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Title:
A DEGRADING STATION FOR DEGRADING AN ORGANIC MATERIAL HAVING LONG MOLECULAR CHAINS AND A RELATIVE APPARATUS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/103753
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A degrading station and apparatus for degrading a material having long molecular chains and obtaining a fluid material having short molecular chains. It comprises: a chamber (2) comprising a first wall (20), a first opening (21 ) for inlet of an organic material having long chains, and a second opening (22) for outlet of a fluid organic material having short chains; a second wall (3) arranged in the chamber (2), facing the first wall (20) for defining a space (4), and dimensioned so as to enable communication between the openings. The first wall (20) and/or the second wall (3) is activatable in rotation so that the organic material in inlet crosses the space (4) in an advancement direction (Y) which goes from the first opening (21) to the second opening (22). The first wall (20), the second wall (3), the first opening (21) and the second opening (22) are reciprocally arranged and conformed in such a way that when one of the walls rotates, the tangential velocity perpendicular to the advancement direction (Y) at the rotating wall increases in the advancement direction (Y) along the whole space (4) so that a friction is determined between the molecular chains of the organic material which in turn determines a production of thermal energy internally of the material so as to degrade the material having long molecular chains and obtain the fluid material having short molecular chains.

Inventors:
PECCI, Giorgio (Via Ricciarelli 40, Aguscello, 44124, IT)
Application Number:
IB2016/057486
Publication Date:
June 22, 2017
Filing Date:
December 09, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
PECCI, Giorgio (Via Ricciarelli 40, Aguscello, 44124, IT)
International Classes:
B09B3/00; B01J19/18; B09B5/00; C10G3/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2008017953A22008-02-14
WO2007000257A12007-01-04
WO2011132210A12011-10-27
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
DALL'OLIO, Giancarlo et al. (Invention S.r.l, Via delle Armi 1, Bologna, 40137, IT)
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Claims:
CLAIMS ) A degrading station (1 ) for degrading an organic material having long molecular chains and obtaining a fluid organic material having short molecular chains, comprising a chamber (2) which comprises a first wall (20), a first opening (21 ) afforded in the first wall (20) for inlet into the chamber (2) of an organic material having long molecular chains, and a second opening (22) for outlet from the chamber (2) of a fluid organic material having short molecular chains; the degrading station (1 ) being characterised in that: it comprises a second wall (3) which is arranged internally of the chamber (2) and which faces the first wall (20) so that a space (4) is defined between the second wall (3) and the first wall (20); the second wall (3) is dimensioned so as to enable communication between the first opening (21 ) and the second opening (22); the first wall (20) and/or the second wall (3) is activatable in rotation about a respective rotation axis (X) so that the organic material in inlet from the first opening (21 ) crosses the space (4) in an advancement direction (Y) which goes from the first opening (21 ) to the second opening (22); the first wall (20), the second wall (3), the first opening (21 ) and the second opening (22) are reciprocally arranged and conformed in such a way that when the first wall (20) and/or the second wall (3) is activated in rotation, the tangential velocity perpendicular to the advancement direction (Y) at the wall activated in rotation, the first and/or the second, increases in the advancement direction (Y) along all of the space (4) so that when the organic material is in the space (4), a friction is determined between the molecular chains of the organic material which in turn determines a production of thermal energy that is almost constant internally of the organic material so as to degrade the organic material having long molecular chains and obtain the fluid organic material having short molecular chains. 2) The degrading station (1 ) of the preceding claim, wherein the first wall (20) and the second wall (3) are disc-shaped.

3) The degrading station (1 ) of claim 1 , wherein the first wall (20) and the second wall (3) have a longitudinal extension along a relative extension axis and have a transversal section having an increasing area in the advancement direction (Y).

4) The degrading station (1 ) of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the first wall (20) and the second wall (3) are coaxial.

5) The degrading station (1 ) of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the first wall (20) is fixed and the second wall (3) is activatable in rotation; the degrading station (1) comprising a rotor for activating the second wall (3) in rotation.

6) The degrading station (1 ) of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the first wall (20) and the second wall (3) are parallel to one another. 7) The degrading station (1 ) of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the chamber (2) comprises a third wall (23) which emerges from the first wall (20) and in which the second opening (22) is afforded.

8) The degrading station (1 ) of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the chamber (2) comprises a third opening, afforded downstream of the first opening (21 ) with respect to the advancement direction (Y), for outlet from the chamber (2) of solid waste products which are obtained from the degrading of the organic material having long molecular chains; the degrading station (1) comprising conveyor means (5) arranged in the chamber (2) in proximity of the third opening for conveying the solid waste products out of the chamber (2). 9) A degrading apparatus (100) for degrading an organic material having long molecular chains and obtaining a fluid organic material having short molecular chains, comprising a degrading station (1 ) according to any one of the preceding claims and feed means (10) arranged so as to supply the organic material having long molecular chains to the chamber (2) through the first opening (21 ).

10) The degrading apparatus (100) of the preceding claim, wherein the degrading station (1 ) is arranged so as to have the rotation axis (X) vertical.

Description:
A DEGRADING STATION FOR DEGRADING AN ORGANIC MATERIAL HAVING LONG MOLECULAR CHAINS AND A RELATIVE APPARATUS

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to the technical sector concerning degrading of an organic material having long molecular chains and obtaining a fluid organic material having short molecular chains.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART

It is known that the fundamental components of fuels for powering vehicles, such as for example aeroplanes and automobiles, are organic materials having short molecular chains (i.e. organic materials having a low molecular weight).

A large percentage of waste materials, such as plastic materials, polymeric materials, wood and paper, contain organic materials having long molecular chains and, if appropriately transformed, can be use for producing fuels. It is also known that for obtaining a fluid organic material having short molecular chains, starting from an organic material having long molecular chains, the latter must be subjected to a process known as "cracking". The above process includes heating the organic material having long molecular chains up until the heat transferred thereto is such as to break the bonds between the long molecular chains.

For this purpose a degrading station is known, comprising a chamber which in turn comprises a first wall, a first opening fashioned in the first wall for inlet into the chamber of an organic material having long molecular chains, and a second opening for outlet from the chamber of a fluid organic material having short molecular chains. Further, the degrading station of known type comprises heating means (thermal or magnetic) external or internal of the degrading chamber.

Considering that the waste materials usually used are not good heat conductors, much time is required in order to degrade an organic material having long molecular chains using the degrading station of known type described in the foregoing.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In the light of the above, the aim of the present invention consists in providing a degrading station, and a relative apparatus, which enables a rapid degradation of an organic material having long molecular chains, and which minimises the number of components constituting the degrading station.

The above-mentioned aims are attained with a degrading station according to claim 1 , and a relative apparatus according to claim 9. The degrading station of the invention, as well as the relative apparatus, advantageously enables the degrading of an organic material having long molecular chains by exploiting the thermal energy produced by the organic material itself; this enables not having to supply thermal energy from outside and makes the degrading process very rapid. In fact, when an organic material having long molecular chains is subjected to friction, the long molecular chains slide on other long molecular chains with a consequent production of thermal energy internally of the organic material. The thermal energy in turn determines the breakage of the bonds of the long molecular chains and the degrading of the organic material. However, with the continuance of the degrading step of the organic material, the viscosity of the organic material diminishes. Consequently, given equal external conditions, the friction to which the chains of the organic material would be subjected would tend to diminish and the degrading process might not be completed. However, the degrading station of the invention obviates the above-mentioned drawback by exploiting an appropriate and advantageous conformation and reciprocal arrangement between the first wall, the second wall, the first opening and the second opening: these ensure that the tangential velocity perpendicular to the advancement direction of the organic material, at first and/or second wall, progressively grows in the advancement direction of the organic material.

In fact, at the moment when the organic material undergoes a reduction of the viscosity owing to the increase in temperature (caused by the friction between the molecular chains), it will be subjected to a tangential velocity perpendicular to the advancement direction thereof that progressively grows (due to the particular pathway that the organic material follows) so that the friction to which the molecular chains are subjected is practically constant and is such as to ensure a production of thermal energy that is practically constant. In other words, the degrading station of the invention enables balancing the reduction in viscosity of the organic material with the increase of the relative tangential velocity of the first surface and the second surface, thus determining a production of thermal energy internally of the organic material that is practically constant and that ensures the rapid completion of the degrading process.

A further advantage of the degrading station of the invention, in addition to the rapidity of the degrading process, is that it does not require heating means providing thermal energy to the organic material. Consequently, the degrading station has a smaller number of components and this translates into a reduction in costs and maintenance.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Specific embodiments of the invention will be described in the following with reference to the present description, according to what is set down in the claims and with the aid of the accompanying tables of drawings, in which: - figure 1 is a front view of the section of an embodiment of the degrading apparatus that is the object of the present invention;

- figures 2 and 3 illustrate the first wall and the second wall of a degrading station, object of the present invention, in two alternative embodiments that are also alternative to the embodiment of figure 1. DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

With reference to the appended tables of drawings, reference numeral (1 ) denotes a degrading station that is the object of the present invention. The degrading station (1) is such as to degrade an organic material having long molecular chains (for example a polymeric or plastic material) and to obtain a fluid organic material (preferably gaseous) having short molecular chains. Further, reference numeral (100) denotes a degrading apparatus that is also the object of the present invention.

With reference to figure 1 , the degrading station (1 ) comprises a chamber (2) which in turn comprises: a first wall (20), a first opening (21) afforded in the first wall (20) for inlet into the chamber (2) of an organic material having long molecular chains, and a second opening (22) for outlet from the chamber (2) of a fluid organic material having short molecular chains.

Further, and in a novel way, the degrading station (1 ) comprises a second wall (3) which is arranged internally of the chamber (2) and which faces the first wall (20) so that a space (4) is defined between the second wall (3) and the first wall (20). The second wall (3) is dimensioned so as to enable communication (in particular fluid communication) between the first opening (21 ) and the second opening (22). The first wall (20) and/or the second wall (3) is/are activatable in rotation about a respective rotation axis (X) so that the organic material in inlet from the first opening (21 ) crosses the space (4) in an advancement direction (Y) which goes from the first opening (21 ) to the second opening (22).

Further, the first wall (20), the second wall (3), the first opening (21 ) and the second opening (22) are reciprocally arranged and conformed in such a way that when the first wall (20) and/or the second wall (3) is activated in rotation, the tangential velocity perpendicular to the advancement direction (Y) at the wall activated in rotation, the first and/or the second, increases in the advancement direction (Y) along the whole space (4). so that when the organic material is in the space (4), a friction is determined between the molecular chains of the organic material which in turn determines a production of thermal energy that is almost constant internally of the organic material so as to degrade the organic material having long molecular chains and obtain the fluid organic material having short molecular chains. As mentioned in the foregoing, the degrading station (1 ) of the invention advantageously enables the degrading of organic material having long molecular chains by exploiting the thermal energy produced by the organic material itself internally thereof and enables making the degrading process more rapid (it is not necessary to supply thermal energy from outside), in the case in which the organic material having long molecular chains not is a good heat conductor.

In fact, at the moment when the organic material undergoes a reduction of the viscosity due to the increase in temperature (due to the friction between the molecular chains), it will be subjected to a tangential velocity perpendicular to the advancement direction (Y) thereof that increases along all the space (4) so that the friction to which the molecular chains are subjected is practically constant and is such as to ensure a production of thermal energy that is practically constant.

It is specified in particular that when the organic material exits from the space (4) defined between the first wall (20) and the second wall (3), it is completely degraded.

In particular, the tangential velocity perpendicular to the advancement direction (Y) increases proportionally along all the space (4).

In a first embodiment, the first wall (20) and the second wall (3) are disc- shaped (see figure 1).

With particular reference to figure 1 , in the first embodiment the first opening (21 ) is fashioned at the centre of the first wall (20): the advancement direction (Y) of the organic material is radial towards the external edge of the discshaped first wall (20) and the disc-shaped second wall (3). In a second embodiment, alternative with respect to the first embodiment, the first wall (20) and the second wall (3) have a longitudinal extension along a relative extension axis and have a transversal section having an increasing area in the advancement direction (Y) (see figures 2 and 3). With reference to figure 2, the first wall (20) and the second wall (3) are truncoconically conformed while, with reference to figure 3, the first wall (20) and the second wall (3) are substantially bell-formed.

With reference to both figure 2 and figure 3, in particular, the first wall (20) has a circular crown-shaped transversal section while the second wall (3) can have a circular crown-shaped or circular transversal section.

The first wall (20) and the second wall (3) are preferably coaxial.

Further, the first wall (20) and the second wall (3) are, once more preferably, parallel to one another (see figures 1-3).

In a first preferred embodiment, the first wall (20) is fixed while and the second wall (3) is activatable in rotation. In particular, the degrading station (1 ) can comprise a rotor for activating the second wall (3) in rotation.

With reference to figure 1 , the chamber (2) can comprise a third wall (23) which emerges from the first wall (20) and in which the second opening (22) is afforded. Further, the chamber (2) can comprise a third opening, afforded downstream of the first opening (21 ) with respect to the advancement direction (Y), for outlet from the chamber (2) of solid waste products which are obtained from the degrading of the organic material having long molecular chains. Further the degrading station (1) can comprise conveyor means (5) (for example an Archimedes screw) arranged in the chamber (2) in proximity of the third opening for conveying the solid waste products out of the chamber (2).

It is specified that the process of degrading of an organic material having long molecular chains determines the formation of the fluid organic material having short molecular chains (the desired product) and of solid waste products (undesirable product). The above embodiment advantageously enables maintaining the chamber (2) free of solid waste.

With reference to figure 1 , the conveyor means (5) of the solid waste products are arranged in proximity of the external edge of the first wall (20) and of the second wall (3).

The present invention further relates to a degrading apparatus (100) for degrading an organic material having long molecular chains and obtaining a fluid organic material having short molecular chains.

The apparatus (100) comprises a degrading station (1 ) according to any one of the embodiments described in the foregoing embodiments and feed means (10) arranged so as to supply the organic material having long molecular chains to the chamber (2) through the first opening (21 ).

With reference to figure 1 , the feed means (10) can comprise a conduit (1 1) for connecting a tank (not illustrated), for containing organic material having a long molecular chain, and the first opening (21 ). Further, internally of the conduit (1 1 ) an Archimedes screw (12) is arranged for transport of the organic material with long molecular chain along the tank to the first opening (21).

The degrading station (1) is preferably arranged so as to have the rotation axis (X) vertical. Further, with reference to figure 1 , the first opening (21 ) is arranged lower than the second opening (22) so that the fluid organic material, once having exited from the space (4), autonomously flows towards the second opening (22).

Further, once more according to the apparatus of figure 1 , a fourth wall (33) emerges from the second wall (3) and faces the third wall (23). The fourth wall (33) is solidly constrained to the second wall (3) and bears shaking means (13) such that when the second wall (3) is set in rotation, the shaking means (13) facilitate the separation of the fluid organic material having short molecular chains from any further solid waste products.