|1.||Patent Application PJ8366 "Thermal Diffusion by Electron AutoSynchronious Synchrotron Cold Plasma Fusion Torch". The invention entitled "Thermal Diffusion by Electron w AutoSynchronious Synchrotron Cold Plasma Fusion" makes the following claims; The atomisation of fluids(water , sewerage, toxic and nuclear wastes) in a carbon maser plasma induced magnetic field. Q 2) The ionisation of all elements, known and unknown, in carbon, water and photons. The invention is an innovation on the early 1920' s glow bar electric oven, which works on the similarly associated Ioffe bar principle! A heavy current carrying bar associated with 5 experimental magnetic fusion devices) . The innovation is the sealing of the chamber and injection of fluids(toxic or nuclear waste, sewage, sewerage or the desalination of water) either as a source of fuel or the sepparation of elements. SUBSTITUTE SHEET.|
EESTRDΠNS WASTE USING PLASMA
The present invention relates to an improved process and § apparatus producing energy for the refining of metal ores and in particular to the non-ferrous and non-metallic metals from their ores .
It is known to win metals from their ores by various processes. As shown in Australian Patent No. 502,603, it is 0 known to process tin concentrates by admixing with a solid carbonaceous reducing agent and lime flux where it is charged in an electric furnace and tapped to remove the tin metal.
The present invention seeks to provide an improved process and apparatus for the simultaneous smelting and l*f refining of metal ores and non-metalics .
In one broad form the invention provides a simultaneous energy smelting and refining apparatus comprising: a chamber ; and
a carbon electrode, having metal collars or metal wire
ø wrapped around the said carbon electrode or being impregnated
with metal powders, runs transversally across the chamber,
wherein said carbon electrode is adapted to be heated in
incandescent white heat by the application of a high current
and low voltage to thereby melt and reduce the ore placed in
the chamber to obtain substantially pure metal.
Preferably the wire wrapping or impregnated metal is tungsten, and the chamber has parabolic shaped top and bottom ζ walls.
The invention will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:
Figure 1 illustrates one embodiment of the present invention; and 10 Figure 2 illustrates an electrode suitable for use in the present invention with atomised water injection.
As shown in Figure 1 , the apparatus comprises a housing (1) having the inner surface thereof lined with suitable refractories containing heat resisting stainless steel coils »5 (2) . These stainless steel pipe coils within the refractory walls are for the purpose of liquid cooling and energy generation. The inner surfaces of the top (3) and bottom (4) are parabolic in shape. The chamber is circular in cross- section. The housing is pivotally mounted on supports (5) by Q means of the pivot collar (6).
Liquid coolant is piped into the stainless steel coils inside the refractories from the liquid coolant inlet (?) Superheated coolant comes out through the coolant outlet (8) , which then travels onto a heat exchanger then back into the ^ cooling system.
Extending across the chamber of the housing (1) is a
graphite electrode (10) , which is supported in a water-cooled
holder. The water-cooled holder holds the atomised water
injection needle valve (11) being supported by the pivot
S collar (6) .
Super-heated gas (in this case a "cold plasma") is
expelled through the mouth of the chamber (9) for either
incineration or atomisation of wastes, further energy
production or desalination of salt-water. **' The electrode as shown in Figure 2 comprises a carbon electrode (10) held between two water-cooled holders (11)
One embodiment utilises as ring of active ion producing metal, such as tungsten or beryllium, on the graphite electrode to be similarly heated by the passage of electricity 'S to produce ions. A heat-resistant washer (12) isolates the ring (13) from the effects of the water-cooled holder (11)
Similarly, instead of a ring, a helical coil (14) of suitable metal could be wound around the carbon electrode, as shown, or the carbon electrode can be impregnated with a I© suitable metal powder.
In operation, the chamber is pre-heated by passing current through the carbon electrode (10) and a quantity of ore, for example, cassiterite, is placed therein and the chamber sealed.
The temperature of the carbon electrode and it's
associated ion-producing metal is raised, as a result of it's
resistance to the passage of the current through the rod, to
white heat .
5 Currents between 0 to 600 amps and voltages between 0 to
72 volts, can be used depending on the metal to be refined.
Because of the shape of the chamber and the orientation and material of construction of the carbon electrode, sufficient temperatures and conditions are generated within 10 the sealed chamber to smelt the ore and refine the metal in a one-step process.
With the use of cassiterite in the above described embodiment of the present invention, 99.7% pure tin ingots can be produced, and nickel can also be produced at a grade \[ζ suitable for the manufacture of electroplating anodes.
The process can also be w9orked by mixing the ore with anthracite or by the passing of carbon monoxide into the chamber.
It is theorised that the invention works in the following 0 manner
In the immediate vicinity of the surface of the graphite rod, electromagnetic waves are generated. This vaporises the surface of the graphite rod producing a plasma. Into this plasma is directed the metal ions of the associated metal 7_ζ which greatly reinforces the plasma field. The electrons
within the plasma field are accelerated within the magnetic field.
As the plasma field expands away from the surface of the graphite rod, it loses power and produces CaO (The plasma Q itself is an isotopic series of carbon in a gaseous state; ie tricarbon monoxide) .
The plasma field is generated in pulses. Each pulse of plasma pumps up behind the pulse that has preceeded it. As each pulse of plasma producing C3O is pushed outwards to the 10 optical reflective refractory lining, C3O breaks down to CO. The optical pumping with circularly polarised light generates angular momentum which is transferred to a collection of atoms in the gaseous state (Alfred Kastler; New. Direction in Atomic Physics ISBNO - 300-01398-1) . I* The continuous stream of pulses, described as optical pumping or "weak interaction", builds up pressure in the chamber and reflects and refracts the electromagnetic waves (which are in the form of light waves) , creating a laser shine . lO The laser shine absorbs with the flow of pulses still being continuously generated. The absorption causes what are known as "hot spots".
The frequency of absorption is extremely high, and is known as an aneutronic reaction.This is the kinetic energy of 15 charged particles. To improve the above chemical electrical state, atomised water is injected in a controlled manner
through a needle valve (11) in the water-cooled carbon rod holder into the cold plasma atmosphere.
The above can be used as a Velox Beehive steam-producin Boiler or for the incineration of various wastes.
5 A temperature of 4000 degrees C , represents an average energy of particles of only 0.4 electron-volts, which is that of chemical, not nuclear processes. Several processes will take place when graphite(carbon) , at this temperature, is exposed to water vapour. The most important will be that the 10 carbon, C, combines with the oxygen, 0, in water, H2O, producing carbon monoxide, CO, which is a flammable gas, and free gaseous hydrogen which also is flammable. Both will combine explosively with the oxygen in the air, producing * carbon dioxide, COϊ , water, H2O, and a corresponding amount o
A very small proportion of the water will be decomposed into free hydrogen and free oxygen. Because of the Gaussian distribution of particle energies, an extremely small number of atoms of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon may lose an electron Ifi and be ionised, but the number of ions will be negligible compared to those produced in the explosive flame. This flam is a plasma containing several electron-volts of energy, tha is a temperature of several tens of thousands of degrees C.