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Title:
DEVICE FOR CUMULATIVE IMPACT (VARIANTS)
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2005/031248
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
This invention relates to the filed of cumulative impacting on solid media, including massive ice bulks and damaged buildings and structures with the purpose of their destruction and fire fighting, and can be used for the elimination of ice obstructions, removal of avalanches and mudflows, liquidation of the consequences of natural and man-caused disasters, and for the making of fire fighting water storage ponds.

Inventors:
Sidorov, Andrey (ul. Isaeva, 1-35 Korole, Moskovskaya obl. 0, 14107, RU)
Zonenko, Sergey (Michurinsky pr, 1-12-46 Moscow, 2, 11919, RU)
Application Number:
PCT/RU2004/000300
Publication Date:
April 07, 2005
Filing Date:
August 04, 2004
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
Sidorov, Andrey (ul. Isaeva, 1-35 Korole, Moskovskaya obl. 0, 14107, RU)
Zonenko, Sergey (Michurinsky pr, 1-12-46 Moscow, 2, 11919, RU)
International Classes:
A62C3/02; E02B15/02; A62C19/00; (IPC1-7): F42D7/00; A62C3/00; E02B15/02; F42B1/02
Foreign References:
RU2095733C11997-11-10
RU2073541C11997-02-20
RU2192609C22002-11-10
GB1243647A1971-08-25
RU2111032C11998-05-20
US4964469A1990-10-23
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Shchitov, Aleksandr (a/ya 84, Moscow, 8, 12536, RU)
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Claims:
What is claimed is a
1. Cumulative impact device comprising a case filled with a liquid or a powdered media and an explosive charge installed inside the case wherein said case has a side wall that widens towards the bottom and a convex bottom, and the surface of the bottom has at least one concavity the depth of which is not greater than the distance from the bottom surface to the section plane passing across the perimeter of the connection between the bottom and the side wall of the case.
2. Device according to Claim 1 wherein said bottom contains at least four concavities.
3. Device according to Claim 2 wherein said concavities have a regular structure.
4. Device according to Claim 1 wherein said side wall has a conical shape.
5. Device according to Claim 4 wherein, in case of conical side wall shape with a circle in the base the distance between the centers of the concavities is 40 to 80% of the radius of the circle at the connection between the bottom and the side wall of the case.
6. Device according to Claim 4 wherein, in case of pyramid side wall shape the distance between the centers of the concavities is 20 to 40% of the greatest side of the rectangle at the connection between the bottom and the side wall of the case.
7. Device according to Claims 1 wherein said concavities are produced by attaching some points of the bottom to a rigid support inside the case.
8. Device according to Claim 7 wherein said support is a perforated screen attached to the inner side of the sheath at the connection between the bottom and the side wall of the case.
9. Device according to Claim 8 wherein said support is a rigid cable to which the explosion charge is attached.
10. Device according to Claims 1 wherein said side wall of the case is made from a material that is stronger than the material of the bottom.
11. Cumulative impact device comprising a two layered sheath pulled over a frame and covered with a cover wherein said frame is in the form of a lattice structure widening in its top part and consisting of ribs converging in the bottom part of the structure. The space between the two layers of the sheath is filled with the media to be discharged, the sheath is filled with the explosive, and the top part of the cover is provided with a special element that prevents the device from overturning.
12. Device according to Claim 11 wherein said frame consists of three to twelve ribs converging in the bottom part of the structure.
13. Device according to Claim 12 wherein said frame consists of six ribs converging in the bottom part of the structure.
14. Device according to Claim 11 wherein said media to be discharged is a fine grained material.
15. Device according to Claim 11 wherein said media to be discharged is a liquid.
16. Device according to Claim 11 wherein said media to be discharged is ice.
17. Device according to Claim 11 wherein said frame is in the form of a spherical segment.
18. Device according to Claim 11 wherein said frame is in the form of a rounded top cone.
19. Device according to Claim 11 wherein said frame is made from veneer plates.
20. Device according to Claim 11 wherein said frame is made from a polymer material.
21. Device according to Claim 11 wherein said frame ribs have similar length and are equidistant.
22. Device according to Claim 21 wherein the length of said ribs is 100 to 150% of the distance between the ribs in the top part of the frame.
23. Device according to Claim 21 wherein the thickness of said frame is 5 to 20% of the distance between the ribs in the top part of the frame.
24. Device according to Claim 21 wherein said frame ribs are provided with additional connections inside the sheath.
25. Device according to Claim 21 wherein said sheath is made from tarp.
26. Device according to Claim 21 wherein said sheath is made from multilayered paper.
27. Device according to Claim 21 wherein said sheath is made from polymer film.
28. Device according to Claim 21 wherein said cover is in the form of a wooden sheet.
29. Device according to Claim 21 wherein said cover is hollowed and filled with a fine grained material.
30. Device according to Claim 21 wherein said cover has an opening for the passage of a detonator into the explosive.
31. Device according to Claim 21 wherein said special element that prevents the device from overturning is in the form of a rod the length of which is greater than half the length of the greatest linear dimension of the cover.
32. Device according to Claim 21 wherein said special element that prevents the device from overturning is in the form of a tripod the height of which is greater than half the length of the greatest linear dimension of the cover.
Description:
Device for Cumulative Impact (Variants) This invention relates to the field of cumulative impacting on solid media, including massive ice bulks and damaged buildings and structures with the purpose of their destruction and fire fighting, and can be used for the elimination of ice obstructions, removal of avalanches and mudflows, liquidation of the consequences of natural and man-caused disasters, and for the making of fire fighting water storage ponds.

Known is fire fighting device (GB Patent Application 2020971, 1979) comprising a case with an opening for the discharge of fire extinguishing media, a charge for the generation of said fire extinguishing media and a unit for the activation of said charge.

In case of fire the charge activation unit (a pyrocartridge) acts to explode said charge, and the fire extinguishing media produced as a result of the explosion (aerosol) is discharged to the fire area through said opening in the device case.

Disadvantage of said device is the possibility of initiating another fire site due to the operation of the charge activation unit.

Known is fire fighting device (RU Patent 2073541,1997). Said device comprises an elastic case filled with a fire extinguishing media confined in a contained, means for the holding of said container over the fire area and a means for the destruction of said case, wherein said contained is made of an elastic mesh material and said means for destruction is in the form of an explosive charge installed inside said elastic case in the center and submerged in the fire extinguishing media.

In its basic embodiment said device comprises an elastic case in the form of a bag made, for example, from polyethylene. The case is filled with the fire extinguishing media, for example, liquid one, and placed in a contained in the form of elastic metallic mesh.

The means for case destruction is in the form of an explosive charge installed inside said elastic case and submerged in the fire extinguishing media. The means for holding the device is in the form of a cover to the face of which the mesh container and the elastic case are pressed. The means for holding the device has a filling throat with an opening that is covered with a threaded cover in working condition, said cover having an opening for passing a cord for explosive charge activation. The mesh case has openings evenly distributed across the perimeter of the cell, and the matching areas of the elastic case extend through these openings.

Said device operates as follows. The explosive charge activation signal passes through the cord. The explosion results in an abrupt increase in the pressure inside the elastic case which is evenly distributed through the fire extinguishing over the entire area of the walls of said case pars of which are pressed through the cells and eventually destroyed by the fire extinguishing media. After the destruction of the elastic case the fire extinguishing media is freely discharged onto the source of the fire.

Disadvantage of this device is its low efficiency due to the low kinetic energy of the particles of the fire extinguishing media discharged onto the source of the fire.

Known is charge for the destruction of ice bulk placed in the bulk of the ice (RU patent 2180094 E 02 B 15/02,2002) in the form of an explosive placed in a case. Said charge is placed in a blast hole preliminarily~provided in tne ice bulk, a layer of ice is frozen on the top of the charge and the charge is exploded with the aid of an activator.

Disadvantage of said technical solution is the complexity of its use and the low efficiency due to the weak screening effect of the ice layer frozen upon the charge.

Therefore the objective of this invention is to increase the directed action of the means suggested herein on solid media with the use of a device with simultaneous expansion of the applications of the device and increasing the efficiency of their use due to the increase in the kinetic energy of the [particles of the media being discharged.

To achieve said objective it is suggested, within the first embodiment, to use a cumulative impact device comprising a case filled with a liquid or a powdered media, for example, a fire extinguishing media, and an explosive charge installed inside said case, wherein said case having a side surface which becomes wider as one approaches its bottom (preferably, conical shape and, in particular, pyramid shape) and a convex bottom wherein the surface of said bottom has at least one concave area the depth of which does not exceed the distance between the lowest point of the bottom surface to the section plane passing through the perimeter of the edge between the bottom and the side wall of the case. Experiments have shown that this shape of the case, i. e. a conical side surface becoming wider to the bottom and a convex bottom with concave areas causes an abrupt increase in the kinetic energy of the fire extinguishing media particles.

If a liquid fire extinguishing media is used (predominantly, on the basis of water) the open fire is destroyed and the liquid penetrates into the formerly burning material or breaks ice into pieces.

If a powdered fire extinguishing media is used the open fire is destroyed also, and the powdered media is tightly pressed to the surface of the formerly burning material or breaks ice into pieces.

Where such devices are used for fire prevention purposes, the liquid or powdered media do not simply cover the surface of the flammable material but also penetrated in said material or provide a tight insulation between said material and fire. Where such devices are used for the discharge of avalanches or mudflows, the kinetic energy of water produces a controlled fall of the avalanche or the mudflow. If ice walls are to be destroyed the kinetic energy of the falling water produces cracks in the wall without causing ecological damage. Final destruction of buildings and structures damaged as a result of natural or man-caused disasters is also provided by the high kinetic energy of the media being discharged.

Depending on the purpose the device may have different dimensions, including the dimensions of its bottom on which concave areas are provided. In the preferred embodiment of this invention the bottom of said device contains at least four concavities. Experiments have also shown that regular arrangement of said concavities on the bottom provides for some increase in the kinetic energy of the media being discharged. Preferably, for the conical shape of the device case with a circular shape of the bottom the distance between the centers of the concavities should be 40 to 80% of the radius of the circle formed by the connection of the bottom and the side wall of the container, and for the pyramid shape of the device case the distance between the centers of the concavities should be 20 to 40% of the largest side of the rectangle formed by the connection of the bottom and the side wall of the container. The depth of the concavities is usually 20 to 100% of the distance between the lowest point of the bottom surface and the plane formed by the connection of the bottom and the side wall of the container. The case can be made from a polymer material (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, resins etc. ) or fabric materials, preferably, coated with a water permeable material. The main requirements to the case are the possibility of providing a shaped bottom and easiness of the destruction of the case. Said concavities can be produced during the fabrication of the case or formed later by attaching some areas of the bottom to a rigid support inside the case.

Said rigid support can be in the form of a perforated screen attached to the inner side of the case in the place of connection between the bottom and the side wall, or a cord to which the explosive charge is connected. To increase the directed action of the device one can produce the side wall of the case from a stronger material than the bottom part material. In the simplest embodiment the side wall is made from the same material as the bottom, but the thickness of the material is greater.

To achieve said objective, within the second embodiment of this invention, it is suggested to use a cumulative impact device comprising a two-layered sheath wrapped about a solid frame and covered with a cover, the frame being in the form of a lattice structure widening in its top part and consisting of ribs converging in the bottom part of the structure. The space between the two layers of the sheath is filled with the media to be discharged, the sheath is filled with the explosive, and the top part of the cover is provided with a special element that prevents the device from overturning. The cover that covers the inner space of the device which is filled with an explosive acts to improve the formation of a directed explosion towards the side opposite to the cover. The presence of a fine grained material, liquid or frozen liquid (ice) acting as the media to be discharged and the formation of cells containing the media to be discharged in the frame (due to the presence of the ribs) provides for the cumulative effect. The use of three to twelve ribs (in the most preferred embodiment the number of the ribs is six) provides for a sufficiently stable frame for filling with the explosive and on the other hand increases the cumulative effect during the explosion. The presence of the element that prevents the device from overturning in any embodiment of this invention (throwing from a helicopter or a plane, or from the body of a truck) excludes the possibility of device orientation with the cover down. The media to be discharged can be a fine grained material (sand, small shot, metallic scraps etc. ) liquid or ice. In the preferred embodiment of this invention the frame has the shape of a spherical segment or a cone with a rounded top. This allows the device to orient its bottom part of the frame towards the object to be impacted (ice layer on a water source, mudflow risk areas etc.).

The frame is in made from wooden racks, veneer or polymer sheets, metallic bars, pipes etc. In the preferred embodiment for batch fabrication the frame can be made from a polymer material such as polyvinylchloride or polypropylene. In order to achieve even distribution of the impact in different directions one should provide that the ribs of the frame have similar length and equidistant. Usually, though not necessarily, the length of the ribs is 100 to 150% of the distance between the ribs in the bottom part of the frame, and the thickness of the frame determining the thickness of the layer of discharged media between the sheath layers is 5 to 20% of the distance between the ribs in the bottom part of the frame. In order to strengthen the frame and increase the cumulative effect one should provide additional connections between the ribs of the frame inside the sheath and fixing of the connections between them. The sheath can be made from tarp, multilayered paper or polymer film. The cover can be preferably made from a wooden sheet or a sheet of metal, plastic or thick veneer. One can preferably use a hollowed cover filled with a <BR> <BR> fine grained material (sand, fine gravels etc. ). Depending on the type of the explosion activator used the cover may have an opening for the introduction of said activator into the explosive. The element for preventing the overturning of the device can be made in the form of a rod the length of which is greater than half the largest linear dimension of the cover, or in the form of a tripod the height of which is greater than half the largest linear dimension of the cover.

The device disclosed herein can be transported to the place of use by any known means, preferably thrown out from a hatch of a helicopter. The shape of the frame on which the sheath with an explosive is placed, in combination with the element for preventing the overturning of the device, provides for the positioning of the device, at least partially, with the cover up. Depending on the type of the landscape in the place of use, various types of device positioning are possible, except the cover down position. This, in combination with the cover which serves as the tamping for the charge, provides for the orientation of the explosion energy towards the surface of the ice (in case of destructing the ice cover of an open water source) towards the slide rocks (in case of initiating an avalanche or a mudflow), towards the soil (when making fire fighting water storage ponds) etc..

Because different types of explosion activators can be used for the implementation of the device, the basic variant of the device can be made without explosion activator that can be introduced into the bulk of the explosive immediately before the throwing of the device from the means of transport.

In both embodiments of the device the same principle of creating the cumulative effect is used, i. e. deformation of the structural elements of the device and the formation of active high energy areas. The particles of the media form rapidly accelerating rods the ends of which are located in the points of inhomogeneity of the device elements. Between the rods, there are convex surfaces that also have high kinetic energy and impetus.

Figure 1 shows the first embodiment of the device, and Figure 2 shows its second embodiment, wherein the following notations are used: case 1, fire extinguishing media 2, explosion charge 3, support 4, means of producing the concavities 5, concavities 6, cover 7, sheath 8, frame 9, element for preventing the overturn 10 and explosive 11.

Below the device suggested herein will be illustrated by specific variants of its application.

1. Device according to the first embodiment with a volume of 0.72 m3 was used for fighting forest fire. The case of the device was made from polychlorvinyl and the side wall had pyramid shape with base sides of 0. 8 m. The bottom of the device had 16 regularly arranged concavities the distance between the centers of which was 0.2 m. The concavities were produced during the fabrication of the device case. The device was filled with water. Inside the device a 1.2 kg trotylhexogen charge was fixed on a rigid cable at half the distance between the throat of the side wall and the lowest point of the bottom.

The charge was exploded with a detonator and a moderator. The device was intended for throwing from a helicopter. The moderator was set in such way that the charge exploded (with subsequent destruction of the case) at a height of 20-40 m above the source of the fire. The kinetic energy of the water being discharged allowed even a tree top fire to be extinguished down and provided for efficient water penetration to the tree tops and the soil.

2. Device with a volume of 1.6 m3 was used for fighting peat fire. The case of the device was made from rubbered tarp and the side wall had conical shape with a base radius of 0.6 m. The bottom of the device had 18 regularly arranged concavities the distance between the centers of which was 0.25 m. The concavities were produced during device fabrication by sewing parts of the bottom to the perforated base fixed along the perimeter of the connection between the bottom and the side walls of the device. The device was filled with water. Inside the device a 1.7 kg/m3 density, detonation speed 7.6 km/s and 2.5 kg weight pressed explosive charge was fixed on a rigid cable at one third the distance between the throat of the side wall and the lowest point of the bottom. The charge was exploded with a radio detonator. The device was intended for throwing from a helicopter. The radio detonator was exploded after throwing the device out from the means of transport in such way that the charge exploded (with subsequent destruction of the case) at a height of 20-40 m above the source of the fire. The kinetic energy of the water being discharged allowed the initiating peat fire to be eliminated.

3. Helicopter transported devices with a volume of 0.1 m3 were used for making a fire fighting cuttings in the steppe. The case of the devices was made from polyethylene and the side wall of the device was conical with a base radius of 0.2 m. The bottom of the device had 6 concavities the distance between the centers of which was 0.15 m.

The concavities were produced during device fabrication. In the center of the device there was an explosive charge similar to the one in example 2 but with a weight of 0.5 kg. The device was filled with water. The charge was exploded with a detonator and a moderator.

The moderator was set in such way that the charge exploded (with subsequent destruction of the case) at a height of 10-20 m above the source of the fire. The kinetic energy of the water being discharged allowed for the creation of a 6 m wide and 0.4 m deep fire barrier.

4. Device with a volume of 0.5 m3 was used for transformer fire fighting. The case of the device was made from polychlorvinyl and the side wall of the device was conical with a base radius of 0.4 m. The bottom of the device had 9 concavities the distance between the centers of which was 0.2 m. The concavities were produced during device fabrication. The device was filled with a powdered fire extinguishing media that isolated the burning surface. Inside the device a 1 kg trotylhexogen charge was fixed on a rigid cable at half the distance between the throat of the side wall and the lowest point of the bottom. The charge was exploded with a radio detonator. The device was intended for throwing from a helicopter. The radio detonator was exploded after throwing the device out from the means of transport in such way that the charge exploded at a height of 10-30 m above the burning transformer. The kinetic energy of the powdered media being discharged allowed the flame to be extinguished down and the surface of the transformer to be isolated from the environment.

5. Two devices with a volume of 0.4 m3 were used for the initiation of a snow avalanche. The cases of the devices were made from polybutylvinyl and the side walls of the devices were close to pyramid shape with a base side length of 0.6 m. The bottom of the device had 4 concavities the distance between the centers of which was 0.2 m. The concavities were produced during device fabrication.

The devices were filled with water. Inside the device a 0.5 kg ammonal powder container was fixed on a rigid cable at half the distance between the throat of the side wall and the lowest point of the bottom. The charge was exploded with a detonator and a fire cord.

The devices were intended for throwing from a helicopter. The fire cord was lit in such a way that the charge exploded (with subsequent destruction of the case) at a height of 20-40 m above the surface. The kinetic energy of the water being discharged initiated a snow avalanche.

6. Device similar to the one in example 2 and intended for throwing from a helicopter was used for the demolition of the remains of a building damaged as a result of an earthquake. The kinetic energy of the falling water combined with the action of the explosion provided for complete demolition of the damaged building without causing any danger for the, rescue service workers.

7.8 devices similar to the one in example 1 but with an explosion moderator were used for the destruction of an ice wall. The devices were intended for throwing from a helicopter. As a result of this impact the ice wall cracked, and then an ice breaker could break the ice.

8. Cumulative impact device according to variant 2 contains a two layered tarp sheath pulled over a frame made from six 0.02 m thick veneer plates fixed together in the bottom and attached to a 0.5 m diameter veneer circle at the top. The frame is in the form of a rounded top cone, the length of the frame ribs being 0. 35 m. About 10 kg of quartz sand is filled between the walls of the sheath. The device is filled with 20 kg of ammonite inside which a detonator is installed and set to activation in 10 minutes after throwing out from the helicopter. At the top the sheath is covered with a thin veneer cover the center of which is provided with an element that prevents device overturning in the form of an about 0. 3 m long wooden rod. These devices are thrown from a helicopter hatch at a height of 10-15 m above the ice surface on a water source with the purpose of ice movement, the distance between adjacent devices being 15-20 m.

Sequential explosion of these devices causes the destruction of a continuous ice layer with a thickness of up to 3 m and separation into single ice pieces.

9. Device according to variant 2 contains a two layered polyethylene film sheath pulled over a frame made from six 0.025 m thick polyvinylchloride pipes fixed together in the bottom and attached to a polyvinylchloride circle at the top. The frame is in the form of a rounded top cone, the length of the pipes is 0.45 m and the diameter of the circle is 0.6 m. The sheath is filled with 30 kg of trotyl with a detonator and a fire cord. The detonator power is increased with plastite. At the top the sheath is covered with a wooden sheet the center of which is provided with an element that prevents device overturning in the form of an about 0.4 m long wooden rod.

About 15 1 of water is filled between the walls of the device, but water is absent in the bottom part of the sheath. For preventing the water from entering the bottom part of the sheath the sheath contains welded seams parallel to the circle. The water in the sheath is frozen before the use of the device. The device is placed on the ice of a water source to prevent the death of fish due to the absence of air supply to the water. After the activation of the device the continuous ice cover is broken to provide open water areas for sufficient air supply to the water.

10. Device according to variant 2 contains a two layered tarp sheath pulled over a frame made from six 0.25 m long O. OlxO. 01 m steel profiles fixed together in the bottom and attached to a steel plate circle at the top. The frame is in the form of a spherical segment. The sheath is covered at the top with a 0.01 m thick steel plate cover 0.3 m in diameter the center of which is provided with an element that prevents device overturning in the form of a 0.5 m high tripod. Inside the sheath there is a 10 kg trotylhexogen charge, also in the form of a spherical segment. The charge is provided with a radio detonator. 12 kg of lead fine shoot is filled between the sheath walls. The device is thrown from a helicopter at a height of 20-40 m for avalanche initiation. Explosion causes an avalanche.

11. Device according to variant 2 contains a double multilayered paper sheath pulled over a frame made from six 0.02 m diameter and 0.4 m long duraluminum pipes fixed together in the bottom and attached to a 0.5 m diameter duraluminum plate circle at the top. The frame is in the form of a spherical segment. The sheath is covered at the top with a cover in the form of two veneer sheets between which 15 kg of sand is filled. The thickness of the sand layer is about 0.06 m. The cover is provided with an about 0.35 m high wooden tripod. 12 kg of quartz sand is filled between the walls of the sheath. The device is filled with 25 kg of ammonite with a radio detonator. For complete demolition of an emergency building the device is thrown from a helicopter at a height of about 10 m over the roof of the building. The explosion guarantees the demolition of the building.

12. Device according to variant 2 contains a double tarp sheath pulled over a frame made from six 0. 012x0. 012 m and 0.4 m long duraluminum plates fixed together in the bottom and attached to a duraluminum plate circle at the top. The frame is in the form of a spherical segment. The sheath is covered at the top with a cover in the form of a 0.015 m thick and 0.35 m diameter duraluminum plate the center of which is provided with an element that prevents device overturning in the form of an about 0.3 m high tripod. Inside the sheath there is a 15 kg trotylhexogen charge in the form of a spherical segment. The detonator is set to explosion in 5 minutes. 4-5 kg of sand is filled between the walls of the sheath. For extinguishing fire of petroleum products the device is thrown from a helicopter at a height of 30-50 m. The explosion causes extinguishing of fire.

13. Device according to variant 2 contains a double multilayered paper sheath pulled over a frame made from six 0.032 m diameter and 0.6 m long duraluminum pipes fixed together in the bottom and attached to a duraluminum plate circle at the top. The frame is in the form of a rounded top cone. The sheath is covered with a 0.1 m thick wooden cover. The cover has a 0. 5 m high wooden tripod. About 30 kg of sand is filled between the walls of the sheath.

The device is filled with 80 kg of ammonite and provided with a radio detonator. For making a fire fighting water storage pond in the field, 5 devices are thrown from the body of a truck on the soil at a distance of 6-7 m between them. Simultaneous explosion of all the devices produces an about 40x15x5 m fire fighting water storage pond.

The use of the device of this design allows expanding the application range and the efficiency of the device due to the specific features of its design as compared with the nearest counterpart of the device.