|1.||A device for a central and automatic reading and registration of a consumer's of a group of consumers' consumption of e.g. electricity, water, gas, heat etc. through the power distribution network and comprising a central unit (11) receiving information from one or more addressable consumer locations (12) each comprising a sensor (17, 18, 19) for each form of consumption, the measuring data of said sensor being fed to a microcom¬ puter (13) for being stored, said microcomputer being connected to the central unit (11), said device further comprising means for identifying address and command codes transmitted from the central unit (11), c h a ¬ r a c t e r i z e d i n, that the central unit (11) is arranged to automatically perform alteration of charges at the consumer locations (12) by means of control signals, said consumer locations being provided with at least one indication unit (23, 2*4, 25) for in¬ dicating the present energy price.|
|2.||A device according to claim 1, c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n, that the indication unit (23, 24, 25) be¬ sides the energy price is arranged to indicate the in¬ stantaneous power consumption and/or flow and the acku mulated consumption indicated in monetary units and/or units of quantity. O ".|
The present invention refers to a device for a central and automatic reading and registration of a consumer's of a group of consumers' consumption of e.g. electricity, water, gas, heat etc. through the power distribution net¬ work and comprising a central unit receiving information from one or more addressable consumer locations each com¬ prising a sensor for each form of consumption, the measu¬ ring data of said sensor being fed to a micro-computer for being stored, said micro-computer being connected to the central unit, said device further comprising means for identifying address- and command codes transmitted from the central unit.
Background of the invention
The actual cost for producing electric energy varies very strongly between tenths of one ore (1 Skr = 100 ore) per kwH during the spring flood and night time and 15-20 δre per kwh during periods of high demand and dry years . To¬ day the consumer is charged a fixed 'energy price during the whole year based on the long-term marginal cost cal¬ culated from a co-ordination of all electric energy pro¬ ducers of the country. This pricing is not based on the actual cost, but it has hitherto been the only possible realistic pricing system.
A condition for a pricing system which charges the con¬ sumer the actual instantaneous energy cost is however a communication system between the distributor and the consumer of electric energy. Modern computer technique has made a central and automatic reading and registration
of a consumer's consumption possible at which the ordi¬ nary distribution line between the electric power station and the consumer is used as communication medium.
Summary of the invention
An object of the present invention is to provide a device for a more correct pricing of the electric energy con¬ sumption, which improves the possibilities for an optimal utilization of electric energy when it is cheapest and which therefore appeals to the economy of the consumers. further object is to considerably simplify and automatize the central reading and registration of the energy con¬ sumed. These objects have been accomplished by the facts that the central unit is arranged to automatically perfor alteration of charges at the consumer locations by means of control signals, said consumer locations being provide with at least one indication unit for indicating the pre¬ sent energy price, and by possibly indicating the in¬ stantaneous power consumption and/or flow and the accu¬ mulated consumption indicated in monetary units and/or energy units.
Description of the drawings
Figure 1 is a block diagram of a power distribution netwo between a central unit and a number of consumer locations and
Figure 2 is a block diagram of the main parts of a consum location.
Description of embodiments
In figure 1 there is shown a power distribution network including three phases R, S, T and possibly a neutral wire (not shown). To the power distribution network there
is connected a central unit 11, comprising a computer located at the electric energy distributor or producer, a great number of consumer locations 12, which can be domestic consumers or heavy consumers such as industries, workshops etc. If the three-phase voltage has to be trans¬ formed by-pass means are preferably arranged at the trans- ■ former stations, said by-pass means e.g. optically trans¬ mitting codified signal messages on the three-phase line past the transformer station. The computer located in the central unit 11 sends out digital, preferably binary control signals to all consumer locations 12 by way of the power distribution network. The control signals pre¬ ferably comprise an address part and a command part indi¬ cated by a micro-computer 13 (fig. 2) arranged in the con¬ sumer location 12. When the address part conincide with the identification code of the consumer location, which is stored in a memory 1-4, the micro-computer will decode the command part of the control signal. Said command part can e.g. consist of the command: "read the accumulated con¬ sumption since the last reading in the memory 15 and send the information back to the central unit 11 codified to¬ gether with an identification code" .
Another command from the central unit 11 can involve an increase of charges at the consumer location 12, which changes the contents in e.g. the memory 16.
The device according to the invention is adapted for cen¬ tral and automatic reading, registration and charge control not only of the consumption of electricity but also for water, gas, heat etc. The device can for this purpose be provided with sensors 17, 18 and 19, of which the sensor 17 in this embodiment comprises an electronic electricity meter, which transmits to the memory 15 the integrated consumption during a unit of time. The memories 1-4, 15 and
16 are of su-ch a kind that a voltage drop will not cause an erasure of the contents in the memories. This is accomplished by means of EAROM (electrically alterable read-only memory) for the memories actuated by the micro-computer. The memory for the identification code is achieved e.g. by electronic circuits or by a pre-pro¬ grammed ROM.
The block diagram of figure 2 only shows the essential main portions of the invention and the micro-computer doe of course contain a number of memories for programs, inte mediate storing of results etc. beside the memories shown
The electronic sensor 17 comprises the same number of tra mitter elements as the number of phases in the power distribution network, at which every transmitter element the same function as a conventional electricity meter. Su transmitters can also consist of Hall elements if the active power consumption (watt) is to be measured as in conventional electricity meters, but a much more simple signal transmission to the micro-computer 13 is achieved if the current outlet is measured instead.
Through the programme in the micro-computer 13 the sen¬ sors and the memories are read at times determined by the crystal-controlled clock of the computer. The re¬ stored data can be read on an indication table 21 located at the consumer location. Between the micro-computer 13 and the power distribution network a communication unit 2 is arranged, which comprises e .g . a modulator/demodulator, a so called modem, in which the data signals are decoded and insulated from the line voltage and transmitted to the micro-computer. Data from the consumer can besides by order from the computer of the central unit be sent back to the computer of the central unit 11 by way of the power distribution network.
The indication table 21, which is placed on a visible place at every consumer, comprises a number of displays 23, 2-1 and 25 (e.g. of LED-type) indicating different functions. The display 23 indicates e.g. the present electric energy price in Skr/kwh. The price can vary during the day and night, the season and the year as previously mentioned. The display 2-4 indicates the power consumption in watt units and the display 25 in¬ dicates the ackumulated energy cost in e.g. Skr since the last reading.
By the fact that the electric energy producer by means of control signals over the power distribution network can charge the consumer in relation to the instantaneous cost of production a more correct charging is achieved and the possibilities for optimal utilization of the resources by the producers, ^ distributers as well as by the consumers are improved. By knowing the change of the ener- by price during the night and day and the year it is possible to for economic reasons alter the time for such activities that are not continuous . For households such activities as washing, drying of washing, dish-washing, accumulation of heat etc. can be made during the period, e.g. the night, when the energy price is low. By always being aware of the energy cost the consumer is given cause to save in a quite different way than with today's electricity meters, which only indicates the energy con¬ sumed. By always being aware of the power consumption in watt units for different machines or activities a cost- conciousness is caused, which can result in a considerable saving of energy, if such activities as opening of windows, sauna bathing, switching on kitchen fans, hot-air chambers etc. are reduced to a minimum. By the device according to the invention it is thus possible to create opportunities for a remote reading, which reduces the personnel required and further lowers the energy costs.
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