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Title:
DEFERRED ATKINSON CYCLE AND SIMULTANEOUS HEAT EXTRACTION INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/043443
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present disclosure relates to an internal combustion (IC) engine, wherein residual heat and pressure of combustion products/exhaust gases is utilized to produce additional mechanical work. An aspect of the present disclosure provides an IC engine that includes a deferred cylinder 102, wherein the deferred cylinder 102 is equipped to intake a specific volume of air at room temperature, and wherein the deferred cylinder 102 is connected to one or more cylinders 104 of the IC engine, by one or more exhaust gas delivery pipes 106 that pass a specific quantity of exhaust gases from the cylinders 104 to the deferred cylinder 102. Another aspect of the present disclosure provides a deferred cylinder that is equipped to intake a specific volume of air at room temperature, and includes one or more exhaust gas intake valves that intake exhaust gases expelled from cylinders of IC engine into the deferred cylinder.

Inventors:
SHAIKH, Liyaquat Ali Chiragoddin (Flat No 502, Building No A4 Grace Square, Shimla Park,Opposite Sports Stadium, Talao Pali Road, Mumbra, Kausa District Thane, Maharashtra 2, 400612, IN)
Application Number:
IB2017/056713
Publication Date:
March 07, 2019
Filing Date:
October 30, 2017
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
SHAIKH, Liyaquat Ali Chiragoddin (Flat No 502, Building No A4 Grace Square, Shimla Park,Opposite Sports Stadium, Talao Pali Road, Mumbra, Kausa District Thane, Maharashtra 2, 400612, IN)
International Classes:
F02B75/00; F01N5/02
Foreign References:
US4783966A1988-11-15
US5617726A1997-04-08
CN206190374U2017-05-24
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
KHURANA & KHURANA, ADVOCATES & IP ATTORNEYS (E-13, UPSIDC Site-IV, Behind-Grand Venice,Kasna Road, Greater Noida, National Capital Region, Uttar Pradesh 0, 201310, IN)
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Claims:
I Claim:

1. An internal combustion (IC) engine comprising:

a deferred cylinder comprising an air intake valve, an exhaust valve and a piston reciprocating between a top dead center (TDC) and a bottom dead center (BDC) of the deferred cylinder,

wherein the deferred cylinder is connected to one or more cylinders of the IC engine, by one or more exhaust gas delivery pipes that provide a passage for a specific quantity of exhaust gases to pass from the one or more cylinders of the IC engine to the deferred cylinder; and

wherein the exhaust valve of the deferred cylinder expels mixture of hot gases and air to a cooling unit, wherein water is sprayed on the mixture of hot gases and air to effect cooling of the mixture of hot gases and air that leads to generation of a pressure difference between the cooling unit and crank side of the piston of the deferred cylinder.

2. The engine of claim 1, wherein the specific quantity of exhaust gases injected into the deferred cylinder is equal to the specific volume of air present inside the deferred cylinder.

3. The engine of claim 1, wherein exhaust gases coming out of each of the one or more cylinders of the IC engine are split into at least two portions and are delivered to respectively connected deferred cylinders.

4. The engine of claim 1, wherein pistons of the one or more cylinders of the IC engine and the piston of a deferred cylinder are connected 180 degrees out of phase to a crankshaft of the IC engine.

5. The engine of claim 1, wherein periodicity of movement of the pistons of the one or more cylinders of the IC engine is equal to periodicity of movement of the piston of the deferred cylinder.

6. The engine of claim 1, wherein generation of the pressure difference between the cooling unit and crank side of the piston of the deferred cylinder produces additional work off the piston.

7. The engine of claim 1, wherein the air intake valve of the deferred cylinder intakes a specific volume of air at room temperature as the piston reaches TDC.

8. An internal combustion (IC) engine comprising: a deferred cylinder comprising an air intake valve, an exhaust valve and a piston reciprocating between a top dead center (TDC) and a bottom dead center (BDC) of the deferred cylinder,

wherein the deferred cylinder is connected to one or more cylinders of the IC engine, by one or more exhaust gas delivery pipes that provide a passage for a specific quantity of exhaust gases to pass from the one or more cylinders of the IC engine to the deferred cylinder; and

one or more exhaust gas intake valves that intake exhaust gases expelled from one or more cylinders of the IC engine into the deferred cylinder,

9. The engine of claim 8, wherein air intake valve of the deferred cylinder intakes a specific volume of air at room temperature as the piston reaches TDC.

10. The engine of claim 8, wherein the piston of the deferred cylinder is connected to a separate crankshaft other than crankshaft of the IC engine, and wherein the separate crankshaft is fitted with a flywheel.

11. The engine of claim 8, wherein the exhaust valve of the deferred cylinder expels mixture of hot gases and air to a cooling unit, wherein water is sprayed on the mixture of hot gases and air to effect cooling of the mixture of hot gases and air that leads to generation of a pressure difference between the cooling unit and crank side of the piston of the deferred cylinder.

12. The engine of claim 8, wherein generation of the pressure difference between the cooling unit and crank side of the piston of the deferred cylinder produces additional work off the piston.

13. The engine of claim 8, wherein the deferred cylinder(s) can be split into two or more cylinders of lesser volume.

14. The engine of claim 8, wherein the one or more exhaust gas intake valves open at TDC during exhaust gas intake stroke of the deferred cylinder.

15. The engine of claim 8, wherein the pistons of two deferred cylinders are connected 180 degrees out of phase on a separate crankshaft.

Description:
DEFERRED ATKINSON CYCLE AND SIMULTANEOUS HEAT EXTRACTION

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] The present invention relates generally to the field of internal combustion (IC) engines, and more specifically, to an IC engine, wherein pressure and heat of exhaust gases is utilized to produce additional mechanical work.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] Background description includes information that may be useful in understanding the present invention. It is not an admission that any of the information provided herein is prior art or relevant to the presently claimed invention, or that any publication specifically or implicitly referenced is prior art.

[0003] An internal combustion (IC) engine is an engine in which burning of a fuel occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. This exothermic reaction of a fuel with an oxidizer such as air creates gases of high temperature and pressure, which are permitted to expand. The defining feature of an IC engine is that useful work is performed by the expanding hot gases acting directly to cause movement, for example by acting on pistons, rotors, or even by pressing on and moving the entire engine itself.

[0004] There are numerous efforts made to extract mechanical work/power off heat and pressure of exhaust gases and heat of coolant system of an IC engine. This extraction of lost heat in these two forms, in a unified process is quite difficult to achieve. In addition, such an effort becomes underproductive and detrimental for extracting more mechanical work to fullest extent.

[0005] Typically, a four-stroke engine is an IC engine in which piston completes four separate strokes while turning a crankshaft. A stroke refers to full travel of the piston along the cylinder, in either direction. The four separate strokes are termed as Intake stroke, Compression stroke, Power stroke and Exhaust stroke. In the intake stroke, piston begins at top dead center (TDC) and ends at bottom dead center (BDC), and intake valve is in open position while the piston pulls an air-fuel mixture into the cylinder by producing vacuum pressure into the cylinder through its downward motion. Compression stroke begins at BDC just after the end of intake stroke and ends at TDC, and the piston compresses the air-fuel mixture in preparation for ignition during the power stroke. Both the intake and exhaust valves are closed during this stage. After the compression stroke, the crankshaft has completed a full 360 degree revolution and the second revolution of the four-stroke cycle is started. Power stroke is the start of second revolution of the four-stroke cycle. In the power stroke, the air-fuel mixture present in the combustion chamber is ignited by a spark plug (in gasoline engines) or by heat generated by high compression (in diesel engines), and the piston returns to BDC. Thereafter, in the exhaust stroke, the piston once again returns from BDC to TDC while exhaust valve is open that expels the spent air-fuel mixture through the exhaust valve. During expelling of spent air-fuel mixture through the exhaust valve, large amount of heat energy contained in the spent air-fuel mixture is also expelled from the engine and thus, there arises a need to utilize heat energy of the spent air-fuel mixture to provide additional mechanical power to the piston to improve fuel efficiency of the engine.

[0006] Residual gas i.e., combustion products of an IC engine, post mechanical stroke to piston, have components such as residual heat energy of combustion of fuel, high temperature of about 1000-1100 K, pressure of about 3-5 Bar and a volume equal to volume of the cylinder. There arises a need to utilize heat energy of the spent air-fuel mixture with above properties to provide additional mechanical power to the piston to improve fuel efficiency of the engine.

[0007] There is therefore a need in the art of IC engines to increase mechanical power and fuel efficiency of the engine in real-time by utilizing residual heat and pressure of exhaust gases. In addition, there exists a need to provide the increased mechanical power of the engine to a separate crankshaft in real-time.

[0008] As used in the description herein and throughout the claims that follow, the meaning of "a," "an," and "the" includes plural reference unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Also, as used in the description herein, the meaning of "in" includes "in" and "on" unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.

[0009] In some embodiments, the numerical parameters set forth in the written description and attached claims are approximations that can vary depending upon the desired properties sought to be obtained by a particular embodiment. In some embodiments, the numerical parameters should be construed in light of the number of reported significant digits and by applying ordinary rounding techniques. Notwithstanding that the numerical ranges and parameters setting forth the broad scope of some embodiments of the invention are approximations, the numerical values set forth in the specific examples are reported as precisely as practicable. The numerical values presented in some embodiments of the invention may contain certain errors necessarily resulting from the standard deviation found in their respective testing measurements. [00010] The recitation of ranges of values herein is merely intended to serve as a shorthand method of referring individually to each separate value falling within the range. Unless otherwise indicated herein, each individual value is incorporated into the specification as if it were individually recited herein. All methods described herein can be performed in any suitable order unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context. The use of any and all examples, or exemplary language (e.g. "such as") provided with respect to certain embodiments herein is intended merely to better illuminate the invention and does not pose a limitation on the scope of the invention otherwise claimed. No language in the specification should be construed as indicating any non-claimed element essential to the practice of the invention.

[00011] Groupings of alternative elements or embodiments of the invention disclosed herein are not to be construed as limitations. Each group member can be referred to and claimed individually or in any combination with other members of the group or other elements found herein. One or more members of a group can be included in, or deleted from, a group for reasons of convenience and/or patentability. When any such inclusion or deletion occurs, the specification is herein deemed to contain the group as modified thus fulfilling the written description of all groups used in the appended claims.

OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION

[00012] It is an object of the present disclosure to provide a heat extraction engine that utilizes residual heat and pressure of exhaust gases of an IC engine.

[00013] It is another object of the present disclosure to provide a heat extraction engine that provides an additional mechanical power to piston.

[00014] Yet another object of the present disclosure is to provide a heat extraction engine that improves fuel efficiency of the IC engine.

SUMMARY

[00015] The present invention relates generally to the field of internal combustion (IC) engines, and more specifically, to an IC engine, wherein residual heat of combustion products is utilized to produce additional mechanical work by providing a deferred cylinder, wherein heat of residual gases is utilized to produce additional mechanical work inside the deferred cylinder.

[00016] Embodiments of the present disclosure provide an internal combustion (IC) engine including a deferred cylinder that includes an air intake valve, an exhaust valve and a piston reciprocating between a top dead center (TDC) and a bottom dead center (BDC) of the deferred cylinder, wherein the deferred cylinder is connected to one or more cylinders of the IC engine, by one or more exhaust gas delivery pipes that provide a passage for a specific quantity of exhaust gases to pass from the one or more cylinders of the IC engine to the deferred cylinder, and wherein the exhaust valve of the deferred cylinder expels mixture of hot gases and air to a cooling unit, wherein water is sprayed on the mixture of hot gases and air to effect cooling of the mixture of hot gases and air that leads to generation of a pressure difference between the cooling unit and crank side of the piston of the deferred cylinder.

[00017] In an aspect, generation of the pressure difference between the cooling unit and crank side of the piston of the deferred cylinder produces additional work off the piston.

[00018] In an aspect, the specific quantity of exhaust gases injected into the deferred cylinder is equal to the specific volume of air present inside the deferred cylinder.

[00019] In an aspect, exhaust gases coming out of each of the one or more cylinders of the IC engine are split into at least two portions and are delivered to respectively connected deferred cylinders.

[00020] In an embodiment, pistons of the one or more cylinders of the IC engine and the piston of a deferred cylinder are connected 180 degrees out of phase to a crankshaft of the IC engine. In an aspect, wherein periodicity of movement of the pistons of the one or more cylinders of the IC engine is equal to periodicity of movement of the piston of the deferred cylinder.

[00021] Embodiments of the present disclosure further provide an internal combustion

(IC) engine including a deferred cylinder that includes an air intake valve, an exhaust valve and a piston reciprocating between a top dead center (TDC) and a bottom dead center (BDC) of the deferred cylinder, wherein the deferred cylinder is connected to one or more cylinders of the IC engine, by one or more exhaust gas delivery pipes that provide a passage for a specific quantity of exhaust gases to pass from the one or more cylinders of the IC engine to the deferred cylinder, and one or more exhaust gas intake valves that intake exhaust gases expelled from one or more cylinders of the IC engine into the deferred cylinder, wherein the exhaust valve of the deferred cylinder expels mixture of hot gases and air to a cooling unit, wherein water is sprayed on the mixture of hot gases and air to effect cooling of the mixture of hot gases and air that leads to generation of a pressure difference between the cooling unit and crank side of the piston of the deferred cylinder.

[00022] In an embodiment, the air intake valve of deferred cylinder intakes a specific volume of air at room temperature as the piston reaches TDC. [00023] In an aspect, generation of the pressure difference between the cooling unit and crank side of the piston of the deferred cylinder produces additional work off the piston.

[00024] In an embodiment, the one or more exhaust gas intake valves open when the piston is at TDC.

[00025] In an embodiment, the piston of the deferred cylinder is connected to a separate crankshaft other than crankshaft of the IC engine, and wherein the separate crankshaft is fitted with a flywheel. In an embodiment, pistons of two deferred cylinders are connected 180 degrees out of phase on this separate crankshaft.

[00026] It would be appreciated that although aspects of the present disclosure have been explained with respect to an internal combustion (IC) engine that utilizes heat energy of exhaust gases to provide additional mechanical power to piston, the present disclosure is not limited to the same in any manner whatsoever and any other form of such devices that utilize residual heat of exhaust/residual gases is completely covered within the scope of the present disclosure.

[00027] Those skilled in the art will further appreciate the advantages and superior features of the disclosure together with other important aspects thereof on reading the detailed description that follows in conjunction with the drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[00028] The accompanying drawings are included to provide a further understanding of the present disclosure, and are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification. The drawings illustrate exemplary embodiments of the present disclosure and, together with the description, serve to explain the principles of the present disclosure.

[00029] In the figures, similar components and/or features may have the same reference label. Further, various components of the same type may be distinguished by following the reference label with a second label that distinguishes among the similar components. If only the first reference label is used in the specification, the description is applicable to any one of the similar components having the same first reference label irrespective of the second reference label.

[00030] FIG. 1 illustrates an exemplary schematic representation of proposed internal combustion (IC) engine in accordance to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[00031] FIG. 2 illustrates an exemplary arrangement of a deferred cylinder with one or more cylinders of the IC engine in accordance to an embodiment of the present disclosure. [00032] FIG. 3 illustrates another exemplary arrangement of the deferred cylinder in accordance to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[00033] FIG. 4 illustrates an exemplary representation of catalytic converter and cooling chamber in accordance to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[00034] If the specification states a component or feature "may", "can", "could", or "might" be included or have a characteristic, that particular component or feature is not required to be included or have the characteristic.

[00035] Exemplary embodiments will now be described more fully hereinafter with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which exemplary embodiments are shown. This disclosure may however, be embodied in many different forms and should not be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein. These embodiments are provided so that this disclosure will be thorough and complete and will fully convey the scope of the disclosure to those of ordinary skill in the art. Moreover, all statements herein reciting embodiments of the disclosure, as well as specific examples thereof, are intended to encompass both structural and functional equivalents thereof. Additionally, it is intended that such equivalents include both currently known equivalents as well as equivalents developed in the future (i.e., any elements developed that perform the same function, regardless of structure).

[00036] Thus, for example, it will be appreciated by those of ordinary skill in the art that the diagrams, schematics, illustrations, and the like represent conceptual views or processes illustrating systems and methods embodying this disclosure. The functions of the various elements shown in the figures may be provided through the use of dedicated hardware as well as hardware capable of executing associated software. Similarly, any electronic code generator shown in the figures are conceptual only. Their function may be carried out through the operation of program logic, through dedicated logic, through the interaction of program control and dedicated logic, or even manually, the particular technique being selectable by the entity implementing this disclosure. Those of ordinary skill in the art further understand that the exemplary hardware, software, processes, methods, and/or operating systems described herein are for illustrative purposes and, thus, are not intended to be limited to any particular named.

[00037] Various terms as used herein are shown below. To the extent a term used in a claim is not defined below, it should be given the broadest definition persons in the pertinent art have given that term as reflected in printed publications and issued patents at the time of filing.

[00038] The present invention relates generally to the field of internal combustion (IC) engines, and more specifically, to an IC engine, wherein residual heat of exhaust gases is utilized to produce additional mechanical work.

[00039] Embodiments of the present disclosure explained herein provide an internal combustion (IC) engine including a deferred cylinder that includes an air intake valve, an exhaust valve and a piston reciprocating between a top dead center (TDC) and a bottom dead center (BDC) of the deferred cylinder, wherein the deferred cylinder is connected to one or more cylinders of the IC engine, by one or more exhaust gas delivery pipes that provide a passage for a specific quantity of exhaust gases to pass from the one or more cylinders of the IC engine to the deferred cylinder, and wherein the exhaust valve of the deferred cylinder expels mixture of hot gases and air to a cooling unit, wherein water is sprayed on the mixture of hot gases and air to effect cooling of the mixture of hot gases and air that leads to generation of a pressure difference between the cooling unit and crank side of the piston of the deferred cylinder.

[00040] Embodiments of the present disclosure explained herein relate to an internal combustion (IC) engine including a deferred cylinder that includes an air intake valve, an exhaust valve and a piston reciprocating between a top dead center (TDC) and a bottom dead center (BDC) of the deferred cylinder, wherein the deferred cylinder is connected to one or more cylinders of the IC engine, by one or more exhaust gas delivery pipes that provide a passage for a specific quantity of exhaust gases to pass from the one or more cylinders of the IC engine to the deferred cylinder, and one or more exhaust gas intake valves that intake exhaust gases expelled from one or more cylinders of the IC engine into the deferred cylinder, wherein the exhaust valve of the deferred cylinder expels mixture of hot gases and air to a cooling unit, wherein water is sprayed on the mixture of hot gases and air to effect cooling of the mixture of hot gases and air that leads to generation of a pressure difference between the cooling unit and crank side of the piston of the deferred cylinder.

[00041] It would be appreciated that although aspects of the present disclosure have been explained with respect to an internal combustion (IC) engine that utilizes heat energy of exhaust gases to provide additional mechanical power to piston, the present disclosure is not limited to the same in any manner whatsoever and any other form of such devices that utilize residual heat of exhaust gases is completely covered within the scope of the present disclosure. [00042] FIG. 1 illustrates an exemplary schematic representation of proposed internal combustion (IC) engine in accordance to an embodiment of the present disclosure. In an aspect, the IC engine includes one or more deferred cylinders 102-1, 102-2, 102-3 and 102-4 (also referred to as deferred cylinder 102) connected to one or more cylinders 104-1, 104-2, 104-3 and 104-4 (also referred to as cylinder 104) of the IC engine with the help of one or more exhaust gas delivery pipes 106-1, 106-2, 106-3 and 106-4 and so forth (also referred to as exhaust gas delivery pipe 106) that provide passage for a specific quantity of exhaust gases to pass from the cylinders 104 to a respectively connected deferred cylinder 102.

[00043] In an exemplary implementation, a deferred cylinder 102-1 can be connected to two cylinders 104-1 and 104-3 with the help of two exhaust gas delivery pipes 106-1 and 106-2 such that exhaust gas delivery pipe 106-1 can provide passage for a specific quantity of exhaust gases to pass from cylinder 104-1, and exhaust gas delivery pipe 106-2 can provide passage for a specific quantity of exhaust gases to pass from cylinder 104-3 to the deferred cylinder 102-1.

[00044] In an embodiment, deferred cylinder 102 can include an air inlet valve 108, an exhaust valve 110 and a piston 112 that reciprocates between a Top Dead Centre (TDC) and a Bottom Dead Centre (BDC) of the deferred cylinder 102. The air inlet valve 108 intakes a specific volume of air at room temperature into the deferred cylinder 102. The exhaust valve 110 expels hot gases and air from the deferred cylinder 102 to a catalytic converter (not shown). In an aspect, the air inlet valve 108 can be configured with a blower in air intake manifold configuration.

[00045] In an exemplary aspect, volume of a deferred cylinder 102 can be larger than volume of exhaust gases in cylinder 104. For instance, volume of the deferred cylinder 102 can be eight times larger than volume of exhaust gases in the cylinder 104. For this reason, exhaust gases of a cylinder 104 can be split between two portions and delivered to two separate deferred cylinders 102-1 and 102-2.

[00046] In an exemplary aspect, volume swept by piston 112 can be a portion of total volume of the deferred cylinder 102. When piston 112 is initially at TDC, a specific portion of volume of the deferred cylinder 102 is filled with atmospheric air at room temperature. For instance, l/8 th of volume of the deferred cylinder 102 that is not swept by piston can be filled with atmospheric air at room temperature when piston 112 is at TDC.

[00047] In an embodiment, cylinders 104 can include an inlet valve 114, an exhaust valve 116, a piston 112 and other components of a typical cylinder of a conventional IC engine. Further, side walls of the cylinders 104 can be configured with a coolant jacket to enable cooling of the cylinders 104 during its operation.

[00048] In an embodiment, an exhaust gas delivery pipe 106 can be connected to exhaust side of cylinder 104 at one end, other end of which provides an opening in the deferred cylinder 102. In an exemplary embodiment, openings of two exhaust gas delivery pipes 106 can be combined so as to form a single opening in the deferred cylinder 102.

[00049] FIG. 2 illustrates an exemplary arrangement of a deferred cylinder with two cylinders of the IC engine in accordance to an embodiment of the present disclosure. In an aspect, when piston 112 of deferred cylinders 102-1 is initially at TDC, atmospheric air at atmospheric pressure is enclosed in a portion of volume of the deferred cylinders 102-1 with both air intake and exhaust valves closed. For instance, 1/8 111 of volume of the deferred cylinder 102 can be filled with atmospheric air at room temperature when piston 112 is at TDC. During exhaust stroke of cylinder 104-1, with its exhaust valves 116 open, piston 118 of the cylinder 104-1 moves from BDC to TDC of the cylinder 104-1 and exhaust gases can be split between two portions and delivered to two separate deferred cylinders 102-1 and 102- 2 connected by two exhaust gas delivery pipes 106-1 and 106-3.

[00050] In an exemplary aspect, pistons 112 in the deferred cylinders 102-1 and 102-2 move from TDC to BDC during exhaust stroke of cylinder 104-1 of the IC engine. As air present in the deferred cylinders 102-1 and 102-2 and hot exhaust gases coming from the cylinder 104-1 mix in the deferred cylinders 102-1 and 102-2, volume in deferred cylinders 102-1 and 102-2 increases up to pre-defined extent and creates additional pressure on pistons 112, which generates additional work/power while moving from TDC to BDC. For instance, the volume in deferred cylinders 102-1 and 102-2 can increase up to eight times which can create additional pressure on pistons 112, and thus, generate additional work/power while moving from TDC to BDC.

[00051] In an aspect, periodicity of movement of piston 1 18 of the cylinder 104-1 from

BDC to TDC and periodicity of movement of pistons 112 of deferred cylinders 102-1 and

102-2 from TDC to BDC are equal as these two are connected 180 degrees out of phase with piston 118 of cylinder 104-1 on the same crankshaft as that of the IC engine.

[00052] In an exemplary aspect, when piston 112 of the deferred cylinders 102-1 and

102-2 is at BDC, exhaust valves 110 of the deferred cylinder 102-1 and 102-2 are in open position.

[00053] In an exemplary aspect, in the next air intake stroke of cylinder 104-1, piston

118 moves from TDC to BDC into the cylinder 104-1. With air intake valves 108 closed and exhaust valve 110 open, the pistons 112 in deferred cylinders 102-1 and 102-2 move from BDC to TDC into the respective deferred cylinders, expelling mixture of hot gases and air from the deferred cylinders 102-1 and 102-2. In an exemplary aspect, as piston 112 moves closer to TDC, a pre-defined time interval before TDC, air intake valve 108 opens and remaining air and gas mixture is scavenged and that portion of deferred cylinder 102-1 and 102-2 not swept by piston is filled with atmospheric air by a blower air intake configuration in air intake manifold. In an exemplary aspect, when the piston 112 is at TDC, exhaust valve 110 and air intake valve 108 closes, in that order, thereby enclosing atmospheric air in the deferred cylinders 102-1 and 102-2.

[00054] It is to be appreciated that during the stroke of expelling, scavenging, and air intake of deferred cylinder 102-1 and 102-2, the next cylinder 104-2 of the IC engine is in the exhaust stroke as per firing order of the cylinders 104. Thus, instead of cylinder 104-2, cylinder 104-3 is connected to deferred cylinders 102-1 and 102-2 to make use of the requisite firing order of the cylinders 104.

[00055] In an exemplary implementation, with firing order of cylinders being 104-1

(I), 104-2 (II), 104-3 (III), 104-4 (IV) and during exhaust stroke of cylinder 104-3, exhaust valve 116 of the cylinder 104-3 is in open position, and exhaust gases are delivered to deferred cylinder 102-1 and 102-2. The pistons 112 of the deferred cylinder 102-1 and 102-2 move from TDC to BDC, and as air and hot exhaust gases mix, volume in deferred cylinders 102-1 and 102-2 increases to a pre-defined extent and creates an additional pressure on pistons 112. For instance, the volume in deferred cylinders 102-1 and 102-2 can increase up to eight times which can create additional pressure on pistons 112. This additional pressure leads to generation of additional work/power while moving the pistons 112 from TDC to BDC.

[00056] It would be appreciated that although the above described embodiments are explained in terms of deferred cylinders 102-1 and 102-2, similar embodiments can be used to describe the embodiments related to the deferred cylinders 102-3 and 102-4. For instance, as described above, both cylinders 104-1 and 104-3 are connected to both deferred cylinders 102-1 and 102-2 by four exhaust gas delivery pipes 106-1, 106-2, 106-3 and 106-4. In a same way, cylinders 104-2 and 104-4 can be connected to both deferred cylinders 102-3 and 102-4 with the help of four exhaust gas delivery pipes 106-5, 106-6, 106-7 and 106-8, and further embodiments of the deferred cylinders 102-3 and 102-4 would be same as that of the embodiments explained herein in terms of deferred cylinders 102-1 and 102-2. [00057] FIG. 3 illustrates another exemplary arrangement of the deferred cylinder in accordance to an embodiment of the present disclosure. In an aspect, piston 310 of deferred cylinders 302 can be connected to a separate crankshaft other than crankshaft of the IC engine, fitted with a flywheel (not shown). In an embodiment, pistons 310 of two deferred cylinder 302-2 and 301-1 are connected 180 degrees out of phase.

[00058] In an exemplary implementation, volume of a deferred cylinder 302 is larger than volume of a cylinder 304 (individually referred to as 304-1 and 304-3 and so forth respectively) of the IC engine. For instance, volume of deferred cylinder 302 can be eight times larger than volume of the cylinder 304. It would be appreciated that as the deferred cylinders 302 are connected to a separate crankshaft, no splitting of exhaust gases of the cylinders 304 and splitting of deferred cylinder(s) 302 is required, inter alia, the exhaust gases of cylinder 304 can be split and deferred cylinder(s) 302 can be split into two or more cylinders of lesser volume if size is a constraint and for equitable distribution of torque on the separate crankshaft (splitting of deferred cylinders of this embodiment not shown in drawings and details of operation not explained) and thus, a specific quantity of exhaust gases expelled from a cylinder 304 can be passed to a deferred cylinder 302 by an exhaust gas delivery pipe 306 (individually referred to as 306-1, 306-2, 306-3 and so forth respectively), one end of which is connected to exhaust side of the cylinder 304 and other end of which provides an opening into the deferred cylinder 302.

[00059] In an exemplary implementation, two cylinders 304 can be connected to a deferred cylinder 302, for instance, two cylinders 304 can be connected to a deferred cylinder 302.

[00060] In an exemplary aspect as illustrated in FIG. 3, exhaust gases from two cylinders 304-1 and 304-3 can be connected to a deferred cylinder 302 by two separate exhaust gas delivery pipes 306-1 and 306-3 that have two separate openings in the deferred cylinder 302.

[00061] In an exemplary aspect, openings of the exhaust gas delivery pipes 306-1 and

306-3 in deferred cylinder 302 can be fitted with exhaust gas intake valves 308-1 and 308-3 in addition to valves such as air intake valve 308 and exhaust valve 312 as explained in previous embodiments of the present disclosure. In an exemplary implementation, when piston 310 of deferred cylinder 302 is at TDC position, crankshaft connected to piston 310 of the deferred cylinder 302 can be at an initial position defined by 0 degree of rotation. In an exemplary embodiment, only one of the exhaust gas intake valves 308-1 and 308-3 are configured to open when the piston 310 is at TDC and starts moving toward BDC. [00062] In an exemplary embodiment, an electric motor (not shown) can be used to provide an initial torque to the crankshaft connected to the piston 310 of the deferred cylinder 302 to enable starting of the engine. Once the engine is started, and piston 310 of the deferred cylinder 302 is at TDC, atmospheric air at atmospheric pressure can be enclosed in a portion of volume of the deferred cylinders 302. For instance, when the piston 310 of the deferred cylinder 302 is at TDC, atmospheric air at atmospheric pressure can be enclosed in l/8th volume of the deferred cylinders 302 that is not swept by piston. During exhaust stroke of cylinder 304-1, exhaust valve in cylinder 304-1 are opened, and exhaust gases are delivered to the deferred cylinder 302 when exhaust gas intake valve opens when piston is at TDC. The piston 310 moves from TDC to BDC inside the deferred cylinder 302. At BDC the exhaust intake valve 308 closes and exhaust valve 312 opens, wherein movement of piston 310 from TDC to BDC and from BDC to TDC may not be synchronous with movement of piston of the cylinder 304-1 from BDC to TDC and TDC to BDC as the piston 310 of the deferred cylinder is connected to a separate crankshaft than that of the crankshaft of the IC engine. It would be appreciated that delivery of exhaust gases from cylinder 304-3 follows the same technique as described above based on firing order of the cylinders of the IC engine. In an exemplary embodiment, with piston 310 at BDC and exhaust gas intake valve 308 closed, movement of piston 310 from BDC to TDC and enclosing atmospheric air at atmospheric temperature and pressure in a volume of deferred cylinder 302, not swept by piston 310, is same as that described in a previous embodiment of the present invention.

[00063] In an exemplary implementation, in case of a multi-cylinder IC engine, firing order of the multi-cylinder IC engine can be selected such that each cylinders of the multi- cylinder IC engine can transfer exhaust gases to the connected deferred cylinder 302 during their respective exhaust strokes. In an exemplary implementation, a deferred cylinder 302 can be connected with two cylinders 304. For instance, a deferred cylinder 302-1 can be connected to cylinders 304-1 and 304-3, and other deferred cylinder 302-2 can be connected to cylinders 304-2 and 304-4. Based on firing order of the cylinders of the IC engine, delivery of exhaust gases can commence from the cylinders 304 to a respectively connected deferred cylinder 302. For instance, with firing order of IC engine cylinders being 304-1 (I), 304-2 (II), 304-3 (III), 304-4 (IV), after delivery of exhaust gases from cylinder 304-1 during its exhaust stroke, cylinder 304-3 in its exhaust stroke can deliver exhaust gases to deferred cylinder 302-1 with its exhaust gas intake valve 308-3 open. Thereafter, cylinder 304-2 can deliver exhaust gases to deferred cylinder 302-2 based on the firing order of the cylinders 304, and after that, cylinder 304-4 can deliver exhaust gases to deferred cylinder 302-2. In an exemplary implementation, delivery of exhaust gases to deferred cylinders 302-1 and 302-2 from respective cylinders 304 is controlled by flywheel arrangement of the crankshaft connected to the deferred cylinders 302-1 and 302-2 and opening of the exhaust gas intake valves 308 commences when the piston 310 is at TDC and the crankshaft is at its initial position i.e., at 0 degree of rotation.

[00064] In an embodiment, pistons 310 of the deferred cylinders 302-1 and 301-2 are connected 180 degrees out of phase. Consecutive positions of pistons 310 of the deferred cylinders 302-1 and 302-2 at TDC and opening of exhaust gas intake valves with respect to angular position of crankshaft/flywheel are piston 310 of 302-1 at TDC at 0 degrees by definition opening of valve 308-1, piston 310 of 302-2 at TDC at 180 degrees opening of valve 308-2, piston 310 of 302-1 at TDC at 360 degrees opening of valve 308-3, piston 310 of 302-2 at TDC at 540 degrees opening of valve 308-4, and piston 310 of 302-1 at TDC at 720 degrees (or 0 degree). In an arrangement of overhead cams, camshaft and geared wheel wherein the camshaft connected by a timing chain to crankshaft that completes one rotation with two rotations of crankshaft (similar to current ICE), the exhaust gas intake valves 308-1, 308-2, 308-3 and 308-4 can be opened in this sequence with four sequential positions of pistons of two deferred cylinders 302-1 and 302-2 at TDC. Incidentally, this is also the exhaust stroke sequence of four ICE cylinders that deliver exhaust gas to respective exhaust gas delivery pipes/exhaust gas intake valves.

[00065] In an exemplary aspect, as the operation of deferred cylinders 302-1 and 302-2 progresses, both crankshaft/pistons coupled with cylinders 304 and with the deferred cylinders 302 do not synchronize, which causes exhaust gases buildup in exhaust gas delivery pipes 306. This pressure buildup can be equalized only after sufficient number of exhaust strokes, wherein the equilibrium is established on account of opening of exhaust intake valves 308 with pistons 310 at TDC, simultaneously with opening of exhaust valves of IC engine cylinders.

[00066] In an aspect, hot gases and air expelled out of the deferred cylinders 102 or 302 as explained herein can be passed/transferred to a catalytic converter 402 (as shown clearly in FIG. 4) by four delivery pipes, each connecting a deferred cylinder 102 or two delivery pipes, each connecting a deferred cylinder 302 to the catalytic converter. An outlet of the catalytic converter 402 leads to a cooling chamber 408, a resonator 404, and a muffler 406, wherein mixture of gases and air cooled by the cooling chamber 408 can be released to atmosphere by an outlet of the muffler. In an embodiment, in the cooling chamber 408, one or more water sprayers 410 are present that abundantly spray water to the mixture of hot gases and air coming from the catalytic converter 402. The resonator 404 is used to cancel out a specific range of sound waves emitted by exhaust system of the engine, and the muffler 406 is used to decrease the amount of noise emitted by exhaust system of the engine.

[00067] FIG. 4 illustrates an exemplary representation of catalytic converter and cooling chamber in accordance to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[00068] In an exemplary aspect illustrated in FIG. 4, a cooling unit 408 is connected to an outlet of the catalytic converter 402 that sprays water at room temperature on the expelled hot gases and air with the help of one or more water sprayers 410. In an exemplary implementation, water is so abundantly sprayed that intermediate stage of vaporization of water is obliterated. During the spraying of water in the cooling unit 408, the gas mixture of expelled hot gases and air attains room temperature and its density increases. Contraction of volume of the gas mixture on account of increased density reduces pressure in the cooling unit 408, and creates pressure difference between the cooling unit 408 and crankshaft side of pistons 112 or 310. This pressure difference exerts additional pressure on crank side of piston 112 or 310 in the deferred cylinder 102 or 302 that is at atmospheric pressure with piston 112 or 310 moving in the direction of its movement from BDC to TDC. This additional pressure exerted on the piston 112 or 310 produces additional work/power off this piston 112 or 310.

[00069] In an exemplary embodiment, outlet of the cooling unit 408 can be fitted with one or more reed valves 412, or one or more reed valves 412 can be fitted at outlet of resonator 404 to prevent atmospheric air at atmospheric pressure entering the cooling unit 408. Cooled gas mixture is led into the resonator 404). In an exemplary embodiment, cooling unit 408 can be equipped with an arrangement of water circulation and cooling system (not shown) with radiator, water impellers and water tanks to enable proper supply of water at room temperature to be sprayed into the cooling unit 408.

[00070] It would be appreciated that embodiments explained herein produce an additional work/power of piston of an IC engine, and further improve fuel efficiency of the IC engine by utilizing heat and pressure of combustion products/exhaust gases expelled from cylinders of the IC engine during their respective exhaust strokes.

[00071] It should be apparent to those skilled in the art that many more modifications besides those already described are possible without departing from the inventive concepts herein. The inventive subject matter, therefore, is not to be restricted except in the spirit of the appended claims. Moreover, in interpreting both the specification and the claims, all terms should be interpreted in the broadest possible manner consistent with the context. In particular, the terms "comprises" and "comprising" should be interpreted as referring to elements, components, or steps in a non-exclusive manner, indicating that the referenced elements, components, or steps may be present, or utilized, or combined with other elements, components, or steps that are not expressly referenced. Where the specification claims refer to at least one of something selected from the group consisting of A, B, C ....and N, the text should be interpreted as requiring only one element from the group, not A plus N, or B plus N, etc. The foregoing description of the specific embodiments will so fully reveal the general nature of the embodiments herein that others can, by applying current knowledge, readily modify and/or adapt for various applications such specific embodiments without departing from the generic concept, and, therefore, such adaptations and modifications should and are intended to be comprehended within the meaning and range of equivalents of the disclosed embodiments. It is to be understood that the phraseology or terminology employed herein is for the purpose of description and not of limitation. Therefore, while the embodiments herein have been described in terms of preferred embodiments, those skilled in the art will recognize that the embodiments herein can be practiced with modification within the spirit and scope of the appended claims.

[00072] While embodiments of the present disclosure have been illustrated and described, it will be clear that the disclosure is not limited to these embodiments only. Numerous modifications, changes, variations, substitutions, and equivalents will be apparent to those skilled in the art, without departing from the spirit and scope of the disclosure, as described in the claims.

ADVANTAGES OF THE INVENTION

[00073] The present disclosure provides a heat extraction engine that utilizes residual heat and pressure of exhaust gases of an IC engine.

[00074] The present disclosure provides a heat extraction engine that provides an additional mechanical power to piston.

[00075] The present disclosure provides a heat extraction engine that improves fuel efficiency of the IC engine.

[00076] The present disclosure provides a heat extraction engine that provides additional mechanical power to a separate crankshaft that is not connected to crankshaft of IC engine.