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Title:
CYCLIC POLYOLEFINS DERIVED FROM HEXYNE, OCTYNE, NONYNE, PENTADECYNE AND THEIR COPOLYMERS WITH ACETYLENE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/058192
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Disclosed are saturated cyclic monopolymers derived from hexyne, octyne, nonyne, pentadecyne and saturated cyclic copolymers derived from acetylene and a second alkyne monomer that is hexyne, octyne, nonyne, or pentadecyne.

Inventors:
VEIGE, Adam S. (706 SW 83rd Terrace, Gainesville, Florida, 32607, US)
Application Number:
IB2018/056448
Publication Date:
March 28, 2019
Filing Date:
August 24, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA RESEARCH FOUNDATION, INC. (223 Grinter Hall, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, US)
International Classes:
C08L65/00; C08F290/14; C08G61/04
Foreign References:
US20040132934A12004-07-08
US6525197B12003-02-25
Other References:
COPE, A. C. ET AL.: "Cyclic Polyolefins. XXII. Substituted Cyclooctatetraenes from Substituted Acetylenes", JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 74, no. 1, 5 January 1952 (1952-01-05), pages 179 - 183, XP055170118
MIDYA, G. C. ET AL.: "Ligand mediated iron catalyzed dimerization of terminal aryl alkynes: scope and limitations", ORGANIC & BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY, vol. 12, no. 11, 2014, pages 1812 - 1822, XP055583912
XU, X. ET AL.: "Oligomerization and cyclization reactions of acetylene", PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, vol. 7, no. 2, 2005, pages 326 - 333, XP055583914
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
JAGTIANI, Ajay A. (1751 Pinnacle Drive, Suite 1500Tysons Corner, Virginia, 22102, US)
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Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A composition comprising a saturated cyclic copolymer having a structural formula:

wherein: R is n-butyl, n-hexyl, n-heptyl, n-tetradecane; and a ratio of n/m is less than 1.

2. The composition of claim 1, wherein the saturated cyclic copolymer randomly incorporates acetylene and a second alkyne monomer selected from the group consisting of 1-hexyne, 1-octyne, 1-nonyne, 1-pentadecyne.

3. The composition of claim 2, wherein a ratio of comonomer incorporation varies.

4. The composition of claim 3, wherein R is hexyl, and a ratio of incorporated acetylene to incorporated second alkyne monomer is about 59:41.

5. The composition of claim 3, wherein R is hexyl, and a ratio of incorporated acetylene to incorporated second alkyne monomer is about 47:53.

6. The composition of claim 3, wherein R is hexyl, and a ratio of incorporated acetylene to incorporated second alkyne monomer is about 34:66.

7. The composition of claim 3, wherein R is hexyl, and a ratio of incorporated acetylene to incorporated second alkyne monomer has the incorporated acetylene between 34 and 59 and the second alkyne monomer between 41 and 66.

8. The composition of claim 3, wherein R is heptyl, and a ratio of incorporated acetylene to incorporated second alkyne monomer is about 43:57.

9. The composition of claim 3, wherein R is heptyl, and a ratio of incorporated acetylene to incorporated second alkyne monomer is about 15:85.

10. The composition of claim 3, wherein R is heptyl, and a ratio of incorporated acetylene to incorporated second alkyne monomer has the incorporated acetylene between 15 and 43 and the second alkyne monomer between 57 and 85.

11. The composition of claim 3, where R is tetradecane, and a ratio of incorporated acetylene to incorporated second alkyne monomer is about 15.

12. The composition of claim 1, wherein a relative purity of the saturated cyclic copolymer determined by a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis is about 75% to about 99%.

13. A composition comprising a saturated cyclic homopolymer having a structural formula:

wherein: R is n-butyl, n-hexyl, n-heptyl, n-tetradecane; and n≥ 1.

14. The composition of claim 13, wherein the saturated cyclic homopolymer incorporates a monomer selected from the group consisting of 1-hexyne, 1-octyne, 1-nonyne, and 1-pentadecyne.

15. The composition of claim 13, wherein a relative purity of the saturated cyclic homopolymer determined by an NMR analysis is about 75% to about 99%.

16. A method of preparing a saturated cyclic polymer comprising: hydrogenating an unsaturated cyclic polymer using a hydrogenation catalyst to produce a saturated cyclic polymer,

wherein the saturated cyclic polymer comprises a saturated cyclic homopolymer or a saturated cyclic copolymer;

wherein the saturated cyclic homopolymer has a structural formula:

wherein:

and

wherein the saturated cyclic copolymer has a structural formula:

wherein: and a ratio of n/m is less

than 1. 17. The method of claim 16, wherein the saturated cyclic homopolymer incorporates a monomer selected from the group consisting of 1-hexyne, 1-octyne, 1-nonyne, and 1-pentadecyne.

18. The method of claim 16, wherein the saturated cyclic copolymer incorporates acetylene and a second alkyne monomer selected from the group consisting of 1-hexyne, 1-octyne, 1-nonyne, and 1-pentadecyne. 19. The method of claim 18, wherein the acetylene and the second alkyne monomer are randomly incorporated in the saturated cyclic copolymer at a variable ratio. 20. The method of claim 16 comprising purifying the saturated cyclic polymer, wherein the saturated cyclic polymer has a relative purity of about 75% to about 99% that is determined by a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis.

21. The composition of claim 1, wherein n is an integer greater than or equal to 1 and m is an integer greater than or equal to 1.

Description:
CYCLIC POLYOLEFINS DERIVED FROM HEXYNE, OCTYNE, NONYNE, PENTADECYNE AND THEIR COPOLYMERS WITH ACETYLENE

STATEMENT OF JOINT RESEARCH AGREEMENT

[0001] In compliance with 37 C.F.R. §1.71(g)(l), disclosure is herein made that the inventions described and claimed herein were made pursuant to a Joint Research Agreement (LAW- 2015-0682) as defined in 35 U.S.C. 103 (c)(3), that was in effect on or before the date the inventions were made, and as a result of activities undertaken within the scope of the Joint Research Agreement, by or on the behalf of ExxonMobil Chemical Company, a division of Exxon Mobil Corporation, and the University of Florida.

BACKGROUND

Field of the Invention

[0002] The disclosed invention relates generally to cyclic polymers.

Related Art

[0003] Cyclic polymers have dramatically different physical properties compared with those of their equivalent linear counterparts. However, the exploration of cyclic polymers is limited because of the inherent challenges associated with their synthesis. Conjugated linear polyacetylenes are important materials for electrical conductivity, paramagnetic susceptibility, optical nonlinearity, photocondudivity, gas permeability, liquid crystallinity and chain helicity. However, their cyclic analogues are unknown, and therefore the ability to examine how a cyclic topology influences their properties is currently not possible. There is a need to rapidly polymerize alkynes to form conjugated macrocycles in high yield.

SUMMARY

[0004] According to first broad aspect, the disclosed invention provides a composition comprising a saturated cyclic copolymer having a structural formula:

wherein: R is n-butyl, n-hexyl, n-heptyl, n-tetradecane; n and m each has various values, with a ratio of n/m < 1.

[0005] According to a second broad aspect, the disclosed invention provides a composition comprising a saturated cyclic homopolymer having a structural formula:

wherein: R is n-butyl, n-hexyl, n-heptyl, n-tetradecane; n > 1.

[0006] According to a third broad aspect, the disclosed invention provides a method of preparing a saturated cyclic polymer. The method comprises hydrogenating an unsaturated cyclic polymer using a hydrogenation catalyst to produce a saturated cyclic polymer. The saturated cyclic polymer comprises a saturated cyclic homopolymer or a saturated cyclic copolymer. The saturated cyclic homopolymer has a structural formula:

wherein: R is n-butyl, n-hexyl, n-heptyl, n-tetradecane; n> 1. The saturated cyclic copolymer has a structural formula:

wherein: R is n-butyl, n-hexyl, n-heptyl, n-tetradecane; n and m each has various values, with a ratio of n/m < 1.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0007] The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated herein and constitute part of this specification, illustrate exemplary embodiments of the invention, and, together with the general description given above and the detailed description given below, serve to explain the features of the invention.

[0008] FIG. 1 illustrates the synthesis of a catalyst (complex 4), according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention.

[0009] FIG. 2 is a molecular structure of complex 4, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention.

[0010] FIG. 3 shows a scheme for synthesis of a saturated cyclic polymer, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention. [0011] FIG. 4 shows a scheme for synthesis of a saturated cyclic homopolymer of 1- hexyne, 1-octyne, 1-nonyne, or 1-pentadecyne, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention.

[0012] FIG. S shows a scheme for synthesis of a saturated cyclic copolymer of 1-hexyne, 1-octyne, 1-nonyne, or 1-pentadecyne with acetylene, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention.

[0013] FIG. 6 is an exemplary 1 H NMR spectrum of Hex-l-H in CDC1 3 at 25 °C, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention.

[0014] FIG. 7 is an exemplary 1 H NMR spectrum of poly oct-1 in C6D6 at 25 °C, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention.

[0015] FIG. 8 is an exemplary 1 H NMR spectrum of non-1 (bottom) and non-l-H (top) in CDCI 3 at 25 °C, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention.

[0016] FIG. 9 is an exemplary l H NMR spectrum of Ptd-1 (bottom) and Ptd-l-H (top) in CDCI 3 at 25 °C, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention.

[0017] FIG. 10 is an exemplary l H NMR spectrum of Ac-Hex-H-1 in CDC1 3 at 25 °C, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention.

[0018] FIG. 11 is an exemplary 1 H NMR spectrum of Ac-Non-H-1 in CDC13 at 25 °C, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention.

[0019] FIG. 12 is an exemplary 1 H NMR spectrum of Ac-Non-H-2 in C6D6 at 25 °C, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention.

[0020] FIG. 13 is an exemplary 1 H NMR spectrum of Ac-Ptd-H-1 in CDC13 at 25 °C, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention.

[0021] FIG. 14. is a picture of exemplary saturated cyclic polymers, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Definitions

[0022] Where the definition of terms departs from the commonly used meaning of the term, applicant intends to utilize the definitions provided below, unless specifically indicated.

[0023] It is to be understood that the foregoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory only and are not restrictive of any subject matter claimed. In this application, the use of the singular includes the plural unless specifically stated otherwise. It must be noted that, as used in the specification and the appended claims, the singular forms "a," "an" and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. In this application, the use of "or" means "and/or" unless stated otherwise. Furthermore, use of the term "including" as well as other forms, such as "include", "includes," and "included," is not limiting.

[0024] For purposes of the disclosed invention, the term "comprising", the term "having", the term "including," and variations of these words are intended to be open-ended and mean that there may be additional elements other than the listed elements.

[0025] For purposes of the disclosed invention, directional terms such as "top," "bottom," "upper," "lower," "above," "below," "left," "right," "horizontal," "vertical," "up," "down," etc., are used merely for convenience in describing the various embodiments of the disclosed invention. The embodiments of the disclosed invention may be oriented in various ways. For example, the diagrams, apparatuses, etc., shown in the drawing figures may be flipped over, rotated by 90° in any direction, reversed, etc.

[0026] For purposes of the disclosed invention, a value or property is "based" on a particular value, property, the satisfaction of a condition, or other factor, if that value is derived by performing a mathematical calculation or logical decision using that value, property or other factor.

[0027] For purposes of the disclosed invention, it should be noted that to provide a more concise description, some of the quantitative expressions given herein are not qualified with the term "about." It is understood that whether the term "about" is used explicitly or not, every quantity given herein is meant to refer to the actual given value, and it is also meant to refer to the approximation to such given value that would reasonably be inferred based on the ordinary skill in the art, including approximations due to the experimental and/or measurement conditions for such given value.

[0028] For purposes of the disclosed invention, the term "analogue" and the term "analog" refer to one of a group of chemical compounds that share structural and/or functional similarities but are different in respect to elemental composition. A structural analog is a compound having a structure similar to that of another one, but differing from it in respect of one or more components, such as one or more atoms, functional groups, or substructures, etc. Functional analogs are compounds that has similar physical, chemical, biochemical, or pharmacological properties. Functional analogs are not necessarily also structural analogs with a similar chemical structure.

[0029] For purposes of the disclosed invention, the term "room temperature" refers to a temperature of from about 20 °C to about 25 °C.

Description

[0030] While the invention is susceptible to various modifications and alternative forms, specific embodiment thereof has been shown by way of example in the drawings and will be described in detail below. It should be understood, however that it is not intended to limit the invention to the particular forms disclosed, but on the contrary, the invention is to cover all modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the spirit and the scope of the invention.

[0031] Cyclic polymers do not contain end groups, 1 and as a result demonstrate a number of unique physical properties. 2 For example, the density 3 , refractive index 4,3 , glass-transition temperature, 6 viscoelasticity, 7 reptation 8 and surface properties 9 of cyclic polymers all differ from those of their more common linear analogues. Most of the seminal work that compares linear versus cyclic polymers relies on theory or on experimental work involving a limited set of macrocycles, for example poly(dimethylsiloxane). 10 Despite research in this area for over half a century there still remains a lack of knowledge regarding the properties and fundamental behavior of cyclic analogues of important commercial polymers, primarily because of their difficult syntheses and purification. [0032] Ring closing 11 ' 12 of large chains is one method of creating cyclic polymers, but requires dilute conditions to be efficient, and thus precludes large-scale synthesis. Competing intermolecular cross-coupling reactions that result in chain extension instead of cyclization also inevitably lead to linear impurities. As even trace non-cyclic impurities can have pronounced effects on the physical properties of a sample, 13 ' 14 exhaustive purification to remove linear by-products, 15 biphasic conditions, 16 or preparatory-scale gel permeation chromatography (GPC) is often necessary.

[0033] Ring-expansion polymerization is another method for accessing cyclic polymers. 17 The mechanism involves the insertion of a monomer into a growing ring, such as at a metal- carbon or metal-oxygen bond. This method does not suffer the same low-concentration limitations as ring closure, which makes it an appealing approach for the synthesis of cyclic polymers of high molecular mass. 18 A dibutyltin catalyst developed by Hans and Kricheldorf 9 was one of the first examples of this type of polymerization. Although an effective example of the synthesis of macrocyclic polymers, the dibutyltin catalyst is limited to the polymerization of lactones. More-recent catalysts 18 ' 20-22 show promising results, but again each catalyst is tuned to a specific monomer. Ring-expansion olefin metathesis polymerization (REMP), introduced by Grubbs and co-workers, 23 ' 24 is another approach to producing cyclic polymers efficiently. Although the ring-expansion method of creating cyclic polymers is much preferred to the post-polymerization processing required in ring closure for large-scale synthesis, ring expansion is not without limitations. As an example, in REMP backbiting occurs as the degree of polymerization increases, 23 and trace linear alkenes need to be removed from the monomer feedstock. 26

[0034] Additionally, REMP catalyst systems require a cyclic monomer, for example, cyclooctene and its derivatives. It would be beneficial to employ more readily available and cheaper substrates. Thus, a longstanding general challenge in polymer chemistry is to synthesize cyclic polymers efficiently, with diverse compositions, high purity, high molecular weights, and from readily available and inexpensive monomers.

[0035] Conjugated macrocyclic polyenes are an area of considerable interest. Large conjugated macrocyclic materials can be useful in host-guest chemistry 27 and in the self- assembly of more-complicated one-, two- and three-dimensional structures. 28 The ability of these macrocycles to self-assemble via TC-TC interactions can lead to a variety of unusual structures, and thus physical properties. A longstanding general challenge in both work that involves conjugated macrocycles and polymer chemistry is an efficient synthesis that allows for diverse compositions, ensures high purity and high molecular masses and can be made from readily available and inexpensive monomers. 30

[0036] U.S. International Patent Application No. PCT/US2012/065841, filed November 19, 2012 discloses the preparation of tridentate pincer ligand supported metal complexes, which are either trianionic pincer ligand supported metal-alkylidyne complexes or tetra- anionic pincer ligand supported metallacycloalkylene complexes that are formed from trianionic pincer ligand supported metal-alkylidyne complexes and alkynes. A trianionic pincer ligand supported metal-alkylidyne complex can be used as a polymerization precatalyst to polymerize an alkyne.

[0037] A trianionic pincer ligand supported metal-alkylidyne complex has the following structure:

where: R is, independendy, H, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl, n-butyl , i-butyl t-butyl, or larger alkyl, or any other substituent that does not inhibit formation of the metal-alkylidyne M-C triple bond of the trianionic pincer ligand supported metal-alkylidyne complex; R' is methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl, n-butyl, i-butyl, t-butyl, C 5 -C 22 alkyl, phenyl, naphthyl, or C 13 -C 22 aryl; X, independently, can be O, N, S, P, or Se; R", independently, is methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl, n-butyl, i-butyl, t-butyl, C 5 -C 22 . phenyl, naphthyl, C 13 -C 22 arly or two R' ' is a C 4 -C 6 alkylene combined with a single X as a heterocycle; n is 1 to 3 depending on X; m is 1 to 2; and M is a group 5-7 transition metal. [0038] A tetra-anionic pincer-ligand supported metallacycloalkylene complex following structure:

[0039] where: R is, independently, H, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, /-propyl, n-butyl, i-butyl, t- butyl, or larger alkyl, or any other substituent that does not inhibit formation of the tetraanionic pincer-ligand supported metallacycloalkylene; R' is, independently, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, /-propyl, n-butyl, /-butyl, /-butyl, C 5 -C 22 alkyl, phenyl, naphthyl, C 13 -C 22 aryl, substituted aryl, or trimethylsilyl; R'" is H or methyl; X, independently, is O, N, S, P, or Se; R", independendy, can be methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, /-propyl, n-butyl, i-butyL i-butyl, C 5 -C 22 , phenyl, naphthyl, C 13 C 22 aryl, or two R" are C 4 -C 6 alkylene combined with a single X as a heterocycle; n is 1 to 3 depending on X; m is 1 to 2; and M is a group 5-7 transition metal.

[0040] As shown in FIG. 1, complex 1 is a precatalyst and is converted into complexes 2 and 3, with complex 2 being the more-active alkyne-polymerization catalyst. In an original report, 32 complex 2 is demonstrated to be able to polymerize a wide variety of alkynes; however, the topology of the polymers is not addressed. In addition, the synthesis of complex 2 proved inefficient, as the less active complex 3 forms in a 33% yield. Another drawback in the original report is that complexes 2 and 3 instantaneously react with any excess phenylacetylene, which consumes the catalyst, reduces the yield and requires an additional purification step. The synthesis disclosed herein provides a solution to this catalyst- preparation problem in the original report. Treating complex 1 with excess 3,3-dimethyl-l- butyne, as opposed to phenylacetylene, complex 4, a catalyst, forms exclusively in a quantitative isolable yield (FIG. 1). As shown in FIG. 1, treating complex 1 with phenylacetylene leads to complexes 2 and 3 in a 2:1 ratio and requires purification and separation procedures. Complex 3 exhibits a low activity and is typically discarded, which thus educes the overall catalyst yield. An improved synthesis involves treating complex 1 with tert-butylacetylene to provide catalyst 4 exclusively and in 100% yield by simply evaporating to remove the solvent.

[0041] As shown in FIG. 1, the preparation of the tetra- anionic pincer-ligand supported metallacycloalkylenc complex at low temperature with two equivalents of an acetylene monomer gives a mixture of products toward polymerization. In an embodiment of the invention, multiple equivalents of the acetylene monomer is included with the trianionic pincer ligand supported metal-alkylidyne complex at room temperature results in a single tetra-anionic pincer-ligand supported metallacycloalkylene complex with two like monomers on the resulting tetra-anionic pincer-ligand supported metallacycloalkylene complex, as indicated in Equation 1, below.

[0042] A trianionic pincer ligand supported metal-alkylidyne complex or a tetraanionic pincer ligand supported metallacyclopropene complex can be used as a polymerization catalyst for the polymerization of alkynes using. The poly(alkyne)s prepared by this method can display one or more geometries across the resulting double bonds of the poly( alkyne) backbone. The all cis alkylene chain, indicated by Equation 2, is for illustrative purposes only, and is not intended to suggest the geometry to be expected upon polymerization of all possible monomers, using all possible trianionic pincer ligand supported metal-alkylidyne complexes, or under any set of reaction conditions. The polymerization reaction occurs upon combining the trianionic pincer ligand supported metal-alkylidyne complex to an alkyne monomer, in a fluid state, which can be in solution. The alkyne can be unsubstituted, monosubstituted, or disubstituted. The trianionic pincer ligand supported metal-alkylidyne complex can be a neutral complex or an anion of a salt when employed with a strong electrophile, such as methyl triflate. The polymerization can be carried out at relatively mild conditions, for example, ambient temperatures at dry conditions under an inert atmosphere. The polymerization can occur with a large turnover of monomer per catalyst, a high degree of polymerization, and a high yield of polymer. As would be expected by those skilled in the art, the rate of polymerization and the practical conversion varies with the nature of the monomer, catalyst and conditions for the polymerization. In an embodiment of the invention, the resulting poly(alkyne) can be a cyclic polymer.

[0043] A combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, combustion analysis and solid-state X-ray characterization served to identify unambiguously the composition of complex 4. Three singlets in the 1 H NMR spectrum (C^) of complex 4 are attributable to the alkylidene 'Bu, the pincer 'Bu and the coordinated acetylene 'Bu groups in a 1:2:1 ratio at 0.90, 1.20 and 1.66 ppm, respectively. A singlet at 11.66 ppm corresponds to the terminal proton attached to the ^-bound aDcyne. In the lSC^H} NMR spectrum, the alkylidene carbon appears at 268.8 ppm, consistent with known pincer-supported alkylidene complexes. 33

[0044] FIG. 2 shows the molecular structure of complex 4 with ellipsoids drawn at the 50% probability level and disordered THF atoms and lattice solvent molecule (pentane) removed for clarity. FIG. 2 depicts the results of a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment performed on crystals that deposit with the slow evaporation of a concentrated solution of complex 4 in pentane. The solid-state structure confirms that the alkylidyne present in complex 1 undergoes a formal reductive migratory insertion into the W-arene bond of the pincer, a particularly rare transformation. In the solid state, complex 4 is pseudo C s , symmetric and contains a W(IV) ion in a non-standard polyhedral geometry. Complex 4 contains a tetraanionic pincer ligand that comprises two phenolates and an alkylidene connection. The phenolate O atoms span the trans positions with an Ol-Wl-02 bond angle of 152.37(6)°. The coordinated THF experiences a strong trans influence from the tungstenalkylidene, evidenced by a long Wl-03 bond of 2.328(1) A, and is labile. For comparison, the THF ligands in 1 are labile and also have long W-0 bonds (2.473(2) A and 2.177(2) A), with the longest being trans to the alkylidyne. The C32-C27 distance (1.312(4) A) is significantly elongated from a typical C≡C bond length of 1.21 A, and is better represented as a double bond and thus the resonance form of a metallacyclopropene.

[0045] In the case of ring-expansion polymerization, it is common that even small changes to the metal complex can cause large differences in activity. 31 Fortunately, complex 4 maintains the remarkable high activity observed for catalyst 2. Loading complexes 2 or 3, or the new complex 4, in a 10,000:1 phenylacetylene-lo-catalyst ratio in 2 ml of toluene results in polymerization and a product we now understand to be cyclic poly(phenylacetylene). In the first two minutes of polymerization, 2 averages 6.89 x 10 6 g mol -1 h -1 , 3 averages 4.39 x 10 6 g mol -1 h -1 , but incredibly 4 averages 9.00 x 10 6 g mol -1 h -1 . Not only does complex 4 have excellent activity, it achieves complete conversion under these conditions with a turnover number of ~ 10,000 after 22 minutes. This remarkable activity is maintained on scale up; submitting complex 4 to 2 ml of phenylacetylene in 20 ml of toluene in a monomer- to-catalyst ratio of 5,000:1 and in one of 10,000:1 results in 96% (1.79 g) and 83% (1.54 g), respectively. The catalyst is tolerant to a variety of functionalized acetylenes, such as ethers, halides and disubstituted acetylenes, although all have effects on the polymerization activity and molecular masses. Achievable molecular masses for phenylacetylene ranged from 8,000 to 130,000 Da.

[0046] The polymerization carried out in the presence of styrene or excess TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-l-piperidinyloxy), a radical trap, does not alter or inhibit the polymerization of phenylacetylene, which rules out a radical mechanism.

[0047] Several common methods exist that provide compelling supportive evidence for a cyclic topology when compared with an identical linear analogue. Cyclic polymers have a smaller hydrodynamic volume and thus longer elution time by GPC compared with the linear analogues. Also, static and dynamic light-scattering (SLS and DLS, respectively) techniques can confirm that cyclic polymers have smaller particle radii than those of the linear equivalents. Calculations indicate the root mean square (r.m.s.) radius of gyration «R g 2 ) 0 ' 5 ) of a cyclic polymer is half that of the same polymer in a linear topology. 35 In some cases, it is possible to open the resulting macrocycle through bond cleavage, which results in a linear topology and a subsequent change in physical properties. 23 Linear poly(phenylacetylene) synthesized using (acetylacetonato) (l,5-cyclooctadiene)rhodium(l) (acac(Rh(l)cod)) 36 ' 37 as a catalyst provides a comparison with the cyclic polymers produced by complex 4, and by matching molecular masses and polydispersities (PDIs), any change in physical properties observed is evidence for a difference in topology. Using DLS and SLS techniques, the hydrodynamic radius (RH) and r.m.s. radius of gyration ((Rg 2 ) 0-5 ) were determined for the linear and cyclic polymers. It is well understood that the ratio of HcycHc niinear and

[0048] Table 1 lists the experimental values of RH and R g for the cyclic and linear polymers. With little doubt, the experimentally determined ratios clearly support that the polymers produced with catalyst 4 are cyclic. The experimental ratios of

0.86(7) and clearly indicate a close fit with the relationship between a cyclic and a linear sample. Although comparing radii at a single molecular mass is useful, it is important to ensure that the difference is the same over a wide range of molecular masses.

* Hydrodynamic radius as measured in toluene at room temperature. ^Sample was prepared by the addition of phenylfacetylene to a solution of complex 4 in toluene and quenched after five minutes. ^Sample was prepared by the addition of phenylacetylene to a solution of acac(Rh(l)cod) in THF and quenched after three hours. 37

[0049] Cyclic poly(phenylacetylene), an unprecedented cyclic polymer, is now accessible in high yield from the polymerization of inexpensive phenylacetylene. By treating the alkylidyne complex 1 with 3,3-dimethyl-l-butyne rather than phenylacetylene, the active alkyne polymerization complex 4 forms in quantitative isolable yield. The improved catalyst preparation is beneficial, and equally important is that complex 4 retains a high activity for the ring-expansion polymerization of phenylacetylene. A combined multiexperiment approach provides unambiguous evidence of a cyclic topology as compared with authentic linear samples. DLS and SLS techniques provide (Rg 2 ) and RH ratios of cyclic versus linear samples that clearly indicate a difference in topology. Complementing the light-scattering data, intrinsic viscosities ((17)) measured over a wide range of molecular masses clearly demonstrate the topological relationship between authentic linear samples and cyclic samples produced by catalyst 4. Ring opening of partially hydrogenated samples of cyclic poly(phenylacetylene) leads to polymers that exhibit larger hydrodynamic volumes, as determined by GPC. Hydrogenating cyclic poly(phenylacetylene) provides cyclic polystyrene that exhibits GPC elution times significantly longer than those of authentic samples of linear poly(styrene) with similar absolute molecular masses. Complex 4, which features the unique tetraanionic pincer ligand, now enables access to a new class of polymers from commercially available alkynes, and the high activity (9.0 x 10 6 g mol -1 h -1 ) will permit access to large quantities of high-purity conjugated cyclic polymers.

[0050] According to the disclosed embodiments, once cyclic polymers are synthesized by employing a tungsten catalyst that efficiently polymerizes common alkynes to form macrocyclic polyenes, unsaturated macrocyclic polyenes can be further hydrogenated to form saturated cyclic polymers. In particular, the disclosed embodiments provide branched cyclic polyolefins synthesized via the use of complex 4 as a catalyst.

[0051] FIG. 3 illustrates a scheme for synthesis of a saturated cyclic polymer having the following formula:

In formula (I), n varies widely across the different polymers and conditions. The size of the polymer can vary. In some embodiments, n is an integer equal to 2, 4, 7 and 12, and p is any integer greater than or equal to 1, such as 1, 2, 3, etc. According to the disclosed embodiments, long-chained terminal alkynes can be polymerized to produce a polymer. The polymer can be further hydrogenated to produce a "polyolefin" that resembles cyclic low density polyethylene. Alternatively, acetylene and a long-chained alkyne can be copolymerized to introduce "polyethylene" spacer groups between the chains once hydrogenated.

[0052] In particular, a saturated cyclic polymer can be produced by hydrogenating an unsaturated cyclic polymer with a hydrogenation catalyst such as palladium on carbon (Pd/C). The unsaturated cyclic polymer can be produced by mixing alkyne monomers with a catalyst or a precatalyst, thereby allowing the alkyne monomers to incorporate into an unsaturated cyclic polymer. The catalyst or precatalyst can be selected from a group consisting of a trianionic pincer ligand supported metalalkylidyne complex, a tetra-anionic pincer-ligand supported metal -alkyne, and a tetra-anionic pincer-ligand supported metallacycloalkylene complex.

[0053] In an embodiment, an alkyne monomer selected from a group consisting of 1- hexyne, 1-octyne, 1-nonyne, and 1-pentadecyne is used to synthesize a saturated cyclic homopolymer. FIG. 4 shows a scheme for synthesis of the saturated cyclic homopolymer of 1-hexyne, 1-octyne, 1-nonyne, or 1-pentadecyne, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention. As shown in FIG. 4, a saturated cyclic homopolymer is produced by hydrogenating an unsaturated cyclic polymer with a hydrogenation catalyst. The hydrogenation catalyst can be palladium on carbon (Pd/C), Crabtree's catalyst where COD = cyclooctatetraene, py = pyridine, and Cy =

cyclohexane), etc. The unsaturated cyclic polymer can be produced by mixing a single type of alkyne monomers with a catalyst (complex 4), thereby allowing the single type of alkyne monomers to form into an unsaturated cyclic homopolymer, which has the following structural formula:

wherein: R is n-butyl, n-hexyl, n-heptyl, n-tetradecane; n varies widely across the different polymers and conditions and can be a value of 1 or more than 1.

[0054] Upon hydrogenation of the unsaturated cyclic polymer (formula Π), a saturated cyclic homopolymer is produced. The saturated cyclic homopolymer has the following structural formula:

wherein: R is n-butyl, n-hexyl, n-heptyl, n-tetradecane; n varies widely across the different polymers and conditions and can be a value of 1 or more than 1. The saturated cyclic homopolymer incorporates a singly type of monomers selected from the group consisting of 1-hexyne, 1-octyne, 1-nonyne, and 1-pentadecyne. In an embodiment, the saturated cyclic homopolymer is further purified. A relative purity of the saturated cyclic homopolymer determined by a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis can be about 75% to about 95%. In one embodiment, a relative purity determined by an NMR analysis can be more than about 95%. In an alternative embodiment, a relative purity determined by an NMR analysis can be 99% .

[0055] In an embodiment, a saturated cyclic copolymer is provided. The saturated cyclic copolymer is synthesized using acetylene and a second alkyne monomer as comonomers. FIG. 5 shows a scheme for synthesis of saturated cyclic copolymers using acetylene and a second alkyne monomer, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention. The second alkyne monomer is selected from the group consisting of 1-hexyne, 1-octyne, 1-nonyne, and 1-pentadecyne. As shown in FIG. 5, a saturated cyclic copolymer can be produced by hydrogenating an unsaturated cyclic copolymer with a hydrogenation catalyst such as palladium on carbon (Pd/C). The unsaturated cyclic polymer can be produced by mixing acetylene and a second alkyne monomer, such as 1-hexyne, 1-octyne, 1-nonyne, or 1- pentadecyne, with a catalyst, thereby allowing the acetylene and the second alkyne to incorporate into an unsaturated cyclic copolymer, which has the following structural formula:

In structural formula (IV), R can be n-butyl, n-hexyl, n-heptyl, or n-tetradecane. The values for "n" and "m" are varied and the ratio of n/m can be a number varied from 0 to 1. In some embodiments, n is an integer greater than or equal to 1 and m is an integer greater than or equal to 1.

[0056] Hydrogenation of the unsaturated cyclic copolymer results in a saturated cyclic copolymer, which has the following structure structural formula:

[0057] In structural formula (V), "R" can be n-butyl, n-hexyl, n-heptyl, or n-tetradecane. The values for "n" and "m" are varied. The ratio of n/m can be a number varied from 0 to 1. In some embodiments, n is an integer greater than or equal to 1 and m is an integer greater than or equal to 1. The size of the polymer can vary.

[0058] Acetylene and the second alkyne monomer can be randomly incorporated in the saturated cyclic copolymer at a variable ratio. As a result, a ratio of comonomer incorporation, which is incorporated acetylene / incorporated second alkyne monomer, in the saturated cyclic copolymer varies. For example, in an alternative embodiment, in a saturated cyclic copolymer where R is hexyl, a ratio of incorporated acetylene to incorporated second alkyne monomer is about 59:41, 47:53, or 34:66. It should be appreciated that where R is hexyl, the ratio of incorporated acetylene to incorporated second alkyne monomer has the incorporated acetylene between 34 and 59 and the second alkyne monomer between 41 and 66. In another alternative embodiment, in a saturated cyclic copolymer where R is tetradecane, a ratio of incorporated acetylene to incorporated second alkyne monomer is about 15:85. In an alternative embodiment, in a saturated cyclic copolymer where R is heptyl, a ratio of incorporated acetylene to incorporated second alkyne monomer is about 43:57 or about 15:85. It should be appreciated that where R is heptyl, and a ratio of incorporated acetylene to incorporated second alkyne monomer has the incorporated acetylene between 15 and 43 and the second alkyne monomer between 57 and 85.

[0059] The saturated cyclic copolymer can be further purified. In an embodiment, a relative purity of the saturated cyclic copolymer determined by a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis is about 75% to about 95%. In one embodiment, a relative purity determined by an NMR analysis can be more than about 95%. In an alternative embodiment, a relative purity determined by an NMR analysis can be 99%.

[0060] These disclosed saturated cyclic polymers have different and potentially interesting theological and viscometric properties. They can be useful as additives to known polyolefins.

[0061] The disclosed invention is further defined in the following Examples. It should be understood that these Examples are given by way of illustration only. From the above discussion and these Examples, one skilled in the art can ascertain the essential characteristics of embodiments of the disclosed invention. Without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, one skilled in the art can make various changes and modifications of the invention to adapt it to various usages and conditions. All publications, including patents and non-patent literature, referred to in this specification are expressly incorporated by reference herein.

EXAMPLES

Example 1

Methods

Synthesis of complex

[0062] In a nitrogen filled glovebox, a glass vial equipped with a stir bar was charged with 1 (400 mg, 0.52 mmol) and dissolved in toluene (5.0 mL). 3,3-dimethyl-l-butyne (214 mg, 321 uL, 2.60 mmol) was added via micropipette with stirring. After 5 min, the solvent and residual 3,3-dimethyl-l-butyne were removed in vacuo to yield the light brown solid complex 4 in >99% yield ( 40S mg, 0.S2 mmol), for the reaction indicated in Equation 2, above. The resulting solid was dissolved in minimal pentane and cooled to -35 °C to yield single crystals 10 amenable to X-ray diffraction, where the molecular structure is shown in FIG. 2. Ή NMR

General polymerization procedure

[0063] In an inert atmosphere glovebox, toluene (2.0 ml) was added to a glass vial equipped with a stir bar. Phenylacetylene (218 μΐ, 2.00 mmol) was added via a micropipette with stirring. A stock solution (lmg ml '1 ) of 4 (157 ul, 0.20 umol) was added to the stirring solution in one shot to initiate the polymerization. Polymerization was terminated via the addition into tenfold excess of stirring diethyl ether. The resulting polymer samples were isolated via vacuum filtration and the residual solvent was removed in vacuo.

General procedure for hydrogenation

[0064] In an argon or nitrogen filled glove-box, the polymer to be hydrogenated is dissolved in toluene upon stirring at room temperature for few minutes. To this solution, 100 wt% of Pd/C is added, and the glass vial containing the reaction mixture is capped with a septum. A needle is stick to the septum allowing for atmosphere exchange between the interior of the vial and the exterior, but avoiding solvent spill during hydrogenation. The vial glass is placed inside of a Parr bomb, which is sealed and loaded with H2 up to 800 psi (after flushing H2 twice before achieving the desired pressure). The reaction system is heated up to 90 °C and allowed to stir for 7 days. The pressure is released and the solutions of hydrogenated polymers are filtered through celite, followed by solvent removal under reduced pressure. Samples were dried overnight under vacuum.

Example 2

Cyclic Poly olefins

[0065] Cyclic polymers are known to have significantly different properties from their linear analogues. While a lot of attention has turned to these polymers and their properties, their synthesis in large scale still demonstrates a challenge and limits their applications.

[0066] In 2013, the Veige group developed the most active catalyst for alkyne polymerization, and its proposed mechanism indicated a cyclic topology for the resulting polymers. 32 A recent work published by Veige et al. 31 introduced a variation of this catalyst, which stands right behind it as the second most active alkyne polymerization catalyst, but with a much more advantageous and economic synthesis. This work also confirmed the assignment of the generated polymers as cyclic by comparing properties such as hydrodynamic volume, viscosity and radius of gyration, with their linear counterparts.

[0067] Low density polyethylene (LDPE) is among the most used polymers, finding applications that range from plastic bags and packaging to tubing and electrical cables, reaching a worldwide market of about US$33 billion in 2013. LDPE and high density polyethylene (HDPE) show very different properties, for instance LDPE has less hardness and strength than HDPE, but it is more ductile. These differences lead to distinct properties, employed in various industry fields. An important point to be highlighted is that both commercial LDPE and HDPE are linear. The idea of being able to synthesize cyclic LDPE in larger scale and evaluate the new properties that can rise from this polymer is very attractive.

General Considerations

[0068] Toluene used was dried using a GlassContour drying column. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were obtained on Varian INOVA spectrometer, operating at 500 MHz for proton. Chemical shifts, reported in δ (ppm), were referenced on the solvent, on the TMS scale for 1H and 13C. Monomers 1-nonyne, 1-pentadecyne, 1-hexyne and 1-octyne were dried over 4 A molecular sieves, submitted to 3-cycles of freeze-pump-thaw, and brought to a glove-box of either nitrogen or argon atmosphere. Acetylene gas was purchased from Air Gas, and purified by passing through a trap of chloroform and liquid nitrogen. General procedure for the synthesis of homopolynien

[0069] In this example, homopolynien aie synthesized using the linear alkynes (1-hexyne, 1-octyne, 1-nonyne, 1-pentadecyne).

[0070] In a nitrogen or argon filled glove box, the desired monomer is dissolved in toluene in a SO mL round bottom flask equipped with a stirring bar. A solution of catalyst in toluene is prepared and added at one shot to the monomer solution, with the volume varying affronting tn the number of equivalets necessary Instaaneous color change and increas in viscosity is observed for all polymerizations. After stirring for certain periods of time, the polymers are brought out of the glove-box and added to stirring methanol. Hie precipitated polymers are isolated by filtration and dried under vacuum overnight.

[0071] Exemplary results for the synthesis of homopolymers are summarized on Table 2. As shown in Table 2, the homopolymerization of all the linear alkynes provided good to very good yields of polymer when using 1:5000 monomer to catalyst ratio. The polymerization was conducted in toluene at room temperature. When a toluene solution of the catalyst was added to a toluene solution of the monomer the transparent solution turns instantaneously to bright orange. A change in viscosity was also observed. The polymers were precipitated by slow addition to stirring methanol. All of the homopolymer synthesized are orange tacky solids.

Table 2. Exemplary conditions far the synthesis of homopolymcro 1-hexyne, 1-octyne, 1-nonyne, and

1-pentadecyne.

General procedure for the synthesis of copolymers

[0072] In a nitrogen or argon filled glove box, the desired monomer is dissolved in toluene in a 50 mL round bottom flask equipped with a stirring bar. The reaction flask is sealed using a rubber septum and taken outside of the glove-box. A toluene solution of catalyst is prepared inside the glove-box, transferred to a gas-tight Hamilton syringe, and brought outside along with the reaction flask. Acetylene is bubbled through the solution of the monomer for 3 minutes. After this period, the flow of acetylene is suspended but a balloon filled with this gas remains connected to the system to provide further acetylene if necessary. The toluene solution of the catalyst is then added in one shot via syringe to the monomer solution, with the volume varying according to the number of equivalents necessary. The ratio of monomer to catalyst is based on the amount of the monomers other than acetylene. Instantaneous color change and increase in viscosity is observed for all polymerizations. After stirring for certain periods of time, the polymers are added to stirring degassed methanol, under argon flow. The precipitated polymers are isolated by filtration, dried under vacuum overnight, and stored under inert atmosphere.

[0073] The copolymers are in general slightly soluble in toluene. A drop in the yield of the copolymers is observed when compared to homopolymers. The lower yields may be due to the low solubility of chains that would be mainly composed of acetylene. Such polymer chains containing the active catalyst would precipitate before incorporating any of the long- chained monomer. In some cases, a larger amount of solvent is used and the resulting copolymers appear to have a higher incorporation of acetylene accompanied by a drop in yield. For copolymers synthesized using identical procedures, some differences are observed, such as yield and acetylene incorporation. The results again indicate that copolymers with higher acetylene incorporation are obtained in lower yields. The results related to the copolymers synthesized are summarized in Table 3.

Table 3. Exemplary conditions for the synthesis of copolymers of acetylene with one of the following: 1-hexyne, 1-octyne, 1-nonyne, and 1-pentadecyne.

[0074] The incorporation of the long-chained alkyne into the acetylene can be estimated by integrating the 1 H NMR olefinic and aliphatic region. Table 4 illustrates an exemplary incorporation in percentages for all the synthesized copolymers.

General procedure for hydrogenation

[0075] In an argon or nitrogen filled glove-box, the polymer to be hydrogenated is dissolved in toluene upon stirring at room temperature for few minutes. To this solution, 100 wt% of Pd/C is added, and the glass vial containing the reaction mixture is capped with a septum. A needle is stick to the septum allowing for atmosphere exchange between the interior of the vial and the exterior, but avoiding solvent spill during hydrogenation. The vial glass is placed inside of a Parr reactor, which is sealed and loaded with H2 up to 800 psi (after flushing H2 twice before achieving the desired pressure). The reaction system is heated up to 90 °C and allowed to stir for 7 days. The pressure is released and the solutions of hydrogenated polymers are filtered through celite, followed by solvent removal under reduced pressure. Samples are dried overnight under vacuum.

[0076] Exemplary hydrogenation conditions are shown in following Table S and Table 6. Table 5 summarizes the exemplary results obtained for the hydrogenations of the synthesized homopolymers. Table 6 summarizes the exemplary results obtained for the hydrogenations of the synthesized copolymers.

Table 5. Exemplary reaction conditions for hydrogenations of Hcx-1 , Oct-1, Non-1 and

Ptd-1.

Table 6. Exemplary reaction conditions for hydrogenations of Ac-Hex- 1, Ac-Oct-1, Ac-Non-1, Ac-Non-3 and Ac-Ptd- 1.

[0077] The non-hydrogenated copolymers decompose in air. Special care has been taken to store all the polymers under an inert atmosphere, using degassed solvent for quenching and limiting their exposure to oxygen.

NMR Spectroscopic Data for Hydrogenated Polymers

[0078] NMR spectra were obtained on Varian INOVA 500 MHZ and Varian INOVA2 500 MHz spectrometers. Chemical shifts are reported in δ (ppm). For l H and 13 C NMR spectra, the residual solvent peaks were used as an internal reference standard. Samples were prepared by placing solid polymer and an appropriate amount of a deuterated solvent into an NMR tube. Exemplary NMR spectroscopic data for hydrogenated homopolymer Poly(l- Hexyne) is illustrated in FIG. 6. FIG. 6 shows 1H NMR spectrum for of Hex-l-H in CDC1 3 at 25 °C, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention.

[0079] Exemplary NMR spectroscopic data for hydrogenated homopolymer Poly(l- octyne) is illustrated in FIG. 7. FIG. 7 shows l H NMR spectrum of poly oct-1 in C6D6 at 25 °C, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention.

[0080] Exemplary NMR spectroscopic data for hydrogenated homopolymer Poly(l- nonyne) is illustrated in FIG. 8. FIG. 8 shows 1 H NMR spectrum of non-1 (bottom) and non- 1-H (top) in CDCI 3 at 25 °C, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention.

[0081] Exemplary NMR spectroscopic data for hydrogenated homopolymer Poly(l- pentadecyne) is illustrated in FIG. 9. FIG. 9 shows ! H NMR spectrum of Ptd-1 (bottom) and Ptd-l-H (top) in CDCI 3 at 25 °C, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention.

[0082] Exemplary NMR spectroscopic data for hydrogenated copolymer Acetylene/ 1- hexyne is illustrated in FIG. 10. FIG. 10 shows 1 H NMR spectrum of Ac-Hex-H-1 in CDCI 3 at 25 °C, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention.

[0083] Exemplary NMR spectroscopic data for hydrogenated copolymer Acetylene/1- nonyne is illustrated in FIG. 11 and FIG. 12. FIG. 11 shows 1 H NMR spectrum of Ac-Non- H-l in CDC13 at 25 °C, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention. FIG. 12 shows 1 H NMR spectrum of Ac-Non-H-2 in C6D6 at 25 °C, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention

[0084] Exemplary NMR spectroscopic data for hydrogenated copolymer Acetylene/1- pentadecyne is illustrated in FIG. 13. FIG. 13 shows 1 H NMR spectrum of Ac-Ptd-H-1 in CDC13 at 25 °C, according to an embodiment of the disclosed invention.

[0085] FIG. 14 is a picture of exemplary saturated cyclic polymers.

Hydrogenation using Crabtree's Catalyst

[0086] Crabtree's catalyst ([Ir(COD)(py)(PCy3)] + [PF6] " , where COD = cyclooctatetraene, py = pyridine, and Cy = cyclohexane) is tested for hydrogenation of homopolymer (poly(l- pentadecyne). In an argon or nitrogen filled glove-box, the polymer to be hydrogenated is dissolved in dichloromethane (DCM) upon stirring at room temperature for few minutes. The round bottom flask containing the polymer is capped with a rubber septum and brought out of the glovebox. 1 wt% of Crabtree's catalyst ([Ir(COD)(py)(PCy3)]+[PF6]-) is dissolved in 1 mL of DCM, and brought out of the glovebox using a gas-tight Hamilton syringe. After saturating the polymer solution with H 2 the catalyst is added to it in one shot. The reaction mixture is stirred for three days with a balloon of H 2 attached to it and replaced when necessary. The poly(l-pentadecyne) changes from orange to light yellow. Filtering the reaction mixture through silica to remove the catalyst and evaporating the remaining solvent yields the hydrogenated homopolymer. Unfortunately, the same procedure fails to hydrogenate copolymers.

Conclusions

[0087] This example shows employing complex 4 to synthesize homopolymers of 1- hexyne, 1-octyne, 1-nonyne and 1-pentadecyne, and also their copolymers with acetylene. Hydrogenation of these copolymers utilizing Pd/C yielded branched cyclic polyethylenes. The high pressure hydrogenation using Pd/C as a catalyst is for now the most effective method for the hydrogenation of these copolymers. Alternatively, the use of Crabtree catalyst in a small amount, under 1 atm of H 2 at room temperature is a preferable method for the hydrogenation of homopolymers but is still not suitable for copolymers. [0088] Having described the many embodiments of the disclosed invention in detail, it will be apparent that modifications and variations are possible without departing from the scope of the invention defined in the appended claims. Furthermore, it should be appreciated that all examples in the present disclosure, while illustrating many embodiments of the invention, are provided as non-limiting examples and are, therefore, not to be taken as limiting the various aspects so illustrated.

[0089] It is intended that the invention not be limited to the particular embodiment disclosed herein contemplated for carrying out this invention, but that the invention will include all embodiments falling within the scope of the claims.

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[0091] All documents, including any priority documents, patents, journal articles and other materials cited in the present application are incorporated herein by reference.

[0092] While the disclosed invention has been disclosed with references to certain embodiments, numerous modification, alterations, and changes to the described embodiments are possible without departing from the sphere and scope of the disclosed invention, as defined in the appended claims. Accordingly, it is intended that the disclosed invention not be limited to the described embodiments, but that it has the full scope defined by the language of the following claims, and equivalents thereof.