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Title:
DEEP-FRIED PREPARATION BREADED WITH A FOOD FAT COMPONENT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/129925
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a breaded preparation which is in a form of a deep-fried product and which has been breaded with a food fat component. In the present invention the breading is capable to form a moisture-retentive and tasty protective surface around the deep-fried product, which reduces the loss of weight cooking. The present invention can be generally used for production of any food with hot oil, when both the nutritional and organoleptic properties of the deep-fried product is aimed to be improved.

Inventors:
PETÄJÄ, Pasi (Yläkalliontie 16 E, Espoo, 02760, FI)
Application Number:
FI2018/050969
Publication Date:
July 04, 2019
Filing Date:
December 21, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
MYLLYN PARAS FINLAND OY (PL 5, Hyvinkää, 05801, FI)
International Classes:
A23L13/00; A21D13/13; A21D13/22; A21D13/26; A21D13/28; A21D13/60; A23D7/00; A23L13/50; A23L13/60; A23L17/00; A23P20/10
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SEPPO LAINE OY (Itämerenkatu 3 A, Helsinki, 00180, FI)
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Claims:
Claims

1. Breaded preparation, which is in a form of deep-fried product, characterized in that, a food fat component is used for the breading, which food fat component forms a moisture-retentive and tasty protective surface around the deep-fried product, where- in the loss of weight in cooking of the product reduces.

2. The preparation according to claiml, wherein the food fat component used for the breading comprises 10 to 70 weight-% oil fat, having 1 to 40 weight-% protein and 10 to 70 weight-% carbohydrate based biomaterial added thereto and, moisture con tent of which is 0.1 to 15 weight-% prior to deep-frying.

3. The preparation according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the food fat component used for the breading comprises oil fat which is vegetable fat or oil, such as rapeseed or palm oil, shea butter, or combination of two or more such fat, wherein the preparation comprises health-promoting fatty acids.

4. The preparation according to any of the claims 1 to 3, wherein the food fat compo nent used for the breading comprises protein which is some protein derived from liv- ing organisms, preferably some of the proteins contained in egg, such as avidin, ovalbumin, conalbumin or lysozyme, or a soy protein, or several of these simultane ously.

5. The preparation according to any of the claims 1 to 4, wherein the food fat compo- nent used for the breading comprises biomaterial which is cereal flour, semolina or flakes, preferably wheat, barley, rye, oats, spelt, millet, maize, rice or sorghum; pseudocereal flours, semolina or flakes, preferably buckwheat, amaranth or quinoa; legumes, preferably soybeans, peas, chickpeas, beans, lentils, or lupines; or field beans; or organic protein sources, preferably insects, seafood, chordates, mammals, fungi, algae or molds.

6. The preparation according to any of the claims 1 to 5, the breading of which com prises 1 to 50 weight-% oil fat, preferably 1 to 20 weight-%. 7. The preparation according to any of the claims 1 to 6, the breading of which com prises 1 to 20 weight-% protein.

8. The preparation according to any of the claims 1 to 7, the breading of which com prises 35 to 70 weight-% carbohydrate-based biomaterial. 9. The preparation according to any of the claims 1 to 8, which is formed by deep- frying from a breading coated and frozen, cooked or pre-cooked product.

Description:
DEEP-FRIED PREPARATION BREADED WITH A FOOD FAT COMPONENT

Background of the invention

5

Field of the invention

The present invention relates to a breaded preparation which is in a form of deep-fried product. In particular, the invention relates to a preparation in breading of which has been0 used a food fat component which is capable of reducing the loss of weight due to cooking and simultaneously improving both the nutritional profile and organoleptic properties of the product.

The invention also relates to a method suitable for the production of such a product, as well5 as products prepared by using this method.

Description of related art

Fats and oil play an important role in deep-fried products. They bind, strengthen and re-0 lease flavor components of other ingredients which make the flavor characteristic for deep- fried products (Mallijarkunan et al. 2009). The flavor characteristic for deep-fried products is formed when the fat is absorbed into the product during the cooking and surrounding heat causes chemical reactions both in the product and cooking oil. In deep-frying a use is typically made of sunflower, soy or palm oil, fatty acid composition of which have been5 found to remain relatively stable at temperatures typical for deep-frying (Bouchon 2009).

Typically, temperatures of 160 °C to even above 200 °C are used in deep-frying.

Deep-frying is defined as a method for preparing food, in which method food is prepared in edible oil above the boiling point of water (Kochhar and Gertz 2004). In deep-frying oil0 adds flavor to the product, increases the caloric content of the product, affects the nutri tional and physiological properties of the product, such as fat-soluble vitamins, essential fatty acids and feeling of satiety (Perkins and Erikson 1996). However, the transfer of the cooking oil to the product in excessive amounts is not always desirable and it is aimed to reduce by pre-treatments, such as breading, or pre-cooking processes (Mellama 2003). Prior to deep-frying, the substrate is typically breaded in order to reduce the transfer of moisture, oil and nutrients between the substrate and the cooking oil. In addition, the breading provides the characteristic structure of the deep-fried product, which structure affects to the organoleptic properties of the cooked product. In addition, the breading is important for the preservation of the product. Fast forming hard and dense shell extends the service life of the oil by reducing the components transferring to it. The higher quality oil extends the service life of the product and thus increases the preservation of the product (Mate and Krochta 1996).

The raw materials of breadings vary according to the desired properties. In general, when the migration of fat and moisture between the product and the cooking oil is desired to be reduced, breadings are formed from a mixture of proteins, fats and polysaccharides (Kester and Fennema 1986; El-Nokaly and Hiller 1991; Stark and Gross 1992; Feeney et al. 1993). Other methods for reducing fat migration are pre-cooking of substrate prior to the actual cooking process i.e. deep-frying. Balasubramaniam et el. (1996) researched the effect of various compounds in breadings on migration of cooking oil and moisture in deep-fried products. In their study, they tested three different types of breadings containing 1) hy- droxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), 2) commercial ether derivative of HPMC, and 3) com protein commonly used in breading. Of these, the breading containing HPMC retained the moisture present in the deep-fried products 6 % more and reduced the amount of the cooking oil in deep-fried products for 27 %. In their research, Garcia et al. (2002) com pared the effect of HPMC and methylcellulose (MC) on cooking oil migration in deep- fried potato products. The study found that MC reduces fat migration more than HPMC. In addition, the effect of sorbitol on the barrier properties of the dough was tested in the re- search and it was found to reduce the migration. Earlier studies have also shown the effect of amylose especially in fat migration. Fan and Arce (1986) found in their research that high amylose content of breading reduces the absorption of the cooking oil into the prod- uct.

Deep-frying is a chemically complex process and it causes significant micro-level changes in the substrate and the shell surrounding it. In addition to heat, moisture and nutrient transfer, a variety of chemical reactions, such as starch gelling, protein denaturation, Mail- lard reaction and dehydration, take place in the product during the cooking process. These reactions are essential for the organoleptic properties, preservation, texture and color of the deep-fried product (Kohhar S.P and Gertz C. 2004; Vitrac O., Trystram G. and Raoult- Wack A-L., 2000).

Patent application US2007048427 (Al) describes a breading preparation, fat content of which was reduced and simultaneously the structure, texture and color of the breading was improved by adding modified starch to deep-frying oil. Thus, the oil mixture and the modi- fied starch form a new kind of deep-frying oil mixture, wherein the cooking oil is not transferred to the food to be fried in such high amounts as when frying with oil containing only oil.

Patent application US2006182849 (Al) describes a method for improving the fat profile of breaded and baked eatable substrate (meat). The application describes a mechanical bread- ing method wherein the breading is carried out in several coating steps and a layer coated meat food (for example steak, nugget) is formed. One of the aims of the application is also to achieve a crispy preparation to be prepared in the oven.

US patent application 5019406 (A) describes a deep-fried product having fiber added to its pre-treatment step/ doughing. Higher fiber content reduces oil absorption into the product during the deep-frying and retains the moisture of the food better in the product. In addi- tion, the fiber additive improves the color of the baked product and forms a harder shell during baking compared to conventional deep-fried product.

Patent application US2005158438 (Al) describes a method for reducing carbohydrate con tent of breading flour, improving its fat profile and increasing its protein content by mixing dry powders according to the application (soy flour, linseed flour, almond flour and spic- es), which after the target raw-material is combined with the powder mixture according to the application. The breaded/ coated target raw-material is baked in the oven or deep-fried in fat. This patent application aims at a healthier food compared to conventionally pro- duced product.

Patent application KR101633591 (Al) describes a production method of chicken, wherein a breading comprising of oats or parts of it is used to improve the health benefits, such as increasing the amount of soluble fibers and improving organoleptic properties, of the prod- uct. Summary of the invention

The present invention is defined in the independent claims. Certain embodiments are de- fined in the dependent claims.

According to a first aspect the present invention relates to a breaded, deep-fried product which comprises a food fat component which is capable to form a moisture-retentive and tasty protective surface around the deep-fried product.

According to a second aspect the invention relates to a product in which the food fat com ponent is present in the product as a breading or as part of it.

According to a third aspect the invention relates to a method for the production of the product described above, and products prepared according to such method.

The present invention is based on the idea that the food fat component according to the invention serves as a moisture-retentive layer during the deep-frying process maintaining the moisture of the deep-fried product better than commonly known, commercial breading powders.

Several benefits are achieved with the present invention. Use of the food fat component, produced by the method of the invention, as a breading or as part of it in deep-fried product enables the reduction of loss occurring in cooking and better retention of the moisture con tained in the product. The improved moisture retention property improves the organoleptic properties, such as taste, texture and appearance, of the product by maintaining the product succulent and fresh.

The feature of reducing the loss of weight in cooking adds value in industry and improved organoleptic properties, such as juiciness and feeling of satiety, add value to the consumer.

Application of the food fat component produced by the method of the present invention as a breading or as part of it in deep-fried products makes the appearance of the product more attractive, improves the nutritional properties of the products, and increases and better pre serves the organoleptic properties, such as succulent and taste, of the product. Use of the present food fat component in deep-frying process adds the flavor of the end product and a feeling of satiety.

Short description of the drawings

Figure 1 shows a loss of weight in cooking and a net weight increase as percentage of commercial reference materials A and B and a food fat component C according to one em bodiment of the present invention, as those are used as a breading of food material 1.

Figure 2 shows a loss of weight in cooking and a net weight increase as percentage of commercial reference materials A and B and a food fat component C according to one em bodiment of the present invention, as those are used as a breading of food material 2.

Embodiments

The present invention relates to a breaded preparation which is in a form of a deep-fried product. The breading or part of the breading of the preparation according to the invention is formed of a food fat component which is capable to form a moisture-retentive and tasty protective surface around the deep-fried product.

According to preferred embodiment the food fat component is added to the breading of the preparation, wherein it provides a dense and hard protective surface around the substrate as a result of deep-frying.

In the breading, the food fat component forms a better protection, which is capable to re tain the moisture contained in the substrate well inside, and simultaneously prevents ab sorption of oil used for deep-frying into the cooked product.

Using of the food fat component as a breading or as part of it can be affected both the nu tritional and organoleptic properties of the deep-fried product.

According to a preferred embodiment the food fat component used in the breading is a food fat component presented in patent application FI20175435, which food fat component has surprisingly been found to act as an excellent breading in deep-fried products. Patent application FI20175435 describes an oily fat and grain containing food fat compo- nent and a product comprising it, as well as a production method of these.

The described patent application relates to a food fat component which is capable to pre vent oxidation of fatty acids and simultaneously improve both the nutritional profile and organoleptic properties of the product. In said patent application the prevention of oxida- tion of fatty acids is based on a physical barrier and antioxidants optionally contained in the ingredients.

According to the mentioned patent application the function of the fat component is based on the idea that after the addition of protein and biomaterial (optionally also addition of electrolyte) to the oil-in-water mixture the fatty acids contained in the fat are bound by means of a mechanical treatment and assisted by the proteins into small particles, where upon the proteins and the active chains of their amino acids are via their affinities and part ly via interatomic bonds conforted onto the surface of the particles. Also other biomaterial may be added to the mixture, after which the mixture is dehydrated, whereupon a finished food fat component is formed. By forming the oil-in-water mixture prior to addition of pro tein, the oil and fatty acids have been rendered into stable protected structures, i.e. the fat remains in the product without detaching and causing an unpleasant mouthfeel. With the decrease of water as a result of dehydration, the preservability of the food fat component is enhanced and oxidation of fats can simultaneously be reduced. Both the nutritional and organoleptic properties of the products can be improved by means of the presented food fat component.

According to a preferred embodiment, it is significant for the present invention to first form a mixture of oil and water, and optionally electrolyte. Oil-in-water mixture is formed by mixing oil effectively into the water, in which mixture small oil droplets are evenly mixed with the water. The system thus formed is, however, not stable because the oil re pels water and small oil droplets easily combine to each other, wherein two separate phases are quickly formed.

Thus, protein should be added to the oil-in-water mixture where the oil droplets are still evenly distributed in the water phase. Proteins are polar compounds with both hydrophilic and lipophilic parts. According to a preferred embodiment, a water soluble protein is used in the present invention. When water soluble protein is added to the above described oil-in-water mixture, the lipophilic parts of the protein seek on to the surface of the oil droplets before water molecules have time to form a shell around the protein, which shell weakens the interaction between protein and oil droplets. Thus, a protein membrane, in which the hydrophilic part of the protein is out- ward, is formed around the oil droplets. The hydrophilic part is surrounded by water mole- cules of the water phase binding these tightly into the composition, which prevents drying of the food fat component during both storage and heating. Oil-in-water emulsion is formed, in which emulsion protein preferably acts as an emulsifier.

Water content of the food fat component used as a breading or as part of it is significant for the properties of the deep-fried end product. The higher the water content is on the surface of the deep-fried product, the more water evaporates and the higher amount of oil is ab sorbed into the surface layer cavities formed by the evaporation of water. In addition, the water content of the breading affects the rate of formation of the shell formed in deep- frying.

According to a preferred embodiment the water content, or more precisely moisture con tent, is 0.1 to 15 weight-% of the weight of the breading. In the final preparation, the mois ture can be maintained essentially intact during cooking of the preparation due to the pro tection offered by the food fat component.

According a preferred embodiment a food fat component and its production method of the above mentioned patent application are used in the present invention. Typically, this food fat component comprises 10 to 70 weight-% oil fat, 10 to 70 weight-% biomaterial and 1 to 40 weight-%, preferably 1 to 30 weight-% protein. In addition, the component comprises water and optionally an electrolyte. For example salts can be used as electrolytes. Water can be in the form of pure water or some other aqueous liquid. Milk and vegetable and fruit juices are liquids typically suitable for this purpose.

According to a preferred embodiment the moisture content of a finished food fat compo nent is typically 0.1 to 15 weight-%. Appropriate moisture can have a reducing effect on the oxidation of fatty acids. In addition, its advantages include, for example, non-dustiness and fluidity of the food fat component during use.

As biomaterial in the production of the food fat component, use is typically made of carbo hydrate-containing material, but also biomaterial containing proteins and fats. As exam ples, mention can be made of cereal flours, semolina or flakes (such as wheat, barley, rye, oats, spelt, millet, maize, rice or sorghum); pseudocereal flours, semolina or flakes (such as buckwheat, amaranth or quinoa); legumes (soybeans, peas, chickpeas, beans, lentils, lu pines) or field beans or organic protein sources (such as insects, seafood, chordates, mam mals, fungi, algae or molds). The ingredients of the component form an oil-in-water emul sion, in which protein and biomaterial form, as a result of intensive homogenizing, a stable structure. By dehydrating the emulsion, a powder-like solid material is obtained.

According to a preferred embodiment as biomaterial in the production of the food fat com ponent, use is made of starch-based material, such as oats, com, rice, potatoes, vegetable powder or tapioca starch, or some of their mixtures, preferably oats.

Any fat which at least upon heating is oil-like is suitable as the oil fat for use in the present invention. In fact, various different fats or lipid compounds can be used for the production of the component according to the invention, i.e. by using the method, different fat profiles can be generated for various orally consumed fat-containing biomatrices. As oil fat, use is typically made of vegetable fat or oil, such as rapeseed or palm oil, shea butter, or a com bination of these. Omega fatty acids are particularly beneficial.

Protein sources used in the invention are not restricted. Any protein obtainable from living organisms can be used in the invention (such as the above mentioned flours, semolina and flakes, or insects, seafood, chordates, mammals, fungi, algae or molds).

According to an embodiment, the protein used is a protein contained in egg, such as avidin, ovalbumin, conalbumin or lysozyme, or a soy protein, or several of these simultaneously.

According to a preferred embodiment the protein source contained in the food fat compo nent has a protein content of at least 50 %, preferably at least 80 %, for example about 90 %. According to a preferred embodiment, encapsulation of fat is performed without added stabilizing or emulsifying agents, in contrast to several already patented fatty acid micro- encapsulation methods. The protein source used preferably serves itself as emulsifier, such as in the case of egg. According to one embodiment, a separate emulsifier can also be used. When producing vegan products, for example lecithin can be used.

According to a preferred embodiment, the biomaterial and the protein comprised in the food fat component are specifically derived from different sources. This is due to that the protein source should be protein-rich because it is the function of the protein to form a pro- tein membrane around the oil droplets by its polar structure containing both hydrophilic and lipophilic parts. In turn, biomaterial is preferably carbohydrate-rich in order to be able to fulfill its function among others by protecting the above described formed structure and acting as a moisture binder.

According to one embodiment biomaterial may also comprise protein and fat, but in that case use is preferably also made of additional protein source.

According to a preferred embodiment the biomaterial other than the main protein source is carb ohy drate-b ased .

Ingredients of the food fat component added in right, in the present invention defined, or der and mixed form an oil-in-water emulsion in which protein and biomaterial form, as a result of intensive homogenizing, a stable structure on the interfaces of the emulsion.

According to one embodiment the emulsion can be dehydrated, wherein a powder-like sol id material is obtained.

According to one embodiment the breading of the breaded preparation being in a form of a deep-fried product according to the invention comprises 1 to 50 weight-%, preferably 1 to 20 weight-%, oil fat.

According to another embodiment the breading of the breaded preparation being in a form of a deep-fried product according to the invention comprises 1 to 20 weight-% protein. According to third embodiment the breading of the breaded preparation being in a form of a deep-fried product according to the invention comprises 35 to 70 weight-% carbohydrate- based biomaterial.

According to fourth embodiment, the food fat component forms only part of the breading. Thus, the food fat component can be used for example together with commonly used bred- ings. Commonly used breadings are mixtures of proteins, fats and polysaccharides.

In the method according to the invention, a fat phase and salt are added into water to a wa- ter content of 20 to 80 weight-%, preferably 30 to 70 weight-%, and the mixture thus ob tained is stirred at below 60°C, preferably below 50 °C, for less than 10 min. At the latest as a result of this heating the fat used will be in an oil-like form and an oil-in-water mixture has formed in which the fatty acids are dispersed in the aqueous phase. Protein is added to the mixture, and mechanical stirring is then continued. At the final stage, intense homoge nizing treatment is applied for less than 10 min, preferably less than 3 min, until the mix ture consists of a homogenous phase or phases. The protein is added at a temperature be low 100 °C, preferably 0 to 70 °C, depending on the protein source. When necessary, an electrolyte, typically salts, can additionally be added to the mixture. This phase/these phas es constitute the first part of the food fat component according to the invention. Homoge nization of the mixture is carried out by a commonly known mechanical method which is compatible with the viscosity of the desired mixture. Homogenization is preferably carried out with mechanically cutting blades.

In the next step the mixture is combined with other biomaterial, i.e. to the second part of the food fat component, wherein the food fat component according to the invention is ob tained. Combining takes place by generally known mechanical treatments such as grinding, mixing, high pressure treatment, cutting treatment or a combination of these. The bio material must be hygienically clean and fulfill the requirements of generally acceptable standards. As the final result, a homogenous mass, mixture or suspension is obtained.

According to one embodiment the resulting mass, mixture or suspension is dehydrated by generally known and applicable processing methods (e.g. freeze-drying or vacuum drying), preferably by heat treatment. The heat treatment takes place typically at below 250 °C for a time of less than 45 min, depending on the viscosity of the mixture and the volume of the mixture to be processed. Dehydration enables the amount of water to be reduced in the product and the preservability of the product thus improved. Typically the moisture, i.e. water content of the dehydrated product is about 0.1 to 15 weight-%, depending on the dry ing conditions. The dehydrated product is processed by generally known industrial meth ods for a suitable particle size for breading.

According to a preferred embodiment the resulting mass, mixture or suspension is dehy drated as a thin layer, particularly when using heat treatment. The thickness of the layer to be dehydrated is preferably less than 10 mm, for example about 2 to 8 mm, preferably about 5 to 6 mm.

According to one embodiment dehydration takes place through drying the mass, mixture or suspension e.g. by freeze-drying or vacuum drying at low temperatures.

According to another embodiment dehydration takes place through drying the mass, mix ture or suspension by heat treatment. Preferably heat treatment takes place under 250 °C.

The powder formed by the food fat component is used for coating of substrates, such as meat, chicken, crustaceans, cheese or for example vegetables, without limiting any foods. According to one embodiment uncooked substrate is first buttered with a commonly known viscous mixture in order to increase the adhesion of the coating, after which the buttered substrate is coated with the food fat component according to the present invention. In one embodiment the coated substrate was precooked below 250 °C for less than 60 minutes depending on size, shape and surface area of the substrate. After this the coated substrate is typically deep-fried at below 230 °C for less than 20 minutes.

The above described food fat component and its production method can be applied for breading of various deep-fried foods, without limiting any foods.

Optionally, the food fat component can be combined with another breading mixture for example by mechanical stirring.

The actual breading step can be performed in one or more breading steps. Use of a food fat component according to the invention as a breading or as part of it in breading process can be applied to reduction of loss of weight in cooking of various foods in deep-frying process. In addition, the present invention is suitable to addition of succu- lence and taste because the moisture permeation preventing surface retains the moisture of the product in the food to be cooked.

The present invention enables the improvement of nutritional value, organoleptic proper ties, and texture and color, characteristic to deep-fried products, of deep-fried products.

In the following examples, the invention has been described with reference to certain de- tails. However, the purpose of these is only to illustrate the invention, without anyhow lim iting the invention.

EXAMPLES

Example 1 - Breading powder for deep-frying of foods produced using the food fat com ponent based on the patent application FI20175435.

The food fat component presented in the patent application FI20175435 was mechanically ground, after which the powder was processed ready for use by generally known methods.

Example 2 - Application of food fat component as a breading or as part of it in different deep-fried products.

The food fat component disclosed in patent application FI20175435, treated as described in production example 1, was used as a breading in deep-frying process by testing with dif ferent living materials. The substrates to be cooked were pre-treated with a dough mix generally used for breading, after which the products were breaded with the food fat com ponent according to the present invention. The breaded products were pre-cooked by gen erally known pre-cooking processes, after which the products were deep-fried. Table 1. Pre-cooking and deep-frying temperatures and times.

Results Figures 1 and 2 show loss of weight in cooking and net weight increase as percentages of commercial breadings and food fat component according to one embodiment of the present invention. The breading was attached to food material with a commercial attachment dough which was prepared in the same manner in different test times, n=l92. Both com mercial and food fat component according to the invention were used for breading of food materials 1 and 2 which are commonly known raw-materials in breading processes. In all breadings, the breadings were attached to the surface of the raw material with similar pro- cess and with similar, commercial attachment dough, and were deep-fried for the same period of time in cooking oil. It is found from figures 1 and 2 that the loss of weight in cooking (%) is lowest with the food fat component prepared according to the present invention. Also the increase of net weight compared to the starting weight of the raw-material is highest with the food fat component according to the invention. Thus, the food fat component according to the pre- sent invention reduces the loss of weight caused by cooking and affects advantageously to the weight of the final product. When the powder prepared according to the invention was used as a breading of food raw-materials and the product was deep-fried in cooking oil, the loss of weight in cooking was 5.7 % and 9.7 % (food 1 and 2) lower compared to using commercial reference material. Industrial applicability

The present invention can be used in general for preparation of any food with hot oil when properties of the deep-fried products are aimed to be improved. As practical examples within the food industry, mention can be made of the following ap- plications: chicken, meat, vegetable, diary, fruit, crustaceans, fish and insect products. Ini tiated use can be for example reduction of loss of weight in cooking of deep-fried products, improvement of organoleptic properties, shelf life, succulence of baked product and prod- uct yield, reduction of oxidation and improvement of nutritional properties.

List of reference publications

Patent literature

US2007048427

US2005158438

US2006182849

US5019406

KR101633591

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