Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
DETERMINING MOVING PROPERTIES OF A TARGET IN AN EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT SOURCE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/052799
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A method is described for measuring a moving property of a current target as it travels along a trajectory toward a target space. The method includes: detecting a plurality of two- dimensional representations of light that are produced due to an interaction between the current target and each of a plurality of diagnostic probes prior to the current target entering the target space; determining one or more moving properties of the current target based on an analysis of the detected plurality of two-dimensional representations of light, the determining being completed prior to the current target entering the target space; and, if the determined one or more mewing properties of the current target are outside an acceptable range, adjusting one or more characteristics of a radiation pulse directed to the target space.

More Like This:
Inventors:
SENEKERIMYAN, Vahan (17075 Thornmint Court, San Diego, California, 92127-2413, US)
FERNANDEZ-ESPASA, Cesar (17075 Thornmint Court, San Diego, California, 92127-2413, US)
ODLE, Jesse Quinn (17075 Thornmint Court, San Diego, California, 92127-2413, US)
Application Number:
US2017/050559
Publication Date:
March 22, 2018
Filing Date:
September 07, 2017
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
ASML NETHERLANDS B.V. (P.O. BOX 324, 5500 AH Veldhoven, Veldhoven, NL)
International Classes:
G01J1/04; G01P13/00; G03F7/20; H05G2/00
Foreign References:
US20150250045A12015-09-03
US20150179401A12015-06-25
US20140246607A12014-09-04
US20160255708A12016-09-01
US9778022B12017-10-03
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
NGUYEN, Joseph A. (17075 Thornmint Court, San Diego, California, 92127-2413, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

I . A method of measuring- -a moving property of a current target as it travels along- a trajectory toward a target space, the method comprising:

detecting a plurality of two-dimensional representations of light that ate produced due to an interaction between the current target and each of a plurality of diagnostic probes prior to the current target entering the target space;

determining one or more moving properties of the current target based on an analysis of the detected plurality of t wo-dimensional representations of light, the determining being completed prior to the current target entering the target space; and

if the determined one or more moving properties of the current target are outside an acceptable range, adjusting one or more characteristics of a radiation pulse directed to the target space. 2. The method of claim 3 , further comprising interacting the radiation pulse with a present target in the target space, wherein the present, target is either the current target that has entered the target space or another target that has entered the target space, wherein the other target enters the target space at a time thai follows the time when the current target enters the target space.

3. The method of claim 2, wherein the other target is adjacent to the current target along the trajectory.

4, The method of claim 2, wherein the other target is adjacent to an intermediate target that is between the other target and the current target along the trajectory.

5. The method of claim 1 , further comprising directing at least one diagnostic probe toward the current target along a plane defined by a first direction perpendicular to an axial direction and the axial direction, wherein the current target travels along a direction that has a component along the axial direction.

6. The method of claim 9, wherein the radiation pulse is directed toward, the target space along a second direction perpendicular to the axial direction and to the first direction.

7. The method of claim 1 , further comprising directing the diagnostic probes toward to the current target so that each diagnostic probe interacts with the current target at a distinct diagnostic location prior to the current target entering the target space.

8. The method of claim 1, wherein:

each diagnostic probe is a diagnostic light beam; and

the light that is produced due to the interaction between the current target and each diagnostic probe includes the diagnostic light beam scattering off a surface of the current target.

9. The method of claim 1„ wherein:

each diagnostic probe is a diagnostic light beam; and

the light that is produced due to the interaction between the current target and the diagnostic probe includes a shado w of the current target obscuring at least a portion of the diagnostic light beam,

10. The method of claim 1 , further comprising analyzing the detected plurality of two- dimensional representations of light, the analyzing compri sing:

identifying one or more regions of interest within each representation, each region of interest, corresponding to a location of the current, target along the trajectory ;

for each region of interest, determining a central area of the region of interest; and deriving a position of the current, target in three dimensions based on the determined central areas.

11. A method of measuring one or more moving properties of each target in a plurality of targets as each target travels along its trajectory toward a target space, the method comprising: prior to each target of the plurality reaching the target space, and after a prior and adjacent target has entered the target space, interacting a plurality of diagnostic probes with each target of the plurality' of targets at diagnostic locations along thai target's trajectory; and for each target in the plurality of targets:

detecting a plurality of two-dimensional representations of light produced doe to the interactions between that target and the diagnostic probes;

analyzing the detected two-dimensional representations;

detenu ining one or more moving properties of that target along each dimension of a three dimensional coordinate system based on the analysis of the detected two- dimensional representations; and

determining whether one or more characteristics of a radiation pulse directed to the target space need to he adjusted based on the determined one or more moving properties.

12. The method of claim 1 1 , further comprising, for each target in die plurality of targets:

detecting a time associated with each interaction between that target and a diagnostic probe;

analyzing the detected times; and

determining one or more moving properties of the target along at least one of the dimensions of the three dimensional coordinate system based on the analysis of the detected times.

13 The method of claim 1 1 , wherein determining the one or more moving properties of a target comprises determining one or more of a position, a velocity, and an acceleration of the target. 14. The method of claim 1 1 , wherein detecting the two-dimensional representations of light; analyzing the detected two-dimensional representations; and determining the one or more moving properties of the target are performed on the target prior to the target entering the target space.

15. An apparatus comprising:

a target delivery system configured to release a target toward a target space, the target including a material that emits extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light when converted to plasma;

a chamber that defines the target space and a region between the target delivery system and the target space, the target space positioned to receive a piurality of radiation pulses, each radiation pulse that interacts with a target in the target space causing at least part of thai target to be converted into plasma that emits EUV light;

a diagnostic system that comprises:

a probe mod ule that produces a plurality of diagnostic probes, each diagnostic probe interacting with the target in the region prior to the target entering the target space: and

a detection module that detects a plurality of two-dimensional representations of light that is produced from the interaction between the diagnostic probes and the target; and

a control system connected to the diagnostic system and configured to:

receive the plurality of two-dimensional representations from the detection module;

analyze the received two-dimensional, representations; and

determine one or more moving properties of the target based on the analysis.

16. The apparatus of claim 15, wherein the control system is configured to adjust one or more characteristics of a radiation p ulse direc ted to the target space if the determined one or more moving properties of the target are outside an acceptable range. 17. The apparatus of claim 15, wherein each diagnostic probe is a diagnostic light beam .

Description:
DETERMINING MOVING PROPERTIES OF A TARGET IN AN

EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT SOURCE

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This applicatiim claims the benefit of US application 15/265,376, which was filed ors September 14, 2016 and which is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference.

TECHNICAL FIELD

The disclosed subject matter relates to a system and method for measuring aspects of a target along its trajectory in a laser produced plasma extreme ultraviolet light source,

BACKGROUND

Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light, for example, electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths of around 50 ran or less (also sometimes referred to as soft x-rays), and including light at a wavelength of about 13 nm, cars be used in photolithography processes to produce extremely small features in substrates, for example, silicon wafers.

Methods to produce EUV light, include, but are not necessarily limited to, converting a material that has an element, for example, xenon, lithium, or tin, with an emission line in the EUV range in a plasma state. In one such method, often termed laser produced plasma ("LPP"), the required plasma can be produced by irradiating a target material, for example, in the form of a droplet, plate, tape, stream, or cluster of material, with an amplified light beam that can be referred to as a drive laser. For this process, the plasma is typically produced in a sealed vessel, for example, a vacuum chamber, and monitored using various types of metrology equipment, SUMMARY

In some general aspects, a method is performed for measuring a moving property of a current target as it travels along a trajectory toward a target space. The method includes:

detecting a plurality of two-dimensional representations of light that are produced due to an interaction between the current target and each of a plurality of diagnostic probes prior to the current target entering the target space; determining one or more moving properties of the current target based on an analysis of the detected plurality of two-dimensional representations of light, the determining being completed prior to the current target entering the target space; and, if the determined one or more moving properties of the current target are outside an acceptable range, adjusting one or more characteristics of a radiation pulse directed to the target space.

Implementations can include one or more of the following features. For example, the method can also include interacting the radiation pulse with a present target in the target space, wherein the present target is either the current target thai has entered the target space or another target that has entered the target space, and wherein the other target enters the target space at a time that follows the time when the current target enters the target space. The other target can be adjacent to the current target along the trajectory. The other target can be adjacent to an intermediate target that is between the other target and the current target along the trajectory.

The radiation pulse can convert at least part of the present target into plasma that emits extreme ultraviolet light when the radiation pulse interacts with the present target. The radiation pulse can deliver energy to the present target to modify a geometric distribution of the present target.

The method can include releasing the current target along the trajectory toward the target space, which is defined within a laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet light source.

The two-dimensional representation of the light that is detected can be a two-dimensional image of the light.

The method can include directing at least one diagnostic probe toward the current target along a plane defined by a first direction perpendicular to an axial direction and the axial direction, wherein the current target travels along a direction that has a component along the axial direction. The radiation pulse can be directed toward the target space along a second direction perpendicular to the axial direction and to the first direction.

The method can also include directing the diagnostic probes toward to the current target so that each diagnostic probe interacts with the current target at a distinct diagnostic location prior to the current target entering the target space.

Each diagnostic probe can be a diagnostic light beam. The light that is produced due to the interaction between the current target and each diagnostic probe can include the diagnostic light beam scattering off a surface of the current target. The light that is produced due to the interaction between the current target and the diagnostic probe can include a shadow of the current target obscuring at least a portion of the diagnostic light beam. The one or more moving properties of the c urrent target can be determined by determining one or more of a position, a velocity, and an acceleration of the current target. The one or more moving properties of the current target can be determined by deter mining one or more moving properties of the current target along each dimension of a three dimensional coordinate system. The one or more characteristics of the radiation pulse can be adjusted by adjusting one or more of a timing of a release of a radiation pulse and a direction at which the radiation pulse travels.

The method can include detecting a plurality of one-diraensionai values of the light that are produced due to the interaction between the current target and each diagnostic probe prior to the current target entering the target space.

The current target can interac t with the plurality of diagnostic probes after a prior and adjacent target has hitefacted with a prior radiation pulse in the target space. The current target can interact with the pluraiity of diagnostic probes while the current target is being influenced at least in part by plasma pushback forces.

The method can include analyzing the detec ted plurality of two-dimensional

representations of light, the analyzing including; identifying one or more regions of interest within each representation, each region of interest corresponding to a location of the current target along the trajectory ; for each region of interest, determining a c entral area of the region of interest; and deriving a position of the current target in three dimensions based on. the determined central areas.

in other general aspects, a method is performed for measuring one or more moving properties of each target in a plurality of targets as each target travels along its trajectory toward a target space. The method includes: prior to each target of the pluraiity reaching the target space, and after a prior and adjacent target has entered the target space, interacting a plurality of diagnostic probes with each target of the plurality of targets at diagnostic locations along that target's trajectory. For each target in the plurality of targets; a plurality of two-dimensional representations of light produced due to the interactions between that target and the diagnostic probes are detected; the detected two-dimensional representations are analyzed; one or more moving properties of that target are determined along each dimension of a three dimensional coordinate system based on the analysis of the detected two-dimensional representations; and it is deteraiined whether one or more characteristics of a. radiation pulse directed to the target space need to be adjusted based on the determined one or more moving properties.

Implementations can include one or more of the following features. For example, the method can include, for each target in the plurality of targets: detecting a time associated with each interaction between that target and a diagnostic probe; analyzing the detected times; and determining one or more moving properties of the target along at least one of the dimensions of the three dimensional coordinate system based on the analysis of the detected times.

The one or more moving properties of a target can be determined by determining one or more of a position, a velocity , and an acceleration of the target.

The two-dimensional representation of the light can be detected by detecting a two- dimensional image of the light. The detected two-dimensional image can be analyzed by identifying one or more regions of interest within the image and calculating a eentroid for each identified region of interest.

Determining whether one or more characteristics of the radiation pulse need to be adjusted can include determining that one or more characteristics of the radiation pulse need to be adjusted if the determined one or more moving properties of the target are outside an acceptable range. The one or more characteristics of the radiation poise can be adjusted by adjusting one or more of a timing of a release of the radiation pulse and a direction at which the radiation pulse travels.

The two-dimensional representations of light can be detected prior to the target entering the target space. The detected two-dimensional representations can he analyzed prior to the target enteri n g the target space. And, the one or more moving properties of the target can be determined prior to the target entering the target space.

The target can interact with the plurality of diagnostic probes while the target is being influenced at least in part by plasma pushhack forces.

in other general aspects, an apparatus includes: a target delivery system configured to release a target toward a target space, the target including a material that emits extreme ultraviolet (EIJV) light when converted to plasma; a chamber that defines the target space and a region between the target delivery system and the target space, the target space positioned to receive a plurality of radiation pulses, each radiation pulse that interacts with a target in the target space causing at least part of that target to be converted into plasma that emits EIJV light; a diagnostic system; and a control system. The diagnostic system includes: a probe module that produces a plurality of diagnostic probes, each diagnostic probe interacting with the target in the region prior to the targei entering the target space; and a detection module thai detects a plurality of two-dimensional representations of light that is produced from the interaction between the diagnostic probes and the targei. The control system is connected to the diagnostic system and is configured to: receive the plurality of two-dimensional representations from the detection module; analyze the received two-dimensional representations; and determine one or more moving properties of the target based on the analysis.

Implementations can include one or more of the following .features. For example, the control system can be configured to adjust one or more characteristics of a radiation pulse directed to the target space if the determined one or more moving properties of the target are outside an acceptable range. Each diagnostic probe can be a diagnostic light beam. The light produced due to the interaction between the target and each diagnostic probe can include the diagnostic light beam scattering off a surface of the target. The light produced clue to the interaction between the target and each diagnostic probe can include a shadow of the target obscuring at least a portion of the diagnostic light beam.

DRAWING DESCRIPTION

Fig. 1A is a block diagram of a laser produced plasma extreme ultraviolet ligh t source including a diagnostic system for detecting a moving property of a target traveling i n an extended target region toward a target space along the -X direction;

Fig. 1 B is a schematic di agram showi ng a view of the light source of Fig, 1 A in which the X direction is coming out of the page and the target tra jectory is into the page;

Fig. 2A is a schematic diagram showing a point in time just before a prior radiation pulse and a prior target interact with each other at a target location within a target space of the EUV light source of Fig. 1 ;

Fig. 2B is a schematic diagram showing a point in time just before a current radiation pulse and a cunent target interact with each other at the tai ' get location within the target space of the EUV light source of Fig. t ;

Fig. 3 is a block diagram of an exemplary diagnostic system of the EUV light source of

Fig, 1 ; Fig. 4 is a block diagram, of an exemplary control system of the EUV light source of Fig. Fig. 5 is a block diagram of an exemplary diagnostic system of the EUV light source of

Fig. I ;

Fig. 6 is a block diagram of an exemplary control system of the EUV light source of Fig. i ;

Fig. 7 is a block diagram of an exemplary diagnostic system of the EUV light source of

Fig. 1;

Fig. 8 is a block diagram of an exemplary control system of the BUY light source of Fig. 1 ;

Figs. 9 A is a schematic diagram showing a close up of the interaction between a diagnostic radiation beam and a current target in which, the diagnostic radiation beam axis is generally perpendicular to a trajectory of the current target and the current target traj ectory is aligned with an X direction;

Figs. 9B is a schematic diagram showing a close up of the interaction between a diagnostic radiation beam and a current target in which the diagnostic radiation beam ax is is generally perpendicular to a trajectory of the current target and the current target trajectory is offset from an X direction along a Y direction;

Figs. 9C is a schematic diagram showing a close up of the interaction between a diagnostic radiation beam and a current target in which the diagnostic radiation beam is directed along an axis that is in the XY plane and the current target trajectory is aligned with the X direction;

Figs. 9D is a schematic diagram showing a close up of the interaction between a diagnostic radiatioa beam and a current target in which tlie diagnostic radiation beam is directed along an axis that is in the XY plane and the current target trajectory is offset from the X direction along the Y direction;

Fig, 10 is a block diagram of an exemplary diagnostic system of the EUV light source of

Fig. 1 ;

Fig. 1 1 is a. schematic diagram showing a preliminary radiation pulse directed to a first target iocatioa and a main radiation pulse directed to a second target location tor interaction with the current target of the EU V light source of Fig. 1 : Fig. 12 is a block diagram of an exemplary optical source for use in the BU Y light source of Fig. 1;

Fig. 13 is a flow chart of an exemplary procedure performed by the EtJV light source (under control of the control system) for determining a moving property of a current target in the ex tended target region ;

Fig. 14A is a schematic diagram of an exemplary diagnostic system, extended target region, and target space as viewed along the Z direction of the EtJV light source of Fig. 1 , showing a point in time just before a prior radiation pulse and a prior target interact with each other at a target location within a target space;

Fig. 14B is a schematic diagram of the exemplary diagnostic system, extended target region, and target space of Fig, 14A as viewed along the X direction, showing the same point in time as Fig. 14 A;

Fig. ISA is a schematic diagram of the exemplary diagnostic system, extended target region, and target space as viewed along the Z direction of the EtJV l ight source of Fig. 1 , showing a point in time just after the prior radiation pulse and the prior target interact with each other at the target location within the target space;

Fig. 15B is a schematic diagram of the exemplary diagnostic system, extended target region, and target space of Fig. 15.4 as viewed along the X direction, showing the same point in time as Fig. 1.5 A;

Fig. 16 A. is a schematic diagram of the exemplary diagnostic system, extended target region, and target space as viewed along the Z direction of the EtJV light source of Fig. 1, showing a point in time when the current target interacts with a first diagnostic light beam of the diagnostic system within the extended target region;

Fig. 16B is a schematic diagram of the exemplary diagnostic system, extended target region, and target space of Fig. 16A as viewed along the X direction, showing the same point in time as Fig. 16A;

Fig, 17A is a. schematic diagram of the exemplary diagnostic system, extended target region, and target space as viewed a lon g the Z direction of the Eli V l ight source of Fig. 1 , showing a point in time when the current target interacts with a second diagnostic light beam of the diagnostic system within the extended target region; Fig. 17B is a schematic diagram of the exemplary diagnostic system, extended target region, and target space of Pig. 17A as viewed along the X direction, showing the same point in time as Ft a, 17 A;

Fig, ISA is a schematic diagram of the exemplary diagnostic system, extended target region, and target space as viewed a lon g the Z direction of the Eli V l ight source of Fig. 1 , showing a point in time after the current target has interacted with the second diagnostic light beam in the extended target region and during which the current radiation pulse is being directed to the target space;

Fig. 18B is a schematic diagram of the exemplary diagnostic system, extended target region, and target space of Fig. 18A as viewed along the X direction, showing the same point in time as Fig, 18A;

Fig. 19A is a schematic diagram of the exemplary diagnostic system, extended target region, and target space of the EUV light source of Fig. I as viewed along the Z direction, showing a point in time during which the current target is interacting with the current radiation piiise in the target space;

Fig. 19B is a schematic diagram of the exemplary diagnostic system, extended target region, and target space of Fig. I9A as viewed along the X direction, showing the same point in time as Fig. 1.9A;

Fig. 19C is a schematic diagram of the exemplary diagnostic system, extended target region, and target space of the EUV light source of Fig. 1, as viewed along the 2- di rection, showing a point in time during which the current target is interacting with a current main radiation pulse in the target space and producing EUV light;

Fig. 19D is a schematic diagram of the exemplary diagnostic system, extended target region, and target space of Fig. I9C as viewed along the X direction, showing the same point in time as Fig. 19C;

Fig. 20A is a schematic diagram of an exemplary diagnostic system, extended target region, and target space as viewed along the Z direction of the EUV light source of Fig. 1 , showing a point in time after a current target has interacted with three diagnostic light beams of the diagnostic system in the extended target region and during which the current radiation pulse is being directed to the target space; Fig. 20B is a schematic diagram of the exemplary diagnostic system, extended target region, and target space of Pig. 20A as viewed along the X direction, showing the same point in time as Fia, 20A:

Fig, 21 A is a block diagram of an exemplary diagnostic system of the EUV light source of Fig. 1 ;

Fig. 21 B is an exemplary image that, is recorded using a two-dimensional recording device of the diagnostic system of Fig. 21 A;

Fig. 22 is a block diagram of a control system that, can be used in conjunction with the diagnostic system of Fig. 2.1 A. for processing images such as thai shown in Fig. 2 I B;

Fig. 23 is a block diagram of an analysis module within the control system of Fig. 22;

Fig. 24 is a schematic diagram of an exemplary diagnostic system in which shadows of a target are imaged using two or more two-dimensional recording devices;

Fig. 25 is a schematic diagram of an exemplary diagnostic system in which light scattered off a target is imaged using two or more two-dimensional recording de vices;

Fig. 26 is a schematic diagram of an exemplary diagnostic system in which light reflected from a target is imaged using a two-dimensional recording device;

Fig. 27 is a block diagram of an exemplary diagnostic system that records both one- dimensional aspects and two-dimensional images of light produced from the interaction between a target and diagnostic probes: and

Fi g. 28 is a flow chart, of an exemplary procedure performed by the control system of Fig.

22

DESCRIPTION

Referring to Figs, I A and I B, an extreme ultraviolet ( EUV) light source 100 supplies EUV light 155 that has been produced by an interaction between a target and a radiation, pulse to an output apparatus 160, The EUV light source 100 includes features or components that measure and analyze one or more moving properties (such as speed, velocity, and acceleration) of a current target 1 10 as the cun ent target 1 10 tra vels in an extended target region 1 15. The current target 1 10 travels generally along a trajectory TR, the direction of which can be considered as a target (or axial) direction AT, toward a target space 120 thai is defined within a chamber 175, The axial direction AT of the current target 1 10 lies in a three dimensional coordinate system, that is, the X, Y, Z coordinate system defined by the chamber 175. The axial direction At of the current target 110 general l y has a componen t tha t is parall el with the - X direction of the coordinate system of the chamber 175. However, the axial direction A j of the current target 110 also can have components along one or more of the directions Y and Z that are perpendicular to the - X direction.

With reference to Figs. I B and 2B, the EUV light source 100 adjusts one or more characteristics of a radiation poise 135 that is directed toward the target space 120 based on the analysis of the determined moving property of the current target 1 10. The adjustment to the one or more characteristics of the radiation pulse 135 improv es a relati ve alignment between a present target. 1 10' and the radiation pulse 135 at the target location 122 in the target space 120, The present target 1 10' is the target that has entered the target space 120 at the time that the radiation pulse 135 (which has just been adjusted) arrives in the target space i 20. Such adjustment to the one or more characteristics of the radiation pulse 135 improves the interaction between the present target 110' and the radiation pulse 135 and. increases the amount of EUV light 150 (such as shown in Fig, 1 A) produced by such interaction.

In some implementations, the present target 1 10' is the current target 1 10. In these implementations, the adjustment to the one or more characteristics of the radiation pulse 135 happens in a relatively shorter time frame, A relatively shorter time frame means that the one or more characteristics of the radiation pulse .135 are ad j usted during the time after the analysis of the moving properties of the current target 110 is completed to the time that the current target 1 10 enters the target space .120. Because the one or more characteristics of the radiation pulse 135 are able to be adjusted in the relatively shorter time frame, there is enough time to effect the interaction between the current target 110 (the moving properties of which have just been analyzed) and the radiation pulse 135.

In other implementations, the present target 1 10' is another target, that is, a target other than the current target 110, and following the current target 1 10 in time. In these

implementations, the adjustment to the one or more characteristics of the radiation pulse 135 happens in a relatively longer time frame such that it is not feasible to effect the interaction between the current target 1 10 (the moving properties of which have just been analyzed) and the radiation pulse 135. On the other hand, it is feasible to effect the interaction between the other (or later) target and the radiation pulse 135. A relatively longer time frame is a time frame that is greater than the time after the analysts of the .moving properties of the current target 1 10 is completed to the time thai the current target 1 10 enters the target space 120. Depending on the relatively longer time frame, the other target could be adjacent to the current target 1 10. Or, the other target could be adjacent to an intermediate target that is adjacent to the current target 1 10, The EUV light source 100 is able to determine the moving property of the current target

1 10 and each target directed toward the target space 120, and also to adjust the characteristic (or characteristics) of the radiation pulse 135 in a short window of time. Specifically, the moving property of the current target 1 10 is determined after a prior and adjacent target 1 10P has interacted with a prior radiation poise 135P (Fig. 2 A) but before the next target enters the extended target region 1 15. in this way, the moving property of every or nearly every target that is being directed to the target space 120 can be determined so that a specific adjustment to a particular radiation pulse can be tailored to the determmed moving property of the target that the particular radiation pulse will interact with.

By measuring and analyzing the moving property of the current target 1 10 in this extended target region 1 15 and in the short window of time, it is possible determine the impact or effect of various forces and effects applied to the current target 1 10 as it travels toward the target space 120. For example, forces and effects that are applied to the current target 1 10 include plasma pushback forces 125 that are applied to the current target l i t) due to the remaining plasma 130 that is formed from an interaction at the target location 122 within the target space 120 between the prior target 1 10P (shown in Fig. 2 A) and the prior radiation pulse 135P (shown in Fig, 2 A) that is supplied by an optica) source 140. Such plasma pushback forces 125 can. become larger as the plasma power increases, and the plasm a power depends on. power of the prior radiation pulse 135P and the efficiency of the interaction between the prior radiation pulse 135P and the prior target 1 10P. Thus, it becomes important as these output powers are increased to account for and make adjustments to reduce the impact of the plasma pushback forces 125. Other forces and effects applied to the current target 1 10 include instabilities in the generation and transport of the current target 1 10 as it travels toward the target space 120 and disruptions to the target trajectory due to the current target 1 10 interacting with other gas flow (such as hydrogen gas) as it travels toward the target space 120.

The current target 1 10 (as well as the prior target 1 10P and targets released earlier and later than these targets) is produced by a target delivery system 145 and is directed toward the target space 120 along a trajectory or path TR aad the current target 110 is directed along its own axial direction Ay at each point along the trajectory TR , hi some implementations, the axial direction Αγ of the current target 110 upon immediate release from the target delivery system 145, aligns or is parallel with the -X direction of the three dimensional coordinate system X. Y, Z, The current target 1 10 moves at a velocity and along its axial direction A T and such motion can be predicted based on the properties at the target delivery system 145, Each target released by the target delivery system 145 can have a slightly different actual trajectory and the trajectory depends on the physical properties of the target delivery system 145 at the time of release of the target as well as the environment within the chamber 1 75,

However, as discussed above, various forces and effects (such as the plasma pushback forces 125 applied along the X direction as well the Y and Z directions) applied to the current target 1 10 can cause the motion of the current target 3 10 to divert or change from the predicted motion. For example, the plasma pushback forces 1.25 can slow the current target 1 1.0 (as well, as the present target 1 10') along the X direction or cause the current target 1 1.0 to move along the Y or Z directions in an unpredictable manner. Without taking into account the impact of these forces and effects (such as the plasma pushback forces 125) on the movement of the present target 1 10' (which can be the current target 1 10), the radiation pulse 135 produced by the optical source 140 and directed toward the target location 122 within the target space 120 may miss the present target 1 W completely or may not efficiently interact with the present target 110' when the present target 1 10' reaches the target location 122. This inefficient interaction can lead to a reduction in the amount of EtIV light 150 produced by the present target 1 10', and thus can lead to a. reduction in the amount of EUV light 155 that is output from the light source 100 toward an output apparatus 160 such as a lithography exposure apparatus. Additionally, this inefficient interaction can produce excess debris from the material of the present target 1 10' after it has interacted with the radiation pulse 135. This debris contaminates an interior of or optics within, the chamber 175, and the contamination of the chamber interior and/or optics within the chamber 175 can force stoppage of the EUV light source 100 in order to clean the interior and/or optics or to replace optics.

The current target 1 10 can experience plasma pushback forces .1.25 that change its velocity (an exemplary moving property), for example, on the order of 0.1 to 30 m/s. To resolve such a change to the velocity of the current target 1 10, the EUV light source 100 should be able to detect changes in the velocity to within, a level that can be less than or equal to about 0.1 m/s (for example, leas than or equal to about 0.04 m/s or 0.02 m/s) to ensure an acceptable accuracy in a relative position between the radiation pulse and the present target 1 10' at the target location 122, for example, a relative position of less than 5 μm,

Referring again to Fig. 1 A, the extended target region 1 15 is that region in which the plasma pushback forces 125 affect the current target 1 10 and cause the motion of the current target 1 10 to deviate from a desired motion. By quantifying this deviation, it is possible to determine how to adjust the radiation pulse 135 to ensure that the radiation pulse 135 efficiently interacts with the present target 1 10' within the target space 120. If the present target 110' is a target other than the current target 1 10, then an assumption can be made that the effect of the various forces on the current target 1 10 is similar to the effect of the various forces on the present target 1 10' so that the analysis can he applied to adjust the radiation pulse 135 that interacts with the target other than the current target 1 10.

The extended target region 1 15 therefore can include remaining plasma 130 formed from the interaction of the prior target 1 10P (as shown in Fig, 2 A) and the prior radiation pulse 135P (as shown in Fig. 2A). A first region 165 between the extended target region 115 and the target delivery system 145 can be considered as a region in which the plasma pushback forces 125 have a much lower effect on the current target 1 10. Thus, it is expected thai a moving property (such as a speed or direction) of the current target 1 10 in the extended target region 1 15 will be different from the moving property of the current target 1.10 in the first region 165. Such a difference may make it difficult to efficiently interact the radiation pulse 135 with the present target 1 1.0' when it reaches the target location 122 within the target space 1.20 because the present target 1 ø1' may arrive at a different location than planned within the target space 120 and thus the radiation pulse 135 may not fully or partly intercept the present target 1 10'.

In order to measure the moving property of the current target 1 10, the EUV light source

100 includes a diagnostic system 105 that provides one or more diagnostic probes 107 that interact with the current target 1 10 in the extended target region 1 15, as shown in Fig, 1A.

Specifically, the one or more diagnostic probes 107 interact with the current target 1 10 in tire extended target region 1 15 only after the prior and adjacent target 1 10P has already interacted with the prior radiation pulse 135Ρ in the target space 120. The one or more diagnostic probes 107 can be directed along a direction that, is in a plane of the -X direction and the - Y direction, for example, along the - Y direction. Moreover, the one or more diagnostic probes 107 can be configured to interact with each and every target 110 that passes through the extended target region 115 so that the diagnostic system 105 analyzes information about each and every target 1 10.

The interaction between the current target 110 and the one or more diagnostic probes 107 releases information (such as light or photons) that can be detected by the diagnostic system 105. The diagnostic system 105 outputs data based on the released information, and that data can be used to determine the moving property of the current target 1 10. The EUV light source 100 also includes a control system 170 that receives this data from the diagnostic system 105. The control system 170 analyzes this data and determines th e mo ving property of the current target 1 10 based on this analysis.

The EUV light source 1.00 performs the measurement and analysis on the moving propert y of the current target 1 1.0 in the extended target region 1 15 and also makes a change to one or more characteristics of the radiation pulse 135 that will interact with the present target 1 10' at the target location 122 within the target space 120 so that the present target 110' and the radiation pulse 135 efficiently interact with each other to produce EUV light 150. The radiation pulse 135 that interacts with the present target 1 10' at the target location 122 within the target space 120 may or may not be the very next radiation pulse that is produced by the optical source 140 after the production of the prior radiation pulse 135P.

The time frame during which the EUV light source 100 performs the measurement and analysis as well as the adjustment or change to the radiation pulse 135 is constrained by one or more of the rate at which the target delivery system 145 generates and releases each target along the trajectory TR and a distance between the target delivery system 145 and the target space .120. For example, if the target delivery system 145 generates targets at a repetition rate of 50 kHz, and a velocity of a target is 70 meters per second fm/s) as it is released from the target delivery system 145, then each target in the trajectory TR is physically separated or spaced by about 1.4 millimeters (mm) along the trajectory TR. Given these exemplary conditions, each target crosses the path of the diagnostic probe(s) 107 of the diagnostic system 105 every 20 microseconds (ps). in this example, the EUV light, source 100 must perform the measurement and analysis on the current target 1 10 as well as affect the change to the radiation pulse 135 all within a time frame of 20 μs just after the prior target 1 10P and the prior radiation pulse 135P interact, and also within distances that are less than the spacing between the targets (which would be 1,4 mm in. this example).

The plasma pushback forces 125 extend out fern the target space 120 and the size of the forces drop with the distance from the target space 120. For example, the plasma pushback forces 125 can drop with a linear multiple of the distance or with a square of the distance. For example, the plasma pushback forces 125 generated within the target space 120 can afreet the current target 1 10 as far out as 1.0 to 1.5 .mm or even up to 10 mm from, the target space 120 along any of the directions, and for example, along the X direction. By contrast, the distance between the target space 120 and the target delivery system 145 is about I meter (m).

The EUV light source 100 includes the chamber 175 that defines the target space 120, the first region 165, and the extended target region 115, which is closer to the target space 120 than the first region 165, all within the three dimensional coordinate system X, Y, Z. The target delivery system 145 is configured to release the current target 1.10 along the trajectory or path TR that overlaps both the first region 165 and the extended target region 1 15. As discussed above, the target delivery system 145 releases a stream of targets at a particular rate, and the

EIJV light source 100 must take this rate into account when determining the total amount of time needed to perform the measurement and analysis on the moving property (or properties) of the current target 110 as well as affecting a change to the radiation pulse 135 that interacts with the present tamet 110' at the iareet location 122 within the tamet space 120.

The EUV light, source 1.00 includes a light collector 18O that collects as much EUV light

150 emitted from the plasma as possible and redirects that EUV light 150 as collected BUY light 1.55 toward the output apparatus 160.

The EUV light source 100 includes a beam delivery system 185 that directs the beam of radiation pulse or pulses DSP, 135 front the optical source 140 to the target space 120 and generally along the Z direction (though the beam or beams 135, 135P can be at an angle relative to the Z direction). The beam delivery system 185 can include optical steering components 185 A that change a direction or angle of the beam of radiation pulses 135, 135P and a focus assembly 185B that focuses the beam of radiation pulses 135, 135P to the target space 120. Exemplary optical steering components 185 A include optical elements such as lenses and mirrors that steer or direct the beam of radiation pulses by refraction or reflection, as needed. The beam delivery system 185 can also include an actuation system that controls or moves the various features of the optical components 185 A and the focus assembly 185B.

Each of the targets (such as the present target 110' the current target 1 10, the prior target

HOP, and ail other targets produced by the target delivery system 145) includes a material that emits EUV light when converted to plasma. Each target is converted at least partially or mostly to plasma through interaction with the radiation pulse 135 produced by the optical source 140 at the target location 122 within the target space 120.

Each target (including the current target 1 10 and the prior target I l OP) produced by the target delivery system. 1.45 is a target mixture that includes a target substance and optionally impurities such as non-target particles. The target substance is the substance that is capable of being converted to a plasma state that has an emission line in the EUV range. The target substanc e can be, for example, a droplet of liquid or molten metal, a portion, of a liquid stream, solid particles or clusters, solid particles contained within liquid droplets, a foam of target material, or solid particles contained within a portion of a liquid stream . The target substance can include, for example, water, tin, lithium, xenon, or any material that, when converted to a plasma state, has an emission line in the EUV range. For example, the target substance can be the element tin, which can be used as pure tin (Sn); as a tin compound such as SnBr4, SnBr2, SnH4; as a tin alloy such as tin-gallium alloys, tin-indium alloys, tin-indium-galli am. alloys, or any combination of these alloys, in the situation in which there are no impurities, then each target includes only the target substance. The discussion provided herein is an example in which each target is a droplet made of molten metal such as tin. However, each target produced by the target delivery system 145 can take other forms.

The current target 1 10 can be provided to the target space 120 by passing molten target material through a. nozzle of the target delivery system 145, and allowing the current target 1 10 to drift into the target space 120. In some implementations, the current, target 110 can be directed to the target space 120 by force. The current target 1 10 can be a material that has already interacted with one or more radiation pulses 135 or the current target 1 10 can be a material that has not yet interacted with one or more radiation pulses 135.

The optical source 140 is configured to produce a plurality of radiation pulses that are directed toward the target space 120 by way of the beam delivery system 185. Each radiation pulse that interacts with a target at. the target location 122 within the target space 1:20 converts at least a part of that target into plasma that emits EUV light 150.

The EUV light source 100 also includes an adjustment system 190 coupled to the optical source 140 and to the control system 170. The control system 170 is configured to control a relative position between a radiation pulse 135 and the present target 1 10' by sending a control signal to the adjustment system 190, The control signal causes the adjustment system 190 to adjust one or more of a liming of a release of the radiation pulse 135 and a direction at which the radiation pulse 135 travels.

Referring to Fig, 3, an exemplary diagnostic system 305 is shown. The diagnostic system 305 includes a probe module 300 which can be an illumination module 300 thai produces, under control of the control system 170 or control system 470 (discussed below), as the diagnostic probe 107 at least two diagnostic light beams 320, 330 that are directed toward die tra jectory TR of the current target 1 10. As discussed above, the diagnostic probe 107 (in this case, the diagnostic light beams 320, 330} interacts with the current target 110 in the extended target region 1 1 5. Accordingly, the diagnostic light beam 320 is directed to interact with the current target 1 10 at a location 322 and a time Τ32» in the extended target region .1 15. and the diagnostic light, beam 330 is directed to interact with the current target 1 10 at a location 328 and at a time T330 in the extended target region 1 15. The time ¾o is after the time T 320 . The diagnostic light beams 320, 330 form laser curtains through which the current target 1 10 traverses. In some implementations, such as shown in Fig, 3, the diagnostic light beams 320, 330 can be directed along a path that crosses the trajectory TR at a right angle (an angle of approximately 90°) to the --X direction.

Moreover, the diagnostic light beams 320. 330 are separated from each other along the X direction by a known distance, for example, a value that, can be referred to as Δd. For example, separation Δd can be less than the spacing between the targets and it can be determined or set based on the spacing between the targets to provide for greater precision in the measurements that are performed based on the interactions between the diagnostic light beams 320, 330 and the current target 1 10, Up to a point and in general, the larger the separation Δd the higher the precision in the measurements that are performed. For example, the separation Δd can be between about 250 μηι and 800 pin. The interactions between the diagnostic light beams 320, 330 and the current target 1 10 enable the control system 1 70 or 470 to determine a moving property such as a velocity V of the current target 1 10 along the -X direction. It is possible to determine trends in the velocity V or the changing velocity V over many targets. It is also possible to determine a change in a moving property of the current target 1 10 along the ~X direction using only the diagnostic light beams 320, 330 if some assumptions about the motion of the current target 1 10 are made.

in some implementations, the illumination module 300 includes a single light source that produces a light beam that is split into two diagnostic light beams (such an exemplary design is shown in Fig. 5). For example, a single light source can be a solid-state laser such as a YA.G laser, which can be a neodymi urn-doped YAG (Nd:YAG) laser operating at 1070 nm and at 50 W power. In this example, the illumination module 300 also includes one or more optical elements (such as a beam splitter or mirrors) that split the light beam from the YAG laser into two separate diagnostic light beams that are directed toward the trajectory TR. of the target 1 10 as diagnostic light beams 320, 330. in other implementations, the illumination module 300 includes a pair of light sources such as two lasers, each producing its own diagnostic light beam 320, 330, The diagnostic system 305 also includes a detection module 335. The detection module 335 is configured to detect the data that results from the interaction between the current target 110 and the respective diagnostic light beam 320, 330 within the extended target region 1 1.5, and then output the detected data to the control system 170 or 470. For example, the detection module 335 can detect each interaction by detecting a one-dimensional aspect, or characteristic such as the intensity of the light 340, 350 that is reflected from the current target 1 10 as the respective diagnostic light beam 320, 330 strikes the target 1 10. Moreover, the control system 170 or 470 can analyze the data -from the detection module 335 and. based on the analysis, detect the time at which the maximum intensity of the light 340, 350 that is reflected from the current target 1 10 reaches the detection module 335. The light 340, 350 that is reflected from the current target 1 10 can be a portion of the respective diagnostic light beam 320, 330 that is reflected from the current target 1 10. The accuracy with which the EUV light source 100 can detect the changes to the trajectory of the current target 1 10 is limited to the resolution of the detection module 335.

In some implementations, the detection module 335 includes a photo detector and one or more optical components such as reflective or refractive optics, fi lters, apertures to direct and modify the light 340, 350 prior to entering the photo detector. The wavelength of the diagnostic probe (and the diagnostic light beams 320, 330} produced by the illumination module 300 should be distinct enough from the wavelength of the radiation pulses 135 produced by the optical source 140 so that the detection module 335 can. distinguish between the light 340, 350 reflected from the current target 1 10 and stray light from the radiation pulses 135. In some implementations, the wavelength of the diagnostic light beams 320, 330 is 532 nra or 1550 nnx

it is also possible that the diagnostic system 105, 305 includes an optic that changes a polarization state of one or more of the diagnostic light beams 320, 330.

In some implementations, the diagnostic light beams 320, 330 produced by a laser source are Gaussian beams, and thus the transverse profile of the optical intensity of each diagnostic light beam 320, 330 can be described with a Gaussian function. In such a function, the optical intensity correlates with the transverse distance from the axis of the light beam 320 or 330. The transverse profile of the diagnostic light beam 320, 330 also determines how the detection module 335 measures the light 340, 350 reflected from the current target 1.10 because the different transverse profiles of the diagnostic light beam 320, 330 can alter one or more aspects of the light 340, 350 detected by the detection module 335. The transverse profile of the diagnostic light beam 320 or 330 could be used to determine a moving property of the current target 110 that has a component in the Y direction if the diagnostic light beam 320, 330 were io be directed along a path that subtends a non-right angle with the trajectory TR of the current target 1 10, such as shown in Fig. 7.

The control system 1 70 or 470 is configured to analyze the data output from the diagnostic system 105, 305 and control a relative position between the radiation pulse 135 and the present target 1 1.0' based on the analysis. To this end, and with reference to Fig. 4, an exemplary control system 470 includes a detection sub-controller 400 that receives the output from the diagnostic system 305. The detection sub-controller 400 analyzes the output from the detection module 335 of the diagnostic system 305, and determines one or more moving properties of the current target 1 10 based on this analysis. The detection sub-controller 400 also determines whether an adjustment needs to be made io the radiation pulse 135 output from the optical source 1.40 based on this determination; and if an adjustment is needed, the detection sub- controller 400 sends an appropriate signal to an optical source sub-controller 405, which interfaces with the optical source 140. In some implementations, the detection module 335 of the diagnostic system 305 outputs a one-dhnensionai signal such as a voltage signal that is generated when photons of the light 340, 350 are detected. Thus, the detection module 335 detects a one-diimosional aspect (such, as the photons) of the light 340, 350. The detection sub-controller 400 converts the output (such as the voltage signal) from the detection module 335 into a value associated with tire light 340 produced from the interaction between the current target 110 and the diagnostic light beam 320, and a value associated with the light 350 produced from the interaction between the current target 1 10 and the diagnostic light beam 330. These two values can be used to determine the one or more moving properties of the target 1 10.

For example, the detection sub-controller 400 can convert the voltage signal from the detection module 335 into a first value that corresponds to a maximum intensity of the light 340 produced from the interaction between the current target 1 10 and the diagnostic light beam 320, and a second value that corresponds to the maximum intensity of the light 350 produced from, the interaction between the current target 110 and the diagnostic light beam 330. These two values of the maximum intensity can be digitally time stamped and then used to determine the one or more moving properties of the target 1 .10, as discussed below in greater detail.

The sub-controller 400 can include a field-programmable hardware circuit 400A, such as a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), which is an integrated circuit designed to be configured fay a customer or a designer after manufacturing. The circuit 400A can be dedicated hardware that receives the values of the time stamps from the detection module 335, performs a calculation on the received values, and uses one or more lookup tables to estimate a time of arrival of the present target 1 10' at the target location 122. in particular, the circuit 400 A can be used to quickly perform a calculation to enable the adjustment to the one or more characteristics of the radiation pulse 135 in the relatively shorter time frame to enable the adjustment of the one or more characteristics of the radiation pulse 135 that interacts with the current target 110, the moving properties of which have just been analyzed by the circuit 400A.

For example, the circuit 400A can perform a subtraction step on the time stamps to determine the value of the difference ΔΤ. The circuit 400 A accesses the stored the values of the separation Δd, and the value of the distance Dmi between the crossing of the diagnostic light beam 330 with the trajectory TR of the current target 110 and the target location 122 along the X direction. The circuit 400A can therefore rapidly perform a calculation using a simple and fast technique that does not require the use of other software within the sub-controller 400 or within other components of the control system 470. For example, the circuit 400A can access a flight time lookup table that stores a set of velocities V for specific values of the difference AT given the value of the separation Δd, and a set of times of arrival to the target location 122 that correlate with various values of DRBS divided by velocity V to quickly output the time of arrival to the sub-controller 400, for use by other components of the control system 470.

The control system 470 also includes a sub-controller 410 specifically configured to interface with the beam delivery system 1 85, a sob-controller 412 specifically configured to interface with the probe module 300, and a sub-controller 415 specifically configured to interface with the target delivery system 145. Moreover, the control system 470 can include other sub- controllers specifically configured to interface with other components of the light source 100 not shown in Fig. 1.

The control system 470 generally includes- one or more of digital, electronic circuitry, computer hardware, firmware, and software. The control system 470 can also include memory 450, which can be read-only memory and/or random access memory. Storage devices suitable for tangibly embodying computer program instructions and data include all forms of non-volatile memory, including, by way of example, semiconductor memory devices, such as EPROM, EEPROM, and Hash memory devices; magnetic disks such as internal hard disks and removable disks; magneto-optical disks; and CD-ROM disks. The control system 470 can also include one or more input devices 455 (such as a keyboard, touch screen, microphone, mouse, hand-held input device, etc.) and one or more output devices 460 (such as speakers and monitors).

The control system 470 includes one or more programmable processors 465, and one or more computer program products 467 tangibly embodied in a machine-readable storage device for execution by a programmable processor (such as the processors 465), The one or more programmable processors 465 can each execute a program of instructions to perform desired functions by operating on input data and generating appropriate output. Generally, the processor 465 receives instructions and data from memory 450. Any of the foregoing may be supplemented by, or incorporated in, specially designed ASICs (application-specific integrated circuits).

Moreover, any one or more of the sub-controllers 400, 405, 410, 412, 41.5 can include their own digital electronic circuitry, computer hardware, firmware, and software as well as dedicated memory, input and output devices, programmable processors, and computer program products. Likewise, any one or more of the sub-controllers 400, 405, 410, 412, 415 can access and use the memory 450, the input devices 455, the output devices 460, the programmable processors 465, and the computer program products 467.

Although the control system 470 is shown as a separate and complete unit, it is possible for each of the components and sub-controllers 400, 405, 410, 412, 415 to be separate units within the light source 100.

Referring to Fig. 5, an exemplary diagnostic system 505 is shown as having a probe module such as an illumination module 500 that includes a single light source 502 that produces, under control of the control system 170, 470. 670, a light beam 510, a set of optical components 515, 517, and a pair of diagnostic light beams 520, 530 that serve as the diagnostic probe 107. The optical components 515, 51 7 of the set are configured and designed to split the light beam 510 into the two diagnostic light beams 520, 530 as well as direct the diagnostic light beams 520, 530 toward the trajectory TR of the current target 1 10. m some examples, the optical component: is a beam splitter 515 thai splits the light beam 510 into diagnostic light beams 520, 530. For example, the beam splitter 5 51 can be a dielectric mirror, a beam splitter cube, or a polarizing beam splitter. One or more optical components 517 such as reflective optics can be placed to redirect either or both of the diagnostic light beams 520, 530 so that both diagnostic light beams 520, 530 are directed toward the trajectory TR of the current target 1 10. The set of optical components 515, 517 can include oilier optical components not shown or in a different configuration from what is shown.

The diagnostic svstem 505 includes the detection module 535, which is configured to detect the light 540, 550 reflected from the current target 1 10 as the respective diagnostic light beam 520, 530 strikes the target 110. The detection module 535 can include a device such as a photodiode that converts the light (in the form of photons) into a current, and outputs a voltage that is related to the current. Thus, in this example, the output from the detection module 535 constitutes a one-dimensional voltage signal, which is output to the control system 670, The detection module 535 can also include optical filters, amplifiers, and built-in lenses, as needed. The photodiode generates the current when photons from the light 540, 550 are absorbed in the photodiode and outputs a voltage signal that corresponds to the generated current. The detection module 535 generates as the voltage signal an analog pulse 560 when the light 540 is detected and an analog pulse 570 when the light 550 is detected. These pulses 560, 570 are output from the detection module 535 to the control system 670 for farther processing.

As shown, the detection module 535 includes a single device such as a photodiode detector that is able to detect both of the interactions (that is, both the light 540, 550). Such a design that uses a single device reduces complexity and also enables the data to be more efficiently analyzed. In other implementations, the detection module 535 includes one or more photo-transistors, tight-dependent resistors, and photo.muUiplier tubes. In other implementations, the detection module 535 includes one or more thermal detectors such as a pyroeleetric detector, a bolometer, or a calibrated charged coupled device (CCD) or CMOS.

Referring to Fig. 6, an exemplary control system 670 is shown for processing the output from the diagnostic system 505 to determine a value of the velocity (moving property) of the current target 1 10 along the X direction. The exemplary control system 670 includes a detection sub-controller 600 that receives the pulses 560, 570 from the diagnostic system 505. The detection sub-controller 600 includes a discriminator module 605 that receives the pulses 560, 570 and filters this signal, amplifies this signal, and differentiates it, as needed. At a zero- crossing of the derivative of each current target 1 10 signal (generated from the pulses 560, 570), the discriminator module 605 generates a digital trigger pulse 610, 620, respectively. The discriminator module 605 can be an electrical circuit that includes a filter and a gain circuit as well as a peak predict circuit with differentiation capabilities,

The detection sub-controller 600 also includes a time module 625 that recei ves the digital trigger pulses 610. 620 and digitally time stamps each individual trigger pulse 610, 620 as T510 and T530. The difference between the time stamps Τ52» and 7$n is given as AT. The detection sub-controller 600 includes a .moving property module 635 to which the val ue of AT is input. Thus, the detection sub-controller 600 converts the signals associated with the respective light 540, 550 reflected from the current target 1 10 into respective single data values such as time stamps that can be used for further analysis.

The moving property module 635 also accesses the value of Δd from memory 450, which can be internal to or external to the mov ing property module 635. The moving property module 635 determines the value of the veloc ity of the curreat target 1 10 in the extended target region 1 15. For example, the moving property module 635 could use the determined value of AT and the value of Δd, and compare those values to a set. of pre-determined values stored in memory such as memory 450 to determine a. value of the velocity of the current target. 110. As another example, the moving property module 635 could calculate the average velocity V of the current target 1 10 along the X direction as ΔαΥΔΤ.

The moving property module 635 can also estimate or determine an acceleration of the current target 1 10 if assumptions are made about the motion of the current target 1 10. It is possible to determine trends in the velocity V or the changing velocity V over many targets.

The moving property module 635 also determines the predicted time that the present target 1 1.0' (which can be the current target 1 1.0) will be at the target location 122 within the target space 120, The moving property module 635 is able to determine the predicted time of arrival of the current target 1 10 at the target location 122 because the value of the velocity V of the current target 1 10 has been determined as well as other information about the current target 110 and the diagnostic radiation beam 530 relative to the target location 122. Specifically, the moving property module 635 knows the distance DRBZ between the crossing of the diagnostic light beam 530 with the trajectory TR of the current target 1 10 and the target location 122 along the X direction. The moving property module 635 also knows the time that the current target 1 10 passed through the path of the diagnostic light beam 530. Thus, it is possible to estimate or determine the arrival of the current target 1 1.0 at the target location 122 as being the distance DRB2 divided by the velocity V (or D RB2 /V).

The output from the moving property module 635 is a control signal and is directed to the optical source sub-controller 405, which interfaces with the adjustment system 190 coupled to the optical source 140, The control signal from the moving property module 635 provides instructions that cause the adjustment system 190 to adjust aspects of the optical source Ϊ40 to thereby adjust one or more of a timing of a release of the radiation pulse 135 and a direction at which the radiation pulse 135 travels,

Referring to Fig, 7, in other implementations, an exemplary diagnostic system 705 includes an illumination module 700 that produces as the diagnostic probe 107 three diagnostic light beams 720, 725, 730. The diagnostic light beams 720, 725, 730 are directed toward respecti ve locations 722, 724, 728 along the trajectory T R of the current: target 1 10 to interact with the current target 1 10 at respecti ve times The respecti ve interactions

between the diagnostic light beams 720, 725, 730 and the current target 1 10 produce light 740, 745, 750. The diagnostic system 705 therefore includes the detection module 735, which is configured to detect the light 740, 745, 750 - reflected from the current target 110 as the respective diagnostic light beam 720, 725, 730 Interacts with the current target 1 10. The detection module 735 can include a device such as a photodiode that converts the light into current. The diagnostic system 705 can he coupled to a control system 870, which is a specific implementation of the control system 170 and will he discussed with reference to Fig. 8.

By including a third diagnostic light beam 725, it is possible to determine not only a moving property such as velocity V of the current target 1 .10 along the -X direction, but also to determine a change in the moving property of the current target a1lo 1n0g the -X direction. Thus, the use of the third diagnostic light beam 725 enables the control system 170 to determine both the velocity V and the acceleration A of the current target 1 10 along the™X direction.

Additionally, because the third diagnostic light beam 725 is directed toward the trajectory TR at a non-f ight angle relative to the trajectory TR, the control system 870 is able to determine one or more moving properties (such as the velocity or trajectory } of the current target 1 10 along a direction that is perpendicular to the -X direction, for example along the Y direction, as discussed below.

The diagnostic light beams 720, 730 are directed along a path that crosses the trajectory TR of the current target 1 10 at a r ight (90°) or approximately right angle relative to the -X direction. The diagnostic light beam 725 is directed, along a path that crosses the trajectory TR of the current target 110 at a non-right angle (for example, at an angle of approximately 45°) relative to the -X direction. Thus, the diagnostic light beams 720, 730 generally travel along the --Y direction while the diagnostic light beam 725 travels along a direction in a plane defined by the X and Y (generally along -Y and either -X or X directions)..

As discussed above, the diagnostic light beams 720, 725, 730 interact with the current target 1 10 as the current target 1 10 travels toward the target space 120 and while in the extended target region Ϊ 15. The diagnostic light beams 720, 725, 730 are separated from each other along the X direction by known distances, as discussed below, and this known information can be used to determine one or more moving properties of the current target 1 10. For example, the velocity and acceleration of the current target 110 along the -X direction can be determined.

Additionally, information about a displacement or motion along the Y direction can also be determined. Referring to Fig. 8, an exemplary detection sub-controller 800 can be designed as a part of the control system 870 in order to analyze the data obtained from the interaction between the diagnostic system 705 and the current target 3 10, For example, the detection sub-controller 800 receives pulses 760, 765, 770 output from the diagnostic system 705. The pulses 760, 765, 770 correspond to the analog pulses produced by the detection module 735 when respective light 740, 745, 750 is detected.

The distance between the diagnostic light beams 720, 730 along the X direction is known and can be denoted as Δdl(Χ). In one example, the separation Δd1(X) is 100 pm. Titus, the diagnostic light beams 720, 730 can be used by the control system 870 to determine the velocity VI of the current target 110 along the -X direction in the extended target region 115 using, for example, the method discussed above with respect to Figs, 5 and 6. Specifically, control system 170 determines time stamps T722 and T-m associated with the light 740, 750 produced from the interaction between the respective diagnostic light beams 720, 730 and the current target at 1 10 respective locations 722, 728 along the trajectory TR. The control system 870 calculates the difference between these time stamps ΔΤΙ(Χ), The control system 870 determines the value of the velocity VI of the current target 1 10 along the -X direction in the extended target region 1 1.5 based on the determined values of ΔΤΙ(Χ) and Δdl(X). For example, the control system 870 can calculate the velocity VI of the current target 1 10 along the X direction as Δά1(Χ)/ΔΤ1 (X).

Additionally, the control system 870 determines a time stamp T724 associated with the light 745 produced from the interaction between the diagnostic light beam 725 and the current target at the location 724 along the trajectory TR. The distance along the -X direction between the diagnostic light beams 720 and 725 at the locations 722, 724 is known and can be denoted as Δd2(X). The distance along the -X direction between the diagnostic light beams 725 and 730 at the locations 724, 728 is also known and can be denoted as Δd3f X). Using this additional information, the control system 870 can calculate a time difference ΔΤ2(Χ) between the time stamps T 724 and T722 and a time difference ΔΤ3(Χ) between the time stamps T?2S and T 724 · The control system 870 can therefore determine the velocity V2 of the current target along the -X direction as it travels between location 722 and 724 as Δd2(X)/AT2(X), and the velocity V3 of the current target along the -X direction as it travels between location 724 and 728 as

Δd3(X)/AT3{X), The diagnostic light beam 725 can be used in combination with one or more of the diagnostic light beams 720, 730 to determine a change in a moving property (for example, an acceleration A) of the current target 1 10 along the -X direction. Specifically, the control system 870 determines the rime stamp T?24 associated with the light 745 produced from the interaction of the diagnostic light beam 725 and the current target 110 at t he location 724. in this way, the velocity V2(X) can be determined for the current target 1 10 between the diagnostic light beam 720 and the diagnostic light beam 725 based on a difference ΔΤ2(Χ) between the time stamps T722 and T72.4 and a distance Δd2(X) between the locations 722 and 724. Moreover, the velocity V3(.X) can be determined for the current target 1 10 between the diagnostic light beam 725 and the diagnostic light, beam 730 based on a difference ΔΤ3(Χ) between the time stamps T724 and T728 and a distance Ad3(X) between the locations 724 and 728. The difference between these two velocities (V2(X) - V3(X» can be divided by the time difference to obtain the acceleration of the current target 1 10 along the -X direction . For example, it can be assumed that th e current target 1 10 has the velocity V2(X) at time T 724 and the velocity V3(X) at time Tm and thus the acceleration A can be determined to be (V2(X) - V3(X))/(T724-T728)-

As discussed above, the diagnostic light beams 720, 725, 730 produced by the laser source within the illumination module 700 can be Gaussian beams. In this case, the transverse profile of the optical intensity of each diagnostic light beam 720, 725. 730 can be described with a Gaussian function, fit such a function, the optical intensity correlates with the transverse distance from the axis of the light beam 720, 725, or 730. Because the Gaussian shape is relatively simple, this particular aspect of the diagnostic light beam 725 can be used to process data obtained from the interaction between the diagnostic light beams 720, 725, 730 and the current target 110,

The diagnostic light beam 725 can be used by the control system. 870 to determine a trajectory of the current target 1 10, specifically, to determine a distance or a velocity that the current target 1 10 travels along the Y direction. This can be determined because the diagnostic light beam 725 is directed at an angle in a plane defined by the X and Y directions.

As shown in Fig. 9 A, the diagnostic light beam 720 crosses the trajectory TR at the location 722. The diagnostic light beam 720 travels along a direction defined by its axis 920A, which generally aligns with the -Y direction, in Fig. 9 A, the current target 1 10 generally aligns with the X direction (is at Y:::0) and thus the current target 110 does not have a measurable Y direction component to it By contrast, in Fig. 9B, the current target 1 10 is offset from the X direction along the - Y direction by an amount dY. However, because this offset still aligns with the axis 920A of the diagnostic light beam 720, the reflected light 740 from the current target will not change by a significant amount. Moreover, the time at which the reflected light 740 is detected in both examples {Figs. 9A and 9B) is the same or nearly the same because the interaction between the target 1 10 and the diagnostic light beam 720 occurs at approximately the same time, i t is noted that the intensity of the diagnostic light beam 720 does change by an. amount depending on the distance from the beam waist, but that change may not significant enough to be measurable or to show up as a change in the intensity of the reflected light 740.

By contrast, as shown in Fig. 9C, the diagnostic light beam 725 crosses the trajectory TR at the location 724C and the current target 1 10 interacts with the diagnostic light beam 725 at the time T724C- hi this case, the diagnostic light beam 725 travels along a direction that is in the XY plane and its axis 925 A .has components in both the X and Y directions. Thus, the intensity of the beam 725 decreases according to the Gaussian function alone both the X and Y directions. The current target 110 aligns with the -X direction and does not have any appreciable motion along the Y direction. By contrast, as shown in Fig. 9D, the current target 1 .10 is shifted along the Y direction by the distance dY. In Fig. 9D, the diagnostic light beam 725 is directed such that its axis 925 A has components in both the X and Y directions, and the offset current target 1 10 would he interacting with the highest intensity of the light beam 725 at a different location 724D and also at a time T724D, which is later than the time T724C- Therefore, the detection module 735 detects the reflected light 745D in Fig. 9D at a later time than it would detect the reflected light 745C in Fig. 9C. This difference in time at which the reflected light 745C or 7450 is detected by the detection module 735 can be used to determine how far the current target 1 10 has shifted along the Y direction,

Specifically, if the time difference AT2(X.) for a current target 110 is greater than the time difference ΔΤ2(.Χ) for a prior target 1 1 OP then this means that the current target 1 10 has moved along the Y direction relative to the prior target HOP, By contrast if the time difference AT2(X) for a current target 1 10 is less than the time difference ΔΤ2(Χ) for a prior target Π0Ρ then this means that the current target 110 has moved along the ~Y direction relative to the prior target H OP. Referring to Fig. 10, in .other implementations, an exemplary diagnostic system 1005 includes an illumination module 1000 that includes a single light source 1002 thai produces a light beam 1010. The diagnostic system 1005 produces a plurality of diagnostic light beams 1020, 1025, 1030 that serve as the diagnostic probe or probes 107. To this end, the illumination module 1000 also includes a diffractive optic 101 5 and a refractive optic 1017 such as a focusing lens. The light beam 1010 is directed through the diffractive optic 1015, which splits the light beam .1010 into a plurality of light beams, which travel along distinct directions and are directed through the refractive optic 1017 to produce the diagnostic light beams 1020, 1025, 1030. The diagnostic light beams 1020, 1025, 1030 are directed toward the trajectory TR of the current target 1 10. The diffractive optic 1015 can split the light beam 1010 so that the diagnostic light beams 1020, 1025, 1030 are separated by a set distance (for example, 0,65 mm) at the trajectory TR. Moreover, the refractive optic 1017 can ensure that the foci (or beam waist) of each of the diagnostic light beams 1020, 1025, 1030 overlaps the trajectory TR.

Because of the design of the diffractive optic 1015 and the retractive optic 1.0.17, the diagnostic light beams 1020, 1025, 1030 are directed so thai they fan out toward the trajectory TR and intersect the trajectory TR at different and distinct angles. For example, the diagnostic light, beam 1025 can intersect the trajectory TR at a right or approximately right angle to the -X direction. The diagnostic light beam 10:20 can intersect the trajectory TR at an angle that is less than 90° relative to the -X direction and the diagnostic light beam 1030 can intersect the trajectory TR at an angle that is greater than 90° relative to the -X direction. Each of the diagnostic light beams 1020, 1025, 1030 can be Gaussian beams so that the transverse profile of the optical intensity of each diagnostic light beam 1020, 1025, 1030 can be described with a Gaussian function. The beam waist of each diagnostic light beam 1020, 1025, .1030 can be configured to overlap at the trajectory TR or the -X direction,

The diffractive optic 1015 can be a rectangular or binary phase diffraction grating that produces discrete and spatially spaced replicas of the input light beam 1010. The separation between the diagnostic light beams 1020, 1025, 1030 can be adjusted or customized depending on the rate at which the targets are released from the target delivery system 145 as well as the size and material of the targets. It is also possible to produce more than three diagnostic light beams 1020, 1025, 1030 with the diffractive optic 1015. By producing so many diagnostic light beams, it is possible to record or detect the position of the current target 1 10 through the ex tended target region 115, thus allowing for a more accurate determination of the velocity and acceleration of the current target 1 10 and also providing a tool for understanding the dynamics of the current target 110 as a result of the plasma pushback forces 125,

In some implementations, the dittractive optic 1015 is a binary phase diffraction grating, The diagnostic system 1005 also includes a detection module 1035 that receives the light

1040, 1045, 1050 reflected from the current target 110 as it passes across the respective diagnostic light beams 1020, 1025, 1030. The detection module 1035 can include a detection device that converts the photons of the light 1040, 1045. 1050 into a current, and outputs a one- dimensional voltage signal based on the current. For example, the detection module 1.035 can include a photon detection device such as a photodiode that converts the light 1040, 1045, 1050 into an electrical signal.

Referring to f ig. 1 1, in some implementations, the present target 1 10' interacts with two radiation pulses within the target space 120, For example, the optical source 140 can be configured to supply a preliminary radiation pulse 1.135 A to a first target location 1 122 A within a target space 1 1.20 and a main radiation pulse 1 13533 to a second target location 1 122B within the target space 1 120. The radiation pulses 1 135A, 1 1.35B can be directed along the Z direction.

The interaction between the preliminary radiation pulse 1 135A and the present target 1 1 10' at the first target, location 1 122A causes the present target 1 1 10' to modify its shape so as to deform and to geometrically expand as it moves through the target space 1 120. The interaction between the main radiation pulse 1 1.35B and the modified present target 1 1 10' at the second target location 1122B converts at least part of the modified present target 11 10' into plasma 1 130 that, emits EUV light 1 150. It is possible for some of the material of the present target 11 10' to be converted into plasma when it interacts with the preliminary radiation pulse 1.135 A. However, the properties of the preliminary radiation pulse 1 135 A are selected and controlled so that the predominant action on the present target 1 1 10' by the preliminary radiation pulse .1135 A is the deformation and modification of the geometric distribution of the present target 1 1 10 s ,

The interaction between the preliminary radiation pulse 1 135 A and the present target 1 1 10' causes material to ablate from the surface of the present target 1 1 10' and this ablation provides a force that deforms the present target 1 1 10' so that it has a shape that is different than the shape of the present target 1 1 10' prior to interaction with the preliminary radiation pulse

1 S.35A. For example, prior to interacting with the preliminary' ' radiation pulse 1 135A. the present target 1 1 10' can have a shape that is similar to a droplet upon exiting the target delivery system 145, while after interaction with the preliminary radiation pulse 1 135A, the shape of the present target 1 1 10' deforms so that its shape is closer to the shape of a disk (such as a pancake shape) when it reaches the second target location 1 122B. After interaction with the preliminary radiation pulse 1 135A, the present target 1 5 10' can be a material that is not ionized (a material that is not a plasma) or that is minimally ionized. After interaction with the preliminary radiation pulse 1 135 A, the present target 1 .1 10' can be, for example, a disk of liquid or molten metal, a continuous segment of target material that does not have voids or substantial gaps, a mist of micro- or nano-particles, or a cloud of atomic vapor.

Additionally, the interaction between the preliminary radiation pulse 1 135 A and the present target 1 110 ' that causes the material to ablate from the suriace of the present target 1 1 10' can provide a force that can cause the present target 1 1 10' to acquire some propulsion or speed along the Z direction, as shown in Fig. 1 . The expansion of the present target 1.110' as it travels from the first target location 1 .122 A to the second target location 1 122B in the X direction and the acquired speed in the Z direction depend on an energy of the prel iminary radiation pulse 1 135 A, and in particular, on the energy delivered to (that is, intercepted by) the present target 1 1 10'.

The optical source 140 can be designed to produce a beam of preliminary radiation pulses 1135A and a beam of main radiation pulses 1 135B directed to respective target locations 1.122A,1 122B. Moreover, as discussed above, the EUV light source 1.00 adjusts one or more

characteristics of the radiation pulse 135 that is directed to the target space 120 based on the analysis of the determined moving property or properties of the current target 1 10. Accordingly, it is possible for the EUV light source 100 to adjust one or more characteristics of the

preliminary radiation pulse 1 135 A, one or more characteristics of the main radiation pulse 1 135B, or one or more characteristics of both of the preliminary radiation pulse 1 135 A and the main radiation pulse 1 135B.

Referring to Fig. 12, an exemplary optical source 1240 is designed to produce the beam of preliminary radiation pulses 1 335A and the beam of main radiation pulses 1 1.35B directed toward their respective target locations 1122 A, 1 122B within the target space 1 120,

The optical source 1240 includes a first optical amplifier system 1200 thai includes a series of one or more optical amplifiers through which the beam of prel iminary radiation pulses 1 1 35 A is passed, and a second optical amplifier system 1205 that includes a series of one or more optical amplifiers through which the beam of .mam radiation pulses 1 135Β is passed. One or more amplifiers from the first system 1200 can be in the second system 1205; or one or more amplifiers in the second system 1205 cars be in the first system 1200. Alternatively, it is possible that the first optical amplifier system 1200 is entirely separate from the second optical amplifier system 1205.

Additionally, though not required, the optical source 1240 can include a first light generator 1210 that produces a first pulsed light beam 121 1 and a second light generator 1215 that produces a second pulsed light beam 1216. The light generators 121.0, 1215 can each be, for example, a laser, a seed laser such as a master oscillator, or a lamp. An exemplary light generator that can be used as the light generator 1210, 1215 is a Q-switched, radio frequency (RF) pumped, axial flow, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) oscillator that can operate at a repetition rate of, for example, 100 kHz.

The opticai amplifiers within the optical amplifier systems 1200, 1205 each contain a gain medium on a respective beam path, along which a light beam 121 1 , 1216 from the respective light generator 1210, 12.15 propagates. When the gain medium of the optical amplifier is excited, the gain medium provides photons to the light beam, amplifying the light beam 121 1 , 1216 to produce the amplified light beam that forms the preliminary radiation pulse beam 1 135A or the main radiation pulse beam 1 135 B.

The wavelengths of the light beams 121 1, 1216 or the radiation pulse beams 1 135A,

1 135B can be distinct from each other so that the radiation pulse beams 1135 A, 1 135B can be separated from each other, if they are combined at. any point within the opti cal source 1240. If the radiation pulse beams 1 135 A, 1 ί 35B are produced by CO2 amplifiers, then the preliminary radiation pulse beam 1135A can have a wavelength of 10.26 micrometers (pm) or 10.207 pra, and the .main radiation pulse beam 113SB can have a wavelength of 10.59 μηι. The wavelengths are chosen to more easily enable separation of the beams 1 135A, 1 135Β using dispersive optics or dichroic mirror or beamsplitter coatings. In the situation in which both beams 1 135 A, 1135B propagate together in the same amplifier chain (for example, a situation in w hich some of the amplifiers of optical amplifier system 1200 are in the optical amplifier system 1205), then the distinct wavelengths can be used to adjust a relative gain between the two beams 1 135 A, 1 135B even though they are traversing through the same amplifiers. For example, the beams 1135 A, Ϊ 1358. once separated, could be steered or focused to two separate locations (such as the first and second target locations 1 122A, Π22Β, respectively) within the chamber 175. In particular, the separation of the beams 1 I 35A, 1 135B also enables the target 1110 to expand after interacting with the beam of preliminary radiation pulses 1135 A while it travels from the first target location 1 122 A to the second target location 1 122B.

The optical source 1240 can include a beam path combiner 1225 that overlays the beam of preliminary radiation pulses 1135.4 and the beam of main radiation pulses 1135B and places the beams 1 135A, 1 135B on the same optical path for at least some of the distance between the optical source 1240 and the beam delivery system 185. Additionally, the optical source 1240 can include a beam path separator 1226 that separates the beam of preliminary radiation pulses

1 135 A from the beam of main radiation pulses 1 135B so that the two beams 1 1.35A, 1135B can be separately steered and focused within the chamber 175.

Additionally, the beam of preliminary radiation pulses 1 135.A can be configured to have less pulse energy than the pulse energy of the beam of main radiation pulses 1135B. This is because the preliminary radiation pulse 1 135A is used to modify the geometry of the present target 1 1 .10' while the main radiation pulse 1 1.35B is used to convert the modified present target 1 1 10' into plasma 1 130, For example, the energy of the preliminary radiation pulse 1 135 A can be 5-100 times less than the energy of the main -radiation pulse 1135B.

in some implementations, each optical amplifier system 1200, 1205 includes a set of three optical amplifiers, though as few as one amplifier or more than three amplifiers can be used. In some implementations, each of the optical amplifiers in each system 1200,, 1205 includes a. gain medium that includes CO 2 and can amplify Sight at a wavelength of between about 9.1 μm and about 1 1.0 pm, and in particular, at about 10.6 pm, at a gain greater than 1000. it is possible for the optical amplifiers in each system 1200, 1205 to be operated similarly or at different wavelengths. Suitable amplifiers and lasers for use in the optical amplifier systems 1200, 1205 can include a pulsed laser device such as a pulsed gas-discharge CO 2 amplifier producing radiation at about 9.3 pm or about 10.6 pm, for example, with DC or RF excitation, operating at relatively high power, for example, 10 kW or higher and high pulse repetition rate, for example, 50 kHz or more. Exemplary optical amplifiers that c an be used in each of the systems 1200, 1205 are axial flow high-power C(¾ lasers with wear-free gas circulation and capacitive RF excitation. Additionally, though not required, one or more of the optical amplifier systems 1200 and 1205 can include a .first amplifier that acts as a pre-amplifier. The pre-amplifier, if present, can be a diffusion-cooled CO 2 laser system.

The optical amplifier systems 1200, 1205 can include optical elements that are not shown in Fig. 12 for directing and shaping the respective light beams 121 1 , 1216. For example, the optical amplifier systems 1200, 1205 can include reflective optics such as mirrors, partially- transmissive optics such as beam splitters or partially-tratismissive mirrors, and dichroie beam splitters.

The optical source 1240 also includes an optical system 1220 that can. include one or more optics (such as reflective optics such as mirrors, partially reflective and partially transmissive optics such as beamsplitters, refractive optics such as prisms or lenses, passive optics, active optics, etc.) for directing the light beams 121 1 , 1216 through the optical source 1240.

Although the optical amplifiers can be separate and dedicated systems, it is possible for at least one of the amplifiers of the optical amplifier system 1200 to be in the optical amplifier system 1205 and for at least one of the ampl ifiers of the optical amplifier system .1205 to be in the optical amplifier system 1200. In such a system in which at least some of the amplifiers and optics overlap between the optical amplifier systems 1200, 1205, it is possible that the beam of preliminary radiation pulses 1 135.A and the beam of main radiation pulses 1 135B are coupled together such that changes of one or snore characteristics of the beam 1.135 A can cause changes to one or more characteristics of the beam Π35Β, and vice versa.

Referring to Fig. 13, a procedure 1300 is performed by the BUY light source 100 (under control of the control system 170, 470, 670 or 870) for compensating for plasma pusKback forces 125 on a present target 1 10'. Other procedures not discussed herein can be performed by the EUV light source 1.00 during operation. The procedure 1300 includes forming the remaining plasma 130 that at least partially coincides with the extended target region 1 15, the remaining plasma being a plasma formed from an interaction between a prior target 1 1 OP and a prior radiation pulse 135P in a target space 120 (1305). As shown in Figs. I4A and 14B, the prior target 1 10P is approaching the target location 122 as the prior radiation pulse 135P is

approaching the target location 122, After the prior radiation pulse 135P and the prior target 1 10P have interacted, the remaining plasma 130 is formed and plasma pushbaefc forces 125 are produced, as shown in Figs. 15 A and I SB.

The current target 1 10 is released from the target delivery system 145 along the trajectory TR toward the target space 210 ( 13 i 0 ). The ciirrem target 1 10 can be released ( 1310) prior to the remaining plasma 130 being formed from the interaction between the prior target Ϊ 1 OP and the prior radiation pulse 135P (1305). For example, as shown in Figs. 14A and Ϊ4Β, the current target 1 10 has been released from the target delivery system 145 along the trajectory TR. toward the target space 120 (1310).

One or more moving properties of the current target 1 10 (when the current target 1 10 is within the extended target region 1 15) are determined (1315), The moving property of the current, target can be determined (1315) by detecting a first interaction between a first diagnostic light beam (such as beam 320) and the current target 1 10 at a first location (such as location 322) within the extended target region 1 15, detecting a second interaction between a second diagnostic light beam (such as beam 330) and the current target 110 at a second location (such as location 328) within the extended target region 1 i 5. The first diagnostic light beam (such as beam 320) is directed toward the current target 1 10 at the first location (such as location 322), and the second diagnostic light beam (such as beam 330) is directed toward the current target 1. 10 at the second location (such as location 328).

The first interaction can be detected (for example, at the detection module 335) by detecting at least a portion of the first diagnostic light beam (such as light beam 320) that is reflected from the current target (for example, the light 340 is detected). The second interaction can be detected (for example, at the detection module 335) by detecting a portion of the second diagnostic light beam (such as light beam 33) that is reflected from the current target 110 (for example, the light 350 is detected) by the detection module 335, The moving property or properties of the current target 1 10 can be determined (1315) based on these detections of the reflected portions.

For example, with reference to Figs. 16A-17B, the diagnostic system 305 is used in combination with the control system 170, 470, 670, 870 to determine the one or more moving properties of the current target 110. In Figs. 16A and 16B, the current target 1 10 interacts with the diagnostic light beam 320, and the light 340 from that interaction is detected by the detection module 335, In Figs. 17A and I7B, the current target 1 10 then interacts with the diagnostic light beam 330, and the light 350 from that interaction is detected by the detection module 335. The detection module 335 outputs the data to the control system 170, 470, 670, 870 for processing, as discussed above, to determine the one or more moving properties of the current target 1 10.

The control system 170, 470, 670, 870 determines whether any of the determined moving properties are outside of an acceptable range (1320). If any of the moving properties is oat of an acceptable range (1320), then the control system 170, 470, 670, 870 adjusts one or more characteristics of the radiation pulse 135 (for example, one or more characteristics of one or more of the preliminary radiation pulse 1 135A and the main radiation pulse 1 135B) to thereby control a relative position between the radiation pulse 135 and the present target 110' based on the determined moving property or properties of the current target 110 (1325). The radiation pulse 135 (which may have been adjusted at 1325) is directed toward the target space 120 so that the radiation pulse 135 and the present target 1 10 ' interact in the target space 120 (1330). For example, as shown in Figs. ISA and 188, the present target 1 10' is approaching the target location 122 within the target space 120 and the adjustments have been made to the radiation pulse 135, which is also directed toward the target location. And, as shown in Figs. 19A and 19B, the present target 1 10' is interacting with the current radiation pulse 135 at the target location 122,

The moving property or properties that can be determined (1315) include one or more of a speed, velocity, direction, acceleration, or location of the current target 1 10 along any of the direc tions X, Y, or Z of the three dimensional coordinate system.

In some implementations, such as shown in Fig. 1 1, the radiation pulse 135 can be a preliminary radiation pulse 1 135 A that delivers the energy to the present target 110' to modify a geometric distribution of the present target 1 10'. If this occurs, then the procedure 1300 can also include, after directing the current preliminary radiation pulse 1 135 A toward the present target 110', directing a main radiation pulse 1135B toward the present target 1 10 ' to thereby convert, at least part of the present target 1 10 ' into plasma that emits EUV light 1 150, Figs. I 9C and 19D show the interaction between the main radiation pulse 1 135B and the present target 1 10 ' to produce the EU V light 1 150,

The procedure 1300 can also include analyzing the one or more moving properties that were determined (1315). For example, the control system 170, 470, 670, 870 can determine the velocity of the current target 1 10 along the - X direction and predict when the present target 1 10' will reach the target location 122. The control system 170, 470, 670, 870 can adjust when the radiation pulse 135 is released or it can adjust the direction of the radiation poise 135 so that the radiation pulse 135 and the present target 1 .10' efficiently interact at the target location 122 (1325). This adjustment to the relative position between the radiation pulse 135 and the present target 1 10' is therefore based on the analysis of the determined moving property of the current target 1 10.

As also shown in Fig. 19C, the next current target 1 10N is released at a point in time in accordance with the rate at which the targets 1 10 are released from the target delivery system 145.

In some implementations, the acceleration A of the current target 1 10 can be determined

(.1315) as well as the velocity V, In such, implementation, the determination (131 5) would additionally include detecting a third interaction between a third diagnostic light beam, and the current target at a third location within the extended target region, the third location being distinct from the first and second locations. For example, as shown in Figs. 20A and 20B, the current target 110 is directed toward the target space 120, and, while in the extended target region 1 15, the current target 1 50 would interact sequentially with the diagnostic light beams 720, 725, 730 at respective locations 722, 724, 728. As discussed above, the resultant light 740, 745, 750 is detected by the detection module 735, which outputs data that is analyzed by the control system 170, 470, 670, 870, which can use the data to determine the acceleration A as well as the velocity V of the current, target 1 10. Additionally; the control system 170, 470, 670, 870 can use the additional information obtained from the interaction between the current target 1 10 and the third diagnostic beam 725 to determine one or more moving properties of the current target 1 10 along a direction (such as the Y direction) perpendicular to the -X direction.

Referring again to Fig. 3, in other implementations, the detection module 335 of the diagnostic system 305 is designed to detect, additionally or alternatively, a two-dimensional representation (such as an image) of the light 340 and 350 produced from the interaction between respective diagnostic light beam 320 and 330 and the target 110 at the distinct diagnostic locations 322 and 328. To this end, the detection module 335 includes an image recording device (such as a camera), as discussed below. Moreover, it is possible to implement the detection of two-dimensional representations of the light 540, 550 and 740, 745, 750 in the respective detection modules 535 and 735 as well. In some implementations, the control system 170, 470, 670, 870 can analyze the two-dimensional representation to determine all off he moving properties of the target 1 10 without the need for analyzing the one-dimensional aspect (such aa the intensity of the light ).

Alternatively, it is possible to configure a diagnostic system 105 to detect and record two- dimensional representations and use only the information from these two-dimensional representations to determine one or more moving properties of the target 10, In1itially, designs that use only the two-dimensional representations are described and discussed below with reference to Figs. 24 to 26, followed by a description and discussion of designs that use both the two-dimensional representations as well as the one-dimensional aspect (such as the intensity of the light) with reference to Fig. 27.

An exemplary design of a diagnostic system 2 051 that is configured to detect a two- dimensional representation (such as an image ) of the light produced from the interaction between a diagnostic probe (for example, a light beam) and the target 1 10 is shown in Fig. 21 A, and is described next. By detecting a two-dimensional representation of the light, the diagnostic system 2105 provides enough information to the control system 170 to enable all of the diagnostic capabilities, as discussed next. The diagnostic system 2105 is configured to detect the two- dimensional representation of the light produced from the interactions between the diagnostic probe and each target 1 10 that is emitted from the target delivery system 145.

For example, the control system 170 can determine a position of the current target .1 10 along any of the X, Y, and Z directions of the three dimensional coordinate system within close range (for example, 1 mm) of a focus of the current radiation pulse 135. The control system 170 can determine a velocity of the current target 1 10 along any of the X, Y, and Z directions, and at the same time adjust one or more characteristics of the radiation pulse 135 that interacts with, the present target 110' prior to another target 1 10 entering the extended target region 1 15. This detection and analysis can be performed for every target 1 10 and if the actuation system for modifying the radiation pulse 135 is fast enough, the feedback control can he performed on the same target 1 10 for which detection and analysis is performed. The control system 170 can determine the moving properties (such as the position) of the current target 1.10 along any of the X, Y, or Z directions. The control system i 70 can determine the moving property or properties of each target 1 10 along any or all of the X, Y, and Z directions, and adjust one or more

characteristics of the radiation pulse 335 that interacts with the present target 1 10' for each target 3 1 0 that eaters the extended target region 1 15. Thus, this detemiiimtion and adjustment is made at a repetition rate that is greater than or equal to the rate at which targets 1 10 are released from the target delivery system 145. For example, this repetition rate can be at least 50 KHz. This means that the determination of the moving properties of the current target an1d 1 t0he adjustment of the radiation pulse 135 that interacts with the present target 1 10' occurs within a 20 μs time frame. The control system 170 can. determine dynamics and motion of the target 1 10 near the focus of the radiation pulse 135 to observe effects of the plasma pushhack force 125 on. the target 110.

The diagnostic system 2105 includes a probe module 2100 that is designed to produce at least two diagnostic probes 2120, 2130. While only two diagnostic probes 2 i 20, 2130 are shown in Fig, 21 A, it is possible for more than two to be used. A diagnostic probe 2120 or 2130 can interact with the target 1 10 at one or more locations along its trajectory TR and at one or more times. For example, the diagnostic probe 2.120 can interact wi th the target 1.1.0 at a first, location L-n-u and a first time Tzm-, and the diagnostic probe 2130 can interact with the target 1 10 at a second location LT¾2 and a second time Tim- As another example, the diagnostic probe 2120 can interact with the target .1 10 at both the first time T2120 and the second time T2130 and the diagnostic probe 2130 can interact with the target 110 a btoth the first time T 21 20 and the second time T 21 30.

The probe module 2100 can be an imaging module that produces diagnostic light beams as the diagnostic probes 2120, 2130. In some implementations, the probe module 2100 is a. laser source that produces, as the diagnostic probes 2120, 2130, diagnostic laser beams. The wavelength of the diagnostic probes 2120, 2130 impacts or affects other aspects of the interaction with the target 1 10. For example, the wavelength of the diagnostic probes 2120, 21.30 can impact whether the target 1 10 is scattered. As another example, any one or more of the responsivity, the optical resolution, the sampling rate, the frame rate, and the exposure time of the detection module 2135 (discussed below) depends on the wavelength of the diagnostic probes 2120, 2130.

The diagnostic laser beams can have a wavelength that is distinct from the wavelength of the radiation pulse 135 and can have a power that is low enough to prevent or reduce any interference between the diagnostic light beam 2120, 2130 and the target 1 10. The wavelength of the diagnostic probes 2120, 2130 is also selected to avoid or reduce overlap with, the emission lines of the plasma 130 produced in the target space 120. The wavelength of the diagnostic probes 2120, 2.130 should be selected to match with or coincide with the wavelength bands of any of the optical elements through which the diagnostic probes 2120, 2130 are directed.

Moreover other aspects, such as the beam quality, stability, power level, of the diagnostic probes 2120, 2130 can be selected or adjusted depending on the application. The wavelength of the diagnostic probes 2120, 2130 is selected to enable a high signal to noise ratio that is recorded by the detection module 2135 (discussed below). For example, the wavelength of the diagnostic light beam 2120, 2130 can be in the infrared region, such as about 1030 nm, and can have a power of about 9.6 W. The diagnostic light beams 2120, 2.130 can be laser light. In other examples, the wavelength of the diagnostic light beam 2120, 2130 is in the visible region.

The diagnostic light beams 2120, 2130 can be coihmated beams of light (as shown in Figs. 24 and 25) or can be beams of light that are focused on or near the trajectory TR (as shown in Figs. 26 and 27). The diagnostic light beams 2120, 2130 can be directed along a direction that is in a plane defined by the X and Y directions (the XY plane ). As shown in the example of Fig. 21 A, the diagnostic light beams 2120, 2130 are directed along the -Y direction. The diagnostic light beams 2120, 2130 can overlap with each other depending on their directions. Moreover, it- is possible for the diagnostic light beams 2120, 2130 to overlap with each other (as shown in Fig, 24) or to overlap with the target 110 at a plurality of locations and times as it travels along a distance along the trajectory TR, as shown in Figs, 24 and 25.

The probe module 2100 can be an adjustable continuous wave laser producing diagnostic light beams 2120, 2130 at an infrared wavelength for example, between 1020 nm and 1070 nm, and a power of up to SOW, with a beam quality approaching 1. The laser can be a fiber laser source. In other implementations, the probe module 2100 can be a pulsed laser.

In some implementations, the diagnostic light beams 2120, 2130 can he continuously produced as a curtain that crosses the trajectory TR. In other implementations, the diagnostic light, beams 2120, 2130 are produced only at certain times, for example, only when the target 1 10 is expected to be at a specific location along the trajectory TR. In this case, the probe module 2100 can be triggered (or pulsed) by a timing signal from the control system to produce one or more diagnostic light beams 2120, 2130 at specific times,

The diagnostic system 2105 also includes a detection module 2135 that records one or more two-dimensional representations 2141 , 21 51 of light 2140. 2150 that is produced due to the interaction between the current target 1 10 and one or more of the diagnostic probes 2120, 2130 as the target 1 10 travels along the trajectory TR through the extended target region 1.15. The detection module 2135 includes one or more two-dimensional recording devices 2135A. 2135B for recording the two-dimensional representations 2141 , 2151. The detection module 2135 can also include other optical elements such as imaging lenses or mirrors, as needed, as discussed below.

Although only two recording devices 21.35 A, 2135B are shown in. Fig. 21 A, more than two or only one recording device can be used, depending on the application. Specifically, at least two recording devices 2135A, 2Ί35Β are used in order to gather enough information about the motion of the target 110 to reconstruct the trajectory of the target 1 10 in all three directions (X, Y, and Z). if reasonable assumptions regarding the acceleration of the target 1 10 are made, then the trajectory of the target 1 10 in all three directions (X, Y, and Z) can be reconstructed with just one recording device.

In some implementations in which the diagnostic probes 2120, 2130 are light beams, the light 2140, 2150 that is produced is the diagnostic light beam 2120, 2 i 30 that traverses or passes across the target 1 10, such traversed light including a shadow of the target 1 1.0 obscuring at least a portion of the diagnostic light beam, as shown in Fig, 24. This sort of arrangement produces shadows within the traversed light beam as the two-dimensional representations 2.141, 215.1 and can be considered a shadowgraph arrangement. In such an implementation, the two-dimensional recording device 2135.A, 2135B can be arranged on a side of the target trajectory TR that is opposite to the side on which the probe module 2100 is arranged.

In other implementations in which the diagnostic probes 2120, 2130 are light beams, the light 2140, 21.50 that is produced is the light that is scattered or reflected from the current target 1 10 as it travels along its trajectory TR, as shown in Figs. 25-27. In such an implementation., the two-dimensional recording device 2.135 A, 2135B can be arranged on. a side of the target trajectory TR that is the same side on which the probe module 2100 is arranged.

Each two-dimensional recording device 2135 A, 2135 B can be a camera that captures the two-dimensional representation 2141 , 2151 ( whic h can be considered an image) of the light 2140, 2150. Thus, for example, the two-dimensional recording device 2135 A, 2135B includes a two-dimensional array of thousands or millions of photo-sites (or pixels). The light 2140, 2150 is directed onto the photo-sensitive area of each pixel where it is converted into elec trons that are collected into a voltage signal and the array of these signals- forms the two-dimensional image 2.141, 215.1. The recording device 2.135 A is arranged so that its two-dimensional array is in a plane defined by the following two axes: a first axis, which is the Z direction, and a second axis, which is an axis lying in the XY plane. Thus, the normal to the two-dimensional array of the recording device 2135 A is in the XY plane. As shown in the example of Fig. 21 A, the recording device 2135 A is arranged so that its two-dimensional array is in the XZ plane and its normal is along the Y direction. Similarly, the recording device 2.135B is arranged so that its two- dimensional array is in a. plane defined by a first axis which is the Z direction and a second axis, which is an axis in the XY plane. Thus, the normal to the two-dimensional, array of the recording device 2135B is in the XY plane. As shown in the example of Fig. 21 A, the recording device 2.135B is also arranged so that its two-dimensional array is in the XZ plane and its normal is along the Y direction. Other exemplary arrangements are shown below.

The two-dimensional recording device 2135 A, 2135B can be controlled by the control system 1 /0 to record an image at a specific time. The two-dimensional recording device 21.35.4, 2135 B sends the representations 2341 , 2151 to the control system 170 for analysis. The control system 170 analyzes the two-dimensional representations 2141, 2.151 to determine moving properties of the target 1 10 along one or more of the X, Y, and Z directions.

The recording devices 2135.4, 2135B should be "high speed" cameras that are fast enough to detect, record, and output the two-dimensional image 2141 , 2151 of the light 2140, 2150 for a current, target 1 10 before the next target enters the extended target region 115 but after the prior target 1 1 OP has interacted with the prior radiation pulse 135P, The frame rate of the camera should be greater than or equal to the rate at which the target, delivery system 145 generates targets to enable the diagnostic system 2105 to perform an analysis on every target directed toward the target space 120. Thus, if the target delivery rate is 50 kHz, then the frame rate of the camera should be greater than or equal to 50 kHz. An example of a suitable high speed camera 2135 A, 2135B is a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS). The cameras can have an exposure time of about 300 μs, an exemplary resolution of about

1696x1 710 pixels, a pixel size of about 8 prn, and a gain of 1 ,0.

In other implementations, the camera 2135 A, 2135B is a charged coupled device (CCD) or infrared camera. As discussed herein, the diagnostic system 2105 is useful for detenmniag.the moving properties of the target 110 in the ex tended target region 1.1 5. Nevertheless, the diagnostic system 2105 can be useful for deter mining the moving properties of the target 1 10 at locations other than those within the extended target region 1 15. Thus, in other implementations, the diagnostic system 2105 is set up in a region outside of the extended target region 1 15, For example, in such an implementation, the diagnostic system 2105 is set up so that the diagnostic probes 2120, 2130 interact with the target 1 10 either completely or partially in the first region 165, which is between the extended target region 1 15 and the target delivery system 145. The first region 165 can be considered as a region in which the plasma pusliback forces 125 have a much lower or insignificant effect on the current target 1 10.

As discussed above, the target 110 interacts with one or more of the diagnostic probes 2120, 2130 at two locations, namely, the first location LTRI at the first time T2120 and the second location L TR 2 at the second time Tim- By performing an interaction between the target 1 10 and one or more diagnostic probes 2120, 2130 at two locations, the control system 170 can derive the position ΡΙ(Χ,Υ,Ζ) of the target 1 10 in the X, Y, and Z directions of the chamber 175 at the location Lmi and the position P2(X,Y,Z) of the target 1 10 in the X, Y, and Z directions of the chamber 1 75 at the location Lire- Specifically, the positions Ρ1(Χ,Υ,Ζ) and P2(X,Y,Z) of the target 1 10 within the chamber 175 can be determined by first identifying the location of one or more regions of interest (RO ' f) within the two-dimensional images 2141 , 2151 captured by the sensors of the recording devices 2135 A , 2135B. The positions Ρ1(Χ,Υ,Ζ) and P2(X,Y,Z) of the target 1 10 are calculated using one or more of the following data: the one or more regions of interest (ROIs) in the recorded images, the time that tire target 1 10 crosses the first location Lmj (which corresponds to the time that the target 1 10 interacts with the diagnostic probe 2120), the time that the target 110 crosses the second location Lm (which corresponds to the time that the target 1 10 interacts with the diagnostic probe 2130), and the respective planes of the sensors of the recording devices 2135 A, 2135B, The plane of the sensor 2135 A is defined by two lines: a line along the Zs direction, which is parallel with the Z direction of the chamber 175, and a line along a direction in the Xs-Y s plane, in which the Xs direction is parallel with the X direction of the chamber 1 75 and the Ys direction is parallel with the Y direction of the chamber 175,

With reference to Fig, 2 IB, the one or more regions of interest (ROIs) within an image correspond to the pixels in the image at which the light 2140, 2150 strikes the sensor of the respective recording devices 2 USA. 2135B. For example, with reference to Fig. 2 I B, an exemplary representation 2151. captured by the camera 2I35B is shown. In this example, the control system 170 identifies a single ROI that represents the area within the image that corresponds to the location of the target 1 10 as it passes across the location LJR2. The control system 170 analyzes this representation 2151 and determines the center moment of the ROi which can be referred to as the centroid. The center moment of the ROI can be designated as C(Xs,Ys ; Zs).

For example, the centroid of the ROI along the Y direction could be given by this calculation: Centroid(Y) where mi is the value of the voltage or current at pixel i and Yi

is the coordinate of pixel i and 1 is contained within the ROL A similar calculation can be performed for the X and Z directions. Moreover, a similar analysis is performed for the representation 2141 captured by the camera 21.35A.

Once the center moment of the ROI is set, the control system 170 defines the complete ROI he adjusting the number of pixel rows and columns that are read out, the number of pixels that are read out depending on the frame rate of the recording de vice 2135 A, 2135B. The ROI can be defined to match the volume of the target 1 10 that is being viewed.

Once the control system 170 identifies each ROi within the representation 2151, the control system 170 analyzes the ROI to determine the position P2 of the target 1 10 along the X, Y, and Z directions at the location .L-J-R2 within the chamber 175. For example, the control system 170 could determine a center moment (such as a centroid) C(Xs,Ys,Zs) of each. ROI along each of the Xs, Ys, and Zs directions, and once each centroid C(Xs,Ys,Zs) is determined, the control system 170 can estimate the position P2 of the target 1 10 along the X, Y, and Z directions at the location LTR2 of the chamber 175.

The position P2 of the target 1 10 along the Z direction of the chamber 175 is linearly correlated with the center of the ROI (the centroid) along the Zs direction (CZs) of the sensor because the Zs direc tion of the sensor of the recording device 2135 A is parallel with the Z direction of the chamber 175, Thus, P2(Z) - Factor * CZs, where the Factor is a constant value that can depend on one or more of a size of a pixel and an optical magnification of the recording device 2135B or 2135 A.

The position ¥2 of the target 1 10 along the X direc ti on of the chamber 175 and the position P2 of the target 1 1.0 along the Y direc tion of the chamber 175 can be estimated using the centroid taken along the Xs-Ys direction (CXsYs). However, because tire centroid along the Xs- Ys direction CXsYs lies in the Xs-Ys plane, it is not possible to determine the position P2 of the target 1 10 along the X direction of the chamber 1 75 and the position P2 of the target 1 10 along the Y direction of the chamber 175 without additional information,

In some implementations, the additional information that is used for determining the position P2 along both the X direction and the Y direction of the chamber 175 includes obtaining an image of the target 1 10 at the location Lrsi at a second recording device (such as recording device 2135 A) that has a sensor that is in a plane that is distinct from the plane of the sensor of the recording device 2135B. in other implementations the additional information that, is used could be a time difference between the time T 2 120 that the target 1 10 crosses the location LTRI and the time Tim that the target 1 10 crosses the location LTR2-

Other additional information that is needed to transform the values of the centroid at the sensor plane of the recording device 2Ί35Β (or 2135 A) to the coordinate system of the chamber 1.75 includes the angle at which the recording device 2I35B (and 2135 A) is positioned relati ve to the X and Y directions of the chamber 175, This value is a known value and can be measured or determined when the recording devices 2135 A, 2135B are set up in the chamber 175.

Once the positions ΡΙ(Χ,Υ,Ζ) and P2(X,Y,Z) are determined, the control system 170 can derive the average velocity V(X,Y,Z) of the target 110 in the X, Y, and Z directions between the locations LTRI and Lnu, as follows. The average velocity V(X) in the X direction is given by [P2(X) -P1(X)]/[T2.130-T2120]; the average velocity V(Y) in the Y direction is given by [P2(Y) -Pl(Y)]/[T2130-T2120]; and the average velocity V(Z) in tire Z direction is given by [P2(Z) -P1.(Z)]/[T2 B0-T2120],

In another exemplary implementation, the target 1 10 interacts with one or more of the diagnostic probes 2120, 2130 (or a third diagnostic probe not shown) at a third location L mi that is distinct from the .first location LTRI and the second location Lim. For example, the third location L-J-RS could be between the second location LJR2 and the target space 120 along the trajectory TR. This additional interaction is recorded by the detection module 2135. The control system 170 can derive additional information about the moving properties of the target 1 10. For example, the control system 170 can derive the position P3(X,Y,Z) of the target 1 10 in the X, Y, and Z directions at the third location Lny. The control system 1.70 can also derive the acceleration Α(Χ,Υ,Ζ) of the target 110 along each of the X, Y, and Z directions, using the following three linear equations.

The first equation provides the relationship between the position of the target 1 10 along the X direction at the location LTEO, P3(X), and the acceleration A23(X) of the target 1 10 along the X direction between the location LTRS and the location him as follows;

is the time it takes

the target 1 10 to travel from the location Lrm to the location I/no.

The second equation provides the relationship between the position of the target 1 10 along the Y direction at the location L^, P3(Y), and the acceleration A23(Y} of the target 1 10 along the Y direction as follows:

is the time it

takes the target 1 10 to travel from the location LTRS to the location Lr¾3- The third equation provides the relationship between the position of the target 1 10 along the Z direction at the location and the acceleration A23(Z) of the target 1 10 along

the Z direction as follows:

is the time it takes

the target 1 10 to travel from the location LTR? to the location Lmj.

These three linear equations can be solved for A23(X), A23(Y), and A23(Z). This exemplary approach that uses linear equations can be extended to any number of locations L and posiiions P(X,Y,Z) to obtain additional data for determining the trajectory of the target 110.

Referring to Fig. 22, an exemplary control system 2270 is shown. The control system 2270 is configured to control the diagnostic system 2105, analyze information from the diagnostic system 2105, and determine how to modify aspects of the light source 100 based on this analysis. To this end, the control system 2270 includes a diagnostic sub-controller 2200 that includes a trigger source 2271 , an analysis module 2272, and a decision module 2274. The output of the decision module 2274 is sent to one or more of the optical source sub-controller 2205, the beam delivery sub-controller 2210, the target delivery sub-controller 2215, and other sub-control lers 2220 that can control other aspects of the light source .100. The output of the decision module 2274 can also be sent to a probe sub-controller 2212, which controls operation of the probe module 2100. The trigger source 2271 can be any suitable source that, provides one or more digital trigger signals to the diagnostic system 2105 in order to instruct one or more components of the diagnostic system 2105 to operate. In some implementations, the trigger scarce 2271 is associated with the release of the target 1 10 from the target delivery system 145. In other implementations, the trigger scarce 2271 is associated with an output from a photon detection device such as a photodiode placed along the trajectory TR to detect light scattered from the target 1 10 at a specific location, hi such an .implementation, the trigger source 2271 could include a discriminator that receives the output from the photodiode and outputs one or more digital time stamp signals. The trigger signal or signals from the trigger source 2271 are supplied to the detection module 2135 in order to instruct the one or more two-dimensional recording devices 2 135A, 2135B when to record the two-dimensional representations. It is also possible for the trigger source 2271 to include a time delay signal that is added to each trigger signal before outputting to the detection module 2135. depending on the initiation of the trigger signal For example, if the trigger source 2271 receives the output from a photodiode for a prior target 11 OP, then a time delay signal can be added to each trigger signal in order to operate the detection module 2135 to record light only when the current target 1 1.0 passes the diagnostic probes 2120, 2130.

Moreover, each trigger signal from the trigger source 227.1. can have a length or duration, that is variable or adjustable, depending on how long the recording devices 2135A, 2Ϊ35Β in the detection module 2135 should be recording the light produced from the interaction between the target 1 10 and the diagnostic probes 2120, 2.130, Thus, the duration of each trigger signal from the trigger source 2271 acts as a shutter on the recording devices 2135 A, 2135B.

Referring to Fig. 22, the analysis module 2272 receives the two-dimensional

representations (the images) from the detection module 2135, and performs processing on the images. The analysis module 2272 includes various sub-modules that are configured to perform various types of analysis on the images. For example, the analysis module 2272 can include an input sub-module 2300 that receives the images from the detection module 2135 and converts the data into a format suitable for processing. The analysis module 2272 can include a preprocessing sub-module 2305 that prepares the images from the detection module 2135 (for example, removing background noise, filtering the images, and gain compensation). The analysis module 2272 can include an image sub-module 2310 that processes the image data such as identifying one or more regions of interest (ROIs) within, an image, where each ROl corresponds to a location of the target 110 along its trajectory TR. The image sub-module 2310 also calculates an area of each RQI in the image and calculates a cemroid of each regi on of interest. The analysis module 2272 can include an output sab-module 2315 that prepares the calculated data (such as the area and centroid of the ROIs) for output to the decision module 2274.

The decision module 2274 determines the one or more moving properties of the target .1 10 based on the output from the analysts module 2272, and determines whether any of the moving properties are outside an acceptable range. The decision module 2274 also determines whether other aspects of the light source 100 need to be adjusted if any of the moving properties are outside of an acceptable range.

Referring io Fig. 24, an exemplary diagnostic system 2405 is designed in a shadowgraph arrangement in which light illuminates the target 1.1.0 from one side of the target .1 10 while the imaging is performed at the other side of the target 1 10. The diagnostic system 2405 includes a probe module 2400 and a detection module 2435.

The probe module 2400 includes two or more light sources 2402, 2404, each light source

2402, 2404 configured to produce and direct a respective diagnostic light beam 2420, 2430 toward the trajectory TR. The diagnostic light beam 2420, 2430 in this example is expanded along a transverse direction to the respective axis A2 and A4 of the light beam 2420, 2430 and is collimated by use of a respective refractive optic 2412, 2414. The light sources 2402, 2404 can be continuous wave laser sources. In this example, each diagnostic light beam 2420, 2430 interacts with the target 110 as it travels along a probe distance Dp of its trajectory TR. The probe distance Dp has an extent that enables the detection module 2435 to record light produced from the interaction between the diagnostic light beam 2420, 2430 and the target 1.10 at a plurality of locations along the trajectory TR. Thus, in the example of Fig. 24, the interaction between the target 1 10 and each diagnostic light beam 2420, 2430 produces light 2140, 21.50, respectively, that, is recorded at two times, tl, which corresponds to the target passing through location Lmi, and t.2, which corresponds to the target passing through location LTR2. Although two recording locations are shown in Fig. 24, it is possible to accurately determine moving properties of the target 1 10 by recording at only one location or recording at three or more locations, depending on how much information about the moving properties of the target 1 10 is desired. The detection module 2435 includes two or more two-dimensional recording devices 2435A and 2435B that are arranged on a side of the trajectory TR that is opposite to a side on which the light sources 2402, 2404 are arranged. In this way, the recording device 2435A is placed to record a two-dimensional representation 2441 of the light 2440 that is produced from the interaction between the diagnostic light beam 2420 and the target 1 10, and the recording device 2435B is placed to record a two-dimensional representation 2451 of the light 2450 that is produced from the interaction between the diagnostic light beam 2430 and the target 110. The recording device 2435 A is positioned so that the normal to its sensor plane is at an angle oeA relative to the X direction of the chamber 175 and the recording device 24358 is positioned so that the normal to its sensor plane is at an ang le oB relati ve to the X direction of the chamber 175.

There are two ways to arrange the timing of the production of the diagnostic light beam 2420, 2430 and the recording of the representations 2441 , 2451 at the respective recording devices 2435 A, 2435 B. in both ways, the recording device 2435 A records the representation 2441 of the light. 2440 and the recording devic e 2435 B records th e represen tation 2451. of the light 2450.

In a first way, the diagnostic light beam 2420, 2430 is continuously produced and directed to traverse the trajectory TR. The shutters on the recording devices 2435 A, 2435B are configured so that the representations 2441 , 2451 are only recorded at two times for a particular target; the first time occurs when the target 110 passes the location LTRJ (at which point, the shutters are briefly opened) and the second time occurs when the target 1 SO passes the location i-?R2 (at which point the shutters are briefly opened).

In a second way, the diagnostic light beam 2420, 2430 is pulsed to produce light at two times; first when the target 1 10 passes the location L ou and second when the target passes the location LTRJ- The shutters on the recording devices 2435A, 2435B are open long enough so that the recording device 2435 A records the representation 2441. which includes the light 2440 produced at both times from the pulsed diagnostic beam 2420 as it interacts with the target .1 10 at locations LTR J and LTR S , and the recording device 2435B records the representation 2451 , which includes the light 2450 produced at both times from the pulsed the diagnostic beam 2430 as it interacts with the target 1 50 at both locations L TRS and Lma- The presence of the target 110 as it passes across location LTRI shows up in the representation 2441 as a shadow 2442 formed by the target 1.10 obscuring the diagnostic light beam 2420. The presence of the target 1 10 as it passes across the location LTRI also shows up in the representation 2451 as a shadow 2452 formed by the target 1 10 obscuring the diagnostic light beam 2430. Similarly, the presence of the target 1 10 as it passes across location hmi shows up in the representation 2441 as a shadow 2443 formed by the target 1 10 obscuring the diagnostic light beam 2420. The presence of the target 110 as it passes across the location LTRS also shows up in the representation 2451 as a shadow 2453 formed by the target 1 10 obscuring the diagnostic light beam 2430.

Referring to Fig. 25, an exemplary diagnostic system 2505 is designed in a scatter imaging arrangement in which imaging is performed at a side of the target 1 10 that is the same side at which light illuminates the target 1 .10. The diagnostic system 2505 includes a probe module 2500 and a detection module 2535.

The probe module 2500 includes a light source 2502 that is configured to produce and direct a diagnostic light beam 2520 toward the trajectory TR. The diagnostic light beam 2520 is expanded along its transverse direction to its axis and is coOimated by use of a refractive optic 2512. The light source 2502 can be a continuous wave laser. The diagnostic light beam 2520 interacts with the target 1 10 as it travels along a probe distance Dp of its trajectory TR. The probe distance Dp has an extent that enables the detection module 2535 to record Kaht 2540A. 2540B. 2550A, 25 SOB produced from the interaction between the diagnostic light beam 2520 and the target 1 10 at a plurality of locations LTRI and I,n¾2 that correspond to times t l and t2,

respectively, along the trajectory TR. Although two recording locations are shown in Fig, 25, it is possible to accurately determine moving properties of the target 1 10 by recording at only one location or recording at three or more locations, depending on how much information about the moving properties of the target 1 10 i s desired.

The detection module 2535 includes two or more two-dimensional recording devices 2535A and 2535B that are arranged on the same side as the light source 2502. In this way, the recording device 2535 * 4 is placed to record a two-dimensional representation 2541 of the light 2540A produced from the interaction between the diagnostic light beam 2520 and the target 1 10 at the location L f -u · and the light 2540B produced from the interaction between the diagnostic light beam 2520 and the target 1 10 at the location Lm. Additionally, the recording device 2535B is placed to record a two-dimensional representation 2551 of the light 2550A produced from the interaction between the diagnostic light beam 2520 and the target 1 .10 at the Location LTKI and the light 2550B produced front the interaction between the diagnostic light beam 2520 and the target 1 10 at the location Li¾2- Similar to the discussion above, there are two primary ways to time the recording and imaging performed by the diagnostic system 2505. In a first way, the light beam 2520 is continuously produced and directed to traverse the trajectory TR. The sLtutters on the recording devices 2535A. 2535B are configured so that the representations 2541 , 255 are only1 recorded at two limes for a particular targets; the first time occurs at tl when, the target 1.10 passes the location L RA (at which point the shatters are briefly opened to acquire data) and the second time occurs at t2 when the target. 110 passes the Location LTR2 (at which point the shutters are briefly opened again to acquire data). IT more locations are being recorded then, the shutters would be configured to open for those additional locations, to a second way, the light beam 2520 is pulsed to produce light at the two times tl and f.2 and the shutters on the recording devices 253SA, 2535 B are open long enough to cover the entire probe distance Dp and thus capture the interactions at both pulses.

The presence of the target 110 as it passes across location LTRI shows up in the representation 2551 as a bright spot 2552 formed .from the light beam 2520 reflecting or scattering off the target 1 1.0 toward the recording device 2535B, The presence of the target 1.10 as it passes across location LTRI also shows up in the representation 2541, as a bright spot 2542 formed from the light beam 2520 reflecting or scattering off the target 1 10 toward the recording device 2535 A. The presence of the target 1 10 as it pa sses across location hj&2 show s up i n the representation 2551 as a bright spot 2553 formed .from the light beam 2520 reflecting or scattering off the target 1 10 toward the recording device 2535B. The presence of the target 1 10 as it passes across location. LJRJ also shows up in the representation.2541 as a bright spot 2543 formed from the light beam 2520 reflecting or scattering off the target 1 10 toward the recording device 2535A,

Referring to Fig. 26, in another implementation, the diagnostic system 2605 is designed so that the diagnostic light beams 2620, 2625, 2630 are focused on or near the trajectory TR. The diagnostic system 2605 includes a probe module 2600 that includes a single light source 2602 that produces a light beam 2610. The diagnostic system 2605 produces the diagnostic Hght beams 2620, 2625, 2630 that serve as diagnostic probes.

To this end, the probe module 2600 also includes a splitting optic 2615 and a refractive optic 2617 such as a focusing lens. The light beam 2610 is directed through the splitting optic 2615, which splits the light beam 2610 into a plurality of light beams, which travel along distinct directions and are directed through the retractive optic 2617 to produce the diagnostic tight beams 2620, 2625, 2630. The diagnostic tight beams 2620, 2625, 2630 are directed toward the trajectory TR of the current target 1 10. The splitting optic 2615 can split the light beam 1 10 so that the diagnostic light beams 2620, 2625, 2630 are separated by a set distance (for example, 0.65 mm) at the trajectory TR. Moreover, the refractive optic 2617 can ensure that the foci (or beam waist) of each of the diagnostic tight beams 2620, 2625, 2630 overlaps the trajectory TR.

Because of the design of the splitting optic 2615 and the refractive optic 2637, the diagnostic light beams 2620, 2625, 2630 are directed so thai they fan out toward the trajectory TR and intersect the trajectory TR at different and distinct angles. For example, the diagnostic light beam 2625 can intersect the trajectory TR at a right or approximately right angle to the -X direction. The diagnostic tight beam 2620 can intersect the trajectory TR at an angle that is less than 90° relative to the -X direction and the diagnostic light beam 2630 can intersect the trajectory TR at an angle that is greater than 90° relative to the -X direction. Each of the diagnostic light beams 2620. 2625, 2630 can be Gaussian beams so that the transverse profile of t he opt ical intensity of each diagnostic light beam 2620, 2625, 2630 can be described with a Gaussian function. The beam waist of each diagnostic light beam 2620, 2625. 2630 can be configured to overlap at the trajectory TR or the -X direction.

In some implementations, the splitting optic 2615 is a diffractive optic such as a rectangular or binary phase diffraction grating that produces discrete and spatially spaced replicas of the input light beam 2610, The separation between the diagnostic light beams 2620, 2625, 2630 can be adjusted or customized depending on the rate at which the targets are released from the target delivery system 145 as well as the size and material of the targets. In some implementations, the splitting optic 2615 is a diffractive optic such as a binary phase diffraction grating.

it is also possible to produce more than three diagnostic light beams 2620. 2625, 2630 with the splitting optic 2615. By producing so many diagnostic light beams, it is possible to record or detect die position of the current target 1 10 through the extended target region 1 15, thus allowing for a more accurate determination of the velocity and acceleration of the current target 1 10 and also providing a tool for understanding the dynamics of the current target 1 10 as a result of the plasma pnshback forces 125,

While a diffractive optic is described above, it is alternatively possible to use other kinds of optics as the splitting optic 2615. For example, the splitting optic 2615 can alternatively or additionally include any one or more of a birefringent crystal, an intensity beam splitter, a polarization beam splitter, or a diehtoic beam splitter.

The diagnostic system 2605 also includes a detection module 2635 that receives the light 2640, 2645, 2650 reflected from the current target 1 10 as it passes across the respective diagnostic light beams 2620, 2625, 2630, The detection module 2635 includes an imaging lens 2637 and a two-dimensional recording device 2636. The imaging lens 2637 captures as much of the light 2640, 2645, 2650 as possible and focuses it to an image plane of the image recording device 2636.

The image recording device 2636 is a camera that captures a two-dimensional representation (image) of each reflected light 2640, 2645, 2650. The camera 2636 outputs the set of two-dimensional images to the control system 2270, which uses the set of two-dimensional images to determine moving properties of the target 110 along not only the X direction but also the Y and Z directions, as discussed above, lire camera 2636 should be a "high speed" camera in that it is fast enough to detect, record, and output the two-dimensional image of each reflected light 2640, 2645, 2650 for a particular target 1 .10 prior to the next target entering the extended target region 1 15.

The camera 2636 captures each image of the reflected light 2640, 2645, 2650 and outputs the set of images to the control system 2270, which analyzes the image set and calculates a centxoid of each ROi within the images so as to determine a position of the target 1 10 along each of the X, Y, and Z directions of the chamber 175, as discussed above.

Referring to Fig. 27, a diagnostic system 2705 is designed to detect both a one- dimensional characteristic or value (such as the number of photons, as discussed above) and two- dimensional representations of the light produced from the interaction between the diagnostic probe and the target 3 10. To this end, the diagnostic system 2705 is designed similarly to the diagnostic system 2605 except that its detection module 2735 is designed to split the light 2740, 2745, 2750 so that a portion of this light, inrpinges upon a photodiode 2738 and a portion of the light impinges -upon the two-dimensional recording device 2736. 1» this way, the photodiode 2738 captures a one-dimensional aspect of each reflected light 2740, 2745 , 2750; for example, the photodiode 2738 captures the number of photons and outputs a voltage signal that corresponds to the number of photons. The photodiode 2738 operates similarl y to the photodiode of the detection module 535 described above. The two-dimensional recording device 2736 operates similarly to the recording device 2636 described above.

The control system 170 connected to the diagnostic system 2705 includes a detection sub-controller 600 or 800 such as shown in Figs. 6 and 8 tor receiving and processing the pulses from the photodiode 2738 to determine the time stamps and therefore the time differences for use in calculating the moving properties. The control system 170 connected to the diagnostic system 2705 also includes a diagnostic sub-controller 2200 such as shown in Fig. 22 for receiving and processing the images output from the two-dimensional recording device 2736. The control system 370 can determine the position P of the target 110 along the X direction of the chamber 175 at various locations along the trajectory based on the data obtained from the photodiode 2738. The control system 170 can determine the position P of the target 1. 10 along the Y and Z directions of the chamber 175 based on the data obtained from the two-dimensional recording device 2736 in a manner similar to that discussed above with respect to Figs. 21. A and 21 B.

Referring to Fig. 28, a procedure 2800 is performed by the EUV light source 100 (under control of the control system 2270} for compensating for plasma pushback forces 125 on the target 1 10. The procedure 2800 includes releasing a plurality of targets 110 along their respective a trajectory trajectories toward the target space 120 (2805).. The target space 120 is positioned to receive the plurality of radiation pulses 135. Prior to the target 110 reaching the target space 1.20 and after a prior and adjacent target Π0Ρ has interacted with a prior radiation pulse I35P in the target space 1.20, a plurality of diagnostic light probes (such as probes 21.20, 2.130) are interacted with the target 1 10 at diagnostic locations (such as locations Lmi, L? fa) along the trajectory TR of the target 1 10 (2810). Under control of the control system 2270, the detection module 2135 detects a plurality of two-dimensional representations (such as two-dimensional images) of light (such as light 2140, 2150) produced due to the interactions between the target 1 10 and the diagnostic light probes (2815). The control system 2270 analyzes the detected two-dimensional representations (for example, the images) (2820). The control system 2270 (via the decision module 2274} determines -one or more moving properties of the target 1 10 based on the analysis of the detected two-dimensional representations (2825).

The plurality of diagnostic light probes that interact with the target .1 10 at the diagnostic locations (2810) can be any of the diagnostic light probes described herein, such as, for example, the diagnostic light probes 2420, 2430 of Fig. 24, the diagnostic light probe 2520 of Fig. 25, or the diagnostic light probes 2620, 2625, 2630 of Fig. 26.

The control, system. 2270 analyzes the two-dimensional images as follows. For example, the input sub-module 2300) can convert the data of the images into a format suitable for processing. The pre-processing sub-module 2305 prepares the images by, for example, removing background noise, filtering the images, and amplifying the signals. " The image sub-module 2310 determines one or more regions of interest (ROIs) within each image, where each ROl corresponds to a location of the target 1 10 along its trajectory TR. The image sub-module 2310 also calculates an encircled energy of each ROI in the image and calculates a centroid of each region of interest. The output sub-module 2315 prepares the calculated data (such as the area and centroid of the ROIs) for output to the decision module 2274.

The decision module 2274 also determines whether any of the moving properties are outside an acceptable range (2830) as wel l as determine whether aspects of the light source 100 need to be adjusted if any of the moving properties are outside of an acceptable range (2835). For example, the decision module 2274 may determine that a timing of the radiation pulse 135 or a direction at which the radiation pulse 1.35 travels needs to be adjusted so that the radiation pulse 135 and the present target 1 10' efficiently interact with each other (2840). The decision module 2274 may determine that an aspect of the target delivery system 145 n eeds to be adjusted to compensate for some long term dynamic issue with the targets 1 .10. After adjustments are made (such as at 2840), the radiation pulse 335 is directed toward the present target 3 10' while the present target 1 10 * is in the target space 120 to thereby interact the radiation pulse 135 with the present target 1 10' (2845),

The one or more mo ving properties of the targe t can be determined for any of the system coordinates; for example, the X, Y, or Z directions of the chamber 175. T he moving properties of the target 1 10 that are determined include one or more of a position, a velocity, and an acceleration of the target along any of the X, Y, or Z directions of the chamber 175, as discussed above. The detected two-dimensional image can be analyzed by identifying one or more regions of interest within the image, such regions of interest corresponding to a location of the target .1 10 within the image, and calculating a central region or moment (centroid) for each identified region of interest,

The two-dimensional representations of light can he detected and analyzed and the one or more moving properties of the target can be determined for a specific target prior to that specific target entering the target space 120, Moreover, in some implementations, the target 110 interacts with the plurality of diagnostic probes 2140, 2150 while the target 110 is being influenced by- plasma pushhack forces 125.

If a photodiode 2738 is also implemented in the diagnostic system 2705 then the procedure 2800 can also include detecting a time associated with each interaction between the target and a diagnostic probe; analyzing the detected times; and detemiiaing one or more moving properties of the target along the axial direction (X direction) based on the analysis of the detected times.

A photodiode 2738 (used in conjunction with the two-dimensional recording device

2736) can be used for the purposes of time stamping and therefore could be used to provide a trigger source 2271 of the control system 2270 for controlling timing aspec ts of the diagnostic system 2705. For example, the time stamps could be used to trigger one or more of the detection module 2735 and the probe module 2700,

Other implementations are within the scope of the following claims.

in other implementations, the moving property of the current target 1.10 that is detected is a speed of the current target 1 10, a direction or trajectory of the current target 1 10, and an acceleration of the current target 1 10,

In some implementations, the diagnostic system 105 is arranged to provide the one or more diagnostic probes 107 so that they interact with the target. 1 1.0 in the first region 165 or partially within the first region 165. For example,, the diagnostic system 2105 can be arranged in this manner.