C 24 straight chain alkyl groups of secondary amine, and may be the same or different.

Tallow is a fatty acid byproduct of the meat-packing industry obtained by rendering the body fat from cattle and sheep. Tallows from different sources vary in free fatty acid content. The fatty acids normally found in tallow are myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid.

Several methods are known for the preparation of tallow amines, but the most common method in industry is the conversion of a fatty acid to a nitrile by treating with ammonia, followed by catalytic hydrogenation of the nitrile to primary, secondary, or tertiary amine by suitable adjustment in the reaction conditions. Tallow amines, as well as di(hydrogenated tallow) amine, are commercially available; for example, di(hydrogena ed tallow) amines

are available under the trade name ARMEEN 2HT™ (Akzo Chemicals, Chicago, Illinois).

Various routes exist for the preparation of phthalamic acids and phthalamic acid salts. In U.S. Patent No. 4,402,708 N,N- diarachidyl phthalamic acid was prepared by adding phthalic anhydride to a 40% solution of amine in toluene in a 1/1 mole ratio at 80°C. The product was recovered by vacuum drying at 50°C, 0.05 mmHg for 20.5 hours. Phthalic anhydride sublimation was observed. This method makes no mention of the presence of any ammonium salt in the resultant product.

U.S. Patent No. 4,402,708 describes a method for preparing N,N-dioctadecyl phthalamic acid dioctadecyl ammonium salt and N,N- diarachidyl phthalamic acid diarachidyl ammonium salt. Phthalic anhydride was added to a 10% solution of amine in toluene in an anhydride to amine mole ratio of 1/2. The product was recovered by filtering and film evaporating a 1/1 toluene/n-heptane solution at 55°C, 40 mmHg.

Phthalaiaic acids have also been prepared by melting phthalic anhydride at 131°C and subsequent addition of molten secondary amine. The reactants to be added in an equimolar ratio. At the temperature used in this method, 131°C, excessive phthalic anhydride sublimation occurs and increased product degradation is observed.

This method makes no mention of the presence of any ammonium salt in the resultant product. Phthalamic acids have been prepared by addition of a solution of secondary amine in isopfopanol at 78C to a phthalic anhydride/isopropanol slurry at 78°C in a one to one phthalic anhydride/amine molar ratio with subsequent vacuum stripping of the solvent. This method utilizes isopropanol as the solvent for the reaction. Isopropanol, a secondary amine, reacts with phthalic anhydride to yield isopropyl mono ester of phthalic acid. At 78°C, as much as 40% of the product may be this ester.

Each of these methods produces a mixture of the desired phthalamic acid and an ammonium phthalamate salt. However, these methods make no mention of the presence of any ammonium salt in the resultant product.

However, while various amidocarboxy compounds, including certain fatty phthalamates may be suggested in certain arts, and some fast-breaking emulsions may be suggested for personal-care products as well as some latex polymerization surfactants capable of providing water-insens ' rtive films or coatings may be known, the surfactant arts have not heretofore recognized the specific materials, synthesis routes and uses disclosed

herein and which exhibit superior surfactant/emulsification characteristics useful in a wide variety of technical applications including surfactants per se, caustic-stabile surfactants, chlorine-stabile surfactants, fast-break emulsifiers for personal-care products, emulsifiers for agricultural chemicals, domestic fabric softeners, destructible latex polymerization surfactants, domestic detergent additives, emulsifiers for portland cement and concrete, floatation/benefication additives for various mineral ores, additives for electroplating and/or surface finishing baths for metal goods, additives for plaster, gypsum and miscellaneous building materials, additives for enhanced oil recovery formulations, wetting and lubricating surfactants for textile processing, pulp digestive additives, surfactants for polyurethane/ isocyanurate foam formulation, pour-point depressant for transporting viscous petroleum oils, industrial surfactants for emulsifying a wide variety of oily materials, as suspending agents for various particular materials, etc.

The invention provides surfactants of a general formula:

wherein R τ and Rj are independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C, - rø linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R 3 -0-R^ groups, and mixtures thereof with R 3 and R, being independently selected from the group consisting essentially of C, - C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, and aryl groups; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation; synthesis routes for producing such surfactant at relatively high yields with little or no purification and methods of utilizing such surfactants.

The present invention also " provides surfactant solut ions compris an effective amount of a salt of the following general:

wherein R lt R 2 , R 3 , and R 4 are the same or different and represent straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms, or aryl straight or branched chain alkyl groups having

10 to 40 carbon atoms.

10 The present invention also provides surfactant solutions comprising an. effective surfactant amount of an acid of th following , general formula:

wherein R α and R 2 are the same or different and represent straight o branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms, o aryl straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 4 carbon atoms.

The present invention also provides surfactant solution comprising an effective surfactant amount of a mixture of a salt o formula71 above and an acid of forraulaHI.

In addition, the present invention provides formulated conditioning shampoos comprising an effective conditioning amount of a salt of formula II. The invention further provides a formulated conditioning shampoo comprising an effective conditioning amount of a mixture of a salt of formula ITabove and an acid salt of formula II above.

The present invention also provides emulsifier solutions comprising an effective emulsifier amount of a salt of formula I above. The present invention also provides emulsifier solutions comprising an effective emulsifier amount of a mixture of a salt o formula I above and an " acid of formula II above.

These surfactants are useful as surfactants per se, as caustic-stabile surfactants, as chlorine-stabile surfactants, as cosmetic emulsifiers for personal care product, such as skin creams, skin lotions, hair conditioners, etc., as fast-breaking skin-care product emulsifiers; as emulsifiers for agricultural chemicals, as domestic fabric softeners; as destructible latex polymerization surfactants In coating and/or adhesive systems, as domestic detergent additives, such as in heavy-duty detergents, In light-duty detergents, in dishwashing detergents, in various hard surface cleaners, etc.; as emulsifiers for

portland cement and concrete; as floatation/benefication additives for various mineral ores; as additives for electroplating and/or surface finishing baths for metal goods; as additives for plaster, gypsum and miscellaneous building materials; as enhanced oil recovery additives; as wetting and lubricating surfactants for textile processing; as pulp digestive additives; as surfactants for polyurethane/isocynaurate foam systems; as pour- point depressants for transporting viscous petroleum oils; as industrial surfactants for emulsifying a wide variety of oily materials; as low temperature stabilizers for fatty alcohol/water emulsions; as suspending agents for various particulate material, such as coal tar, sulfur or coal; etc.

Accordingly, it is an object of the invention to provide surfactants of the general formula (I) above. In certain embodiments of this feature of the invention, R ; and R 2 are independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C, - C 30 linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R 3 -0-R 4 groups, with R 3 and R 4 being independently selected for the group consisting essentially of C, - C^, linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted, alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl and aryl groups. In more preferred embodiments, R r and H 2 are independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C, - C^ and more preferably are selected from the group consisting of H or C, - C rs alkyl groups. The cation, M, is preferably selected from the group consisting essentially of' Na, K, 4 [including (CH 3 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 , (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 and similar ammonium derivatives], Ba, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Zr and mixtures thereof and even more preferably is selected from the group consisting essentially oPNa, K, NH 4 [including

(CH 3 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 , (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 and similar ammonium derivatives] and mixtures thereof. Specific preferred exemplary embodiments of this fe ' ature of the invention include sodium N-dodecylphthalamate, sodium N-octadecyfphthaiamate, sodium N-hexadecylphthalamate, sodium N-tallowphthalamate, sodium N-cocophthalamate, sodium N-isododecyloxypropylphthalamate, sodium N-methyl-N-dodecylphthalamate, sodium N-methyl-N-octadecylphthalamate, sodium N-methyl-N-hexadecyiphthalamate, sodium N-methyl-N-tallowphthalamate, sodium N-methyl-N-cocophthalamate,

N, N- di (hydrogenated tallow) phthalamic acid

N N - di (hydrogenated tallow) phthalamic acid di ( hydrogenated tallow ) ammonium salt

mixtures thereof and their corresponding potassium, ammonium, triethylammonium and triethanoiammonium salts. Certain of the surfactants (I) above are caustic-stabile, i.e.,

_ * function and do not break-down in relatively high pH environments, while certain of the dialkyl surfactants are chlorine-stabile, i.e., function and do not break-down in environments having a relatively high chlorine-ion concentration.

It is a further object of the invention to provide methods of producing surfactants

- of formula (1) above. In certain preferred embodiments of this feature of the invention, molten phthalic anhydride may be brought into contact with at least a primary (R 5 NH 2 ) amine, wherein R 5 is selected from the group consisting essentially of C, - C 40 linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl, or

R 3 -0-R 4 groups, with R 3 and R, being independently selected from the group consisting essentially of C, - C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl and aryl groups, under reaction conditions conducive for formation of an imide between the anhydride and the amine, and a nucleophilic source yielding a cation selected from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH, and mixtures thereof may be added to the imide under reaction conditions conducive tc formation of the corresponding alkali salts. In certain forms of this embodiment, a hydroxide of an alkaline-earth metal may be added, after addition of the nucleophilic source, to form the corresponding alkaline-earth salt. Further, in yet other forms of this embodiment, a mineral acid may be added after the formation of the alkali salt and thereafter a C 7 - C 4 alkoxide of a metal selected from the group consisting essentially of Al, Ti, Zr and mixtures thereof or at least one amine, may be added to form the corresponding salt. In other preferred embodiments of this feature of the invention, molten phthalic anhydride may be brought into contact with at least a secondary (R 5 R fi NH) amine, wherein R 5 and R 6 are independently selected from the group consisting essentially of C, - C 40 linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted, alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl, or R 3 -0-R 4 groups with R 3 and R, being independently selected from the group consisting essentially of C r - C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl and aryl groups, under reaction conditions conducive for formation of phthalamic acid between the anhydride and the amine, and a source yielding a cation selected from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH 4 [including (CH 3 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 , (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 and similar ammonium derivatives]

Ba, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Zr and mixtures thereof may be added to the phthalamic acid so as to form the corresponding salt. In yet other preferred embodiments of this feature of the invention, phthalic anhydride may be brought into contact with a tertiary C r - C 40 amine so as to obtain an admixture thereof and a primary or secondary (R 5 R 6 NH) amine, wherein R 5 and R 6 are independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C, - rø linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl, or R^O-R^groups, with R 3 and R being independently selected from the group consisting essentially of C r - C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl and aryl groups, may be added to the admixture under reaction conditions conducive for formation of an alkyl phthalamate salt. The primary or secondary (R 5 R^NH) amine may be added sequentially to or substantially simultaneously with the tertiary amine.

It is a further object of the invention to provide a foodstuff emulsifier having the general formula (I) above; as well as a foodstuff composition which may be comprised of about 0.01 percent to about 5.0 percent by weight of the foodstuff emulsifier, and an amount up to about 99.99 percent by weight of a food-grade material, as well as a method of producing prepared foodstuff wherein select unprepared foodstuff ingredients may be admixed with abput 0.O1 to about 5.0 percent actives of the foodstuff emulsifier having the formula (I) above and subjecting the resulting admixture to preparation conditions sufficient to produce a prepared foodstuff. In certain preferred embodiments of this feature of the invention, the foodstuff emulsifier comprised of formula (I) above, includes specie wherein ,R, and R 2 are independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C, - C r8 alkyl groups and mixtures thereof and the cation is sodium or potassium.

It is yet a further object of the invention to provide an emulsifier for skin-care products having the general formula (I) above; a solvent-tolerant skin-care composition which may comprise about 0.01 percent to about 10.0 percent of a primary emulsifier having the general formula (I) above, about 0.01 percent to about 10.0 percent of a secondary emulsifier, and a sufficient amount of an emollient to attain a ratio of emollient to emulsifier in the range of about 3:1 to about 30:1. In certain forms of this embodiment, the skin-care compositions may be relatively salt-tolerant. In yet other embodiments of this feature of this invention, the skin-care composition may exhibit a pH value in the range of about 5 to about 12. In certain preferred forms of the emulsifier for skin-care products having the formula (I) above, R τ and R 2 are independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C r - C rs alkyl groups and mixtures thereof and M, the cation, may selected from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH 4 [including (CH 3 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 , (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 and similar ammonium derivatives] Ba, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Zr and mixtures thereof and more preferably may selected from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH, [including (CH 3 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 , (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 and similar ammonium derivatives] and mixtures thereof.

It is yet a further object of the invention to provide a hair-care composition comprising about 0.01 percent to about 10.0 percent of a conditioning surfactant having the general formula (I) above, about 10 percent to about 25 percent of a hair-cleansing material; and Q.S. 100 of an aqueous material. In certain preferred embodiments of this conditioning surfactant, R r and R 2 are independently selected from the group consisting

essentially of H or C, - C JS alkyl groups and mixtures thereof. Specific exemplary embodiments of conditioning surfactants for hair-care products or compositions include materials selected from the group consisting essentially of sodium N-dodecylphthalamate, sodium N-octadecylphthalamate, sodium N-hexadecylphthalamate, sodium N-tallowphthalamate, sodium N-cocophthalaraate, sodium N-isododecyIoxypropylphthalamate,mixtures thereof and their corresponding ' potassium, ammonium, triethylammonium and triethanolammonium sates and mixtures thereof.

A particularly attractive object of the invention comprises applying to human skin a relatively salt-tolerant, relatively solv πt-tolerant, and relatively fast-breaking anionic oil- in-water cosmetic composition having a pH in the range of about 5 to 12, with such composition being comprised of about 0.01 percent to about 10.0 percent of a primary, relatively high HLB emulsifier having the general formula (I) above; about 0.01 percent to about 10.0 percent of a secondary, relatively low HLB emulsifierrand a sufficient amount of an emollient to attain a ratio of emollient to emulsifier in the range of about 3:1 to about 30:1 at a select skin area; and rubbing the composition into the skin area for a relatively brief period of me sufficient to break the composition and allow the emollient to penetrate into the skin area. A somewhat similar embodiment of this feature of the invention comprises conditioning or treating hair (to avoid tangles, snarls, etc.) by applying to wet hair a shampoo composition comprised of about 0.05 percent to about 10.0 percent of a water-dispersable anionic surfactant having the general formula (I) above;

about 10 percent to about 25 percent of a hair-cleansing material; and Q.S. 100 o aqueous material; admixing such shampoo composition with the wet hair and rinsing th resultant hair with water or aqueous solution so as to substantially remove any fre shampoo composition.

It is also an object of the invention to provide an emulsified oil-in-water compositio comprising about 0.01 to about 1C.0 percent of a relatively high HLB emulsifier having th general formula (I) above; about 0.01 percent to about 10.0 percent- of a relatively lo HLB emulsifier; up to about 80 percent of an oily material and Q.S. 100 water. The oil material may be preferably selected from a group consisting essentially of crud petroleum oil, distilled petroleum oil, heavy paraffinic oil, asphaltene oil, linseed oil, tall oi soybean oil alkyd, linseed oil alkyd, mineral oil, petrolatum, isopropyl palmitate, isoprop myristate, caprylic/capric triglyceride, lanolin, acetylated lanolin alcohol, dimethicon hydrogenated vegetable oil, sesame oil, safflower oil, avocado oil, glycerine, propylen glycol, sorbitol, C τ2 - C r6 alcohol beπzoates, cyclomethicone, dimethicone, cocoa butte vitamin E acetate, squalane, sodium pyrolidone carboxylic acid, methyl glucose ethe panthenol, melanin, mixtures thereof, etc.

It is yet another object of the invention to provide an emulsifier having the gener formula (I) above, for agricultural chemicals and agricultural chemical compositio comprising, in combination, an amount up to about 10 percent, by weight of the abo emulsifier and an effective amount of an active agricultural chemical in a suitable carri such as an oil or an aqueous system. A feature of this embodiment of the inventi involves applying an active agricultural herbicide/pesticide to a growing crop so as

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avoid post-application washoff and comprises producing a sprayable emulsion containing an effective amount of an active agricultural herbicide/pesticide in a suitable carrier and an amount of up to about 10 percent of a destructible surfactant having the general formula (I) above; spraying such emulsions onto the growing crop; and subjecting the sprayed emulsion to ambient temperature conditions over a period of time whereby the surfactant chemically changes so that the resulting agricultural chemical composition becomes substantially water-insensitive. Also, the desired chemical change may be accomplished by subjecting the sprayed crop to a pH environment of less than about 5. It is yet a further object of the invention to provide a fabric softener having the general formula (l) above, as well as a method of providing softness characteristics to fabrics by adding an amount of such softener to fabrics undergoing cleansing in a domestic washing machine, substantially uniformly dispersing the surfactant throughout such fabrics and drying the fabrics. In certain preferred embodiments of this feature of the invention, the surfactant may be added to the rinse cycle of the machine and in other preferred embodiments of this feature, the surfactant may be added to the wash cycle of domestic washing machines, along with a detergent composition. In certain preferred embodiments of this feature of the invention, R 7 and R 2 in formulation (I) above, may be selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C r - C T8 alkyl groups and mixtures thereof and the cation in the above formulation may be selected from a group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH . [including (CH 3 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 , (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 and similar ammonium derivatives] and mixtures thereof.

A feature of this object of the invention is a fabric softener prepared by contacting molten phthalic anhydride with a least a primary (R 5 NH 2 ) amine wherein R 5 is selected from the group consisting essentially of C, - C 40 linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, or R 3 -0-R, groups, with R 3 and R, being independently selected from a group consisting essentially of C ? - C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, and aryl groups under reaction conditions conducive for formation of an imide between the anhydride and the amine, and adding to the imide, a nucleophilic source yielding a cation selected from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, H, and mixtures thereof to form a corresponding alkali salt.

It is yet another object of the invention to provide a "destructible' * latex emulsion polymerization surfactant prepared by contacting phthalic anhydride with at least a tertiary C 7 - C 40 amine so as to obtain a mixture of the anhydride and the amine, and adding a primary or a secondary (R 5 R 6 NH) amine to the admixture, with R 5 and R 6 being independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C, - C 40 linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl, ' or R 3 -0-R, groups, with R 3 and R, being independently selected from a group consisting essentially of C r - C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene and aryl groups, under reaction conditions conducive for formation of an alkylphthalamate salt. In certain embodiments of this feature of the invention, a latex polymerization surfactant is prepared by contacting molten phthalic anhydride with at least a primary (R 5 NH 2 ) amine, wherein R 5 is selected from the group consisting essentially of C 7 - C 40 linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene,

alkaryl, aryl, or R 3 -OR, groups, with R 3 and R, being independently selected from the group consisting essentially of C 7 - C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, and aryl groups under reaction conditions conducive for formation of an imide between the anhydride and the amine, and adding to the imide a source yielding a cation selected from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH, [including (CH 3 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 , (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 and similar ammonium derivatives] and mixtures thereof to form a corresponding salt. In certain preferred embodiments of this feature, R 5 may be selected from the group consisting essentially of C 7 - C 78 alkyl groups and mixtures thereof and the cation may be NH, [including (CH 3 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 , (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 and similar ammonium derivatives] and mixtures thereof. A feature of this embodiment of the invention involves producing a stabile latex composition useful in various pigmented or unpigmented coatings or adhesive systems and which comprises preparing a substantially uniform mixture of ethylenically unsaturated monomers, methacrylate esters, vinyl esters and other known latex forming monomers, along with initiators, base, water and a given amount of a surfactant having the general formula (I) above; and subjecting such mixture to an emulsion polymerization reaction so as to obtain a relatively stabile latex. Yet another feature of this embodiment of the invention involves producing a latex polymeric coating substantially devoid of water-sensitive ingredients and comprises the steps of preparing a relatively stabile latex composition as set forth above, with or without desired pigments, defoamers, antimicrobial agents, etc.; applying a coating of such latex to a surface and

subjecting the coated surface to drying conditions including a temperature in the range of about 10° to about 300°C for a period of time sufficient to chemically change the surfactant within said coating to render such latex polymeric coating substantially water- insensitive. A somewhat similar feature of this embodiment of the invention involves producing an adhesive coating substantially devoid of water-sensitive ingredients by preparing a relatively stabile latex composition as set forth above, with or without various other known ingredients, such as alcoholic solvents, defoamers, antimicrobial agents, etc., applying a coating of the adhesive mass to a surface and subjecting the coated surface to drying conditions including a temperature range of about 10° to about 300°C for a period of time sufficient to chemically change the surfactant within the coating to render the adhesive coating substantially water-insensitive. In a particularly preferred embodiment of this feature of the invention, a latex polymerization surfactant (which may be utilized in protective coating systems, adhesive systems, etc.) may be prepared by contacting phthalic anhydride with at least a tertiary C 7 - C, 0 amine with stirring so as to obtain an admixture of the anhydride and the amine, and adding a primary or secondary (R 5 R 6 NH) amine to the admixture, with R 5 and R 6 being independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C τ - C, 0 linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl, or R 3 -0-R, groups, with R 3 and R, being independently selected from the group consisting essentially of C 7 - C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof, under reaction conditions conducive for formation of an alkylphthalamate salt. In certain preferred embodiments of this feature of the invention, R 5 and R 6 in the

above amine may be independently selected from a group consisting essentially of H or

C 7 - C alkyl groups and mixtures thereof.

It is yet a further object of the invention to provide a method of transporting relatively high viscosity crude petroleum oil which comprises forming a relatively low viscosity emulsion from ' a select crude petroleum oil, and an emulsifier having the general

'ormula (I) above, and transporting, as by a pump or truck, such emulsion to a desired location, and, at such a location, subjecting such emulsion -to conditions sufficient to chemically change the emulsifier to "deactivate" such emulsifier and thereby break the emulsion and allow ready separation of the oil from the admixture. In certain embodiments of the foregoing feature of the invention, conditions sufficient to chemically change the emulsifier so as to deactivate the same involve heating the emulsion to temperatures of at least about 100°C. In yet certain other embodiments of this feature of

~* the invention, conditions sufficient to chemically change the emulsifier so as to deactivate the same, involve adjusting the pH of the emulsion to a value below about 5. A further preferred embodiment of this feature of the invention includes recovering the chemically changed (deactivated) emulsifier and adjusting the pH of the so-recovered deactivated emulsifier to a value above about 7.5 so as to "reactivate" said emulsifier for further use in transporting crude petroleum oil.

It is a further object of the invention to provide an emulsifier/dispersaπt for crude petroleum oil, with the emulsifier/dispersant having the general formula (I) above.

It is yet a further object of the invention to provide an improvement in the method of scouring textiles which comprises admixing an amount up to about 50 percent of a

wetting agent/emulsifier into a textile scouring bath with the wetting agents/ emulsifier having the general formula (I) above. Somewhat similarly, it is the object of the invention to provide improvements in treating textiles/fabrics wherein emulsifiers/lubricants/ softeners/dispersants and the like are utilized, such as in spin-finishing, fiber-finishing, coning, winding, dyeing and the like processes or baths or the like, by adding to the treatment process/bath a surfactant having the general formula (I) above.

It is yet a further object of the invention to provide an improvement in the method of preparing pulp from a lignocellulosic material, such as wood chips, wherein chips or the like are subjected to an alkaline liquor at select temperature, pressure and time conditions to obtain a pulp having a select Kappa number range and comprises adding an amount up to about 10 percent of a surfactant having the general formula (I) above, to the alkaline pulping liquor, discharging the pulping liquor and the at least partially delignified lignocellulosic material and displacing the pulping liquor from the partially delignified material with water or an aqueous liquor to obtain a pulp having the select Kappa number range. Of course, the above surfactants, per se or in an aqueous solution ma be sprayed onto wood chips or the like prior to subjecting such chips to the alkaline liquor.

It is also an object of the invention to provide an improvement in the method of producing polyure.thane/isocyanurate foam by admixing an amount up to about 10 percent of a surfactant having the general formula (I) above with a polyurethane/isocyanurate foam-forming composition and forming a foam from the admixture.

Other and further features, objects and embodiments of the inventions will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the following description and claims.

- Description of Preferred Embodiments

The invention provides surfactants, methods of producing such surfactants, compositions containing such surfactants and methods of utilizing such surfactants in a variety of technical applications.

In accordance with the principals of the invention, surfactants of the present invention comprise compounds having the following general formula:

wherein R 7 and R 2 are independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C 7 - C,o linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R 3 -0-R, groups and mixtures thereof, with R 3 and R, being independently selected from the group consisting of C τ - C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof; y is an integer of a value satisfying the valency of M; and M is a cation.

Accordingly, the present invention encompasses formulated conditioning shampoos comprising salts of formula I

wherein

R lf R 2 , R 3 , and R 4 are the same or different and represent straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms, or aryl straight or branched chain alkyl groups having

10 to 40 carbon atoms.

The present invention also encompasses formulated conditioning shampoos comprising mixtures of a salt of formula H above and an acid of formula III

wherein

R x and R 2 are the same or different and represent straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms, or aryl straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms. In a preferred embodiment of the formulated conditioning shampoo of the present invention, R lf R 2 , R 3 , and R 4 are derived from hydrogenated tallow. Because tallow is a mixture of C-14 to C-18 fatty acids, and amines derived from tallow are hence a mixture of tallow amines, the phthalamic acids and/or the ammonium salts thereof used in the present invention may therefore have R groups that are the same or different.

In a particularly preferred embodiment of the formulate conditioning shampoo of the present invention, the shampoo comprises N,N-di(hydrogenated tallow) phthalamic acid di(hydrogenated tallow) ammonium salt. In another particularly preferred embodiment of th present invention, the shampoo comprises a mixture of N,N di(hydrogenated tallow) phthalamic acid and N,N-di(hydrogenate tallow) phthalamic acid di(hydrogenated tallow) ammonium salt.

The effective concentration of these phthalamic acid ammonium salts and mixtures of the phthalamic acids and phthalamic acid ammonium salts in the formulated conditioning shampoos of the present invention varies from about 0.05% to about 20% on an active basis. A presently preferred use concentration appears to be between about 0.5% to 10%. Various formulated shampoos are shown in Tables Kl, K2 and K3.

The.formulated conditioning shampoos of the present invention comprising a mixture of a salt of formula It and an -acid of formula III have ratios of acid to salt varying from about 90:10 to about

10:90. Preferred "ratios of acid to salt vary from about 70:30 to about 30:70,

Furthermore, it has been found that the conditioning properties of the shampoos of the present invention are obtained when the pH of the shampoo mixture is adjusted to between about 3.0 and about 9.0/ A more preferred range of pH in the formulated shampoos is from about 4.5 to 6.5.

As can be seen from the results shown in TableKA, the shampoo formulations of the invention demonstrated ."superior overall conditioning attributes, both in a conditioning and conditioning/antl-dandruff formulation. Further, as shown by results in Table KB, the inventive shampoo formulations readily passed freeze/thaw and stability studies over a pH range of 3.0 to 9.0, whereas similar formulations without the di(hydrogenated tallow) phthalamic acid/ammonium salts of the invention failed.

The formulated conditioning shampoos of the present invention are readily manufactured using a conventional single-phase, hot process. The manufacture of the conditioning shampoos using a single-phase, hot process is simple and, therefore, preferred over multi-phase processes.

The formulated conditioning shampoos of the present invention are prepared by incorporating salts of formula IT or a mixture of salts of formula I and acids of formula IU in a typical shampoo base such as those shown in Tables Kl, K2 and K3. Certain mixtures of phthalamic acids and phthalamic acid ammonium salts are also excellent emulsifiers/suspending agents for

non-volatile and volatile silicones and other water insoluble emollient oils. The utilization of this technology can be naturally extended to car wax formulations, textile lubricants, textile anti¬ static agents, shoe polishes, antiperspirants, hair conditioners (leave-on or rinse out type) and to other uses of silicone products. Further, the invention also provides surfactant solutions comprising an effective surfactant amount of salts of formula II

wherein R lt R 2 , R 3 , and R A are the same or different and represent straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms, or aryl straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms.

This invention further provides surfactant solutions comprising an effective amount of a mixture of a salt of formula I above and an acid of formula II

wherein

R j and R 2 are the same or different and represent straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms, or aryl straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 4 carbon atoms.

The surfactant solutions of the present invention may be used as surfactants per se, as caustic-stabile surfactants, as chlorine - stabile surfactants, as cosmetic emulsifiers for personal care

£ products, such as skin creams, skin lotions, hair conditioners, etc., as fast-breaking skin-care product emulsifiers; as emulsifiers for liquid hand, facial and body soaps and bar soaps; as emulsifiers for agricultural chemicals, as domestic fabric softeners; as destructible latex polymerization surfactants In coating and/or adhesive systems, as domestic detergent additives, such as in heavy- duty detergents, in light-duty detergents, in dishwashing detergents, in various hard- surface cleaners, etc., as emulsifiers for portland cement and concrete; as flotation/benefication additives for various mineral ores; as additives for electroplating and/or surface finishing baths for metal goods; as additives for plaster, gypsum and miscellaneous building materials; as enhanced oil recovery additives; as wetting, lubricating, and penetrating surfactants for textile processing; as pulp digestive additives; as surfactants for polyurethane/isocynaurate foam systems; as pour- point depressants for transporting viscous petroleum oils; as industrial surfactants for emulsifying a wide variety of oily materials or oliginous materials such as linseed oils, alkyd resins, polybutylenes, silicones, polysilicones, silicone gums, etc.; as low temperature stabilizers for fatty alcohol/water emulsions; as suspending agents for various particulate material, such as coal tar, sulfur or coal; etc.

Related surfactants and surfactant compositions are disclosed in Goze et al. , U.S. Patent Application No. 07/391,187 filed August 8, 1989, and assigned to the same assignee as the instant application. This disclosure is hereby incorporated by reference. The present Invention also provides surfactant solutions comprising a mixture of a salt of formula I and an acid of formula II having ratios of acid to salt ranging from about 90:10 to about 10:90. Preferred ratios of acid to salt range from about 70:30 to about 30:70. The invention also provides surfactant solutions comprising the acid or salt per se.

It has also been unexpectedly found that phthalamic acid ammonium salts function as superior emulsifiers or suspending agents for active agents in anti-dandruff shampoos, such as zinc pyrithione (2PT) in typical anti-dandruff shampoos. An example of anti- dandruff shampoo with typical phthalamic acid ammonium salt of interest is shown in Table K2 below. Similarly, anti-dandruff shampoo compositions can be formulated with other anti-dandruff agents, such as selenium sulfide, colloidal or powdered sulfur, coal tar mixtures, etc. Certain phthalamic acid ammonium s lts of interest also function as emulsifiers and suspending agents in conditioning/anti-dandruff shampoo compositions.

An example of a conditioning/anti-dandruff shampoo composition with phthalamic acid ammonium salts is shown In TableK3 below. Compositions of this type have been found to provide excellent detangling, wet combability, dry combability, and static control characteristics on hair swatches in a laboratory setting and on human subjects with different hair profiles in a beauty salon setting. These compositions also exhibited excellent long-term stability at various storage temperatures, including three freeze- thaw cycles. The effective concentration of phthalamic acid ammonium salts as a suspending agent varies from about 0.05% to about 20.0% on an active basis. A presently preferred use concentration appears to be between about 0.5% to 10% on an active basis. Yet further, the invention also provides emulsifier solutions comprising an effective emulsifier amount of salts of formula II

II

wherein

R j , R 2 , R 3 , and R 4 are the same or different and represent straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon

atoms, or aryl straight or branched chain alkyl groups having

10 to 40 carbon atoms.

This invention further provides emulsifier solutions comprising an effective emulsifier amount of a mixture of a salt of formula I above and an acid of formula II

wherein

R x and R 2 are the same or different and represent straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms, or aryl straight or branched chain alkyl groups having 10 to 40 carbon atoms.

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ln certain embodiments of the invention, the R, and R 2 moieties in formula (I) above, are typically hydrocarbon moieties and may include moieties wherein one or more of the carbon atoms in the respective carbon chains are replaced by a hetero atom, such as, for example, oxygen and/or nitrogen. Further, in certain embodiments of the invention the aromatic moiety in the above formulation may be substituted with various functional groups, which include but are not limited to, halides, carboxylic acids and derivatives thereof, nitro, nitroso, amines, amidos, hydroxyls, sulfonic acids and derivatives thereof, alkyls, ethers, esters, nitriles and mixtures thereof.

In certain embodiments of the inventions, the cation, M, in formula (I) above, may have a valency ranging from 1 to about 4 and may be selected from the group consisting essentially of H, ifø-K, NH, [including (CH 3 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 , (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 3 NH,

(HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 and similar ammonium derivatives], Ba, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Zr and mixtures thereof. In certain preferred embodiments of the invention, M may be selected from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH, [including (CH 3 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 ,

(HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 and similar ammonium derivatives] and mixtures thereof.

In certain preferred embodiments of the surfactant having formula (I) above, R, and

R 2 may be independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C, - C 30 alkyl groups and more preferrably C 7 - C^ alkyl groups and M may be selected from a group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH, [including (CH 3 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 ,

(HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 and similar ammonium derivatives] and mixtures thereof.

Specifically preferred embodiments of the surfactants having the formula (I) above, include compounds wherein R, and R 2 may be independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C, - C rs alkyl groups and M may be selected from the group

consisting essentially of H, Na, K, NH, [including (CH 3 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 , (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 3 NH, . (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 and similar ammonium derivatives]. These preferred compounds have many technical utilities, including as cleansers, emulsifers, wetting agents, lubricant, surfactants, etc., in such diverse applications as caustic-stabile surfactants useful, for ejcδmple, in textile scouring baths or textile spin-finishing operations; chlorine-stabile Surfactants uselltl, for example, in hard-surface cleaners containing bleach, or in liquid automatic dishwashing detergents, or in domestic laundry cleansing formulations containing chlorine, etc.; as foodstuff emulsifiers useful in emulsifying various edible oils and the like into foodstuff compositions, such as baked goods, mayonnaise, dog/cat food, etc.; as emulsifiers for skin/hair-care products and useful in emulsifying various emollients or conditioning/protective agents used in treating skin and/or hair; as fabric softeners for treating domestic laundry; as industrial emulsifiers useful in emulsifying various oily materials, such as crude petroleum oils, linseed oils, vitamin acetates, etc., including agricultural chemicals such as oil or water soluble or dispersable pesticides and/or herbicides; as latex polymerization surfactants useful in producing water-insensitive pigment and/or adhesive coatings, etc.; as pulp digestive additives; as polyurethane/ polyisocyanurate foam surfactant additives, etc. Exemplary specifically preferred embodiments of the invention include: sodium N-dodecylphthalamate, sodium N-octadecylphthaiamate, sodium N-hexadecylphthalamate, sodium N-tallowphthalamate, sodium N-cocophthalamate, sodium N-isododecyloxypropylphthalamate.

N, N- di(hydrogenated tallow) phthalamic acid

M, N- di (Hydrogenated talJow) phthalamic acid di(hydrogenated tallo ammonium salt

sodium N-methyl-N-octadecylphthalamate, sodium N-methyl-N-hexadecylphthalamate, sodium N-methyl-N-tallowphthalamate, sodium N-methyl-N-cocophthalamate, mixtures thereof and their corresponding potassium, ammonium, triethylammonium and triethanolammonium salts.

Embodiments of the invention include synthesis routes useful in manufacturing surfactants of formula (I) above at relatively high yields, with little or no purification requirements.

In certain of these embodiments, molten phthalic anhydride may be contacted with at least a primary (R 5 NH 2 ) amine, wherein R 5 is selected from the group consisting essentially of C r - C, 0 linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted, alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl, or R 3 -0-R, groups, with R 3 and R, being independently selected from the group consisting essentially of C - C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted, alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl and aryl groups, under reaction conditions conducive for formation of an imide between the anhydride and the amine, and thereafter adding to the resulting imide, -a nucleophilic source yielding an alkali (i.e. Na, K, NH,) cation under reaction conditions conducive to the formation of the corresponding alkali salt. In instances where an alkaline-earth metal salt is desired, a hydroxide of a desired alkaline-earth metal may be added to the above alkali salt solution to form the corresponding alkaline-earth metal (i.e., Ca, Ba or Mg) salt. Somewhat similarly, in instances where an Al, Ti, and/or Zr salt is desired, the alkali salt solution may be acidified, as by addition of a mineral acid, the phthalamic acid isolated and reacted with

a C, - C, alkoxide of Al, Ti, Zr, or mixtures thereof or at least one C τ - C, amine may be added to form the corresponding salt. Reaction conditions conducive to formation of the imide and the desired salt generally include applying heat in the range of about 90° to about 150°C while stim ' ng, preferably under an inert atmosphere, such as nitrogen, over a period of time, typically at least about 30 minutes and less than about 300 minutes. During imide formation, water may be removed and during salt formation water may be added.

In certain other of these embodiments, surfactants of formula (I) above may be produced by contacting molten phthalic anhydride with a least a secondary (R 5 R 6 NH) amine wherein R 5 and R 6 are independently selected from the group consisting essentially of C j - C, 0 linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted, alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl, or R 3 -0-R, groups, wherein R 3 and R, are defined as above, under reaction conditions conducive for formation of phthalamic acid between the anhydride and the amine, and thereafter adding a source yielding a cation selected from the group consisting essentially of Na, K, NH, [including (CH 3 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 , (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 2 HN 2 and similar ammonium derivatives], Ba, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Zr and mixtures thereof under reaction conditions conducive for formation of the corresponding salt.

In yet certain other of these embodiments, surfactants of formula (I) above, may be produced by contacting phthalic anhydride with at least a tertiary C, - C, 0 amine so as to obtain an admixture, typically a substantially uniform admixture, and adding to such admixture a primary or secondary (R 5 R 6 NH) amine, with R 5 and R 6 being independently selected from the group consfsting essentially of H or C, - C, 0 linear or branched,

substituted or unsubstituted, alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl, or R 3 -0-R, groups, wherein R 3 and R, are defined as above, under reaction conditions conducive for formation of an alkylphthalamate salt.

In certain reaction schemes, the foregoing steps may occur sequentially or substantially simultaneously.

With the foregoing general discussion in mind, there will now be presented a number of detailed exemplary embodiments of the invention and workers skilled in the art will appreciate that the following examples are non-limitive embodiments of the invention and are included merely as specific exemplification of the invention.

EXAMPLE I Synthesis of Alkylphthalamate With Primary Amines

A number of alkylphthalamate surfactants are produced from phthalic anhydride and various fatty primary amines in accordance with the following reaction scheme:

wherein R 5 is selected from C r - C, 0 linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl, or R 3 -0-R, groups, with R 3 and R, being independently selected from C r - C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, and aryl groups and M is an alkali cation (i.e. Na, K, NH,, etc.).

ln all synthesis ruπ of this EΞxample, select reactants may be placed in a suitable reaction flask, which typically may be fitted with a stirrer, and Allihn condenser, a Dean- Stark trap, a controlled inlet interconnected to a nitrogen gas source, a thermometer and an addition funnel, or their equivalent Phthalic anhydride may be placed in the reactor flask, heated to a melt (about 131°C), generally under a nitrogen blanket, and an amount of a select fatty amine may be brought into contact with the molten phthalic anhydride. Heating may be continued over a period of time ranging from at least about 30 minutes to about 300 minutes, with removal of water aided by a nitrogen or other inert gas sparge. Thereafter, deionized water may be added and the temperature of the reaction mixture may be adjusted to about 100°C and a select nucleophilic source, i.e., a hydroxide, yielding a desired cation may be added relatively quickly. This reaction mixture may be heated with stirring for a period of time varying from at least about 30 minutes to about 300 minutes to obtain a high yield, typically about 90% or more, of an alkylphthalamate without requiring purification. Of course, if desired, purification may be effected.

Phthalic anhydride* is a well-known chemical and is commercially available, for example from Stepan Company, Northfield, Illinois, (assignee of the present invention). Fatty primary amines are likewise well known and are commercially available from various sources, including, for example, Aldrich Chemical Company.

Exemplary fatty primary amines include: alkyl, cycloalkyl, and/or alkylene amines, such as hexylamine, cyclohexolamine octylamine, decylamine, dodecylamine, tetradecylamine, hexadecyiamine octadecylamine, eicosylamine, docosylamine, cocoamine, tallowamine, and similar linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyj,

cycloalkyl or alkylene fatty amines; alkaryl amines, such as 4-methylaniline, 2,4-dimethylaniline, 3,4-diisopropylaniline, 3,5-dimethylaniline, and similar linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkaryl fatty amines; aryl amines, such as aniline, 2-bromoaniline, 2-chloroaniline, 3-bromoaniline, 4-chloroaniline, 3,4-diethylaniline, 3,4,5-tribromoaniline and similar substituted or unsubstituted aryl fatty amines; fatty ether amines, such as isododecyloxypropylamine, isodecyloxypropylamine, hexyloxypropyiamine, and similar fatty ether amine compounds.

Exemplary nucleophilic sources yielding alkali cations include: NaOH, KOH, NH,OH. Exemplary sources yielding alkaline-earth metal cation include: Ca(OH) 2 , Ba(OH) 2 , Mg(OH) 2 . Exemplary sources yielding Al, Ti, or Zr cations include: AI[OCH(CH 3 ) 2 j 3 , Ti(OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3 ),, Zr(OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3 ), and similar alkoxide compounds.

Specific synthesis of sodium N-octadecylphthalamate, ammonium N-dodecylphthalamate, potassium N-cocophthalamate, sodium N-dodecylphthalamate, sodium N-isododecyloxypropylphthalamate, calcium N-octadecylphthalamate and aluminum N-octadecylphthalamate will now be set forth and workers in the art will recognize that similar syntheses may be performed to attain a desired alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, dialkyi, dialkylene, alkaryl, aryl, etc. phthalamate salt.

EXAMPLE IA Sodium N-Octadecylphthalamate

Phthalic anhydride (1 mole, 148g) was placed in a two liter, three neck, round bottom reaction flask fitted with a magnetic stirrer, an AlJihn condenser, a Dean-Stark trap, an inlet for nitrogen, a thermometer and an addition funnel. The phthalic anhydride

was heated under a nitrogen blanket to a melt (about 131°C). Octadecylamine (1 mole, 278g) was added slowly over about 30 minutes to the molten phthalic anhydride. Heating was continued at about 131°C for about 3 hours, with the nitrogen blanket changed to a nitrogen sparge to aid in the removal of water. A clear pale yellow liquid was obtained, from which a small sample was withdrawn, allowed to solidify (off-wh ' rte) and characterized by IR spectroscopy (Beckman 983 spectrometer) as comprising N-octadecylphthalimide.

One mole (408g) of this reaction product, N-octadecylphthalimide, was transferred into a twelve liter, 4-neck, round bottom flask fitted with a magnetic stirrer, an Allihn condenser, an addition funnel and an inlet for connection to a nitrogen source (gas cylinder). Deionized water (about 6.1 L) was added to the N-octadecylphthalimide and the mixture was heated to about 100°C to obtain a fairly homogenous mixture. Stirring was then commenced under a nitrogen blanket and 1 N sodium hydroxide (about 1.1L, 10% excess) was added relatively quickly over a period of a few minutes. The reaction mixture was stirred with heating for about three hours. A clear light yellow reaction product was obtained and a relatively, small sample was removed, dried in a vacuum oven for about 1 hour (1 atm, 40°C) aηd characterized by IR spectroscopy as comprising essentially sodium N-octadecylphthalamate.

EXAMPLE 1 B Ammonium N-Dodecylphthalamate

The above synthesis is, essentially, duplicated except that dodecylamine is substituted for octadecylamine and ammonium hydroxide is substituted for sodium hydroxide. The final product is characterized by IR spectroscopy as comprised essentially of ammonium N-dodecylphthalamate.

EXAMPLE 1C Potassium N-Cocophthalamate

The synthesis route of Example 1A above is repeated, except that cocoamine is utilized in place of octadecylamine and potassium hydroxide is used in place of sodium hydroxide. The final product is similarly characterized as comprising essentially potassium N-cocophthalamate.

EXAMPLE 1D Sodium N-Dodecylphthalamate

The synthesis route of Example 1A was essentially repeated, except that dodecyiamine was utilized in place of octadecylamine. The final product, straw yellow, was characterized by IR spectroscopy as comprising sodium N-dodecylphthalamate. A sample of the reaction product was removed and weighed 52.2980 g as about 11.3 percent solids in water. This sample was quantitively converted to the corresponding

_ phthalamic acid and using conventional calculations, it was determined that the percent yield of the acid (or percent purity of the sample) was about 94.16 percent.

EXAMPLE 1E Sodium N-lsododecyloxypropylphthalamate

The synthesis route of Example 1A v/as, essentially, repeated except that isododecyloxypropyiamine was used in place of octadecylamine and hydrolysis with NaOH occurred at about 70°C, instead of 100°C. The final product was characterized by IR spectroscopy as comprising essentially of sodium N-isododecyloxypropylphthalamate.

-42-

EXAMPLE 1F Calcium N-Octadecv hthalamate

A portion of the sodium N-octadecylphthalamate from Example 1A above is acidified with a mineral acid, Le., hydrochloric acid, to a pH of about 3 and filtered to separate the semi-solid acid. This acid is then admixed with deionized water and a slurry of calcium hydroxide is added, with stirring until a relatively stabile pH of about 8 or 9 is attained. The final product is confirmed by IR spectroscopy as comprising essentially of calcium N-octadecylphthalamate.

Similarly, the calcium salt may also be obtained by adding calcium hydroxide directly to the alkali alkylphthalamate. Also a magnesium or barium salt may be produced by substituting Mg(OH) 2 or Ba(OH) 2 for the Ca(OH) 2 in the above neutralization scheme.

Neutralization of alkyl and/or alkylene phthalamic acids may be accomplished in water or in a non-aqueous solvent, such as methanol, isopropanol, or the like, by addition of a suitable base (including various amines) to obtain a pH of about 8 or 9. When a neat final product is desired, a low-boiling, non-aqueous solventsuch as methanol, isopropanol or the like may be used, with subsequent easy removal of the solvent by vacuum stripping.

EXAMPLE 1G Aluminum N-Octadecylphthalamate

Aluminum isopropoxide (0.0117 moles, 2.38g) and about 200 mL of isopropanol were placed in a 1L four-neck, round bottom reaction flask provided with a nitrogen

sμa.ye, an AIIIΠΠ conαenser, a magne c s rrer an a ermome er. s mx ure was heated to a temperature of about 78° C, with stirring for about 1 hour. Then N-octadecylphthalamic acid (0.0353 moles, 15.0g)-obtained via the procedure of Example 1 A and acidified with HCI to a pH of about 3 and filtered for separation - was slowly added as a powder. The resultant mixture was heated at reflux (about 78°) for about 3 hours. Upon confirmation of the reaction product by IR spectroscopy, the isopropanol was stripped-off under vacuum. A white solid final product was obtained.

EXAMPLE II Synthesis of Alkylphthalamates With Secondary Amines

A number of alklyphthalamates are produced from phthalic anhydride and various fatty secondary amines in accordance with the following reaction scheme:

wherein R 5 and R 6 are independently selected from C τ - C, 0 linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl, or R 3 -0-R, groups wfth R 3 and R, being independently selected from C, - C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, and aryl groups and M is a cation selected from Na, K, NH, [including (CH 3 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 , (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 3 NH, (HOCH 2 CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 and similar ammonium derivatives], Ba, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Zr, and mixtures thereof.

The equipment and conditions for the synthesis runs of this Example are, essentially, identical to those described in Example I above. (Except that the Dean-Stark trap may be eliminated).

Phthalic anhydride is a well known chemical compound and is commercially available, for example, from Stepan Company, Northfield, Illinois (the assignee of the instant invention). Fatty secondary amines are likewise known and are commercially available from various sources, for example, Aldrich Chemical Company.

Exemplary fatty secondary amines include: alkyl, cycloalkyl, and/or alkylene amines, such as; N-dodecyl-N-methylamine, N-tetradecyl-N-methylamine, N-hexadecyl- N-methylamiπe, N-octadecyl-N-methylamine, N-methyl-N-cyclohexalamiπe, N-coco-N- methylamine, N-tallow-N-methylamine, N,N-dicocoamine and similar linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, or alkylene fatty secondary amines; alkaryl amines, such as; N-methyl-4-dodecylaniiine, N-methyI-4-octadecylaniline, N-methyl-4- hexadecylaniline, N-methyl-4-tallowaniIine, N-methyi-4-cocoaniIine and similar linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkaryl secondary amines; aryl secondary amines, such as: N-methylaniline, N-propylaniline, and similar substituted or unsubstituted and aryl secondary amines.

Exemplary sources yielding select M cations include: NaOH, KOH, NH,OH, Ca(OH) 2 , Ba(OH) 2 , Mg(OH) 2 , Al[OCH(CH 3 ) 2 ] 3 , Ti(OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3 ),, Zr(OCH 2 CH 2 CH 3 ), and similar sources.

Specific syntheses of sodium N-dodecyl-N-methylphthalamate and triethanolammonium N,N-dicocophthalamate will now be set forth and workers skilled in the art will recognize that similar synthesis routes may be performed to obtain other desired phthalamate salts.

EXAMPLE HA Sodium N-Dodecyl-N-methylphthalamate

Phthalic anhydride (0.10 mole, 14.8g) was placed in a 500 mL reaction flask similarly configured and equipped to that described in Example 1A. The phthalic anhydride was heated to a melt (131°C) and N-dodecyl-N-methylamine (0.10 mole, 19.9g) was added to the molten anhydride over a period of about 15 minutes. Heating was continued at about 131°C for about 3 hours. A clear amber, viscous liquid was obtained, which was characterized by IR spectroscopy as N-dodecyl-N-methylphthalamic acid. This reaction product (about 30g) was diluted with methanol (ca. 50g) and neutralized with a methanolic sodium hydroxide (1 N) to a pH of about 8.65. The methanol was then stripped off using a rotary evaporator (water aspirator, 30°C bath). A white powder was obtained and was characterized by IR spectroscopy as essentially comprising of sodium N-methyl-N-dodecylphthalamate. Methanol was utilized for sake of convenience in producing a 100 percent active material. Water may be utilized if desired to obtain lower active material or if higher temperature, vacuum, etc., are utilized.

EXAMPLE HB

Triethanolammonium N.N-Dicocqphthalamate

Phthalic anhydride (0.2 moles, 29.6g) was placed in a reaction flask configured and equipped similarly to that described above in Example IIA, heated to a melt and N, N- dicocoamine (0.2 moles, 76.6 g) was added over a relatively brief time period. Heating was continued at about 131°C for about 3 hours. A liquid reaction product was obtained and characterized by IR spectroscopy as comprising essentially N,N-dicocophthalamic acid. About 30g of this acid was diluted with water (ca. 50g) and neutralized with triethanolamine to a pH of about 9. The water was then stripped-off as before and the white paste obtained was characterized by IR spectroscopy as comprising essentially triethanolammonium N.N-dicocophthalamate.

When a non-aqueous product is desired, neutralization can occur in a non-aqueous solvent, such as methanol or isopropanol, which can then be removed after neutralization by vacuum.

EΞXAMPLE HI

Synthesis of Alkylphthalamate with Tertiary Amines

A number of alkylphthalamate surfactants may be produced from phthalic anhydride and various fatty primary or secondary amines in the presence of a tertiary amine in accordance with the following reaction scheme:

wherein R 5 and R 6 are independently selected from H or C, - C, 0 linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, cyclic including aryl, or R 3 - O-R, groups, with R 3 and R, being independently selected from C τ - C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl and aryl groups and R , R , R are independently selected from C r - C^, linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl or R 3 -0-R, groups, with R 3 and R, being as defined above.

. When a cation other than an ammonium derivative is desired, the above-obtained reaction product may be acidified as set forth earlier, isolated, and then neutralized with a suitable source yielding the desired cation, i.e. Na, K, Ca, Ba, Mg, Al, Ti, Zr or mixtures thereof.

The equipment for the synthesis runs of this Example is, essentially, identical to that described earlier, except that an ice bath may be required to control the exothermic nature of this reaction.

As indicated earlier, phthalic anhydride is commercially available from Stepan Company, Northfield, Illinois. Primary and/or secondary amines are likewise known and commercially available from various sources as set forth earlier. Tertiary amines are likewise commercially avafable.

Exemplary primary and secondary amines are set forth above and exemplary tertiary amines include: friethylamine, triethanolamine, trimethylamine, trimethanolamine, N,N-dimethyl cyclohexylamine, N,N-dimethylaniiine and similar alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene alkaryl and aryl tertiary amines.

Specific synthesis of triethylammonium N-cocophthalamate, N,N-dimethylcycIohexyIammon1um N-isododecyloxypropylphthalamate and triethalonammonium N-iscfdodecyloxypropylphthalamate will now be set forth and workers skilled in the art will recognize that similar synthesis routes may be followed to obtain other desired phthalamate salts.

EXAMPLE 11IA Triethylammonium N-Cocophthalamate

Phthalic anhydride .2 moles, 29.6g) and triethylamine (0.2 moles, 20.2g) were introduced into a 500 mL, three-neck, round bottom flask, equipped with a magnetic stirrer, Allihn condenser, an inlet for nitrogen, a thermometer and an addition funnel. This mixture was stirred until a fairly uniform mixture was attained. Cocoamine (0.2 moles, 40.8 g) was then slowly added at a rate which maintained the temperature of the reaction mixture below about 35°C. After completion of the cocoamine addition, the mixture was

stirred for about 1 hour while the temperature of the reaction mixture was maintained at about 30°C. A clear yellow liquid product was obtained, cooled to a pale yellow paste and was characterized by I R as essentially comprising triethylammonium N-cocophthalamate.

EXAMPLE IIIA - 1 Triethylammonium N-Cocophthalamate

The procedure of Example IIIA above is repeated except that triethylamine and cocoamine are added substantially simultaneously to the phthalic anhydride. The reaction may be quite exothermic and an ice bath may be utilized to maintain control.

EXAMPLE IHB N.N-Dimethylcvclohexylammonium N-lsododecyloxypropylphthalamate

The procedure of Example IIIA was, essentially, repeated, except that N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine was substituted for triethylamine and isododecyloxypropylamine was substituted for the cocoamine. The final product was characterized by IR spectroscopy as comprising essentially of N,N-dimethyl- cyclohexylammonium N-isododecyloxypropylphthalamate.

EXAMPLE IMC Triethanolammonium N-lsododecyloxypropylphthalamate

The synthesis route of Example IIIA was, essentially, repeated, except that triethanolammonium was substituted fortriethylammonium and isododecyloxypropylamine was substituted for the cocoamine. The final product was characterized by IR spectroscopy as comprised essentialfy of triethanolammonium N-isododecyloxypropyiphthalamate.

EXAMPLE A Foaming and Wetting Characteristics

Standard Ross-Miles Foaming and Draves Wetting tests were preformed on various fatty phthalamates with the results set forth in Table 1 below. In all tests, an active level of 0.1% was utilized.

As may be surmised from the data presented in Table 1, the various sodium alkylphthalamates tested exhibited better foam and wetting characteristics in deionized water than in tap water. It is also apparent that the C J2 alkyl moiety exhibited the best wetting and foaming characteristics within the alkyl moiety range tested. Further, the alkoxypropylphthalamates appeared to exhibit better wetting characteristics in tap water than in deionized water, with the inverse being true for foaming characteristics. For example, it will be noted that sodium isododecyloxypropylphthalamate exhibited a wetting time of 4.5 seconds with tap water and a foam height of only 5.5 cm. Thus, at least some alkoxypropylphthalamates may have good utility in tap water applications (i.e. domestic laundry detergents, etc.).

TABLE 1 Utttlno and Foaming Chirtcter I it I ci of Various Phthalamates

Draves (sec) Ross -M I I es (cm)

Compound Pt * Tap l±B.

Sodium N - oc t y I ph th t at • > 120 > 120 MMF # NMF

Sodium -dodtcylphthslam.att 6.7 > 120 14.5/14.0 6.5/6.0

Trlethanolamnontupn N-dodecylphthalamate 25.0 VI •*' 9.5/9.0 VI***

Sodium N ex adtc I ph tha I am t 4 > 120 > 120 6.5/6.5 NMF

Sodium N-octadecylphthalamate . > 120 > 120 7.0/4.0 NMF

Sodium N • cocop t ha I ama t • 21.3 54.0 10.5/10.5 11.8/8.0

I

Sodium N-methyl -K-dodecylphthalβmate 9.0 11.5 12.0/11.5 4.5/4.0

Sodium N • oc t y I /dtcy t oxyprop I • 33.6 25.4 7.0/7.0 7.5/7.0 phthalamate

Sodium N • I sodecyloxypropylphthalamate 16.9 7.0 5.0/4.0 7.8/7.0

Sodium N - liododecyloxypropylphthβlβmate 6.2 4.5 10.5/10.2 5.5/5.3

Sodium N-C12-C15 o propyI ph th a I ama t β 21.5 17.1 11.0/11.0 4.0/3.5

*D I * Del on I led Uattr

NMF ■ No Measurable Foam

VI * Very Insoluble

EXA PLE B Emulsion Stability Characteristics

In order to obtain reproducible results, an emulsion stability test, modified from the standard used in the art for testing surfactants was developed. In the modified procedure, 0.5g of a select surfactant (instead of 1g) was dissolved in 90 mL of deionized water in a graduated cylinder containing 5.0 mL of xylene, which was then sealed and rocked between a vertical/horizontal position for 30 cycles, allowed to settle for about 5 to 10 minutes and subjected to the same rocking cycle with the results of the second sequence recorded (instead of the first sequence). The results obtained for various alkylphthalamates are set forth in Table II below:

TABLE I,

Compound Emulsion Break Rate (ml/sec)

Sodium N-octylphthalamate 0.111

Sodium N-decylphthalamate 0.034 '

Sodium N-dodecylphthalamate 0.068

Sodium N-tetradecyiphthafamate 0.085

Sodium N-hexadecylphthalamate 0.102

Triethanolammonium N-octylphthalamate 0.043

Triethanolammonium N-decylphthalamate 0.046

Triethanolammonium N-dodeylphthalamate 0.039

As is apparent from the above data, the triethanolammonium salts exhibited better (i.e., slower) emulsion break rates relative to the sodium salts. However, in personal- care formulations, (which are materially different systems from a xylene/water system) the sodium salts appeared to perform as well or better than the triethanolammonium salts.

EXAMPLE C Caustic Stability Characteristics

In order to determine caustic stability of the phthalamates, 5g of octyiphthalamic acid was dissolved in 450 mL of water containing an equivalent of NaOH. This mixture was heated at reflux for about 24 hours and five separate 90mL samples were withdrawn at 0 hours, 1 hour, 2 hours, 16.5 hours and 23.7 hours. The resulting individual samples were acidified and the sodium N-octylphthalamic acid was isolated and analyzed (filtered, dried, weighted and m.p. and neutralization equivalents were obtained). The results are set forth in Table III below:

5

TABIE II w

B CU

Samp I e Tlme(hr) Mass(q) H.P. C ES*(mL/sec) Neut.E,

0 0.77 0.0252 268

1 0.69 0.0325 296

2 0.82 0.0400 271

16.5 0.82 0.0690 288

I in 23.7 0.76 0.108 282

I

Theoretical 277

*ES * Emulsion-Stability

From the foregoing data it is apparent that alkylphthalamates are relatively stabile in a caustic environment and that sodium N-octylphthalamate was stabile at a pH of at least 10.

EXAMPLE D Thermal Stability Characteristics

Thermal stability studies were conducted with neat (100% actives) sample of ammonium N-dodecylphthalamate mulled on sodium chloride plates. These plates were then placed in an oven heated at about 100°C for various time periods (0 to 30 minutes) and thereafter characterized by IR spectroscopy. Conversion of a portion of the ammonium N-dodecylphthalamate to the N-dodecylphthalimide was very apparent after only 10 minutes, with almost total conversion to the N-dodecylphthalimide after only 20 minutes. These results are very similar to results obtained for various other alkyiammonium alkylphthalamates.

On the other hand, similar studies with sodium alkylphthalamates exhibited a relatively higher degree of thermal stability. For example, sodium N-dodecylphthalamate was stabile at 120°C over about 28 hours, while sodium N-octadecylphthalamate exhibited only a very small degree of imidation after 3.5 hours at 150°C. Nevertheless, after 64 hours at 150°C significant formation of N-octadecylphthalimide was noted. These results show the destructible nature of these surfactants thermally.

EXAMPLE E Solubility and Temperature Stability Characteristics

Sodium N-octadecylphthalamate, 1% actives, was evaluated for solubility in various solvents and under cold storage (4°C) and freeze-thaw conditions. The results are summarized in Table IV below.

- ' 56-

" ^ → ι__ •«: w > o •

* &

TAB E CONTINUED

vjiLSil

8 NINOL* 40-CO

'AMMONYX' LO

10 ΛMPHOSOL"

11 MAKON R 10

12 STEPANATE"

•I • INSOLUBLE *•% • SOLUBLE

•••P • PASS •• • FAIL

FREEZE THAU - PASS: Returns to cltar statt a ttr 3 frβeiIng/thβwlng cycles

NEOBEE M-5 = Stepan Company's registered trademark for caprylic/capric triglyceride.

NEOBEE" M-20 = Stepan Company's registered trademark for propylene glycol dicaprylate/dicaprate. NEOBEE* 18 = Stepan Company's registered trademark for safflower oil. WECOBEI= = Stepan Company's registered trademark for hydrogenated vegetable oil. ALPHA-STEP* ML-40 Stepan Company's registered trademark for sodium alpha- sulfo methyl ethyl laurate. STEPANOlϋ WA-EX = Stepan Company's registered trademark for sodium lauryl sulfate. STEOL* CS-330 = Stepan Company's registered trademark for sodium laureth sulfate. NINOL* 40-C = Stepan Company's registered trademark for N.N-diethanolcocomide. AMMONYX *LO = Stepan Company's registered trademark for laurylamine oxide. AMPHOSOL Λ CG Stepan Company's registered trademark for cocamide propyl betaϊne. MAKO = Stepan Company's registered trademark for nonylphenol polyethoxylate. STEPANATE X = Stepan Company's registered trademark for sodium xylene sulfonate.

EXAMPLE F Bleach (Chlorine Ion. Stability Characteristics

Select N-alkyl and N,N-dialkyl phthalamates were incorporated into a standard test formulation containing a common bleach. Substantially identical formulations were prepared with a commercially available surfactant promoted for bleach stability τ (DOWFAX Λ -2A1) and with a commercially available surfactant known to exhibit relatively poor bleach stability 2 (MAKON fl -10), along with a control formulation (no surfactant). The standard formulation comprised 4.0% actives of NaOCI; 0.25% actives NaCl; 1.0% actives NaOH (50%); 2.0% actives surfactant and Q.S. 100% deionized water.

The various formulations were individually placed in tightly capped jars and subjected to a 90°C water bath for about 5 hours and then observed for formulation clarity and foaming characteristics. Each sample was run in duplicate. The control formulation remained clear yellow throughout the test The MAKON*-10 formulation was initially clear yellow but exhibited clouding and phase separation at about 1.5 hours and showed no foaming after about 5 hours. The DOWFAX R -2A1 formulation was clear yellow throughout the test and exhibited stabile foam after about 5 hours. A formulation containing sodium N-methyl-N-dodecylphthalamate was likewise clear yellow throughout the test but the foam was characterized as unstabile after about 5 hours. On the other hand, a formulation containing sodium N,N-dicocophthalamate exhibited poor solubility, with phase separation and no pre-bath or post-bath foam. Further, a sodium N-dodecylphthalamate formulation was initially clear yellow but became cloudy and exhibited phase separation as the test progressed.

-60 -

1. DOWFAXR Λ -2A1 is Dow Chemical Company's registered trademark for sodium branched C 12 diphenyloxide disulfonate.

2. MAKON* - 10 is Stepan Company's registered trademark for a nonylphenol polyethoxylate.

It was concluded from the above that N,N-dialkylρhthalamates, particularly sodium N-methyl-N-dodecylphthalamate exhibited good bleach stability and better than that exhibited by the MAKON*- 10 formulation.

-EXAMPLE G Particulate Material Suspension Characteristics

In this test, potassium N-octadecylphthalamate was utilized as a suspending agent in a typical shampoo base with known particulate anti-dandruff materials, zinc pyrithione and coal tar. Particulate (about 500 mesh) zinc pyrithione and particulate (about 350 to 400 mesh) coal tar were suspended in shampoo base formulations §πd stored at room temperature, at about 1.6°C and at about 43.3°C. After 5 days the zinc pyrithione formulation exhibited phase separation at 43.3°C with pyrithione settling noted. On the other hand, the coal tar formulation did not show phase separation and coal tar was successfully suspended and exhibited excellent stability after 5 days at room temperature, at 1.6°C and at 43.3°C.

About 2 percent potassium octadecylphthalamate was incorporated with about 50 to 70 percent particulate coal (average size about 200 mesh) and about 30 to 50 percent water at ambient temperature. The resulting admixture was a free

flowing, substantially homogeneous suspension which was easily pumped between select locations.

This illustrates that small particle, powdered coal can be fluidized for transport to storage areas or use areas, such as at coal-burning power plants.

EXAMPLE H Emulsification Characteristics in Foodstuffs

Sodium N-octadecylphthalamate was added to a standard cup-cake recipe at actives levels of 0% (control), 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%. The N-octadecyl- phthalamate was admixed into a typical batter as a partial replacement for the shortening, margarine or butter called for in the recipe, baked at a uniform temperature (about 176°C) and time (about 25 minutes). After cooling, the various cupcakes were examined, with the following results; 0% - tended toward dryness and was crumbly; 1% - appeared and felt moister than the control, retained shape better and exhibited a denser interior; 2% - increased density, more moist; 3% - similar to 2% sample except slightly sunken in middle; 4% - not fully cooked, more sunken in middle; 5% - further cooking required, sunken in middle.

A mayonnaise formulation containing about 1% by weight, based on a 100% total weight of formulation, of sodium N-octadecylphthaiamate was prepared, with the N-octadecylphthalamate being substituted for egg yolk in a given recipe. A fluffy creamy white emulsion formed as the salad oil was incorporated into the formulation, which exhibited excellent stability.

A dog food was prepared by admixing about 200g of "Generic" beef-flavored dog food with 3g of 100% actives sodium N-octadecylphthalamate. Samples of this dog food were exposed to various temperatures (i.e., 0°C, 43°C and 50°C). Heated samples, whefr cooled to room temperature, exhibited no visible oily pockets but after refrigeration for 24 hours and storage for 8 hours at room temperature, showed visible oil pockets. However, after a further 24 hour storage at room temperature these samples showed no oil pockets.

EXAMPLE I Anionic Emulsificatlon Characteristics for Personal-Care Formulations

Four typical personal-care formulations were parepared with different N-alkylphthalamates. In each instance, the ingredients listed under Part A were combined to produce a substantially uniform mixture with application of heat in the range of about 74°C to 77°C (165°F to 170°F). Similarly, the ingredients listed under Part B were combined with heat so as to obtain a uniform mixture. Thereafter, the Part A mixture was added to the Part B mixture, with good agitation and continued heating to acheive a substantially uniform mixture. The pH of the final mixture was their adjusted wfth citric acid (although other acids may be utilized) to a pH in the range of aoubt 7.0 to 8.5. The resultant mixture was then allowed to cool to Sbout 35°C (45°F) and evaluated. As can be seen from the data presented in Table V befSw, these surfactants exhibit excellent emulsion quality and provide excellent performance quality.

T A B L E V

FORMULA FORMULA FORMULA B_ P

12.0 9.6

1.8 0.40 1.70

0.2 0.10 0.10

3.0 1.0 1.70 10.00 1.90

*«τ .

I

~ ~ eo SODIUM N-OCTADECYLPHTHALAMATE 2.2 2.10

I

SODIUM N-HEXADECYLPHTHALAMATE 2.20

N-TRIETHANOLAMMONIUH 1.1 OCTADECLYPHTHALAMATE

GLYCERINE 4.8

DEIONIZED WATER OS 100 OS 100 OS 100 OS 100

METHYL PARAIEN 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.10

HULSION OUAL1TY EXCELLENT EXCELLENT EXCELLENT EXCELLENT ERFORMANCE QUALITY EXCELLENT EXCELLENT EXCELLENT EXCELLENT

EXAMPLE J Ra p id Breaking Emulsifϊcation Characteristics for Personal-Care Formulations

A number of N-alkylphthalamates were formulated into typical personal-care compositions and evaluated.

The effective usage level of the N-alkylphthalamates in these compositions is about 0.01% to about 10% by weight, with the preferred level of about 1.0% to about 4.0% An effective pH range for these compositions is from about 6 to about 10, with a preferred pH range being between about 7.6 to about 9.5. While C, - C 40 chain lengths are useful, a preferred chain length is about C 8 to C J8 and a more preferred chain length was found to be C J6 , tallow (β - C 18 ) and C, 8 . The respective results are set forth in Tables VI-A through Vl-C below.

TABLE Vl-A EFFECT OF CONCENYRATION

FORMULA J-1 FORMULA J•2 FORMULA J-3 FORMULA J-4 FORMULA J-5 FORMULA J-6

1. WATER, DEIONIZED

2. METHYL PARABEN

3. SODIUM N-OCTADECYLPHTHALAMATE

4. KESSCO* ISOPROPLY PALMITATE

5. KESSCO* GLYCERYL MONOSTEARATE PURE

8. 2 GLYDANT

Evaluation for Rapid Breaking

Property

Skin Feel Light Light Light Light Light

Enol I lent/Emulslftr Ratio 10:0.75 10:1.5 10:2.25 10:3 10:6 10:12

1. KESSCO Is s registered trademark of Stepan Company for various organic esters.

2. DMDM Hydontaln (preservβt I β) .

3. Skin area washed with soap and water, dried; O.lg of formulat Ion appl led; rubbed until dry; tine recorded fron Initial rubbln un non-tacky ulth no drag

TABLE Vl-B

EFFECT OF pH o 5 ,, FORMULA J-7 FORMULA J-β FORMULA J-9 FORMULA J-10 o pH » 5.8 pH » 6.7 pH » 7.7 pH » 9.5 β

1. WATER, DEIONIZED OS 100

W

B 2. METHYL PARABEN 0.15 NO NO STABLE STABLE

3. SODIUM N-OCTADECYLPHTHALAMATE 2.00 EMULSION EMULSION EMULSION EMULSION

4. 1 KESSCO* ISOPROPYL PALMITATE 1.00

5. KESSCO* GLYCERYL 1.00 MONOSTEARATE PURE

6. KESSCO* CETYL ALCOHOL 1.75

7. PROPYL PARABEN 0.10

8. 2 GLYDANT 0.25

I

10 BREAKDOWN TIME 26 SEC 26 SEC

1. Ibid

2. Ibid

© t~~

OS

O

TABLE Vl-C EFFECT OF CHAIH LENGTH FORMULAT J-11 FORMULA J-12 FORMULA J-13 FORMULA J-14 FORMULA J-15

WATER, DEIONIZED OS 100 OS 100 OS 100 OS 100 OS 100

METHYL PARABEN 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15

SODIUM N-OCTADICYLPHTHALAMATC 2.0

SODIUM N-HEXADECYLPHTHALAMATE 2.00

SODIUM N-DODECYLPHTHALAMATE 2.00

SODIUM N-OCTYLPHTHALARATE •••- 2,00

SODIUM N-OCTADECYLPHTHALAMATE 2.00

(TALLOW)

^ESSCO* ISOPROPYL PALMITATE

KESSCO* GLYCERYL MONOSTEARATE PU

I eo KESSCO* CETYL ACLOHOL

PROPYL PARABEN

2 GLYDANT

SHELF-LIFE STABILITY STABLE STABLE NO NO STABLE EMULSION EMULSION EMULSION EMULSION EMULSION

BREAKDOWN TIME 26 SEC 26 SEC 27 SEC s

Various commercial personaJ-care products (skin-care lotions) suggest that their formulations provide quick penetration into skin areas brought into contact therewith. It is known in the emulsion technology art that the faster breaking emulsions are oil-in-water, nonionic or anionic soap-based emulsions which contain Carbopol" (a registered trademark of B.F. Goodrich Company for certain polymerized vinyl resins, see EPA 026816A2) as the primary emulsifier. Carbopol* materials appear unstabile in the" presence of salts (electrolytes) so that when emulsion products containing such materials are applied to skin, which includes salt from perspiration or the like, the emulsion breaks and emollients and the like, in the product then quickly penetrate the skin. Emulsions without Carbopol*, regardless of type (anionic or nonionic), do not break down as readily when applied to skin.

The N-alkylphthalamates of the invention comprise excellent cosmetic emulsifiers and are water dispersable (i.e., high HLB) emulsifiers. Hydrophilic- lipophilic balance or HLB is a widely accepted measure of the polarity of a surfactant and of its relative affinity for aqueous or hydrocarbon media. It is generally held [see, for example, Nonionic Surfactants, edited by Schick (Marcel Dekker Inc., N.Y. 1967) pages 606-603] that HLB ranges for different surface active functions are as follows:

Water-in-oil emulsifier 3 - 6

Wetting Agent 7 - 9

The N-alkylphthalamates of the invention are characterized as being relatively high

HLB emulsifiers or primary emulsifiers having an HLB value in the range of about

7 to 15, and when utilized to formulate cosmetic emulsions are combined with. secondary or relatively low HLB emulsifiers, such as glyceryl stearate to produce rapidly breaking, loosely emulsified emulsions. The resulting optimal emulsions were found to exhibit excellent shelf-life stability while breaking down extremely quickly when applied to skin. As shown in Table Vl-D below, emulsion compositions containing a N-alkylphthalamate broke substantially quicker than various commercial products tested.

TABLE Vl-D

EVALUATION OF BREAKDOWN PROPERTY F R VARI US PRODUCTS

-70-

These tests were performed in triplicate and comprised washing select skin area with soap and water, drying the washed skin area, applying; 0.1 g of formulation; rubbing until dry; and recording the elapsed time from initial rubbing until non- tacky with no drag observed. *See Table Vl-C

1. Registered trademark of Chesebrough Pond's Inc.

2. Registered trademark of S.C. Johnson & Son, Inc.

3. Registered trademark of Westwood Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

4. Registered trademark of Elizabeth Arden, inc.

5. Registered trademark of Olay Company, Inc.

Personal care product compositions (such as skin-care lotions or creams) containing the surfactants of the invention exhibit excellent salt tolerance (i.e., up to about 3% of sodium έhloride can be incorporated into select compositions without breaking tiie emulsions).

Further, typical emulsion compositions exhibit excellent solvent tolerance. Stabile emulsion compositions having up to 20% SD-40 alcohol and/or SD-3A alcohol have been successfully prepared.

The N-alkylphthalamate surfactants of the invention can be incorporated into personal-care product compositions via an oil phase or a water phase. Final emulsions are preferably prepared using a normal two phase hot process.

A wide variety of personal-care emollients, such as petrolatum light, mineral oil, isopropyl palmitate, caprylic/capric triglyceride, avacado oil, sesame seed oil, safflower oil, co oil, peanut oil, lanolin AAA deodorized, acetylated lanolin, melanin, a variety of sunscreens and vitamins, etc., are readily emulsified by a combination of the relatively high HLB emulsifiers of the invention with a relatively low HLB emulsifier, such as glycerol mono-stearate and a cosmetic emollient of choice so as to attain a ratio of emollient to emulsifier in the range of about 3:1 to about 30:1.

EXAMPLE K Hair Conditioning Characteristics

Sodium N-octadecylphthalamate was incorporated at 5%, 3% and 1%, respectively, into a standard hair shampoo formulation. These formulations comprised 12% active ammonium lauryl sulfate, 2.5% N,N-diethanol cocoamide and Q.S 100 deionized water, along with the above N-alkylphthalamate. These three hair shampoo compositions were then evaluated on hair swatches by a panel for wet compatibility and dry compatibility, along with three commercially available hair shampoo formulations. Each swatch was rated from 1 (worst) to 5 (best) and the average results are set forth below:

1. Pert Plus" is a registered trademark of Procter and Gamble Company for a hair conditioning shampoo.

2. Prell" is a registered trademark of Procter and Gamble Company for hair cleaning shampoo.

3. Suave Golden" is a registered trademark of Helene Curtis, Inc. for a hair cleaning shampoo.

As can be seen from the above data the 5% phthalamate formulation readily outperformed all three commercial shampoos. Additionally, the 3% and 1% phthalamate formulations outperformed at least two of the commercial shampoos.

TABLE Kl

CONDITIONING SHAMPOO

tallow) Phthalamic acid/ammonium salt at a ratio of 80:20 5.00

Silicone DC 200 0.50 0.50

(12,500 cps) (a dimethicone)

7. Citric Acid 50% Q.S. Q.S. 8. Sodium Hydroxide 50% Q.S. Q.S. 9. 1,3,5,5-tetramethyl 0.20 0.20 hydanto n

10. Ammonium Chloride 0.20 0.20

x Regis t ered trademark of Stepan Co. for ammonium lauryl sulfa t e 2 Registered trademark of Stepan Co. for cocomide diethanolamine

TABLE K2 ANTI-DANDRUFF SHAMPOO

5. N,.N-di(hydrogenated tallow) Phthalamic acid/ammonium salt at a ratio of 30:70 5.00 6. Zinc Pyrithione 4.20 4.20

48% Dispersion 7. Citric Acid 50% Q.S. Q-S.

8. Sodium Hydroxide 50% Q.S. Q.S.

9. 1,3,5,5-tetramethyl hydantoin 0.20 0.20

10. Ammonium Chloride 0.20 0.20

1 Registered trademark of Stepan Co. for ammonium lauryl sulfate

2 Registered trademark of Stepan Co. for cocomide diethanolamine

TABLE K3 - RUFF SHAMPOO

phthalamic acid/ ammonium salt at a ratio of 50:50

6. Silicone DC 200 0.50 0.50

(12,500 cps) (a dimethicone)

7. Zinc Pyrithione 4.20 4.20 48% Dispersion

8. Citric Acid 50% Q.S. Q.S.

9. Sodium Hydroxide 50% Q.S. Q.S.

10. 1,3,5,5-tetramethyl 0.20 0.20 hydantoin

11. Ammonium Chloride 0.20 0.20

1 Registered trademark of Stepan Co. for ammonium lauryl sulfate

2 Registered trademark of Stepan Co. for cocomide diethanolamine

TABLE KA

COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION - CONDITIONING SHAMPOO AND CONDITIONING/ANTI-DANDRUFF SHAMPOO

CONDITIONING/ CONDITIONING* CONDITIONING ANTI-DANDRUFF ATTRIBUTES SHAMPOO SHAMPOO

Detangling Form. 2 > Form. 1 > Form. 6 > Form. 5 > Baseline control Baseline control

' Wet Combing Form. 2 > Form. 1 > Form. 6 > Form. 5 > Baseline control Baseline control

Dry Combing Form. 2 > Form. 1 > Form. 6 > Form. 5 > Baseline control Baseline control

Static Control/ Form. 2 > Form. 1 - Form. 6 > Form. 5 Flyaway Baseline control Baseline control

Baseline control Formulation is substantially the same as formulations 1 and/or 5 without silicone DC 200 (12,500 cps)

*A controlled half-head salon evaluation by an experienced licensed beautician on a panel of 30 subjects was used as a method .for determining the listed attributes above.

TABLE 4B

COMPARATIVE STABILITY EVALUATION

PH over 1 Month Period

110° 3.0 7.0 JLO

P - Pass (3) Freeze/Thaw cycles S - Stable

U - Unstable

EXAMPLE Kl Preparation of a mixture of N,N-di(hydrogenated tallow) phthalamic acid and N,N-di(hydrogenated tallow) phthalamic acid di-(hydrogenated tallow) ammonium salt One mole (148.Og) of flaked phthalic anhydride (PA) was charged into a 4-neck 5-liter round bottomed flask reactor equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a thermocouple temperature controller and a heating mantle. A charge of 650g of isopropyl alcohol (USP grade) was added to the reactor to achieve a slurry of about 50% solids. One mole " (about 502g) of molten di(hydrogenated tallow) amine was slowly added to the slurry in the reactor with continuous stirring. The temperature of the reaction mass was allowed to stabilize at about 45-55°C with gradual addition of the amine -and cooling of the reactor flask. Amine addition was completed in about 0.5 to 1 hours. Thereafter the reactor was maintained at about 60°C until the PA flakes dissipated and IR spectroscopic analysis showed no detectable amounts of PA in the reaction mass. Isopropyl alcohol vΑs then removed under vacuum (about 1-50 mmHg) On analysis, about 62 mole % acid and about 38 mole % salt were found with an average molecular weight of about 782.

EXAMPLE K2 Preparation of a Conditioning Shampoo Water was first added into a suitable vessel equipped with agitation, heating and cooling capabilities. While the water was agitated and heated slowly, tetrasodium EDTA, STEPANOL ® AM-V (ammonium lauryl sulfate) and NINOL® 40 CO (cocomide die haraolamine) were added. At about 145°F a 70:30 mixture of N, N-di(hydrogenated tallow) phthalamic acid and N,N-di(hydrogenated tallow) phthalamic acid N,N-di(hydro enated tallow) ammonium salt, followed by silicone DC 200 were added to the mixture. The mixture was heated to 160- 165°F and emulsified for 20-30 minutes at high speed while maintaining the temperature between 160-165°F. The mixture was slowly cooled with agitation set at medium speed. When the temperature of the mixture cooled to about 110°C, 1,3,5,5- •• tetramethyl hydantoin and ammonium chloride were added. The pH was checked and adjusted as necessary with ammonium hydroxide or citric acid to a value between about 4.5 to 6.5. The viscosity was checked and adjusted as necessary with ammonium chloride to a value between 4000 and 6000 cps.

EXAMPLE K3

Preparation of an anti-dandruff shampoo

Water was first added into a suitable vessel equipped with agitation, heating and cooling capabilities. While the water was - agitated- and heated slowly, tetrasodium EDTA, STEPANOL ® AM-V,

(ammonium lauryl sulfate) and NINOL ® 40 CO, (cocomide diethanolamine) were added. At about 145°F, a 70:30 mixture of N, N- di(hydrβgenated tallow) phthalamic acid and N,N-di(hydrogenated tallow) jLp thalamic acid N,N-di(hydrogenated tallow) ammonium salt, followed by silicone DC 200 and ZPT (zinc pyrithione, 48% dispersion), were added to the mixture. The mixture was heated to 160-165°F and emulsified for 20-30 minutes at high speed while maintaining the temperature between 160-165 C F. The mixture was slowly cooled with agitation set at medium speed. When the temperataire of the mixture cooled to about 110°C, 1,3,5,5- tetrame hyl hydantoin and ammonium chloride were added. The pH was checked and adjusted as necessary with ammonium hydroxide or citric acid, to a value between about 4.5 and 6.5. The viscosity was checked and adjusted as necessary with ammonium chloride to a value between 4000 and 6000 cps.

^ EXAMPLE K4

Preparation of an Anti-dandruff/Conditioning Shampoo Water was first added into a suitable vessel equipped with agitation, heating and cooling capabilities. While the water was agitated and heated slowly, tetrasodium EDTA, STEPANOL ® AM-V, (ammonium lauryl sulfate), and NINOL® 40 CO (cocomide diethanolamine) were added. At about 145°F, a 70:30 mixture of N, N- di(hydrogenated tallow) phthalamic acid and N,N-di(hydrogenated tallow) phthalamic acid N,N-di(hydrogenated tallow) ammonium salt, followed by silicone DC 200 and ZPT (zinc pyrithione, 48% dispersion) were added to the mixture. The mixture was heated to 160-165°F and emulsified for 20-30 minutes at high speed while maintaining the temperature between 160-165°F. The mixture was slowly cooled with agitation set at medium speed. When the temperature of the mixture cooled to about 110°C, 1,3,5,5- tetramethyl hydantoin and ammonium chloride were added. The pH was checked and adjusted as necessary with ammonium hydroxide or citric acid to a value between about 4.5 and 6.5. The viscosity was checked and adjusted as necessary with ammonium chloride to a value between 4000 and 6000 cps. 7/ s will be appreciated, the above formulations provide exemplary surfactants and cocomides only, and other primary surfactants, amides and mixtures thereof may be

SUBSTΓΓJ -. - sHt-i _

Latex or emulsion polymers, typically derived from ethylenically unsaturated monomers, methacrylate esters, vinyl esters and similar known latex-forming monomers are widely used in a variety of applications, such as binders for-

~~: '- ?τ. r c_i-J~'

pigmented or unpigmented protective paints or coatings, as adhesive masses, binders for paper coatings and for non-woven textiles, binders for carpet backing materials and plastisols, binders for synthetic rubbers, as concrete or portiand cement additives, printing ink additives, floor polish and similar wax additives and in other similarly related areas. Most conventional emulsion (latex) polymers are produced by an emulsion polymerization process wherein select monomeric materials are polymerized while they are dispersed in an aqueous medium via surfactants. Such surfactants may be anionic in nature, such as soaps or various sulf ates or sulfonates of various organic substances. Alternatively, such surfactants may be nonionic, such as ethylene oxide derivatives of organic substances or cationic, such as alkyl ammonium halides. Further, the polymerization reactions frequentiy are effected in the presence of water-soluble protective colbids or stabilizing agents. Any one of the above emulsifying or stabilizing agents may lead to the presence of a water-sensitive material in the vinyl polymeric latex, which in many instances is highly undesirable. The art has long theorized that a means of avoiding the presence of water-sensitive materials in a polymeric latex mass is to employ a fugitive or destructible surfactant Such as surfactant would function as an emulsifier and solubilizer during the polymerization process and as a stabilizer for the latex produced therefrom. Drying of such a latex, as in producing a latex coating, especially forced drying, would drive off or somehow chemically destroy or change the surfactant and render the latex water-insensitive. To date, necessary

surface active properties have been found only in molecules too large to be volatile so that destruction of the surfactant appears to be preferred. Some workers in this art (i.e. see U.S. Patents 4,544,726 and/or 3,928,423) suggested surfactants which are incorporated into the polymeric mass during the polymerization process so as to render them incapable of migrating to the surface of tiie polymeric mass and thereby reducing the water-sensitivity of such polymeric mass. However, none of these or similar materials have been completely satisfactory, largely due to the fact that all remain water-sensitive, even as bound components in the polymeric mass. As indicated earlier, the invention provides a new and useful class of latex polymerization surfactaπffe having the general formula (I) above and which are readily destroyed or chemically changed during application (coating/heating) so as to render latex compositions containing such substantially water-insensitive. In preferred embodiments of the foregoing surfactant, R r and R 2 may be independently selected from tiie group consisting essentially of H or C, - C rs alkyl or R 3 -0-R 4 groups and mixtures thereof, with R 3 and R, being independently selected from the group consisting essentially of C τ - C^ linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene, alkaryl, aryl groups and mixtures thereof, with the cation, M, being selected from alkali metals (including ammonium and various amine derivatives) and alkaline earth metals. In even more preferred embodiments, R f and R 2 may be independently selected from the group consisting essentially of H or C r - C τs alkyl moieties and M may be selected from ammonium or an amine derivative thereof which boils below about 125°C. An

exemplary preferred surfactant comprises triethylammonium N-cocophthalamate.

It is theorized and generally confirmed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy that the latex polymerization surfactants of the invention, once subjected to drying conditions, including a temperature in the range of about 10° to about 300°C for a period of time undergo a chemical change and form an imide, which is substantially water-insensitive and does not exhibit appreciable surface activity.

A number of exemplary latex compositions were prepared and subjected to a water resistance test which involved dipping two microscope slides into each latex composition and allowing the so-coated slides to dry at ambient conditions for 24 hours, while suspended in a vertical position. One of each pair received no further treatment while the other slide of each pair was baked for about 15 minutes in a circulating air oven maintained at about 150°C and allowed to cool to room temperature. All the slides were then immersed in deionized water for a period of time of not less than three weeks and observed for adhesive failure (blistering, pulling away from the glass surface, etc.). The results are tabulated below in Table VII.

Latex composition #1 was prepared by charging into a suitably set-up reactor 205.5 g of deionized water, 53.2 g of dimethylethanolammonium N-dodecylphthalamate (7.52% solids) and 2.0 g of NH DH and heated to about 70°C with stirring under a nitrogen blanket. Thereafter, about 20% of a total monomer charge and all of an initiator charge (monomer charge comprised of 100.0 g of butyl acrylate and 100 g of methylmethacrylate; initiator charge

comprised of 0.2g of K g S^O g and 20.0 g of deionized water) were added to the reactor and allowed to react Next, the remainder of the monomer charge was added continuously over about 1 hour along with a separate, continuous and concurrent addition of a feed comprised of 30.0 g of deionized water, 0.8 g of K g S- j O g and 2.0 g of NH DH, with continued heating at aoout 70° to about 75°C. This polymerization reaction mixture was heated for an additional 1 hour at about 70° to 75°C with stirring. Thereafter, the finished and relatively stabile latex composition was cooled to ambient temperature and discharged for storage and testing.

Latex compositions #2 was essentially similar to composition #1 above and was prepared in a substantially identical matter, except that triethyiammmonium N-dodecylphthalamate (about 5.44% solids) was used in place ' of the dimethylethanolammonium N-dodecylphthalamate, along with minor adjustments of water content

Latex composition #3 was prepared in an essentially similar manner, of substantially identical materials as that described in composition #1 except that styrene was used in place of the methylmethacrylate monomer.

Latex composition #4 was prepared in a substantially identical manner and with substantially identical materials to that of composition #2, except that styrene was used in place of the methylmethacrylate.

Latex compositions #5, #6 and #7 were prepared in a substantially identical manner and with substantially identical ingredients as described for composition

#1, except that in each respective formulation, sodium lauryl ether sulfate containing 30 moles of ethylene oxide; sodium lauryl ether sulfate containing 4 moles of ethylene oxide and sodium lauryl ether sulfate containing 12 moles of ethylene oxide were utilized in place of the dimethylethanolammmonium N-dodecylphthalamate.

Latex composition #8 was prepared by charging into a suitably set-up reactor 49.0 g of deionized water, 1.5 g of K^O g and 2.0 g of triethylamine and heated to about 80°C with stirring under a nitrogen blanket. A pre-emulsion composition comprised of 280.4 g of triethylammonium N-dodecylphthalamate, 2.0 g of triethylamine, 180.0 g of 2-ethylhexylacrylate, 90.0 g of methylmethacrylate and 30.0 g of hydroxyethyiacrylate, and an initiator solution comprised of 0.5 g of and 25.0 g of deionized water were made-up and each was separately, continuously and concurrently added to the reactor over about 3 hours, with continued heating at about 80° to 85°C. The resultant mixture was held for an additional 1 hour at about 80° to 85°C with stirring. Thereafter the so-formed stabile latex composition was cooled for storage and testing.

Latex composition #9 was somewhat similarly prepared by charging into a reactor 81.9 g of deionized water, 2.5 g or triethylamine, 1.7 g of triethylammonium N-cocophthalamate (60.0% solids), 0.4 g of sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate and 0.4 g of t-butyl hydroperoxide. A pre-emulsion composition comprised of 133.3 g of deionized water, 8.0 g of triethylamine, 13.2 g of triethylammonium N-cocophthalamate, 110.0 g of butyl acrylate, 82.0 g of methylmethacrylate, 28.5g

of hydroxyethylmethacryiate and 2.1 g of t-butyl hydroperoxide was prepared and about 26 mL of this pre-emulsion composition was added to the reactor and heated, with stirring, to about 63° to 65°C under a nitrogen blanket. Once the emulsion polymerization reaction began, the remainder of the pre-emulsion composition and, as a separate feed, an initiator solution comprised of 2.1 g of sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate and 30.0 g of deionized water were separately, continuously and concurrently added to the reactor over a period of about 2 hours, with continued stiπing and heating at 63° to 65°C. The resultant polymerization mixture was heated for an additional 1 hours, with continued stirring. Thereafter, the formed stabile latex was cooled to ambient temperature for storage and testing.

Latex composition #10 was prepared from substantially identical ingredients and in a similar manner as that described for composition #9, except that the surfactant utilized was a mix of 50% triethylammonium N-dodecylphthalamate and 50% triethylammonium N-octylphthalamate (60.0% solids).

Latex composition #11 was prepared from substantially identical ingredients and in a similar manner as that described for compositions #5 and #6, except that sodium lauryl sulfate was utilized as a surfactant in place of the ethoxylated sodium lauryl sulfates.

Latex composition #12 was prepared by charging into a suitable set-up reactor 73.5 g of deionized water, 2.0 g of triethylamine, 1.8 g of triethylammonium N-cocophthalamate (60.0% solids), 0.4 g of sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate and

0.4 g of t-butyl hydroperoxide. About 20 mL of a pre-emulsion composition comprised of 119.8 g of deionized water, 7.0 g of triethylamine, 14.7 g of triethylammonium N-cocophthalamate, 123.2 g of butyl acrylate, 81.2 g of styrene, 10.1 g of methylmethacrylate, 32.2 g of hydroxyethylmethacrylate and 2.4 g of t-butyl hydroperoxide, were added to the reactor and heated to about 63° to 65°C, with stirring under a nitrogen blanket Once the emulsion polymerization reaction began, the remaining pre-emulsion composition and an initiator solution comprised of 2.4 g of sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate and 35.0 g of deionized water were added, as separate feeds, continuously and concurrently over about 2 hours, with continued stirring and heating at about 63° to 65°C. The reactor charge was heated at this temperature for an additional 1 hour, cooled and discharged for storage and testing.

Latex composition #13 was prepared by charging into a suitably set-up reactor 73.5 g of deionized water 2.0 g of triethylamine and 1.8 g of triethylammonium N-cocophthalamate (60.0% solids) and heating this mixture to about 75°C under an inert gas blanket 0.2 g of I^S 2 O β was then added to the reactor and, as separate feeds, a pre-emulsion composition comprised of 118.9 g of deionized water, 7.0 g of triethylamine, 14.7 g of triethylammonium N-cocopthalamate (60.0% solids), 123.2g of butyl acrylate, 91.3 g of methylmethacrylate and 32.2 g of hydroxyethylmethacrylate and an initiator solution comprised of 1.0 g of K^O g and 30.0 g of deionized water, were continuously and

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concurrently added to the reactor over about a 2 hour period, with heating at about 75° to 80°C and stim ' ng. This reaction mixture was heated at the above temperature for an additional 1 hour, cooled to ambient and discharged for storage and testing.

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TABLE VII

LATEX CONDITIONS*

COMPOSITION BAKED NOT BAKED SURFACTANT j** 2 dimethylethanolammonium

N-dodecylphthalamate

2 7 4 triethylammonium

N-dodecylphthalamate

3 8 2 dimethylethanolammonium

N-dodecylphthalamate

4 - triethylammonium

N-dodecylphthalamate

5 i 1 sodium lauryl sulfate with 20 moles of E.O.

6 1 - sodium lauryl sulfate with 4 moles of E.O.

7 2 - sodium lauryl sulfate with 12 moles of E.O.

8 - triethylammonium

N-dodecylphthalamate

9 9 - triethylammonium

N-cocophthalamate

10 9 - 50/50 mix of triethylammonium

N-dodecyiphthalamate and triethylammonium

N-cocophthalamate

11 3 - sodium lauryl sulfate

12 - triethylammonium

N-cocophthalamate

13 - - triethylammonium

N-cocophthalamate

TABLE VII CONTINUED

CONDITIONS Baked = 150°C for 15 minutes and water immersed for at least 3 weeks

Not Baked - dry at ambient for 24 hours and water immersion for at least 3 wee

** Numerical values assigned on a scale of 1 (worst) to 10 (best), with 10 representing to adhesion and 1 representing all or most of latex film lifted off of glass slide. Values in betwe indicate various degrees,of blistering, lifting, etc

From the foregoing data, it was concluded that latex compositions containing the emulsi polymerization surfactants of the invention consistently outperformed the more traditional la surfactants (in comp t o _ sitions 5, 6, and 7). It was also concluded that a dramatic difference in wa resistance in coating integrity existed between heat-treated and non-heat treated coatings containi the inventive surfactants. This difference was attributed to the "destructible" nature of the invent surfactants whereby the N-alkylphthalamate, which exhibits surface active properties in water, wh subjected to drying conditions. s chemically converted to N-alkylphthalimide, which is substanti devoid of surface active properties and is substantially water insoluble. It was also noted t dimethylethanolammonium N-dodecylphthalamate, triethylammonium N-cocophthalam dimethylethanolammonium N-dodecylphthalamate and a 50/50 mixture of triethylammonium dodecylphthalamate and triethylammonium N-cocophthalamate exhibited exceptionally g emulsification properties during latex formation and, coatings containing these particular surfacta exhibited excellent water-insensitivity after drying.

EXAMPLE M Fabric Softening Characteristics

Sodium N-taliowphthalamate and triethanolammonium octadecyiphthalamate were evaluated as fabric softeners and compared against two commercially available fabric softeners (ARQUAD* 2HT and STEPANTEX* 6530B) in a conventional domestic laundry machine having typical wash and rinse cycles. White cotton (loop) terry cloth hand towels were prepared for evaluation by CSMA methods DCC-13A and in DCC-13B. The new towels were stripped of mill textile conditioners by washing three times with a standard detergent and 20 g of sodium phosphate, followed by five washings without detergent (all washes were full cycle, hot wash, cold rinse). For each softener tested, as well as for a control (no softener), three towel bundles were added to either the wash cycle or to the rinse cycle. The softeners, at 5 percent solids were dispersed in water and added to the wash or rinse cycle at a use level at about 0.2 percent active softener/weight of towel. After completion of the wash and/or rinse cycle, the towels were dried in a typical domestic dryer for about 50 minutes and evaluated for harshness/softness, with ratings from 1 (harshest) to 3 (softest) and the average results are set forth below: FTENER AVERAGE. RINSE CYCLE

3 2.8

2.1 2.2 1

ARQUAD* 2HT - a registered trademark of AKZO (ARMAK GROUP), Inc. for a dimethylditallow ammonium chloride.

STEPANTEX" 6530B - a registered trademark of Stepan Company for a dialkyl quaternary ammonium methyl sulfate.

As can be seen from the above, the fabric softeners of the invention (alkyl/alkylene phthalamates) exhibited softening characteristics in both wash and rinse cycles, with better results exhibited in the rinse cycle. Further, the fabric softeners of the invention compared favorably with the commercial softeners tested. • * EXAMPLE N .

Reversible Crude Oil Emulsion /Dispersion/Suspension Characteristics

Sodium N-dodecyiphfhalamate, sodium N-cocophthalamate, sodium N- isodecyloxypropylphthalamate and sodium N-isododecyloxypropyiphthalamate, along with a control (tap water only), were evaluated as emulsifying and/or dispersing and/or suspending agents for a given, heavy (viscous) crude petroleum oil (Dome crude oil, David Field, California) in different water samples, one having a hardness (expressed as CaCO^) of 150 ppm, another having a hardness of 500 ppm, along with a synthetic sea water (Naα-coπtaining tap water, 150 ppm). In addition, various admixtures of sodium N-dodecylphthalamate and lauryl amine oxide were similarly evaluated with the above petroleum crude oil and synthetic sea water for synergistic emulsϊfication characteristics.

The respective surfactants were prepared as aqueous solutions with the various water samples at a concentration of about 0.1 percent actives. Measured samples (50 mL) of the surfactant solutions were placed in 100 mL graduated cylinders, 2 drops

of the crude oil added, the cylinders stoppered and relatively vigorously shaken manually for about 10 to 20 seconds. The degree of emulsification/dispersion, suspension was noted and recorded. The data is set for in Table VIII below.

From the data observed, it was noted that some of the emulsions/dispersions or suspensions did not appear very stabile and sometimes separated within minutes. However, the lauryl amine oxide/sodium N-dodecylphthalamate solutions provided more stabile emulsions which did not separate even after 2 hours. From the data obtained, it was concluded that N-alkylphthalamates emulsified/dispersed crude oil in relatively hard water and that the N-alkyletherphthalamates at least dispersed oil in relatively hard water and in sea water. Additionally, it was concluded that there was a synergistic effect in producing emulsions with a combination of an alkyl amineoxide and N-alkylphthalamtes.

» a g

I I I t I ft ft t t o

ln order to demonstrate the "reversible" nature of the emulsification properties of the surfactants of the invention, the pH of a sodium N-dodecylphthalamate solution (0.1% actives in 50 mL of 150 ppm hardness water) containing about 2 drops of the aforesaid crude oil was repeatedly adjusted. At relatively high pH values (i.e., above about 7) emulsification of the crude oil readily occurred and at relatively how pH values (i.e., below about 5) de-emuisification of the crude oil readily occurred. A control was prepared from a sample of the 150 ppm hardness water without surfactant but with 2 drops of the above crude oil.

Adjusting the pH of the control from about 13 to about 3 did not produce any emulsions or dispersions. However, when the above N-alkylphthalamate solution was adjusted to a pH of 8.5 the oil readily emulsified. The pH of this emulsion was then dropped by the addition of 1N HCl to a value of about 2.6 and upon agitation, the emulsion broke, almost instantly, with floccing. The pH of this acidified mixture was then raised by addition of 1N NaOH, to a value of about 13.4 and with agitation (about 10-15 seconds of manual shaking) an emulsified solution was noted. The foregoing cycle between relatively high pH and relatively low pH was repeated an additional three times, with essentially identical emulsification/de-emulsification results. During a tow (4.9) pH de- emulsification cycle, separated crude oil was removed, by decantation and a pH of the remaining (used) phthalamic solution was adjusted to about 13.5 and fresh crude oil added. Upon agitation, very stabile emulsion was quickly formed. The pH of this emulsion was then dropped to about 7.0 without noticeable de-emuisification. The pH was then further dropped to about 5.2, with a slight fiocculation noted. The pH value was

then dropped to about 3«5 and the emulsion broke. Upon addition of additional fresh sodium N-dodecylphthalamate, the emulsion re-formed.

From the foregoing data it is concluded that N-alkylphthalamates and N-alkyiethθ hthalamates are useful in emulsifying viscous petroleum crude oils so as to enable such oils to be transported between select locations. Further, such emulsifications can be readily de-emulsified by adjusting the pH of the emulsion to a value below about pH 5 and the "deactivated" emulsifier reactivated by increasing the pH thereof to a value above about pH 7.

EXAMPLE O Compatibilization /Surfactant Characteristics in Polyurethane /Isocvanurate Systems

Various aromatic polyester polyols are utilized in a variety of polyurethane/ isocyanurate foam systems employed in, for example, production of laminated boards, insulating foams, etc During production of such foam systems, blowing agents such as fluorocarbons, water, carbon dioxide, etc., are utilized and must be blended into the so- called polymer blends. However, blowing agents are typically insoluble or non-dispersable in these blends so that compatibilizing agents or surfactants must be included. For further details see Wood U.S. ξateπt 4,595,711, (assigned to the instant assignee and which is incorporated herein by reference).

A typical polyol blend was formulated with no surfactant (control) and with three different surfactants of the Invention. The two sodium sate (defined below) were solids while the triethylammonium salt was a fiquid. The sodium salts were difficult to εolubilize in the polyol blend and did not appear to compatibilize the blowing agent into the resin

mixture. However, these sodium salts did not appear to interfere with the foam reaction and exhibited fair cell structures, friability, density (reactivity) and overall cell integrity (see Table IX-A, below). On the other hand, the triethylammonium salt solubilized quite well in the polyol mixture and demonstrated good compatibilization or surfactant characteristics with the blowing agent tested (see Table IX-B, below).

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*Sodium N-tallowphthalamate

**Sodium N-dodecylphthalamate

***Triethy!ammonium N-isododecyioxypropyiphthalamate

TABLE IX-A CONTINUED

1. Polyol - prepared substantially in accordance with Example A of Wood, U.S. Patent 4,595,711 except that the hydroxyl number was adjusted to 185 and the final product had a viscosity of about 22,000 centiposes at 25°C.

2. DABCO K-15 - trade name designation of Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA for potassium octoate.

3. POLYCAT - 8 - trade name designation of Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA for dimethyl cyclohexylamine.

4. B - 8432 - trade name designation of Goldschmidt Chemical Corp., Hopewell, VA for a polysiloxane surfactant

5. R-11 - Freon 11, tricholorofluoromethane obtained from E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, DE.

6. Visual inspections, E = excellent, G = good, F = fair, P = poor

T POLYOL PHTHALAMATE ^R-H, max. soluble, g.

1. ibid. 5. ibid. 7. R - 11 added to polyol in small increments until incompatibility was reached.

Endpoint is marked by a slight white/blue haziness, additions beyond this point cause the mixture to become a milky, opaque white.

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From the foregoing data it is concluded that the N-alkylphthalamates of the invention function as surfactants in polyurethane/isocyanurate foam systems. Further, it is apparent that the longer chain N-alkylphthalamate exhibited excellent compatibilization characteristics with the blowing agent tested. Yet further, potassium sails of the inventive surfactants are of potential interest since such appear to have a beneficial effect on the catalysis of these foam systems.

EXAMPLE P Industrial Oilv Materials Emulsification Characteristics

Certain industrial oily materials, such as linseed oil, tall oil, soybean oil alkyd, linseed oil alkyd, various Cuts of distilled petroleum oil, heavy paraffinic oil, asphattene oil, etc., are useful in a wide variety of applications, such as in road construction, as resin binders, etc., but are extremely difficult to manipulate due to their inherent viscosity, adhesiveness, lack of spreadibility, etc. Attempts to emulsify these oily materials have met with only limited success and typically involved the use of a plurality of high HLB and low HLB emulsifiers and non-aqueous solvents which, at best, form non-stabile emulsions.

For example, linseed oil is used in road constructions as a binding material prior to repairing at least certain roadways. Linseed oil is an extremely sticky and heavy material and is very difficult to apply in a somewhat uniform manner. Heretofore, linseed oil, per se, or in combination with non-aqueous solvents, was loaded onto a specialized truck having a heated tank maintained at a fairly high temperature (i.e, about 90° to 100°C). The tank truck included feed pipes leading to spray nozzles extended along a manifold to cover a given Surface area (i.e., a road lane). The heated linseed oil was

pumped through the nozzles, which in some instances were also connected to separate emulsion/solvent solution storage tanks so as to briefly form an emulsion at the nozzle head. This emulsion was then sprayed onto the work surface for manual spreading. Once the linseed oil cooled down and/or the emulsion broke, the linseed oil became very difficult to spread uniformly with manual spreading tools. As will be appreciated, with this type of system, the spray nozzles tend to clog-up and are difficult to clean and workers are exposed to organic vapors and excessive heal

In accordance with the principles of the invention, linseed oil was readily emulsified into an aqueous system utilizing the phthalamate surfactants (a relatively high HLB emulsifier) in combination with a relatively low HLB emulsifier, such as glycerol stearates, preferably glycerol monostearate, and water. The resulting emulsions were very easy to spray and spread to a desired area. Emulsified linseed oil was stored over extended periods of time without noticeable separation. Further, emulsified linseed oil does not require high temperature for application, thereby providing an economical as well as an environmental advantage.

Linseed Oil Emulsion Formulation

Component Wt. %

A- UNSEED OIL 60.0

SODIUM N-OCTADECYLPHTHALAMATE ZO τ KESSCθ" GLYCERYL 1.0

MONOSTEARATE PURE

B. WATER Q.S. 100

KESSCO* - Registered trademark of Stepan Company for various organic esters.

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Components A, above, were charged into a heatable vessel and heated with agitation to a temperature of about 77° to 80°C, Component B, above, was charged into a separate heatable vessel and also heated to about 77° to 80°C. Thereafter, component A was added to component B with agitation and continued heating for about 30 minutes or until the emulsion formed. Thereafter, agitation was continued and the emulsion was allowed to cool to about 32°C Agitation was stopped and emulsion transferred for storage and evaluation. Emulsion stability was evaluated at about 43°C for a 1 month period, at room temperature for a 3 month period and at about 2°C for a 1 month period. In each instance, the emulsion was stabile and was easily applied onto glass slides.

Similarly, otter industrial oily rraberiaLs ar as polytutylenes, pαlyetfylenes siliocnes, palysil iccnes, guns, etc. , cm readily be atulsif e b ccπbining the relatively high HLB phthalamate emulsifiers of the invention with a relatively low HLB emulsifier, up to about 80 percent by weight of an oily material and Q.& 100 water.

As is apparent from the foregoing specification, the invention is susceptible of being embodied with various, alterations and modifications which may differ particularly from those that have been described in the preceding specification and description. For this reason it is to be fully understood that all the foregoing is intended to be merely illustrative. It is not to be construed or interpreted as being restrictive or otherwise limiting of the present invention, excepting as it is set forth and defined in the hereto-appended claims .