DAYAN, Nava (39-06 Sunderland Drive, Fair Lawn, NJ, 07410, US)
|WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. A method of preventing or reducing malodors associated with human perspiration comprising contacting human skin with a composition comprising (a) a sufficient amount of a sphingosine, a sphingosine derivative, or mixtures thereof and (b) a sufficient amount of an Na-(C1-C22)alkanoyl di-basic amino acid alkyl (Q-C^) ester or a salt thereof, to inhibit growth of Corynebacterium species on the skin.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the sphingosine derivative is selected from the group consisting of sapienic acid, phytosphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, 6- hydroxysphingosine, and mixtures thereof.
3. The method of claim 2 wherein the sphingosine derivative is phytosphingosine.
4. The method of claim 1, 2, or 3 wherein a di-basic amino acid of the an Na-(C1-C22)alkanoyl di-basic amino acid alkyl (Q-C^) ester is selected form the group consisting of argine, lysine, histidine, and tryptophan.
5. The method of claim 1, 2, or 3 wherein the Na-(C1-C22)alkanoyl dibasic amino acid alkyl (Q-C^) ester comprises ethyl lauroyl arginate (LAE) or a salt thereof.
6. The method of any of the above claims wherein the
Na-(C1-C22)alkanoyl di-basic amino acid alkyl (CrC22) ester salt comprises a salt of the
Na-(C1-C22)alkanoyl di-basic amino acid alkyl (CrC22) ester and a carboxylic acid.
7. The method of claim 6 wherein the carboxylic acid comprises a C8-C22 carboxylic acid, a hydroxycarboxylic acid, a polycarboxylic acid, or mixtures thereof.
8. The method of any of the above claims wherein the
Na-(C1-C22)alkanoyl di-basic amino acid alkyl (CrC22) ester salt is a salt of the
Na-(C1-C22)alkanoyl di-basic amino acid alkyl (Q-C^) ester and lauric acid or lactic acid.
9. The method of any of the above claims wherein the
Na-(C1-C22)alkanoyl di-basic amino acid alkyl (Q-C^) ester salt comprises a salt of the Na-(C1-C22)alkanoyl di-basic amino acid alkyl (CrC22) ester and a mineral acid.
10. The method of claim 9 wherein the Na-(C1-C22)alkanoyl di-basic amino acid alkyl (Q-C^) ester salt is a salt of the Na-(C1-C22)alkanoyl di-basic amino acid alkyl (Q-C^) ester and hydrochloric acid.
11. The method of claim 1 wherein the composition further comprises an astringent salt, a deodorant, or a mixture thereof.
12. A composition comprising:
(a) about 0.0001% to about 5%, by weight of the composition, sphingosine, sphingosine derivative, or mixtures thereof;
(b) an Na-(C1-C22)alkanoyl di-basic amino acid alkyl (CrC22) ester or a salt thereof; and
(c) a carrier.
13. The composition of claim 12 wherein (a) comprises phytosphingosine and (b) comprises ethyl lauroyl arginate.
14. The composition of claim 12 or 13 further comprising an astringent salt, a deodorant, or a mixture thereof, in an amount of about 1% to about 40%, by weight of the composition.
15. The composition of claim 14 wherein the astringent salt comprises aluminum, zirconium, or a mixture thereof.
16. The composition of claim 14 wherein the astringent salt is selected from the group consisting of aluminum chlorohydrate, aluminum-zirconium
tetrachlorohydrate, an aluminum- zirconium polychlorohydrate complexed with glycine, aluminum-zirconium trichlorohydrate, aluminum-zirconium octachlorohydrate, aluminum sesquichlorohydrate, aluminum sesquichlorohydrex PG, aluminum chlorohydrex PEG, aluminum zirconium octachlorohydrex glycine complex, aluminum zirconium
pentachlorohydrex glycine complex, aluminum zirconium tetrachlorohydrex glycine complex, aluminum zirconium trichlorohydrex glycine complex, aluminum chlorohydrex PG, zirconium chlorohydrate, aluminum dichlorohydrate, aluminum dichlorohydrex PEG, aluminum dichlorohydrex PG, aluminum sesquichlorohydrex PG, aluminum chloride, aluminum zirconium pentachlorohydrate, and mixtures thereof.
17. The composition of claim 12 further comprising an absorbent, a fragrance, a cosmetic biocide, or mixtures thereof.
18. The composition of claim 12 wherein the carrier comprises water, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, butylene glycol, propylene carbonate, dimethyl isosorbide, hexylene glycol, ethanol, n-butyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and mixtures thereof.
19. The composition of claim 12 further comprising at least one of a nonionic, anionic, and cationic surfactant.
20. A method of treating human skin comprising contacting the skin with a composition of claim 12 in a sufficient amount to eliminate or reduce odors associated with human perspiration.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
 This application claims the benefit of U.S. provisional patent application No.
61/411,259, filed November 8, 2010, incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention is directed to deodorizing compositions containing phytosphingosine and an N a -(C 1 -C22)alkanoyl di-basic amino acid (Q-C^) ester, like ethyl lauroyl arginate, or a salt thereof. The deodorizing compositions inhibit growth of bacteria that degrade malodor-causing components present in perspiration. The composition can be a deodorant composition or a cleansing composition. The deodorant compositions can further contain an antiperspirant compound, like an astringent salt, and/or additional deodorants. The present invention also is directed to methods of using the deodorizing compositions.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 Perspiring assists in the regulation of body temperature and moisturizes skin.
Perspiration also contains natural antibiotics, i.e., dermicidins, that protect the skin.
Perspiration further leads to the generation of undesired malodors, attributed at least in part to degradation of perspiration components by enzymes released from Corynebacterium species.
 Deodorizing compositions are well known in the cosmetic and cleansing arts. An ideal deodorizing composition is stable for the life of the composition, effectively delivers the deodorizing compound to the skin, and is esthetically pleasing to the consumer.
 Deodorizing compositions are available in a variety of forms, such as aerosol suspensions, pump sprays, roll-on powders, solutions, dispensers, liquid emulsions, solid gels, waxes, and suspensions. Deodorizing compositions are used by rubbing or spraying an area of the body, such as the underarm, to apply a layer of the composition to the skin, and thereby reduce odor, and in some cases, perspiration.
 Antiperspirants are effective, but do not completely eliminate perspiration.
Perspiration contains organic components that are degraded by bacteria on the skin and can generate malodors. Therefore, body odor can result even when an antiperspirant or deodorizing composition is used on a continuous basis.
 More particularly, the axilla is a region on human body that is colonized with two types of bacteria, staphylococcus and corynebacterium. A strong correlation exists between a high population of Corynebacteria and strong axillary odor formation. This correlation is not found in the presence of staphylococci. These malodorants are a result of perspiration degradation by Corynebacteria enzymes.
 The first class of components is steroid derivatives, namely steroid 5-alpha androst- 16-en-3-one and 5-alpha androst-16-en-3-alpha-ol. The second class of components is branched fatty acids, particularly (E)-3-methyl-2-hexenoic acid and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl hexanoic acid. The third component is a group of volatile sulfanylalkanols, and primarily 3- methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-l-ol. Evidence suggests that the steroidal molecules produce more of a musky/urine scent, whereas the fatty acids (branched and straight chain, and unsaturated) increasingly are thought to cause the more "traditional" axillary malodor.
 Over the past decade, the deodorizing market has shown a mild, steady growth of about 0.3% a year. While the search for a breakthrough in deodorizing technology continues, the focus of research and development is primarily directed to improving existing
deodorizing lines and using different marketing approaches, such as gender and age segmentation. Some recent deodorizing products incorporate provitamins to improve skin smoothness, or prolong malodor control by using a sustained deodorizing delivery system. One recent advance in the art is use of philodendron plant extract to inhibit bacterial degradation of perspiration.
 A need still exists in the art to control the generation of perspiration malodors and/or to extend malodor protection afforded by a deodorizing composition, applied either as a deodorant or as a cleansing composition. The present invention is directed to compositions and methods that control or eliminate malodors resulting from bacterial degradation of various organic components of perspiration.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention relates to deodorizing compositions having improved efficacy in controlling perspiration-related malodors, and to methods of using the
compositions. More particularly, the present invention is directed to a deodorizing composition comprising (i) sphingosine, a sphingosine derivative, or a mixture thereof, like phytosphingosine and (ii) an N a -(C 1 -C22)alkanoyl di-basic amino acid alkyl (Q-C^) ester, like ethyl lauroyl arginate, or a salt thereof.
 The present invention also relates to methods of treating or preventing malodors associated with human perspiration, especially underarm odor. The methods comprise topically applying an effective amount of a deodorizing composition of the present invention to the skin of a human. The deodorizing composition can be in the form of a deodorant composition, an antiperspirant, or a cleansing composition. A present composition also can be used to treat superficial infections, or to protect the skin from superficial infections.
 The above and other advantages and novel features of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description of the preferred embodiments of the invention.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
 Figure 1 is a transmission electron microscopy image of S. aureus prior to treatment with phytosphingosine; and
 Figure 2 is a transmission electron microscopy image of S. aureus after treatment with phytosphingosine.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
 A combination of sphingosine, sphingosine derivative, or mixture thereof, like phytosphingosine (PS), and an N a -(C 1 -C22)alkanoyl di-basic amino acid alkyl (Q-C^) ester, like ethyl lauroyl arginate, or a salt thereof, such as the laurate salt, was shown to exhibit a synergetic effect in antimicrobial activity against a strain of corynebacteria. Corynebacteria species convert fatty acids and other sweat components that reside on the skin to malodor generating compounds. By inhibiting this bacterial growth, malodor is reduced and/or eliminated.
 The sphingosine, sphingosine derivatives, or mixture thereof has a generic structure (I) or (II): wherein Ri and R 2 are alkyl or alkenyl chains of 8 to 20 carbons.
 Sphingosine is a basic, long-chain, unsaturated aminoalcohol found combined with lipids in the skin, in the brain, and in nerve tissue. Sphingosine is a precursor of ceramide. Sphingosine has a formula of C 18 H3 N0 2 , and a structure as follows:
 Sphingosine derivatives useful in the present invention include, but are not limited to, sapienic acid, phytosphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, and 6-hydroxysphingosine. These compounds have the following structures, and can be used individually, with sphingosine, or in any combination (including with sphingosine) in a present antiperspirant deodorant composition:
 A preferred sphingosine is a phytosphingosine.
 Phytosphingosine (PS):
 Phytosphingosine is available commercially, e.g., in 95% purity.
 A review of safety data for phytosphingosine and several ceramides (phytoceramide and ceramide-3, -3 A, -3B, and -6) is published in J. Appl.Cosmetol, 13(8) (1999), Vol. 17, p. 1-9. Toxicology data evaluated for hair and skin conditioning agents included results of Ames tests, acute oral and dermal toxicity, eye and skin irritancy, skin sensitization, and human skin membrane irritancy.
 The present method and compositions comprise sphingosine, a sphingosine derivative, or a mixture thereof in an amount of about 0.0001% to about 5%, by weight of the composition. In preferred embodiments, sphingosine, a sphingosine derivative, or a mixture thereof is present in an amount of about 0.01% to about 2%, and more preferably about 0.05% to about 1%, by weight of the composition.
 The N a -(C 1 -C22)alkanoyl di-basic amino acid alkyl (Q-C^) esters are disclosed in U.S. Patent Publication No. 2010/0173993, incorporated herein by reference. The dibasic amino acid is selected from the group consisting of arginine, lysine, histidine, and tryptophan. A preferred compound is ethyl lauroyl arginate (LAE). In another preferred embodiment, the di-basic amino acid ester is a salt. The anion of the salt preferably is a laurate salt.
 Chemical structure of ethyl lauroyl arginate (LAE):
 In addition to the laurate salt, other salts of the modified dibasic amino acids, also provide excellent antibacterial compounds. Preferred salts are a salt of a carboxylic acid, preferably a long chain carboxylic acid, e.g., a C8-C26 carboxylic acid, a hydroxycarboxylic acid, or a polycarboxylic acid, e.g., lactic acid, tartaric acid, and/or citric acid. The salt also can be a salt of an inorganic acid, such as hydrochloric acid and/or phosphoric acid.
Additional salts are disclosed in U.S. Patent Publications 2010/0056628 and 2010/0173993, each incorporated herein by reference.
 All of the compounds were reported to be nonmutagenic in the Ames test. Oral LD50 values were greater than 2000 mg/kg, and the compounds were neither skin sensitizers nor skin irritants. Other data shows the ceramides were mildly irritating to the eyes, while phytosphingosine (undiluted) was severely irritating to the eye.
 Fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) and Fractional bactericidal
concentrations (FBC) were calculated for LAE and phytosphingosine using the equation FIC = ([A]/MIC A )+ ([B]/MIC b ), where MIC A and MIC B are the MICs of a compound alone, and [A] (i.e., LAE) and [B] (i.e., phytosphingosine) are the minimum amounts of components A and B required for inhibition when used in combination. Similar to the MIC assays (above), FICs were calculated from the lowest concentration of lipid combination that reduced growth by more than 50%, while FBC is the lowest concentration of lipid that exhibits bactericidal effects (no viable cells present).
 The combination of the lauric acid salt (LAE laurate) and phytosphingosine is 8 to 17 times more effective than triclosan. LAE laurate alone is two fold more effective than triclosan. The main bacteria shown to contribute to malodor is the striatum strain. It has been shown that one particular Corynebacteria strain, the striatum, is responsible for the release of enzymes that convert sweat compounds to malodor compounds. This strain is the most sensitive to the combination of LAE laurate and phytosphingosine.
 It was also discovered that a combination of phytosphingosine and ethyl lauroyl arginate HC1 exhibited synergistic and strong bactericidal effects against each of
corynebacteria bovis (FIC = 0.28) and corynebacteria striatum (FIC = 0.16).
Synergistic activity between phytosphingosine and LAE
FIC <0.5 indicates agents have synergistic activity (e.g., each agent a fourth of its Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) or less)
FIC >0.5-4 indicates agents have additive activity (e.g., each agent at half of its MIC) FIC > 4.0 indicates agents have antagonistic activity (e.g., each agent at twice MIC or higher)
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of S. aureus before and after treatment with long chain bases
 TEM was performed on S. aureus in the absence of lipid and in the presence of each type of long-chain base. In the absence of lipid treatment, S. aureus exhibited the expected normal morphology, as shown in Figure 1. When treated with long-chain bases, internal inclusions not seen in controls appear (Figure 2). In addition, with long-chain base- treated S. aureus there appears to be damage to the cell wall and what appear to be disrupted segments of plasma membrane separate from the cells (Figure 2, arrow). With E. coli as the test organism, long-chain base treatment resulted in the unusual inclusions, but the cell wall and plasma membrane appear to be unaffected. No viable cells were found in the treated E. coli, but some of the treated S. aureus were still viable. The formation of the internal inclusions has potential ramifications for the mechanism of action of the antimicrobial lipids.
 Effective deodorizing compositions free of an astringent salt provide benefits, such as reducing or eliminating contact dermatitis, and eliminating contact with aluminum salts that are connected with breast cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and clogged sweat pores leading to infected sweat glands. In addition, by eliminating a source of perspiration-related malodors, the present compositions outperform deodorants which merely mask malodors. Deodorants also may be limited by possessing a particular odor that mixes with the perspiration malodor to create an undesired combination of odors.  The present compositions also comprise a carrier, which typically is aqueous based, and other ingredients commonly used in topically-effective compositions, such as surfactants, dyes, formulation aids, and solvents. The compositions typically have a pH of about 2 to about 9, preferably about 3 to about 8, and more preferably about 4 to about 7.5.
 The present deodorizing compositions optionally can incorporate any of the antiperspirant compounds known in the art, such as the astringent salts. The astringent salts include organic and inorganic salts of aluminum, zirconium, zinc, and mixtures thereof. These astringent salts are polymeric in nature, and preferably contain hydroxyl moieties. The anion of the astringent salt can be, for example, sulfate, chloride, chlorohydroxide, alum, formate, lactate, benzyl sulfonate, or phenyl sulfonate. Exemplary classes of antiperspirant astringent salts include aluminum halides, aluminum hydroxyhalides, zirconyl oxyhalides, zirconyl hydroxyhalides, and mixtures thereof.
 Exemplary aluminum salts include aluminum chloride and the aluminum
hydroxyhalides having the general formula Al 2 (OH) x Q y *XH 2 0, wherein Q is chlorine, bromine, or iodine; x is about 2 to about 5; x+y is about 6, wherein x and y are not necessarily integers; and X is about 1 to about 6. Exemplary zirconium compounds include zirconium oxy salts and zirconium hydroxy salts, also referred to as zirconyl salts and zirconyl hydroxy salts, and represented by the general empirical formula ZrO(OH) 2 - nz L z , wherein z varies from about 0.9 to about 2 and is not necessarily an integer; n is the valence of L; 2-nz is greater than or equal to 0; and L is selected from the group consisting of halides, nitrate, sulfamate, sulfate, and mixtures thereof.
 The antiperspirant compound is present in the antiperspirant composition, if at all, in an amount of about 1% to about 40%, and preferably about 5% to about 30%, by weight of the composition. To achieve the full advantage of the present invention, the antiperspirant compound is present in an amount of about 10% to about 25% by weight of the antiperspirant composition.
 The antiperspirant compounds are water soluble. Exemplary antiperspirant compounds, therefore, include, but are not limited to, aluminum chlorohydrate, aluminum- zirconium tetrachlorohydrate, an aluminum- zirconium polychlorohydrate complexed with glycine, aluminum-zironcium trichlorohydrate, aluminum-zirconium octachlorohydrate, aluminum sesquichlorohydrate, aluminum sesquichlorohydrex PG, aluminum chlorohydrex PEG, aluminum zirconium octachlorohydrex glycine complex, aluminum zirconium pentachlorohydrex glycine complex, aluminum zirconium tetrachlorohydrex glycine complex, aluminum zirconium trichlorohydrex glycine complex, aluminum chlorohydrex PG, zirconium chlorohydrate, aluminum dichlorohydrate, aluminum dichlorohydrex PEG, aluminum dichlorohydrex PG, aluminum sesquichlorohydrex PG, aluminum chloride, aluminum zirconium pentachlorohydrate, and mixtures thereof. Numerous other useful antiperspirant compounds are listed in WO 91/19222 and in the CTFA Cosmetic Ingredient Handbook, The Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association, Inc., Washington, D.C., p. 56, 1988, hereinafter the CTFA Handbook, incorporated herein by reference.
 Preferred antiperspirant compounds are the aluminum-zirconium chlorides complexed with an amino acid, like glycine, and the aluminum chlorohydrates. Preferred aluminum-zirconium chloride glycine complexes have an aluminum (Al) to zirconium (Zr) ratio of about 1.67 to about 12.5, and a total metal (Al+Zr) to chlorine ratio (metal to chlorine) of about 0.73 to about 1.93. These antiperspirant compounds typically are acidic in nature, thereby providing an antiperspirant composition having a pH less than 7, and typically having a pH of about 2 to about 6, and preferably about 3 to about 5.
 A present composition also can contain an additional deodorant. A deodorant is a compound that reduces or masks unpleasant odors and helps protect against the formation of malodors on skin surfaces. Absorbents can act as deodorants because of an ability to absorb malodorous chemicals. Perfumes and the like can be used to mask the perception of malodor by the process of re-odorization. Unpleasant odors also can result from microbiological activity. Therefore, cosmetic biocides frequently are used in topically applied deodorants.
 Examples of cosmetic biocides include, but are not limited to, ammonium phenolsulfonate, benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorophyllin-copper complex, chlorothymol, chloroxylenol, cloflucarban, dichloro-m- xylenol, methylbenzethonium chloride, phenol, sodium phenolsulfonate, triclocarban, triclosan, zinc phenolsulfonate, zinc ricinoleate, and mixtures thereof.
 Examples of absorbent deodorants include, but are not limited to, bentonite, corn starch, diatomaceous earth, Fullers earth, hectorite, hydrated silica, kaolin, magnesium aluminum silicate, montmorillonite, potato starch, oat flour, rice starch, silica, talc, wheat starch, and mixtures thereof.
 A composition of the present invention also can include about 0.5% to about 70%, and preferably about 1% to about 50%, by weight of the composition, of a surfactant, preferably a nonionic surfactant or a nonionic surfactant blend, having an HLB value of about 3 to about 20.
 The HLB value of a particular nonionic surfactant can be found in McCutcheon's Emulsifiers and Detergents, North American and International Editions, MC Publishing Co., Glen Rock, NJ (1993) (hereinafter McCutcheon's). Alternatively, the HLB value of a particular nonionic surfactant can be estimated by dividing the weight percent of oxyethylene in the surfactant by five (for surfactants including only ethoxy moieties). In addition, the HLB value of a nonionic surfactant blend can be determined by the following formula:
HLB=(wt. A)(HLB A )+(wt. B)(HLB B ) n
wherein wt.% A and wt.% B are the weight percent of nonionic surfactants A and B in the nonionic surfactant blend, and HLBA and HLBB are the HLB values for nonionic surfactants A and B, respectively.
 Exemplary classes of nonionic surfactants include, but are not limited to, polyoxyethylene ethers of fatty (C 6 -C 22 ) alcohols, polyoxypropylene ethers of fatty (C 6 -C 22 ) alcohols, dimethicone copolyols, ethoxylated alkylphenols, polyethylene glycol ethers of methyl glucose, polyethylene glycol ethers of sorbitol, and mixtures thereof.
 Exemplary nonionic surfactants having an HLB value of 10 or greater than can be used alone or in the nonionic surfactant blend include, but are not limited to, methyl gluceth- 20, methyl gluceth-10, PEG-20 methyl glucose distearate, PEG-20 methyl glucose sesquistearate, PEG-200 castor oil, Cn-ispareth-20, ceteth-8, ceteth-12, dodoxynol-12, laureth-15, PEG-20 castor oil, polysorbate 20, steareth-20, polyoxyethylene-10 cetyl ether, polyoxyethylene-10 stearyl ether, polyoxyethylene-20 cetyl ether, polyoxyethylene-21 stearyl ether, polyoxyethylene-10 oleyl ether, polyoxyethylene-20 oleyl ether, an ethoxylated nonylphenol, ethoxylated octylphenol, ethoxylated dodecylphenol or ethoxylated fatty (C 6 - C 22 ) alcohol including at least 9 ethylene oxide moieties, polyoxyethylene-20 isohexadecyl ether, dimethicone copolyol, polyoxyethylene-23 glycerol laurate, polyoxyethylene-20 glyceryl stearate, PPG- 10 methyl glucose ether, PPG-20 methyl glucose ether,
polyoxyethylene-20 sorbitan monoesters, polyoxyethylene-80 castor oil, polyoxyethylene- 15 tridecyl ether, polyoxyethylene-6 tridecyl ether, and mixtures thereof.
 Exemplary nonionic surfactants having an HLB value of less than 10 that can be used in the nonionic surfactant blend, include, but are not limited to, laureth-2, laureth-3, laureth-4, PEG-3 castor oil, an ethoxylated nonylphenol, ethoxylated octylphenol, ethoxylated dodecyphenol or ethoxylated fatty (C6-C22) alcohol having less than 9 ethylene oxide moieties, PEG-600 dioleate, PEG-400 dioleate, and mixtures thereof.
 Numerous other nonionic surfactants having an HLB value of either about 10 or greater, or less than about 10, are disclosed in McCutcheon's at pages 1-246 and 266-272; in the CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary, Fourth Ed., Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association, Washington, D.C. (1991) (hereinafter the CTFA Dictionary) at pages 1-651; and in the CTFA Handbook, at pages 86-94, each incorporated herein by reference.
 In addition to nonionic surfactants, anionic or cationic surfactants can be used as the surfactant. Exemplary anionic surfactants, such as salts of fatty (C8-C22) acids, are disclosed in McCutcheon's at pages 263-266, incorporated herein by reference. Exemplary cationic surfactants are disclosed in McCutcheon's at pages 272-273 and in U.S. Patent Publication 2003/0086896, each incorporated herein by reference.
 The carrier of the present composition comprises water. In addition, the carrier typically further comprises a water-soluble solvent. Exemplary carriers, in addition to water, include, but are not limited to, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, butylene glycol, pentylene glycol, propylene carbonate, dimethyl isosorbide, hexylene glycol, ethanol, n-butyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and mixtures thereof. The carrier is present in a sufficient amount to solubilize, disperse, or hydrate the essential and optional ingredients of the composition.
 The composition also can include a water-insoluble, oil-soluble, or hydrophobic compound, such as isohexadecene or 1-decene dimer. Such water-insoluble compounds are not present as a carrier of the composition, but are included as optional ingredients for a specific purpose, such as faster drying time, better skin feel, or ease of application.
 The hydrophobic compound can be, for example, an aliphatic hydrocarbon, a water- insoluble ester, a water-insoluble ether, a fatty (C 8 -C 12 ) alcohol, or a siloxane. These hydrophobic compounds improve the feel of the composition on the skin, allow easier application of the composition to the skin, and allow the skin to dry faster after application of the composition.
 Hydrophobic aliphatic hydrocarbons incorporated into the composition include, for example, hydro genated polybutenes, isoeicosane, isohexadecane, 1-decene dimer, mineral oils, nonvolatile hydrocarbon fluids, and hydrocarbons depicted in general structural formula (I), wherein n ranges from 2 to 5, CH 3 CH 3
H3CH-C— CH 2 -^CH CH 3
Volatile hydrocarbons, such as hydrocarbon including about 10 to about 30 carbon atoms, having sufficient volatility to slowly volatilize from the skin after application of the composition. The volatile hydrocarbons provide benefits such as lubrication, a rich feel during application and faster drying. Specific volatile hydrocarbons having the structural formula (I) are the commercially- available compounds PERMETHYL 99A and
PERMETHYL 101 A, corresponding to compounds of general structure (I) wherein n is 2 and 3, respectively, and PERMETHYL 102A, available from Permethyl Corporation, Pottstown, PA.
 Siloxanes included in the compositions provide the same benefits as the aliphatic hydrocarbons. Exemplary siloxanes include phenyltrimethicone; cyclic or linear, low molecular weight, volatile polydimethylsiloxanes known as cyclomethicones and
dimethicones, respectively; and methicones. The cyclomethicones are low viscosity, low molecular weight, water-insoluble cyclic compounds having an average of about 3 to about 6 -[0-Si(CH 3 ) 2 ]- repeating group units per molecule. Cyclomethicones are available commercially under the tradenames SILICONE 344 FLUID and SILICONE 345 FLUID from Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, ML and SILICONE SF-1173 and SILICONE 8F- 1202 from General Electric, Waterford, NY, for example.
 An example of a linear, low molecular weight, volatile dimethicone is the compound hexamethyldisiloxane, available commercially under the tradename DOW
CORNING 200 FLUID, from Dow Corning Corp., Midland, ML DOW CORNING 200 FLUID has a viscosity of 0.65 cs (centistokes), is highly volatile, is nongreasy, and provides lubrication for topical application of the composition of the present invention to the skin. Other linear polydimethylsiloxanes, such as decamethyltetrasiloxane, octamethyltrisiloxane, and dodecamethylpentasiloxane, also have sufficient volatility to provide a dry feel after application. Other useful linear siloxanes are hexyl dimethicone, polyphenylmethylsiloxane, and bisphenylhexamethicone. Nonvolatile siloxanes also can be used as the hydrophobic compound. The volatile siloxanes and aliphatic hydrocarbons can be used alone, in combination, or in combination with nonvolatile siloxanes and/or nonvolatile aliphatic hydrocarbons.  Other suitable hydrophobic compounds include waxes, oils, and fats, and water- insoluble emollients, like fatty (C8-C22) alcohols, ethers, and esters. Exemplary hydrophobic compounds include, but are not limited to, dioctyl adipate, isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, isostearyl benzoate, and polypropylene- 15 stearyl ether. Typical emollients are listed in the CTFA Handbook at pages 23 through 28, incorporated herein by reference.
 In addition to the essential ingredients and the optional ingredients described above, the present compositions also can include other optional ingredients traditionally included in antiperspirant compositions. These optional ingredients include, but are not limited to, dyes, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, detackifying agents, deodorizing agents, and similar types of compounds. These optional ingredients typically are included in the composition in an amount of about 0.01% to about 10%, by weight of the composition.
 The present compositions can be transparent. However, opacifying agents, pearlescent agents, or fillers (e.g., titanium dioxide or a styrene/acrylamide latex) that render the composition nontransparent also can be included in the composition. The presence of such ingredients does not adversely affect the efficacy of the composition and are added to achieve a desired esthetic effect.
 The following additional ingredients typically are included in a present
composition. Each of these ingredients, and any other ingredient, is present in a sufficient amount to perform its intended function, without adversely affecting the efficacy of sphingosine with respect to controlling perspiration-related malodors.
 A present composition therefore also can contain an additional organic solvent. The solvent can be a water-soluble organic compound containing one to six, and typically one to three, hydroxyl groups, e.g., alcohols, diols, triols, and polyols. Specific examples of solvents include, but are not limited to, methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, n-butanol, n- propyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, glycerol, diethylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, hexylene glycol, butylene glycol, pentylene glycol, 1,2,6- hexanetriol, sorbitol, PEG-4, 1,5-pentanediol, similar hydroxy-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The solvent also can be water or an aprotic solvent, e.g., dimethyl sulfoxide or tetrahydrofuran.
 A present composition also can contain a thickening or gelling agent. A thickening or gelling agent can be, for example, a polymer that is water soluble or that generates a colloidal solution in water. A thickening or gelling agent, therefore, can be, for example, polymers or copolymers unsaturated carboxylic acids or unsaturated esters, polysaccharide derivatives, gums, colloidal silicates, polyethylene glycols (PEG) and their derivatives, polyvinylpyrrolidones and their derivatives, polyacrylamides and their derivatives, polyacrylonitriles, hydrophilic silica gels, or mixtures thereof.
 Specific thickening or gelling agents can be, for example, acrylic and/or methacrylic polymers or copolymers, vinylcarboxylic polymers, polyglyceryl acrylates or methacrylates, polyacrylamides derivatives, cellulose or starch derivatives, chitin derivatives, alginates, hyaluronic acid and its salts, chonodroitin sulphates, xanthan, gellan, Rhamsan, karaya or guar gum, carob flour, and colloidal aluminum magnesium silicates of the montmorillonite type.
 Additional thickening or gelling agents include vinylcarboxylic polymers sold under the tradename CARBOPOL ® (Goodrich), acrylic acid/ethyl acrylate copolymers, acrylic acid/stearyl methacrylate copolymers, carboxymethylcellulose,
hydroxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, hydroxypropyl guar, colloidal hectorites, bentonites, and the like.
 Other classes of optional ingredients included in a present composition can be, but not limited to, pH adjusters, chelating agents, preservatives, buffering agents, foam stabilizers, opacifiers, and similar classes of ingredients known to persons skilled in the art. Specific optional ingredients include inorganic phosphates, sulfates, and carbonates as buffering agents; EDTA and phosphates as chelating agents; and acids and bases as pH adjusters.
 Nonlimiting examples of basic pH adjusters are ammonia; mono-, di-, and tri-alkyl amines; mono-, di-, and tri-alkanolamines; alkali metal and alkaline earth metal hydroxides; and mixtures thereof. Specific, nonlimiting examples of basic pH adjusters are ammonia; sodium, potassium, and lithium hydroxide; monoethanolamine; triethylamine;
isopropanolamine; diethanolamine; and triethanolamine. Examples of acidic pH adjusters are the mineral acids and organic carboxylic acids. Nonlimiting examples of mineral acids are citric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid.
 A present deodorizing composition also can be a cleansing composition, for example, but not limited to, a skin cleanser, a body wash, a hair shampoo, a hair conditioner, and other hair and skin treatment products, including body lotions and creams. The cleansing composition contains the LAE laurate and PS, and any additional components typically present in a skin or hair cleaner, for example, the various components listed above. The composition also is effective in treating superficial infections, and in protecting the skin from topical infections.
 Obviously, many modifications and variations of the invention as hereinbefore set forth can be made without departing from the spirit and scope thereof and, therefore, only such limitations should be imposed as are indicated by the appended claims.