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Patent Searching and Data


Title:
DEVICES AND METHODS FOR COMPRESSING A FLUID
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2002/090772
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A pump (2) is provided with a pump head (8) having a flexible metal diaphragm (24) attached to a rigid compression chamber (36). The flexible diaphragm is mechanically oscillated back and forth by a piston (30) driven by a linear motor (50) operated at a drive frequency that can be set at, near, around, and/or below the mechanical resonance of the moving parts of the pump, mechanical springs (60) and compressed fluid. Inlet and discharge ports (16, 18) and suction and discharge valves (51, 44) are tuned to allow low-pressure fluid to enter and high-pressure fluid to exit the compression chamber in response to cyclic compressions.

Inventors:
Burr, Ronald Frederick (2605 Seahaven Court, Richmond, VA, 23233, US)
Popham, Vernon Wade (3620 Rolridge Road, Richmond, VA, 23233, US)
Lawrenson, Christopher Charles (9209 Newtonwood Court, Glen Allen, VA, 23060, US)
Shelley, Franz Joseph (6029 Green Haven Drive, Mechanicsville, VA, 23111, US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2002/014156
Publication Date:
November 14, 2002
Filing Date:
May 06, 2002
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
MACROSONIX CORPORATION (1570 East Parham Road, Richmond, VA, 23228, US)
Burr, Ronald Frederick (2605 Seahaven Court, Richmond, VA, 23233, US)
Popham, Vernon Wade (3620 Rolridge Road, Richmond, VA, 23233, US)
Lawrenson, Christopher Charles (9209 Newtonwood Court, Glen Allen, VA, 23060, US)
Shelley, Franz Joseph (6029 Green Haven Drive, Mechanicsville, VA, 23111, US)
International Classes:
F04B35/04; F04B45/047; (IPC1-7): F04B17/00
Foreign References:
US4874299A
US5681152A
US5518375A
JPH116658A
JPS5677582A
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Haynes, Michael N. (1341 Huntersfield Close, Keswick, VA, 22947, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is claimed is:
1. A pump for compressing a fluid comprising: a pump head comprising, a compression chamber including a wall having a geometry defining a partial enclosure with an opening, and a flexible diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of the opening of said wall, said diaphragm having a flexible portion capable of moving with respect to said outer perimeter between a plurality of first positions and a plurality of second positions, said wall and said diaphragm in said first positions and second positions defining first and second volumes of said compression chamber; a suction port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing a fluid into said compression chamber; a discharge port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing the fluid out of said compression chamber; a fluid spring defined by that portion of the fluid within said compression chamber that is subject to varying pressure and flow conditions; a motor having a moving portion being operatively connected to said diaphragm for oscillating said diaphragm at a drive frequency for compressing the fluid; wherein a massspring mechanical resonance frequency is determined by combined masses of said diaphragm and said moving portion of the motor and by combined spring rates of said diaphragm and said gas spring, and wherein said drive frequency is less than said mechanical resonance frequency.
2. A pump according to Claim 1, wherein said motor is a variable reluctance motor.
3. A pump according to Claim 1, wherein said wall of said compression chamber further comprises a curved wall section, and a flexible portion of said diaphragm being free to flex to generally conform in shape to said curved wall section for minimizing clearance volume in said compression chamber as said moving portion cycles to said plurality of first positions.
4. A pump according to Claim 1, wherein said first positions are proximal to said wall of said compression chamber at a top of a respective compression stroke, and said second positions are distal to said wall of said compression chamber at an end of a respective suction stroke, and wherein said diaphragm is operably movable to at least two of said plurality of said first positions on successive compression strokes and to at least two of said plurality of said second positions on successive suction strokes in response to varying drive force from said motor, said diaphragm in at least two of said plurality of first positions being a varying distance from said wall of said compression chamber and in at least two of said plurality of said second positions being a varying distance from said wall of said compression chamber.
5. A pump according to Claim 4, wherein said diaphragm cycling between said plurality of first positions of varying distance from said wall on successive compression strokes and cycling between said plurality of second positions on successive suction strokes provides a change in flow rate of the fluid during successive cycles.
6. A pump according to Claim 1, wherein said diaphragm further includes a first face within said compression chamber and a second face outside of an interior of said compression chamber, and said pump further comprises an exterior chamber in fluid communication with said second face of said diaphragm, and said pump further comprises a hole extending between and in communication with said compression chamber and said exterior chamber, said hole having a geometry sized and selected to communicate a sufficient quantity of fluid through said hole between said compression chamber and said exterior chamber for equalizing pressure on said first and second faces of said diaphragm.
7. A pump according to Claim 6, wherein said hole is positioned in said diaphragm.
8. A pump according to Claim 6, where said hole has a diameter sized to provide a fluid flowrate timeconstant of 8 or more pumping cycles in duration.
9. A pump according to Claim 7, wherein said diaphragm further comprises a plurality of holes, a number and geometry of said holes being selected to communicate a sufficient quantity of fluid through said hole for equalizing pressure on said first and second faces of said diaphragm.
10. A pump according to Claim 7, wherein said diaphragm is formed of a metal, and said pump further comprises a metal sealed backpressure chamber in fluidic communication with said second face and said hole, wherein an allmetal wetted flow path is provided for flow of said fluid during compression.
11. A pump according to Claim 1, said suction port and said discharge port each having a geometry comprising diameter, length and crosssectional shape, said geometry of each of said suction port and said discharge port being selected to coordinate a filling and discharge of the fluid through said suction port and said discharge port in coordination with a pressure cycle in said compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within said pump.
12. A pump according to Claim 11, wherein said pump head further comprises a suction valve operatively connected to said suction port and a discharge valve operatively connected to said discharge port, said suction valve and said discharge valve each having a predetermined stiffness and a valve duty cycle, wherein said suction valve prevents flows through said suction port in a closed position and allows flow through said suction port in an open position and said discharge valve prevents flow through said discharge port in a closed position and allows flow through said discharge portion in an open position, and wherein a valve stiffness and a size of said discharge valve and said suction valve each being selected to tune said suction valve and discharge valve such that a timing of duty cycles of said suction valve and said discharge valve are coordinated with said timing of filling of fluid through said suction port and said discharge of the fluid through said discharge port and said pressure cycle in said compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within said pump.
13. A pump according to Claim 12, wherein each of said suction valve and said discharge valve are adapted to be maintained in said open position by fluid pressure differential across said respective valve during flow and absent any mechanical stops.
14. A pump according to Claim 13, wherein said valves are adapted to open and close through each of said valve duty cycles in a continuous motion.
15. A pump according to Claim 1, wherein said diaphragm and said moving portion are operable free of external lubricants for said diaphragm.
16. A pump according to Claim 1, wherein said pump is operable at frequencies of 100 cycles per second or greater to produce desired fluid compression.
17. A pump according to Claim 1, further comprising control means operatively connected with said motor for varying said drive frequency to oscillate said diaphragm at a frequency that is less than said mechanical resonance frequency.
18. A pump according to Claim 17, wherein said control means further comprises a closed loop controller operatively connected with said motor for varying said drive frequency of said motor in response to changes in said massspring mechanical resonance frequency.
19. A pump according to Claim 18, wherein said closed loop controller further comprises : means for measuring discharge pressure of the fluid from said port; and means for varying said drive frequency in response to a measured discharge pressure in order to maximize said measured discharge pressure.
20. A pump according to Claim 18, wherein said closed loop control means further comprises: means for measuring selected operating conditions in said pump; means for varying said drive frequency of said motor in response to said measured operating conditions in order to maximize measured operating conditions.
21. A pump according to Claim 17, further comprising an open loop controller operatively connected with said motor for varying drive frequency of said motor, said open loop controller having: means for inputting a measured drive amplitude; means for comparing said inputted measured drive amplitude with a predetermined performance map to determine a desired drive frequency for operating said motor in accordance with changes in said massspring mechanical resonance frequency; and means for varying said drive frequency of said motor to said desired drive frequency.
22. A pump according to Claim 1, wherein said diaphragm has a D/d ratio between 1. 252.0 wherein D is a diameter of said diaphragm and d is within a range of 420 mils.
23. A pump according to Claim 1, wherein the fluid is a gas.
24. A pump according to Claim 1, wherein the fluid is a liquid.
25. A pump according to Claim 23, wherein the fluid is a selected from air, hydrocarbons, process gases, highpurity gases, hazardous gases, corrosive gases, toxic fluids, highpurity fluids, reactive fluids, and environmentally hazardous fluids.
26. A pump according to Claim 24, wherein the fluid is selected from fuels, water, oils, lubricants, coolants, solvents, hydraulic fluid, toxic chemicals, and reactive chemicals.
27. A pump according to Claim 1, wherein said mechanical spring further comprises a leaf spring connected with said moving portion of said motor for providing restoring force and displacement of said moving portion during cycling of said moving portion.
28. A pump according to Claim 27, wherein said leaf spring is connected with said moving portion outside said compression chamber.
29. A pump according to Claim 1, wherein said motor is selected from motors having a piezoelectric element and a voice coil linear motor.
30. A pump according to Claim 1, wherein said compressor can operate in any gravitational orientation.
31. A method of compressing a fluid using a pump comprising: providing a pump for compressing a fluid, said pump comprising: a pump head comprising: a compression chamber including a wall having a geometry defining a partial enclosure with an opening and a flexible diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said opening of said wall, said diaphragm having a flexible portion capable of moving with respect to said outer perimeter between a plurality of first positions and a plurality of second positions, said wall and said diaphragm in said first and second positions defining first and second volumes of said compression chamber; a suction port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing a fluid into said compression chamber; a discharge port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing the fluid out of said compression chamber; a fluid spring defined by that portion of the fluid within said compression chamber that is subject to varying pressure and flow conditions; a motor having a moving portion being operatively connected to said diaphragm for oscillating said diaphragm at a drive frequency for compressing the fluid; introducing a fluid into said compression chamber at a first pressure; determining a massspring mechanical resonance frequency from combined masses of said fluid spring, said moving portion of said motor, and said diaphragm and from a combined spring rates of said mechanical spring and said fluid spring; operating said motor at a drive frequency that is less than said massspring resonance frequency; oscillating said diaphragm between said plurality of first positions and second positions; compressing the fluid to a desired second pressure and evacuating the fluid from said compression chamber at said second pressure.
32. A method for compressing a fluid according to Claim 31, said fluid introducing step further comprising introducing a fluid into said compression chamber that is selected from a refrigerant, a liquid, a gas, a gasliquid mixture, a mist, a foam, a slurry, and a fluidized solid.
33. A method for compressing a fluid according to Claim 31, wherein said oscillating step further comprises oscillating said flexible portion of said diaphragm to at least two of said plurality of first portions on successive compression strokes, each of said at least two of said plurality of first positions being a varying distance from said wall of said compression chamber and oscillating said flexible portion of said diaphragm to at least two of said plurality of second positions on successive suction strokes, each of said at least two of said plurality of second positions being a varying distance from said wall of said compression chamber to provide a change in flow rate of the fluid during successive cycles.
34. A method for compressing a fluid according to 31, wherein said providing step further comprises providing said diaphragm having a first face within an interior of said compression chamber and a second face outside of said interior of said compression chamber, and a hole having a geometry sized and selected to communicate a sufficient quantity of fluid through said hole for equalizing pressure on said first and second faces; and further comprising after said oscillating step, equalizing pressure on said first and second faces of said diaphragm during said oscillating step by flowing fluid through said hole in response to varying pressure conditions in said compression chamber.
35. A method of compressing a fluid according to Claim 31, further comprising tuning said discharge port and suction port by selecting a geometry including a diameter, length and crosssectional shape of said discharge port and said suction port to coordinate timing of filling and discharge of the fluid through said suction port and said discharge port and said pressure cycle in said compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid through said discharge port and suction port; and said compressing step further comprising flowing the fluid in a net flow in one direction.
36. A method of compressing a fluid according to Claim 35, said pump providing step further comprising providing a tuned suction valve operatively connected to said suction port and a tuned discharge valve operatively connected to said discharge port, said suction valve and said discharge valve each having a predetermined stiffness and a valve duty cycle wherein said suction valve prevents flow of the fluid through said suction port in a closed position and allows flow through said suction port in an open position, and said discharge valve prevents flow of the fluid through said discharge port in a closed position and allows flow through said discharge port in an open position, and tuning said suction valve and discharge valve comprises selecting each valve stiffness and geometry to provide a duty cycle with a timing that is coordinated with a timing of said filling and discharge of the fluid flow through said suction port and said discharge port and said pressure cycle in said compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within said pump; and said compressing step further comprises operating said suction valve and discharge valve with duty cycles that are coordinated in opening and closing with said timing of filling of the fluid through said suction port and said discharging of the fluid through said discharge port and said pressure cycle in said compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within said pump.
37. A method for compressing a fluid according to Claim 31, wherein said operating step further comprising varying said drive frequency of said motor to oscillate said diaphragm at a frequency that is less than said mechanical resonance frequency.
38. A method of compressing a fluid according to Claim 31, wherein said providing step further comprises providing a mechanical spring further comprising a leaf spring connected with said moving portion and said determining step further comprises determine a mass of said mechanical spring including said leaf spring and further comprising displacing and restoring said moving portion during said compression stroke.
39. A method of compressing a fluid according to Claim 31, wherein said operating step and said oscillating step take place on successive strokes in a plurality of gravitational orientations.
40. A pump for compressing a fluid comprising: a pump head comprising, a compression chamber including a wall having a geometry defining a partial enclosure with an opening and a flexible diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said opening of said wall, said diaphragm having a flexible portion capable of moving with respect to said outer perimeter between a plurality of first positions and a plurality of second positions, said wall and said diaphragm in said first and second positions defining first and second volumes of said compression chamber ; a suction port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing the fluid into said compression chamber; a discharge port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing the fluid out of said compression chamber; a fluid spring comprising the fluid within said compression chamber subject to varying pressure and flow conditions; a mechanical spring comprising said diaphragm; a motor comprising a moving portion having a diameter and cyclable between a plurality of first positions and second positions, a movement of said moving portion between one of said plurality of first positions and a successive of one of said plurality of second positions defining a stroke length, and said moving portion operably connected with said diaphragm for oscillating said diaphragm at a drive frequency for compressing the fluid; a ratio of said stroke length to said diaphragm diameter defining a stroke ratio; wherein a massspring mechanical resonance frequency is determined from combined moving masses of said fluid spring, said moving portion, and said diaphragm, and from combined spring rates of said fluid spring, said mechanical spring, and wherein said drive frequency is at or less than said resonance frequency.
41. A pump according to Claim 40 wherein said motor is operable with said stroke lengths up to 0.10 inches for corresponding diameters of said moving portion of between about 1.5 inches and 4.75 inches and wherein said pump is operable with stroke ratios between about 0.07 and 0.002.
42. A pump according to Claim 41 wherein said pump discharges fluid at a pressure of 30 to 80 psi.
43. A pump according to Claim 40 wherein said pump is operable at frequencies at or greater than 100 cycles per second to produce desired fluid compression.
44. A pump according to Claim 40, wherein said motor is a variable reluctance motor.
45. A pump according to Claim 40, wherein the fluid is selected from a gas, a refrigerant, and a liquid.
46. A pump according to Claim 40, wherein said diaphragm further includes a first face within said compression chamber and a second face outside of an interior of said compression chamber and a hole between said first face and second face, said hole having a geometry sized and selected to communicate a sufficient quantity of fluid through said hole for equalizing pressure on said first and second faces of said diaphragm.
47. A pump according to Claim 40, said suction port and said discharge port each having a geometry comprising diameter, length, and crosssectional shape, said geometry of each of said suction port and said discharge port being selected to coordinate filling and discharge of the fluid through said suction port and discharge port respectively in coordination with a pressure cycle in said compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within said pump.
48. A pump according to Claim 47, wherein said pump head further comprises a suction valve operatively connected to said suction port and a discharge valve operatively connected to said discharge port, said suction valve and said discharge valve each having a predetermined stiffness and a valve duty cycle, wherein said suction valve prevents fluid flow through said suction port in a closed position and allows flow through said suction port in an open position and said discharge valve prevents fluid flow through said discharge port in a closed position and allows flow through said discharge portion in an open position, and wherein a valve stiffness, geometry, and size of said discharge valve and said suction valve each being selected to tune said suction valve and discharge valve to provide a timing of duty cycles of said suction valve and said discharge valve in coordination with a timing of filling of fluid through said suction port and discharge of the fluid through said discharge port and said pressure cycle in said compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within said pump.
49. A pump according to Claim 40, further comprising control means operatively connected with said motor for varying said drive frequency to oscillate said diaphragm at a frequency that is less than said mechanical resonance frequency.
50. A high frequency pump for compressing a fluid comprising: a compression chamber; a fluid suction port and a fluid discharge port, each of said suction port and discharge port having a respective geometry including diameter, length, and crosssection, and each of said suction port and discharge port being in fluidic communication with said compression chamber for converting cyclic fluid compressions into a flow of compressed fluid, each of said suction port and said discharge port being tuned by selecting said port geometry to coordinate timing of filling and discharge of the fluid through said suction port and said discharge port and a pressure cycle in said compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within said pump; and wherein said pump is operable at frequencies greater than 100 cycles per second.
51. A pump according to Claim 50, wherein said pump head further comprises a suction valve operatively connected to said suction port and a discharge valve operatively connected to said discharge port, said suction valve and said discharge valve each having a predetermined stiffness and a valve duty cycle, wherein said suction valve prevents fluid flow through said suction port in a closed position and allows flow through said suction port in an open position and said discharge valve prevents fluid flow through said discharge port in a closed position and allows flow through said discharge portion in an open position, and wherein a valve stiffness and a geometry of said discharge valve and said suction valve are each selected to tune said suction valve and discharge valve to provide timing of duty cycles of said suction valve and said discharge valve in coordination with timing of filling of fluid through said suction port and discharge of the fluid through said discharge port and said pressure cycle in said compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within said pump.
52. A pump according to Claim 51, wherein each of said suction valve and said discharge valve are adapted to be maintained in their open position by fluid pressure differential across said respective valve during flow and absent any mechanical stops.
53. A pump according to Claim 52, wherein said valves are adapted to open and close through each of said duty cycles in a continuous motion.
54. A pump according to Claim 50, wherein said pump further comprises: a mechanical spring comprising a diaphragm connected with said compression chamber; a fluid spring comprising the fluid within said compression chamber subject to varying pressure and flow conditions; a motor having a moving portion operatively connected with said diaphragm for oscillating said diaphragm at a drive frequency for compressing the fluid; wherein a massspring mechanical resonance frequency is determined by combined moving masses of said moving portion and said diaphragm and by said mechanical spring and said gas spring and wherein said motor is operable at a drive frequency that is less than said mechanical resonance frequency.
55. A pump according to Claim 54, wherein said diaphragm further includes a first face within said compression chamber and a second face outside of an interior of said compression chamber, and said pump further comprises an exterior chamber in fluid communication with said second face of said diaphragm, and said pump further comprises a hole between said compression chamber and said exterior chamber, said hole having a geometry sized and selected to communicate a sufficient quantity of fluid through said hole between said compression chamber and said exterior chamber for equalizing pressure on said first and second faces of said diaphragm.
56. A pump according to Claim 55, wherein said hole is positioned in said diaphragm.
57. A pump according to Claim 55, wherein said diaphragm further comprises a plurality of holes, a number and geometry of said holes being selected to communicate a sufficient quantity of fluid between said compression chamber through said hole for equalizing pressure on said first and second faces of said diaphragm.
58. A pump according to Claim 54, wherein said mechanical spring further comprises a leaf spring connected with said moving portion for providing restoring force and displacement of said moving portion during cycling of said moving portion to reduce pressure on said diaphragm.
59. A pump according to Claim 54, further comprising control means operatively connected with said motor for varying said drive frequency to oscillate said diaphragm at a frequency that is less than said mechanical resonance frequency.
60. A pump for compressing a fluid comprising: a pump head comprising, a compression chamber comprising a wall having a geometry defining a partial enclosure with an opening, and a flexible diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said opening of said wall, said diaphragm having a flexible portion capable of moving with respect to said outer perimeter between a plurality of first positions and a plurality of second positions, said wall and said diaphragm in said first positions and second positions defining first and second volumes of said compression chamber; a suction port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing a fluid into said compression chamber; a discharge port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing the fluid out of said compression chamber; a motor having a moving portion that, in an operative configuration, is connected to said diaphragm for oscillating said diaphragm at a drive frequency to compress the fluid ; wherein said drive frequency approximately equals a mechanical resonance frequency determined from a combined spring stiffness and a combined mass of said diaphragm, said moving portion of said motor, and that portion of the fluid present within said compression chamber.
61. A pump according to Claim60, wherein said motor is a variable reluctance motor.
62. A pump according to Claim 60, wherein said wall of said compression chamber further comprises a curved wall section, and a flexible portion of said diaphragm being free to flex to generally conform in shape to said curved wall section for minimizing clearance volume in said compression chamber as said moving portion cycles to said plurality of first positions.
63. A pump according to Claim 60, wherein said first positions are proximal to said wall of said compression chamber at a top of a respective compression stroke, and said second positions are distal to said wall of said compression chamber at an end of a respective suction stroke, and wherein said diaphragm is operably movable to at least two of said plurality of said first positions on successive compression strokes and to at least two of said plurality of said second positions on successive suction strokes in response to varying drive force from said motor, said diaphragm in at least two of said plurality of first positions being a varying distance from said wall of said compression chamber and in at least two of said plurality of said second positions being a varying distance from said wall of said compression chamber.
64. A pump according to Claim 63, wherein said diaphragm cycling between said plurality of first positions of varying distance from said wall on successive compression strokes and cycling between said plurality of second positions on successive suction strokes provides a change in flow rate of the fluid during successive cycles.
65. A pump according to Claim 60, wherein said diaphragm further includes a first face within said compression chamber and a second face outside of an interior of said compression chamber, and said pump further comprises an exterior chamber in fluid communication with said second face of said diaphragm, and said pump further comprises a hole extending between and in communication with said compression chamber and said exterior chamber, said hole having a geometry sized and selected to communicate a sufficient quantity of fluid through said hole between said compression chamber and said exterior chamber for equalizing pressure on said first and second faces of said diaphragm.
66. A pump according to Claim 65, wherein said hole is positioned in said diaphragm.
67. A pump according to Claim 65, where said hole has a diameter sized to provide a fluid flowrate timeconstant of 8 or more pumping cycles in duration.
68. A pump according to Claim 66, wherein said diaphragm further comprises a plurality of holes, a number and geometry of said holes being selected to communicate a sufficient quantity of fluid through said hole for equalizing pressure on said first and second faces of said diaphragm.
69. A pump according to Claim 66, wherein said diaphragm is formed of a metal, and said pump further comprises a metal sealed backpressure chamber in fluidic communication with said second face and said hole, wherein an allmetal wetted flow path is provided for flow of said fluid during compression.
70. A pump according to Claim 60, said suction port and said discharge port each having a geometry comprising diameter, length and crosssectional shape, said geometry of each of said suction port and said discharge port being selected to coordinate a filling and discharge of the fluid through said suction port and said discharge port in coordination with a pressure cycle in said compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within said pump.
71. A pump according to Claim 70, wherein said pump head further comprises a suction valve operatively connected to said suction port and a discharge valve operatively connected to said discharge port, said suction valve and said discharge valve each having a predetermined stiffness and a valve duty cycle, wherein said suction valve prevents flows through said suction port in a closed position and allows flow through said suction port in an open position and said discharge valve prevents flow through said discharge port in a closed position and allows flow through said discharge portion in an open position, and wherein a valve stiffness and a size of said discharge valve and said suction valve each being selected to tune said suction valve and discharge valve such that a timing of duty cycles of said suction valve and said discharge valve are coordinated with said timing of filling of fluid through said suction port and said discharge of the fluid through said discharge port and said pressure cycle in said compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within said pump.
72. A pump according to Claim 71, wherein each of said suction valve and said discharge valve are adapted to be maintained in said open position by fluid pressure differential across said respective valve during flow and absent any mechanical stops.
73. A pump according to Claim 72, wherein said valves are adapted to open and close through each of said valve duty cycles in a continuous motion.
74. A pump according to Claim 60, wherein said diaphragm and said moving portion are operable free of external lubricants for said diaphragm.
75. A pump according to Claim 60, wherein said pump is operable at frequencies of 100 cycles per second or greater to produce desired fluid compression.
76. A pump according to Claim 60, further comprising control means operatively connected with said motor for varying said drive frequency to oscillate said diaphragm at a frequency that is less than said mechanical resonance frequency.
77. A pump according to Claim 76, wherein said control means further comprises a closed loop controller operatively connected with said motor for varying said drive frequency of said motor in response to changes in said massspring mechanical resonance frequency.
78. A pump according to Claim 77, wherein said closed loop controller further comprises: means for measuring discharge pressure of the fluid from said port; and means for varying said drive frequency in response to a measured discharge pressure in order to maximize said measured discharge pressure.
79. A pump according to Claim 77, wherein said closed loop control means further comprises: means for measuring selected operating conditions in said pump; means for varying said drive frequency of said motor in response to said measured operating conditions in order to maximize measured operating conditions.
80. A pump according to Claim 76, further comprising an open loop controller operatively connected with said motor for varying drive frequency of said motor, said open loop controller having: means for inputting a measured drive amplitude ; means for comparing said inputted measured drive amplitude with a predetermined performance map to determine a desired drive frequency for operating said motor in accordance with changes in said massspring mechanical resonance frequency; and means for varying said drive frequency of said motor to said desired drive frequency.
81. A pump according to Claim 60, wherein said diaphragm has a D/d ratio between 1.25 2.0 wherein D is a diameter of said diaphragm and d is within a range of 420 mils.
82. A pump according to Claim 60, wherein the fluid is a gas.
83. A pump according to Claim 60, wherein the fluid is a liquid.
84. A pump according to Claim 82, wherein the fluid is a selected from air, hydrocarbons, process gases, highpurity gases, hazardous gases, corrosive gases, toxic fluids, high purity fluids, reactive fluids, and environmentally hazardous fluids.
85. A pump according to Claim 83, wherein the fluid is selected from fuels, water, oils, lubricants, coolants, solvents, hydraulic fluid, toxic chemicals, and reactive chemicals.
86. A pump according to Claim 60, wherein said mechanical spring further comprises a leaf spring connected with said moving portion of said motor for providing restoring force and displacement of said moving portion during cycling of said moving portion.
87. A pump according to Claim 86, wherein said leaf spring is connected with said moving portion outside said compression chamber.
88. A pump according to Claim 60, wherein said motor is selected from motors having a piezoelectric element and a voice coil linear motor.
89. A pump according to Claim 60, wherein said compressor can operate in any gravitational orientation.
90. A method of compressing a fluid using a pump comprising: providing a pump for compressing a fluid, said pump comprising: a pump head comprising: a compression chamber including a wall having a geometry defining a partial enclosure with an opening and a flexible diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said opening of said wall, said diaphragm having a flexible portion capable of moving with respect to said outer perimeter between a plurality of first positions and a plurality of second positions, said wall and said diaphragm in said first and second positions defining first and second volumes of said compression chamber; a suction port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing a fluid into said compression chamber; a discharge port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing the fluid out of said compression chamber; a fluid spring defined by that portion of the fluid within said compression chamber that is subject to varying pressure and flow conditions; a motor having a moving portion being operatively connected to said diaphragm for oscillating said diaphragm at a drive frequency for compressing the fluid; introducing a fluid into said compression chamber at a first pressure; determining a massspring mechanical resonance frequency from combined masses of said fluid spring, said moving portion of said motor, and said diaphragm and from a combined spring rates of said mechanical spring and said fluid spring; operating said motor at a drive frequency that is less than said massspring resonance frequency; oscillating said diaphragm between said plurality of first positions and second positions; compressing the fluid to a desired second pressure and evacuating the fluid from said compression chamber at said second pressure.
91. A method for compressing a fluid according to Claim 90, said fluid introducing step further comprising introducing a fluid into said compression chamber that is selected from a refrigerant, a liquid, a gas, a gasliquid mixture, a mist, a foam, a slurry, and a fluidized solid.
92. A method for compressing a fluid according to Claim 90, wherein said oscillating step further comprises oscillating said flexible portion of said diaphragm to at least two of said plurality of first portions on successive compression strokes, each of said at least two of said plurality of first positions being a varying distance from said wall of said compression chamber and oscillating said flexible portion of said diaphragm to at least two of said plurality of second positions on successive suction strokes, each of said at least two of said plurality of second positions being a varying distance from said wall of said compression chamber to provide a change in flow rate of the fluid during successive cycles.
93. A method for compressing a fluid according to 90, wherein said providing step further comprises providing said diaphragm having a first face within an interior of said compression chamber and a second face outside of said interior of said compression chamber, and a hole having a geometry sized and selected to communicate a sufficient quantity of fluid through said hole for equalizing pressure on said first and second faces; and further comprising after said oscillating step, equalizing pressure on said first and second faces of said diaphragm during said oscillating step by flowing fluid through said hole in response to varying pressure conditions in said compression chamber.
94. A method of compressing a fluid according to Claim 90, further comprising tuning said discharge port and suction port by selecting a geometry including a diameter, length and crosssectional shape of said discharge port and said suction port to coordinate timing of filling and discharge of the fluid through said suction port and said discharge port and said pressure cycle in said compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid through said discharge port and suction port; and said compressing step further comprising flowing the fluid in a net flow in one direction.
95. A method of compressing a fluid according to Claim 94, said pump providing step further comprising providing a tuned suction valve operatively connected to said suction port and a tuned discharge valve operatively connected to said discharge port, said suction valve and said discharge valve each having a predetermined stiffness and a valve duty cycle wherein said suction valve prevents flow of the fluid through said suction port in a closed position and allows flow through said suction port in an open position, and said discharge valve prevents flow of the fluid through said discharge port in a closed position and allows flow through said discharge port in an open position, and tuning said suction valve and discharge valve comprises selecting each valve stiffness and geometry to provide a duty cycle with a timing that is coordinated with a timing of said filling and discharge of the fluid through said suction port and said discharge port and said pressure cycle in said compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within said pump; and said compressing step further comprises operating said suction valve and discharge valve with duty cycles that are coordinated in opening and closing with said timing of filling of the fluid through said suction port and said discharging of the fluid through said discharge port and said pressure cycle in said compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within said pump.
96. A method for compressing a fluid according to Claim90, wherein said operating step further comprising varying said drive frequency of said motor to oscillate said diaphragm at a frequency that is less than said mechanical resonance frequency.
97. A method of compressing a fluid according to Claim 90, wherein said providing step further comprises providing a mechanical spring further comprising a leaf spring connected with said moving portion and said determining step further comprises determine a mass of said mechanical spring including said leaf spring and further comprising displacing and restoring said moving portion during said compression stroke.
98. A method of compressing a fluid according to Claim 90, wherein said operating step and said oscillating step take place on successive strokes in a plurality of gravitational orientations.
99. A pump for compressing a fluid comprising: a pump head comprising, a compression chamber including a wall having a geometry defining a partial enclosure with an opening and a flexible diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said opening of said wall, said diaphragm having a flexible portion capable of moving with respect to said outer perimeter between a plurality of first positions and a plurality of second positions, said wall and said diaphragm in said first and second positions defining first and second volumes of said compression chamber; a suction port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing the fluid into said compression chamber; a discharge port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing the fluid out of said compression chamber; a fluid spring comprising the fluid within said compression chamber subject to varying pressure and flow conditions; a mechanical spring comprising said diaphragm; a motor comprising a moving portion having a diameter and cyclable between a plurality of first positions and second positions, the movement of said moving portion between one of said plurality of first positions and a successive of one of said plurality of second positions defining a stroke length, and said moving portion operably connected with said diaphragm for oscillating said diaphragm at a drive frequency for compressing the fluid ; a ratio of said stroke length to said diaphragm diameter defining a stroke ratio; wherein a massspring mechanical resonance frequency is determined from combined moving masses of said fluid spring, said moving portion, and said diaphragm, and from combined spring rates of said fluid spring, said mechanical spring, and wherein said drive frequency is at or less than said resonance frequency.
100. A pump according to Claim 100 wherein said motor is operable with said stroke lengths up to 0. 10 inches for corresponding diameters of said moving portion of between about 1.5 inches and 4.75 inches and wherein said pump is operable with stroke ratios between about 0.07 and 0.002.
101. A pump according to Claim 100 wherein said pump discharges fluid at a pressure of 30 to 80 psi.
102. A pump according to Claim 100 wherein said pump is operable at frequencies at or greater than 100 cycles per second to produce desired fluid compression.
103. A pump according to Claim 97, wherein said motor is a variable reluctance motor.
104. A pump according to Claim 100, wherein the fluid is selected from a gas, a refrigerant, and a liquid.
105. A pump according to Claim 100, wherein said diaphragm further includes a first face within said compression chamber and a second face outside of an interior of said compression chamber and a hole between said first face and second face, said hole having a geometry sized and selected to communicate a sufficient quantity of fluid through said hole for equalizing pressure on said first and second faces of said diaphragm.
106. A pump according to Claim 100, said suction port and said discharge port each having a geometry comprising diameter, length, and crosssectional shape, said geometry of each of said suction port and said discharge port being selected to coordinate filling and discharge of the fluid through said suction port and discharge port respectively in coordination with a pressure cycle in said compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within said pump.
107. A pump according to Claim 107, wherein said pump head further comprises a suction valve operatively connected to said suction port and a discharge valve operatively connected to said discharge port, said suction valve and said discharge valve each having a predetermined stiffness and a valve duty cycle, wherein said suction valve prevents fluid flow through said suction port in a closed position and allows flow through said suction port in an open position and said discharge valve prevents fluid flow through said discharge port in a closed position and allows flow through said discharge portion in an open position, and wherein a valve stiffness, geometry, and size of said discharge valve and said suction valve each being selected to tune said suction valve and discharge valve to provide a timing of duty cycles of said suction valve and said discharge valve in coordination with a timing of filling of fluid through said suction port and discharge of the fluid through said discharge port and said pressure cycle in said compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within said pump.
108. A pump according to Claim 100, further comprising control means operatively connected with said motor for varying said drive frequency to oscillate said diaphragm at a frequency that is less than said mechanical resonance frequency.
109. A high frequency pump for compressing a fluid comprising: a compression chamber; a fluid suction port and a fluid discharge port, each of said suction port and discharge port having a respective geometry including diameter, length, and crosssection, and each of said suction port and discharge port being in fluidic communication with said compression chamber for converting cyclic fluid compressions into a flow of compressed fluid, each of said suction port and said discharge port being tuned by selecting said port geometry to coordinate timing of filling and discharge of the fluid through said suction port and said discharge port and a pressure cycle in said compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within said pump; and wherein said pump is operable at frequencies greater than 100 cycles per second.
110. A pump according to Claim 110, wherein said pump head further comprises a suction valve operatively connected to said suction port and a discharge valve operatively connected to said discharge port, said suction valve and said discharge valve each having a predetermined stiffness and a valve duty cycle, wherein said suction valve prevents fluid flow through said suction port in a closed position and allows flow through said suction port in an open position and said discharge valve prevents fluid flow through said discharge port in a closed position and allows flow through said discharge portion in an open position, and wherein a valve stiffness and a geometry of said discharge valve and said suction valve are each selected to tune said suction valve and discharge valve to provide timing of duty cycles of said suction valve and said discharge valve in coordination with timing of filling of fluid through said suction port and discharge of the fluid through said discharge port and said pressure cycle in said compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within said pump.
111. A pump according to Claim 11 l, wherein each of said suction valve and said discharge valve are adapted to be maintained in their open position by fluid pressure differential across said respective valve during flow and absent any mechanical stops.
112. A pump according to Claim 112, wherein said valves are adapted to open and close through each of said duty cycles in a continuous motion.
113. A pump according to Claim 110, wherein said pump further comprises: a mechanical spring comprising a diaphragm connected with said compression chamber; a fluid spring comprising the fluid within said compression chamber subject to varying pressure and flow conditions; a motor having a moving portion operatively connected with said diaphragm for oscillating said diaphragm at a drive frequency for compressing the fluid ; wherein a massspring mechanical resonance frequency is determined by combined moving masses of said moving portion and said diaphragm and by said mechanical spring and said gas spring and wherein said motor is operable at a drive frequency that is less than said mechanical resonance frequency.
114. A pump according to Claim 114, wherein said diaphragm further includes a first face within said compression chamber and a second face outside of an interior of said compression chamber, and said pump further comprises an exterior chamber in fluid communication with said second face of said diaphragm, and said pump further comprises a hole between said compression chamber and said exterior chamber, said hole having a geometry sized and selected to communicate a sufficient quantity of fluid through said hole between said compression chamber and said exterior chamber for equalizing pressure on said first and second faces of said diaphragm.
115. A pump according to Claim 115, wherein said hole is positioned in said diaphragm.
116. A pump according to Claim 115, wherein said diaphragm further comprises a plurality of holes, a number and geometry of said holes being selected to communicate a sufficient quantity of fluid between said compression chamber through said hole for equalizing pressure on said first and second faces of said diaphragm.
117. A pump according to Claim 114, wherein said mechanical spring further comprises a leaf spring connected with said moving portion for providing restoring force and displacement of said moving portion during cycling of said moving portion to reduce pressure on said diaphragm.
118. A pump according to Claim 54, further comprising control means operatively connected with said motor for varying said drive frequency to oscillate said diaphragm at a frequency that is less than said mechanical resonance frequency.
119. A pump for compressing a fluid comprising: a pump head defining a compression chamber; a flexible diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said compression chamber; a motor having a moving portion that, in an operative configuration, is connected to said diaphragm for oscillating said diaphragm at a drive frequency to compress a fluid within said compression chamber; wherein said drive frequency approximately equals a mechanical resonance frequency determined from a combined spring stiffness and a combined mass of said diaphragm, said moving portion of said motor, and the fluid within said compression chamber.
120. A pump according to claim 120, wherein the pump is used as a vacuum pump.
121. A pump for compressing a fluid comprising: a pump head defining a compression chamber; a flexible diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said compression chamber; a motor having a moving portion that, in an operative configuration, is connected to said diaphragm for oscillating said diaphragm at a drive frequency to compress a fluid within said compression chamber; wherein said drive frequency approximately equals a mechanical resonance frequency determined from a dynamic spring stiffness and a dynamic mass.
122. A pump for compressing a fluid comprising: a pump head defining a compression chamber; a flexible diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said compression chamber; a motor having a moving portion that, in an operative configuration, is connected to said diaphragm for oscillating said diaphragm at a drive frequency to compress a fluid within said compression chamber; wherein said drive frequency approximately equals a mechanical resonance frequency determined from a combined spring stiffness of at least said moving portion of said motor and the fluid within said compression chamber, and from a combined mass of at least said diaphragm and said moving portion of said motor.
123. A pump for compressing a fluid comprising: a pump head defining a compression chamber; a flexible diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said compression chamber; a motor having a moving portion that, in an operative configuration, is connected to said diaphragm for oscillating said diaphragm at a drive frequency to compress a fluid within said compression chamber; wherein said drive frequency is within about 10 percent of a mechanical resonance frequency determined from a combined spring stiffness of at least said moving portion of said motor and the fluid within said compression chamber, and from a combined mass of at least said diaphragm and said moving portion of said motor.
124. A pump for compressing a fluid comprising: a pump head defining a compression chamber ; a flexible diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said compression chamber; a motor having a moving portion that, in an operative configuration, is connected to said diaphragm for oscillating said diaphragm at a drive frequency to compress a fluid within said compression chamber; wherein said drive frequency is within about 5 percent of a mechanical resonance frequency determined from a combined spring stiffness of at least said moving portion of said motor and the fluid within said compression chamber, and from a combined mass of at least said diaphragm and said moving portion of said motor.
125. A pump for compressing a fluid comprising: a pump head defining a compression chamber; a flexible diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said compression chamber; a motor having a moving portion that, in an operative configuration, is connected to said diaphragm for oscillating said diaphragm at a drive frequency to compress a fluid within said compression chamber; wherein said drive frequency is within about 3 percent of a mechanical resonance frequency determined from a combined spring stiffness of at least said moving portion of said motor and the fluid within said compression chamber, and from a combined mass of at least said diaphragm and said moving portion of said motor.
126. A pump for compressing a fluid comprising: a pump head defining a compression chamber; a flexible diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said compression chamber; a motor having a moving portion that, in an operative configuration, is connected to said diaphragm for oscillating said diaphragm at a drive frequency to compress a fluid within said compression chamber; wherein said drive frequency is within about 1 percent of a mechanical resonance frequency determined from a combined spring stiffness of at least said moving portion of said motor and the fluid within said compression chamber, and from a combined mass of at least said diaphragm and said moving portion of said motor.
127. A pump for compressing a fluid comprising: a pump head defining a compression chamber; a flexible diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said compression chamber; a motor having a moving portion that, in an operative configuration, is connected to said diaphragm for oscillating said diaphragm at a drive frequency to compress a fluid within said compression chamber; wherein said drive frequency is within five percent of a mechanical resonance frequency determined from a combined spring stiffness of at least said moving portion of said motor and the fluid within said compression chamber, and from a combined mass of at least said diaphragm, said moving portion of said motor, and the fluid within said compression chamber.
128. A pump for compressing a fluid comprising: a pump head defining a compression chamber; a flexible diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said compression chamber; wherein, in an operative configuration, to compress a fluid within said compression chamber, said diaphragm is oscillated by a moving portion of a motor at a drive frequency approximately equal to a mechanical resonance frequency determined from a combined spring stiffness of at least the moving portion of the motor and the fluid within said compression chamber, and from a combined mass of at least said diaphragm and the moving portion of the motor.
129. A pump according to Claim 60, wherein said moving portion moves between a plurality of first positions and a plurality of second positions, thereby defining a stroke length.
130. A pump according to Claim 60, wherein said moving portion moves between a plurality of first positions and a plurality of second positions, thereby defining a stroke length, said stroke length being less than about 0.10 inches.
131. A pump according to Claim 41 wherein said pump discharges fluid at a pressure of 30 to 80 psi.
132. A pump according to Claim 40 wherein said pump is operable at frequencies at or greater than 100 cycles per second.
133. A pump according to Claim 40, wherein said motor is a variable reluctance motor.
134. A pump according to Claim 40, wherein said diaphragm further includes a first face within said compression chamber and a second face outside of an interior of said compression chamber and a hole between said first face and second face, said hole having a geometry sized and selected to communicate a sufficient quantity of fluid through said hole for equalizing pressure on said first and second faces of said diaphragm.
135. A pump according to Claim 40, wherein said diaphragm further includes a first face within said compression chamber and a second face outside of an interior of said compression chamber and a hole between said first face and second face.
136. A pump according to Claim 40, further comprising a suction port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing the fluid into said compression chamber.
137. A pump according to Claim 40, further comprising a discharge port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing the fluid out of said compression chamber.
138. A pump according to Claim 40, further comprising a suction port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing the fluid into said compression chamber, and a discharge port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing the fluid out of said compression chamber, said suction port and said discharge port each having a geometry selected to coordinate filling and discharge of the fluid through said suction port and discharge port respectively in coordination with a pressure cycle in said compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within said pump.
139. A pump according to Claim 40, further comprising a suction port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing the fluid into said compression chamber, and a suction valve operatively connected to said suction port said suction valve having a predetermined stiffness and a valve duty cycle, wherein said suction valve prevents fluid flow through said suction port in a closed position and allows flow through said suction port in an open position.
140. A pump according to Claim 40, further comprising a suction port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing the fluid into said compression chamber, and a suction valve operatively connected to said suction port, and wherein a stiffness, geometry, and size of said suction valve is selected to tune said suction valve to provide a timing of duty cycles of said suction valve and in coordination with a timing of filling of fluid through said suction port.
141. A pump according to Claim 40, further comprising a suction port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing the fluid into said compression chamber, and a discharge port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing the fluid out of said compression chamber, a suction valve operatively connected to said suction port and a discharge valve operatively connected to said discharge port, said suction valve and said discharge valve each having a predetermined stiffness and a valve duty cycle, wherein said suction valve prevents fluid flow through said suction port in a closed position and allows flow through said suction port in an open position and said discharge valve prevents fluid flow through said discharge port in a closed position and allows flow through said discharge portion in an open position, and wherein a valve stiffness, geometry, and size of said discharge valve and said suction valve each being selected to tune said suction valve and discharge valve to provide a timing of duty cycles of said suction valve and said discharge valve in coordination with a timing of filling of fluid through said suction port and discharge of the fluid through said discharge port and said pressure cycle in said compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within said pump.
142. A pump according to Claim 40, further comprising a discharge port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing the fluid out of said compression chamber, a discharge valve operatively connected to said discharge port.
143. A pump according to Claim 40, further comprising a discharge port connected in communication with said compression chamber for flowing the fluid out of said compression chamber, a discharge valve operatively connected to said discharge port, and wherein a stiffness, geometry, and size of said discharge valve is selected to tune said discharge valve to provide a timing of duty cycles of said discharge valve in coordination with a timing of discharging of the fluid through said discharge port.
144. A pump according to Claim 40, further comprising control means operatively connected with said motor for varying said drive frequency to oscillate said diaphragm at a frequency that is less than said mechanical resonance frequency.
145. A pump for compressing a fluid comprising: a pump head defining a compression chamber; a flexible diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said compression chamber; means for oscillating said diaphragm at a drive frequency to compress a fluid within said compression chamber; wherein said drive frequency is approximately equal to a mechanical resonance frequency determined from a combined spring stiffness of at least a moving portion of said means for oscillating and the fluid within said compression chamber, and from a combined mass of at least said diaphragm, said moving portion of said means for oscillating, and the fluid within said compression chamber.
146. A method for compressing a fluid comprising driving a moving portion of a motor at a drive frequency that is approximately equal to a mechanical resonance frequency determined from a combined spring stiffness of at least said moving portion of said motor and a fluid within a compression chamber, and from a combined mass of at least a diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said compression chamber, said moving portion of said motor, and the fluid within said compression chamber.
147. A method for compressing a fluid comprising: determining a mechanical resonance frequency from a combined spring stiffness of at least a moving portion of a motor and a fluid within a compression chamber, and from a combined mass of at least said moving portion of said motor, said fluid within said compression chamber, and a diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said compression chamber and connected to said moving portion of said motor; and driving said moving portion of said motor at a drive frequency that is approximately equal to said mechanical resonance frequency.
148. A method for compressing a fluid comprising: determining a mechanical resonance frequency based at least in part upon a combined spring stiffness of at least a moving portion of a motor and a fluid within at least a portion of a compression chamber, and based at least in part upon a combined mass of at least said moving portion of said motor, said fluid, and a diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said compression chamber and connected to said moving portion of said motor; and driving said moving portion of said motor at a drive frequency that is approximately equal to said mechanical resonance frequency.
149. A method for determining a driving frequency of a pump comprising calculating a mechanical resonance frequency based at least in part upon a combined spring stiffness of at least a moving portion of a motor and a fluid within at least a portion of a compression chamber, and based at least in part upon a combined mass of at least said moving portion of said motor, said fluid, and a diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said compression chamber and connected to said moving portion of said motor.
150. An apparatus for compressing a fluid comprising: means for determining a mechanical resonance frequency based at least in part upon a combined spring stiffness of at least a moving portion of a motor and a fluid within at least a portion of a compression chamber, and based at least in part upon a combined mass of at least said moving portion of said motor, said fluid, and a diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said compression chamber and connected to said moving portion of said motor; and said motor, wherein said motor is adapted to, in an operative configuration, drive said moving portion of said motor at a drive frequency that is approximately equal to said mechanical resonance frequency.
151. An apparatus for compressing a fluid comprising: means for driving a mover at a drive frequency that is approximately equal to a mechanical resonance frequency; and a processor adapted to, in an operative configuration, determine said mechanical resonance frequency based at least in part upon a combined spring stiffness of at least said mover and a fluid within at least a portion of a compression chamber, and based at least in part upon a combined mass of at least said mover, said fluid, and a diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said compression chamber and connected to said mover.
152. A method of compressing a fluid using a pump comprising: providing a pump for compressing a fluid, said pump comprising: a pump head defining a compression chamber; a flexible diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said compression chamber; a motor having a moving portion that, in an operative configuration, is connected to said diaphragm for oscillating said diaphragm at a drive frequency to compress a fluid within said compression chamber; operating said motor at said drive frequency, said drive frequency within approximately 25 percent of a mechanical resonance frequency determined from a combined spring stiffness of at least said moving portion of said motor and the fluid within said compression chamber, and from a combined mass of at least said diaphragm, said moving portion of said motor, and the fluid within said compression chamber.
153. A method of compressing a fluid using a pump comprising: providing a pump for compressing a fluid, said pump comprising: a pump head defining a compression chamber; a flexible diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of said compression chamber; a motor having a moving portion that, in an operative configuration, is connected to said diaphragm for oscillating said diaphragm at a drive frequency to compress a fluid within said compression chamber; operating said diaphragm at said drive frequency, said drive frequency within approximately 25 percent of a mechanical resonance frequency determined from a combined spring stiffness of at least said moving portion of said motor and the fluid within said compression chamber, and from a combined mass of at least said diaphragm, said moving portion of said motor, and the fluid within said compression chamber.
Description:
Devices and Methods for Compressing a Fluid Brief Description of the Drawings The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and form a part of the specification, illustrate certain embodiments of the present invention. In the drawings: FIG. I is a cross sectional view of a first embodiment of an air or gas compressor in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 2 is an enlarged view of the gas compressor of FIG. 1.

Figure 2a is an enlarged cross sectional view of the gas compressor of FIG. 1 at the end of the discharge stroke.

Figure 2b is an enlarged cross sectional view of the gas compressor of FIG. 1 at the mid- point of the suction stroke.

Figure 2c is an enlarged cross sectional view of the gas compressor of FIG. 1 with the piston at the beginning of the discharge stroke.

FIG. 2d is an enlarged cross sectional view of the gas compressor of FIG. 1 with the piston at mid-point of the discharge stroke.

FIG. 3 is a cross sectional view of a second embodiment of a refrigerant compressor in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 4 is lumped element diagram illustrating the different springs that influence the system dynamics of the gas compressor of FIG. 2.

FIG. 5 is a chart of diaphragm design parameters.

FIG. 6 provides a block diagram of control electronics for the compressor of Figs 1-2.

FIG. 7 illustrates selected voltage waveforms that can be used to drive the variable reluctance motors of the present invention.

Figs. 8a and 8b provides two charts that show pressure and power frequency response of the compressor of the present invention.

FIG. 9 is a third embodiment of the present invention illustrating the use of a voice-coil linear motor.

FIG. 10 is a fourth embodiment of the present invention illustrating the use of a piezoelectric linear motor.

FIG. 11 is an embodiment of a piezo-electric motor.

FIG. 12 is a simplified lumped element diagram illustration of the system dynamics.

FIG. 13 is a chart of pressure vs. flow performance curves.

Detailed Description The term"pump"is used herein consistent with its use by those skilled in the art to refer to both compressors and liquid pumps. The term"compressor"is typically used to designate machines that compress and discharge gases such as air or refrigerants."Liquid pumps"are machines that typically apply pressure to liquids, thereby compressing a given liquid, raising the pressure of the liquid, and/or causing the liquid to flow out of the pump.

Compressors can be used in applications including the general compression of gases such as air, hydrocarbons, process gases, high-purity gases, hazardous and corrosive gases, as well as the compression of phase-change refrigerants for refrigeration, air conditioning, and heat pumps, and other specialty vapor-compression heat transfer applications. Liquid pumps can be used to pump liquids, including certain liquids with entrained gases, and in some instances, to cause and/or increase a flowrate of fluidized powders.

Described herein are certain exemplary embodiments of the present invention, which can be provided as a linear resonance pump for compressing fluids. Certain embodiments of the pump can include a pump head comprising a rigid compression chamber including a wall having a geometry that defines a partial enclosure with an opening and a flexible diaphragm attached to an outer perimeter of the opening of the wall. Certain embodiments of the pump can integrate the concept of resonance with a diaphragm compressor to provide a linear resonance pump having a wide range of characteristics.

For example, such pumps can provide fluid compression within the rigid compression chamber when the flexible diaphragm is mechanically oscillated back and forth by a motor.

These pumps can include tuned ports and/or valves that can allow low-pressure fluid to enter and high-pressure fluid to exit the compression chamber in response to the cyclic compressions.

Certain exemplary pumps also can include a motor that can have a moving portion operably connected with the diaphragm for oscillating the diaphragm at a drive frequency. One or more of such pumps can be operated below, above, near, around, and/or at a mechanical resonance condition whose frequency can be determined from the moving mechanical mass of the

diaphragm, the mass of a moving portion of the motor such as a piston operably connected with the diaphragm, and/or a mass of that portion of the fluid that is contained within the chamber, and from the combined spring stiffness of the working fluid, the diaphragm, and/or other mechanical springs such as leaf springs connected with the moving portion.

Certain exemplary linear resonance pumps of the present invention can be utilized in a variety of applications including the general compression of gases such as air, hydrocarbons, process gases, high-purity gases, hazardous and corrosive gases. Additional potential application can include the compression of, phase-change refrigerants for refrigeration, air conditioning, and heat pumps, and other specialty vapor-compression heat transfer applications. An exemplary pump can also be utilized with liquids, fluidized solids, and/or can provide variable capacity pumping.

At least one exemplary embodiment of the pump according to the present invention includes a pump head comprising a compression chamber having a wall geometry that defines a partial enclosure with an opening and a flexible diaphragm rigidly connected at an outer perimeter of the opening of the wall. The diaphragm includes a flexible portion that is free to move with respect to the outer perimeter between a plurality of first positions and a plurality of second positions, the first and second positions defining first and second volumes of the compression chamber. The pump head also includes a tuned suction port and a tuned discharge port connected in communication with the compression chamber for flowing fluid into the compression chamber through the suction port and for flowing fluid out of the compression chamber through the discharge port.

An exemplary embodiment of the pump also can include a dynamic spring comprising a fluid spring created by the fluid that is introduced into the compression chamber being subject to varying pressure and flow conditions and a mechanical spring that comprises the diaphragm and, optionally leaf springs connected with the moving portion. In this embodiment the motor is in the form of a stator and an armature with the armature cyclable between the first positions and the second positions at a drive frequency. As the armature and diaphragm cycle into the first position the flexible portion of the diaphragm flexes to generally conform in shape to the curved section of the wall of the compression chamber for minimizing clearance volume in the compression chamber. The motor of this embodiment is a variable reluctance motor, but in other embodiments alternative motors could be used, such as motors having a piezoelectric

element, reluctance centering linear motor, or a voice coil linear motor.

During operation of an exemplary embodiment of such a pump, a mechanical resonance frequency can be determined from a dynamic mass that represents the combined moving masses of the moving portion, the diaphragm, and the compressed fluid, and by a dynamic spring stiffness that represents the combined spring rates of the compressed fluid, the mechanical springs and any additional springs connected to the moving parts of the pump. In certain alternative embodiments, the mechanical resonance frequency is further determined from a dynamic damping coefficient that represents the combined damping coefficients of the moving parts and the compressed fluid. In various embodiments, the motor is operable at a drive frequency that is greater than, less than, near, around, at, and/or approximately equal to the mechanical resonance frequency. To facilitate the resonance operation, the pump head can be provided with the tuned suction port and discharge port mentioned above. The ports each have a geometry comprising a diameter, length and cross-sectional shape and the ports are each tuned by selecting the geometry of the port to achieve optimal flow resistance and timing characteristics so as to coordinate the filling and discharge of the fluid through the suction port and discharge port respectively in coordination with the pressure cycle in the compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within the pump.

Resonant operation can be further facilitated by a valve that is operatively connected to each port. For example, in this first embodiment, a discharge valve is operatively connected to the discharge port and a suction valve is operatively connected to the suction port. Each valve has a predetermined stiffness and a valve duty cycle wherein the valve prevents flow through the port in a closed position and allows flow through the port in an open position. The valves are tuned by selecting the valve stiffness and geometry, including size, such that the timing of the duty cycle of the valve is coordinated with the timing of the filling and discharge of the fluid through the ports and the pressure cycle in the compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within the pump. The valves, each of which corresponds to a port, are each adapted to be maintained in the open position by fluid pressure differential across the valve during flow and without needing any mechanical stops. The valves operate through each of a plurality of duty cycles in a continuous motion. Tuning the valves and ports can facilitate the operation of the pump at high frequencies of 100 cycles per second or greater to produce desired fluid compression. The ports can be provided as a single port, or alternatively, as a plurality of

ports. The valves can be provided as a single valve for embodiments with a single port, or alternatively, with a plurality of valves corresponding to a plurality of ports. Properly tuned ports can facilitate compression and flow of the pump without valves. The addition of valves provides further enhancement of the pump's performance.

To still further facilitate the operation of the pump at resonance and at high frequencies with high compression ratios, the pump can be provided with a hole from the compression chamber to the exterior of the compression chamber, or alternatively a plurality of holes. The hole is provided in the diaphragm, or alternatively in other parts of the pump head or pump.

This hole or holes are tuned by selecting the geometry of the hole, including the size in diameter and length, to communicate a sufficient quantity of fluid through the hole for equalizing pressure on a first and second face of the diaphragm. Maintaining the equilibrium of pressure on the first and second faces of the diaphragm can prevent undue stress on the diaphragm and further can prevent undesirable creeping of the diaphragm's equilibrium position, which can lead to reduced motor performance.

The pump can include a single or, alternatively a plurality of leaf springs connected with the moving portion of the motor as one of the mechanical springs for providing restoring force and displacement of the moving portion such as the armature during cycling of the moving portion armature to reduce pressure on the diaphragm.

In this embodiment of the pump, the diaphragm is made from a metal material of steel.

A metal backpressure chamber can be provided in communication with the second face of the diaphragm and outside the compression chamber to provide an all-metal wetted flow path for flow of certain fluids. The use of the diaphragm allows for operation of the pump free of external lubricants. This oil free operation also allows for use of the pump irrespective of gravitational orientation for uses such as in boats or aircraft.

The pump also can be provided with control means that are operatively connected with the linear motor for varying the drive frequency of the linear motor to oscillate the diaphragm above, below, near, around, and/or at the mechanical resonance frequency. The control means can be provided in alternative embodiments as a closed loop controller or an open loop controller as described below.

The pump can be provided as a high frequency pump for compressing gases with tuned ports and valves as described above and which can operate above, at, below, near, and/or around

the mechanical resonance frequency.

Certain exemplary embodiments of the present invention can provide a method for compressing a fluid using an embodiment of a pump of the present invention. A pump, such as that described in the first embodiment, can be provided. Having provided this pump, a fluid is introduced into the compression chamber at a first pressure. This fluid can act as a fluid spring under varying pressure conditions. The mechanical resonance frequency is determined by the combined masses of the moving portion of the motor, the diaphragm, and the compressed fluid, and by the combined spring rates contributed by the diaphragm, the leaf spring and the compressed fluid. The motor is operated at a drive frequency that is greater than, at, less than, near, and/or around the corresponding mechanical resonance, to cycle the moving portion and diaphragm between the first and second positions. The fluid is compressed to a first pressure and evacuated from the compression chamber at a second pressure.

The method can further include providing the diaphragm with the hole as described, the hole being sized in diameter and length to communicate a sufficient quantity of fluid through the hole for equalizing pressure on the first and second faces; and further comprising equalizing pressure on the first and second faces of the diaphragm during said oscillation by flowing fluid through the hole. Alternatively, the method of compressing a fluid can further comprise tuning ports such as a suction port and discharge port by selecting the sizing of each port's geometry including the diameter, length, and cross-sectional shape, to coordinate the timing of the filling and discharge of the fluid through the ports and the pressure cycle in the compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid through the port. Likewise the method can include providing a tuned valve for each of the ports. Each of the valves can be operatively connected to a port and can have a predetermined stiffness and a valve duty cycle. The valve can prevent flow through the port in a closed position and can allow flow through the port in an open position. Tuning the valve comprising selecting the valve stiffness and geometry to provide a duty cycle with a timing that is coordinated with the timing of the filling and discharge of the fluid through the ports and the pressure cycle in the compression chamber to provide a net flow in one direction of the fluid within the pump.

The method of compressing a fluid can include compressing the fluid in a series of cycles at a high frequency of 100 cycles per second or greater. Further, the method can further comprise varying the drive frequency of the linear motor in accordance with the mechanical

resonance frequency. Still further the method can include varying the drive frequency by a closed loop controller or open loop controllers as described below. In certain embodiments, the resonant operation of the linear resonance pump of the present invention can provide high frequency operation, small diaphragm displacements, high compression ratios for gases, and small size. The linear resonance pump can enable the provision of a simple gas compressor with an all metal diaphragm that provides high compression ratios and also includes an all metal wetted flow path that can promote compatibility with a wide range of toxic, high-purity, reactive, or environmentally hazardous fluids. Exemplary embodiments of the linear resonance pump can eliminate any frictional moving parts, thus providing oil-free operation and the freedom to operate the compressor in any physical or gravitational orientation.

Certain embodiments of the linear resonance pump according to the present invention also can provide high frequency resonant operation in a relatively small sized unit, and in particular embodiments can provide a resonant positive-displacement compressor with high stability under low pressure high-flow conditions. Certain exemplary embodiments of the linear resonance pump can provide a compressor with a soft start characteristic that can prevent electrical current spikes upon start up.

Air and gas compressor Referring to FIG. 1, there is illustrated a cross-sectional view of an exemplary embodiment of the linear resonant pump of the present invention in the form of an air or gas compressor. This embodiment comprises a pump in the form of an air compressor 2 suspended in an exterior shell 4 by a suspension 6. The suspension 6 is comprised of suspension elements 6a, 6b, 6c, 6d connected in tension with the shell 4 on opposite sides of the compressor 2. The tension in suspension elements 6 positions the compressor 2 both radially and axially within the shell 4 and prevents contact between the compressor 2 and the inner surfaces of the shell 4 during operation. Compliance in the suspension elements 6 can reduce the transmission of vibration and sound from the compressor 2 to the shell 4 and its surroundings. The suspension elements are depicted in the embodiment of FIG. 1 as elastomeric bands 6a, 6b, 6c, 6d but they may be provided in alternative embodiments as metal coil extension springs or other suspension elements with like properties.

The compressor 2 comprises two main sub-assemblies, the pump head 8 and the motor 50. The compressor 2 is provided with fluid interconnection between the compressor 2 and the external environment is made in a manner so as to minimize vibration and noise transmission. A fluid, in this embodiment of FIG. 1 an air or gas, enters the shell 4 through the inlet port 12 and fills the cavity 14 that exists between the compressor 2 and the shell 4.

Cavity 14 acts as a plenum that can provide noise muffling and smoothing of pressure pulsations. Alternative embodiments of the pump can be provided without a shell 4. Various materials can be used to construct the pump in order to provide chemical compatibility with a given fluid. The pump in various embodiments can be utilized to compress gases such as air, hydrocarbons, process gases such as nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen; hazardous, and/or corrosive gases.

The fluid is drawn into the compressor 2 through the compressor inlet port 16. Gas is discharged from the compressor 2 through the compressor discharge port 18 and directed to the enclosure outlet 20 through a flexible tubing interconnect 22. The flexible tubing interconnect 22 is provided as an elastomeric material and can be provided in alternative embodiments as a metal or other material.

FIG. 2 provides an enlarged view of the compressor 2 of FIG. 1. The pump head assembly 8 includes a diaphragm 24, which is clamped around its perimeter between an annular clamping ring 26 and a compression chamber plate 28. The pump head assembly 8 also comprises a valve head 38 having a piston 30 including a piston base 32 and a piston cap 34. The piston acts, in this embodiment as the moving portion. Diaphragm 24 is further clamped between the piston base 32 and the piston cap 34 of piston 30. During operation, piston base 32 and piston cap 34 move together as a single member. The portion 24b of diaphragm 24 between piston base 32 and piston cap 34 cannot bend or flex and remains planner during such movement. The portion 24a of diaphragm 24 between the inner diameter of clamp 26 and the outer diameter of piston cap 34 is free to flex and bend as piston 30 moves cyclically back and forth along its axis from a first position at the end or top of the compression stroke and to a second position at the end of the suction stroke. The flexible diaphragm 24 is formed of steel.

Still referring to FIG. 2, the pump 2 further comprises a compression chamber 36 that is formed by components including piston cap 34, diaphragm 24, compression chamber plate

28, and a valve head 38. The compression chamber 36 can be described with the valve head 38 defining a part of a wall portion 35 of the compression chamber 36 and the piston cap 34, compression chamber plate 28 and diaphragm 24 defining a part of a bottom portion of the compression chamber 36.

The piston 30 and diaphragm 24 are free to move between a plurality of first positions and a plurality of second positions. The piston 30 and the diaphragm 24 in the first positions are proximal to the wall portion 35 of the compression chamber 36 at the top of a respective compression stroke, and the second positions are distal to the wall portion 35 of the compression chamber 36 at the end of a respective suction stroke. The diaphragm 24 is operably movable to a plurality of the first positions on successive compression strokes and a plurality of second positions on successive suction strokes in response to varying drive force from the linear motor. The first positions can be a varying distance from the wall 35 of the compression chamber 36.

The pump further includes a discharge plenum 40 and a suction plenum 46.

Discharge plenum 40 communicates with compression chamber 36 through a discharge port 42. Discharge valve 44 is seated over discharge port 42 within discharge plenum 40. Suction plenum 46 communicates with compression chamber 36 through suction port 48. Suction valve 51 is seated over suction port 48 within compression chamber 36. The suction valve 51 and the discharge valve 44 and the ports, including the suction port 48 and the discharge port 42 are tuned in operation as described below. In alternative embodiments, the number of suction and discharge valves can be altered and their geometry and size can be changed as well.

The clearance volume is minimized by the way in which piston cap 34 fits into compression chamber plate 28. Clearance volume, in this embodiment, is further reduced by the curved section 27 of compression chamber plate 28, the curvature of the curved section is chosen to conform to the bending profile of diaphragm 24 at the top of the discharge stroke.

Various curvatures of the curved section 27 can be utilized of the compression chamber plate 28 depending on variations in the bending profile of diaphragm 24 in various embodiments.

If desired, a straight wall could be utilized although it is recognized that performance characteristics would likely suffer with the use of a straight walled section in place of the curved section 27.

Still referring to Figs. I and 2, the pump 2 further includes a motor 50. In this embodiment, motor 50 is a variable reluctance motor having an E-shaped stator 52, a stator coil 54 being wound around the center leg of stator 52, and an armature 56. Stator 52 and armature 56 are each formed by a stack of individual laminations in order to reduce the eddy current losses associated with oscillating magnetic fields in metals. Armature 56 is rigidly connected to piston 30 by stud 58. The armature 56 and piston 30 act as a moving portion to move the diaphragm 24 between the first positions and second positions.

Leaf springs 60 are rigidly connected to piston 30 and to compression chamber plate 28 so as to allow axial motion of armature 56 and piston 30, while serving to reject non-axial motions. A plurality of leaf springs 60 (60a, 60b and 60c) attached to the piston and the enclosure 4. The leaf springs 60 serve as a part of the mechanical spring to provide restoring force and displacement to the piston 30 and diaphragm 24 during actuation. Stator 52 is rigidly connected to an enclosure 55 and enclosure 55 is rigidly connected to compression chamber plate 28. The enclosure 55 provides a chamber to provide backpressure against the diaphragm 24. In other embodiments, various type of motors can be used including a voice coil motor as illustrated in the embodiment in FIG. 9, a piezoelectric element as shown in the embodiment of FIG. 10 and in other embodiment motors such as piezo bender bimorphs; electrostatic, electrostrictive, ferroelectric, reluctance centering linear motor, and rotary off- concentric motors.

Operation of the compressor 2 of Figs. 1 and 2 is described with respect to Figures 2, 2a, 2b, 2c, and 2d as follows. As shown in Figure 2a, a suction cycle begins with the piston 30 at the top of its stoke in a first position proximal to the valve head 38. When the piston 30 is in its first position, the compression chamber 36 is at its minimum volume. The volume of the compression chamber 36 varies as the piston 30 cyclically moves between its first and second positions. The volume displacement of the present invention can be calculated from standard piston compressor equations by substituting the diaphragm's effective diameter de for the piston's diameter. The effective diameter de d +1/3 (D-d), where d is the diameter of the piston 34 and D is the diameter of clamp ring 26. The swept volume then becomes V = s (7il4) (de) 2, where s _ the piston stroke.

A periodic voltage applied to coil 54 creates a magnetic attractive force between stator 52 and armature 56. This magnetic force combines with the restoring force of the deflected

leaf springs 60 and restoring force of the remaining compressed gas within compression chamber 36, thereby causing the piston 30 to move away from valve head 38. The resulting downward motion of piston 30 and diaphragm 24 causes the volume of compression chamber 36 to increase, thus causing the pressure within compression chamber 36 to drop below the pressure within suction plenum 46. The resulting pressure differential causes the suction valve 51 to open, thereby allowing low pressure gas to flow from suction plenum 46 into compression chamber 36 as shown in FIG. 2b. On the suction stroke, the piston 30 continues through the equilibrium position or middle station as shown in Figure 2b. The piston 30 continues its movement past the middle station until eventually the restoring force of the diaphragm 24, the rarified gas, and the leaf springs 60 reach a magnitude adequate to halt the piston 30, thereby ending the suction cycle with the piston 30 and diaphragm 24 in its second position distal from the valve head 38 or top wall portion 35 of the compression chamber 36 as shown in FIG. 2c.

For the discharge cycle or compression cycle, the voltage across coil 54 is reduced creating a corresponding reduction in the attractive force between the stator 52 and the armature 56. The restoring force of the diaphragm 24 and leaf springs 60 then causes armature 56 and piston 30 to reverse directions, whereby piston 30 and diaphragm 24 begin to move towards the valve head 38 and the compression cycle begins. The upward compression stroke of piston 30 and diaphragm 24 causes the volume of compression chamber 36 to decrease, thus causing the pressure within compression chamber 36 to rise above the pressure within discharge plenum 40. The resulting pressure differential causes the discharge valve 44 to open, thereby allowing high-pressure gas to flow from compression chamber 36 into discharge plenum 40 as shown in FIG. 2d. On the compression stroke, the piston 30 continues through the equilibrium position, as shown in FIG. 2d, until the combined forces of the diaphragm 24, the leaf springs 60, the compressed gas, and the increasing force of motor 50 cause the piston 30 to reverse directions, thereby ending the discharge cycle in the first position as shown in FIG. 2a. The particular phase, between the applied periodic voltage waveform and the reciprocation of piston 30, is determined by the masses, mechanical spring characteristics, fluid spring characteristics, damping, and the characteristics of the pumping load. As the piston 30 and diaphragm 24 cycle between discharge and suction cycles, the piston 30 moves between various first positions of varying distances from the wall portion 35

of the compression chamber 36 as well as various second positions of varying distances from wall portion 35 as shown in Figs 2a and 2d depending on the specific operating conditions.

Resonant operation Referring now to FIG. 4, during operation of the pump 2 of Figs. 1 and 2, different springs and masses influence the dynamics of pump 2. These influencing springs can include the compressed fluid F, the diaphragm 24, and the mechanical leaf springs 60. These springs have spring rates described as kf, kd, and km which are the spring rates of the compressed fluid, the diaphragm, and the mechanical leaf springs 60, respectively. The influencing masses can include masses ms-c, ma-p, and mf, which are the masses of the stator 52 and all of the other stationary parts of pump 2, the moving armature and piston, and the compressed fluid F, respectively. Diaphragm 24 and mechanical leaf springs 60 also can contribute at least a portion of their masses to the moving mass ma. p.

In the embodiment of Figs. 1 and2, the values of one or more of kf, kd, km, ms-c, ma-p, and mf can be chosen to create a pump 2 having a mechanical resonance frequencyfo that is close to the driving frequency of the motor 50 and/or the driving frequency of the motor 50 can be chosen to be close to the mechanical resonance frequencyfo of pump 2. The resonance characteristic of the pump can vary depending on operating conditions. For example, as operating pressure is increased, the fluid's spring rate can increase, causing the resonance to shift to a higher frequency. The shift in the resonant frequency can be significant when the embodied design is operated at high pressures.

In certain exemplary embodiments, such as when compressing certain vapors, mf can be assumed to be much less than rris-e, and mus-c can be designed much larger than m,,-P in order to minimize the vibration of pump 2, such that for f RI-117, # 1/(2#)[(kg + kd + kf)/ma-p]1/2. In alternative embodiments, various combinations of spring rates and masses can be selected to create a desired mechanical resonance frequency of pump 2.

Pump 2 can be operated at a frequency that is less than, approximately equal to, around, at, and/or greater than its mechanical resonance frequency. The amount that the drive

frequency is offset from the mechanical resonance can be a compromise between optimal performance and acceptable stability, and can fall within a range of between 0.5-1.5 of the mechanical resonance frequency. Since the restoring forces of the springs can contribute to the force required to move the piston 30, the inertia of the moving mass is effectively reduced, thereby reducing the actual motor force required for a given compression. At the resonant frequency of certain embodiments of the pump of the present invention which have resonant frequencies of approximately 100 cycles per second or greater, the diaphragm 24 stroke required for a given compression ratio can be reduced to provide high compression ratios without exceeding the fatigue limits of the diaphragm 24. For example, for pump sizes less than 1/2 horsepower, the pump of the embodiment of Figs 1 and 2 of the present invention has provided compression ratios of 6. Certain embodiments of the pump of the present invention can be scaled in size to provide a range of pumping power ratings.

A stroke length is defined as the displacement of the piston between the second position at the end of a suction stroke and the first position of the top of the successive compression stroke. Since the compressor can produce high compression ratios with very short stroke, motors can be used that can efficiently provide short strokes and high forces.

The stroke ratio is defined as the stroke length divided by the diameter of the moving portion shown as the diaphragm in FIG. I and 2. The compression ratio is defined as the sum of the swept volume in the compression chamber plus a clearance volume divided by the clearance volume. For example, in the embodiment described in Figures 1 and 2, piston 30 can be operable with stroke lengths of up to 0.10 inches for corresponding diameters of piston 30 of between 1. 5 inches and 4.75 inches, where the pump is operable with stroke ratio between about 0.07 and 0.02 and discharges fluid at a pressure of 30 to 80 psig.

Pumps with high compression ratios can use a stiff diaphragm material that will not overly flex under high pressure, since this could result in over-stressing the diaphragm and degradation of the compression ratio. In the pump 2 of the embodiment of FIG. I and 2, the pump operates with low diaphragm strokes afforded by high-frequency resonant operation.

Such operation makes it possible to use the all-metal diaphragm 24 as used in the embodiment of Figs. 1 and 2, thereby providing the stiffness needed for high compression ratios. Such metal diaphragms provide stability and long life in high-pressure applications.

Certain embodiments of such metal diaphragms generally are not susceptible to cracking,

weakening, degradation or failure when exposed to high pressure conditions or corrosive gases during operation or due to other reactivity or compatibility issues. Further, certain embodiments of such metal diaphragms are not permeable by gases and thereby do not allow for undue gas pass thru and resulting pressure build up a back side of the diaphragm. The diaphragms of alternative embodiments using other materials with similar properties can be used. In certain embodiments, the diaphragm can be provided, or suitable materials, including metals such as steels, stainless steels and alloys, aluminum, titanium, magnesium, brass, copper, and/or other materials such as carbon fibers, composite materials, and/or like materials with desired flexibility, stability, and/or durability when exposed to various gases, liquids, and/or refrigerants that may be used with the pump. Further, in various alternative embodiments, elastic material diaphragms, including diaphragms made of various polymers like rubber, can be used in applications that do not require high pressure or pose problems with permeability, corrosion of degradation of the polymer material in the diaphragm or where durability considerations are not important. The pump 2 of the embodiment of Figs. I and 2 also can provide high frequency operation and corresponding size reduction of compressors for a given pumping capacity, since pumping capacity = frequency x swept volume x volumetric efficiency. The embodiment of pump 2 of the present invention illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 has no sliding seals but uses the flexible diaphragm 24. Certain embodiments of pump 2 can make high frequency operation practical by means of the greatly reduced diaphragm strokes provided at resonance, and by the relatively low mass of the moving elements. So, at higher frequencies, the swept volume of the pump can be reduced, since there is a greater number of pumping cycles-per-second. For example, the pump 2 in embodiment of Figs. 1 and 2 has a swept volume of 1.05 in3 with 200 pumping cycles-per- second. The pump can be scaled to provide various pumping capabilities. Typically, energy efficiency is inversely proportional to size, since the swept volume tends to fall off faster than frictional losses as a compressor is scaled down.

Valve tuning The dynamic tuning of the valves and valve ports is illustrated in FIGS. 1 and2, which show discharge valve 44, suction valve 51, suction port 48 and discharge port 42. This tuning of the ports and valves can provide an additional component of the resonance operation

beyond the role of the fluid spring in conjunction with the mechanical springs 60 and diaphragm 24 in determining the resonance operating characteristics of pump 2..

The valves 51,44 and associated ports 48,42 also can play a role in maintaining the dynamic spring and associated resonance character under a wide range of conditions. The valve design 51,44, therefore, can provide a balance between optimizing resonance behavior and minimizing the flow pressure loss.

Figure 12 is a simplified electrical analogue schematic of the system dynamics including the influence of a single port and illustrates the potential benefit of proper valve tuning at high pumping frequencies. In the electric-to-mechanical analogue, the paired analogies are current flow-to-fluid flow, inductance-to-inertance, capacitance-to-compliance, resistance-to-resistance. The circuit branch that represents the compression chamber and motor includes components Stator (motor stator), Cdia (diaphragm), Cspring (mechanical leaf springs), Zr,-o (for combined piston and armature mass), and CgaS (compression chamber gas).

In this example, the mass of the gas is assumed negligible, although this would not necessarily be a valid assumption in the case of other fluids, such as a liquid, gas-liquid mixture, mist, foam, slurry, or fluidized solid.

The circuit branch that represents the single port includes components Chas, Rport, Sport. It can be seen immediately from the electrical analogue schematic that the resonant amplitude can be enhanced or degraded depending on the component values of the port branch. By properly designing the geometry of the ports 42, and 48 including the shape, length, and/or cross-sectional area, the ports 42, and 48 can be tuned, thus the fluid inertance and flow resistance can be controlled so as to provide the desired balance between pump flow rate and compression ratio (i. e. resonance amplitude). The model shown in FIG. 12 can be extended to include a second port, dynamic valves coupled to the ports that add a rectification to the flow, and the dynamic fluid pressure forces acting to open and close the valves.

Appropriate formulas for determining the numerical values of the inertance and resistance are widely known in the art.

Increasing the overall impedance of the valves 44,51 and ports 42,48 increases the amount of residual gas contained in the compression chamber after the discharge cycle. The increased gas containment provides increased fluid spring rates. The overall impedance is

generally increased by reducing the diameter or cross-section of ports 42,48, increasing the port length, increasing the valve spring stiffness, and/or decreasing the number of valves.

Since inertance and resistance are out of phase with each other, changing the relative ratio of inertance to resistance alters the timing of the port flow relative to the piston motion. More resistance and less inertance cause the valve flow to be in closer phase with the compression chamber pressure. Conversely, increasing the inertance relative to the resistance causes a phase shift of valve-port flow away from maximum pressure toward maximum piston velocity. By proper tuning of the ports 42,48 and valves 44,51, the flows impedance can be used to create more efficient scavenging and filling of the compression chamber. Changing the mass of the valve relative to its diameter has a similar impact on the inertance.

Figure 13 illustrates the effect of valve-port tuning on compressor performance. The two performance curves represent identical design characteristics of a pump according to the present invention with the exception of valve port diameter. In one case, the valve port diameter is 0.10 inch while in the other it is 70% increased at 0.17 inch. The smaller, more restrictive ports provide increased maximum pressure at the expense of less maximum flow.

The ideal valve-port geometry is maximized for the particular pump and motor geometry as well as the requirements of specific applications.

Tuning the valves 44,51 provides control of when the valves 44,51 open during a pumping cycle and also when the valves close during a pumping cycle. This can have a substantial impact on pumping efficiency, valve life, and/or reliability. For example, valves that open late will shorten the valve duty cycle and result in less flow per pumping cycle, which reduces efficiency. Valves that close late will allow back flow through the valve, which reduces efficiency. Back flow may also be a source of contamination in some applications.

During an ideal valve duty cycle, the fluid pressure differential across the valve is relatively small. After the ideal valve duty cycle, the pressure differential across the valve increases rapidly. A late closing valve will be driven to high velocities by this large pressure differential and will experience large impact stresses upon striking the valve seat, which leads to failure and low reliability. Conversely, a properly timed closing will occur with much lower impact velocities providing for long valve life.

Inertance, and its influence on valve timing, can become increasingly significant as

valve-operating frequencies are increased. At low valve frequencies, steady-state flow is established early in the valve duty cycle and remains relatively constant throughout the duration of the valve duty cycle. The initial transient where the gas is accelerating comprises a small fraction of the duty cycle. Thus, the gas inertance associated with that valve design is insignificant. For these frequencies, incompressible flow calculations provide fairly accurate predictions of performance.

At high frequencies, however, the gas may continue to accelerate through a significant portion of the valve duty cycle, reaching steady state for only a brief portion of the duty cycle or perhaps not at all. Consequently, inertance becomes significant in characterizing the valve's performance and timing at these higher frequencies where the flow is predominately in the incompressible regime. The pump 2 in the present invention can operate at high frequencies where the tuning of the valves 44,51 and ports 42,48 assist with such operations. The valves that are properly tuned for higher operating frequencies tend to be smaller then other compressor valves. This provides flexibility for the designer in laying out the valve design and provides the potential for more total valve area.

The tuned ports 42,48 and valves 44,51 of the pump 2 of the present invention also can eliminate the need for valve stops. At lower frequencies, a valve's opening time and closing time is a small fraction of it open duty cycle. As such, pressure and flow forces hold the valves open against a valve stop for most of the valve duty cycle. The tuned valves 44,51 of the pump of the present invention open and close in one continuous motion and thus eliminate the need for valve stops. This also eliminates the valve impact stresses associated with valve stop impacts, thereby improving valve life and reliability.

The valves 44,51 can be tuned for high flow at low compression ratios or low flow at high compression ratios. The larger valve ports will support higher flow rates but will reduce the compression ratio. Smaller ports will reduce the flow rate but provide larger compression ratios.

The tuned valves of the pump of the present invention also provide high compression ratios with small diaphragm displacements. Conventional diaphragm pumps would use larger strokes to provide higher compression ratios. High compression ratios can be provided with valves that are tuned to provide the proper flow resistance. This reduces the diaphragm stroke required for high compression ratios and results in reduced diaphragm bending stresses

and consequent high diaphragm reliability. Also, reducing the diaphragm stroke reduces the force needed to deflect the diaphragm. Thus, more motor force can be directed to compressing the gas rather than bending the diaphragm, resulting in higher energy efficiency.

Since the fluid inertance associated with the ports increases with operating frequency, the timing of flow through the ports can be tuned at higher frequencies so as to provide a net flow through the pump without valves. Tuned ports and valves can be realized by any pump that can operate at high frequencies. Thus, a piston, rotary, diaphragm, or any other pump can potentially benefit from one or more embodiments of the tuned port and tuned valve approach of the present invention.

Stability As shown in FIG. 2e, the embodiment of Figs. 1 and 2 of the present invention can be provided with a hole 25, shown in the diaphragm 24 to enhance stability. The hole 25 is placed in the embodiment of FIG. 2e, in the area of diaphragm 24 between the inner diameter of clamp 26 and the outer diameter of piston cap 34 of FIG. 2e. When the pressure-related forces on both a front or first face 29 and a back or second face 31 of the diaphragm 24 are balanced, then the stress on the diaphragm 24 is reduced, thus providing greater reliability and longer life for the diaphragm. Under certain pressure conditions, a diaphragm without a hole may be susceptible to breaking or cracking due to the high-pressure conditions. The pressure equalization provided by hole 25 prevents the mean position or middle station of the diaphragm 24 from creeping, which would cause performance to be degraded due to a closing of the motor's average air gap, and reduced efficiency due to excess clearance volume, and reduced compression ratios.

The diaphragm hole diameter is chosen so as to provide a gas flow-rate time-constant that is typically 8 or more pumping cycles in duration. Longer or shorter time constants can be used at the cost of reduced performance. This hole 25 is sized to provide a leak path between compression chamber 36 and the interior 57 of enclosure 55 in FIG. 2. The appropriate size of hole 25 can be determined from orifice flow calculations once the pressure differential across the hole and the volume of enclosure 55 is known. Prototypes of the linear resonance pump have shown optimal performance for hole diameters of 8-30 mils. In alternate embodiments, a plurality of holes can be provided when the number and site of the

holes being selected on the same criteria as described with respect to hole 25 of FIG. 2e. In such alternative embodiments, the hole can be provided in components other than the diaphragm 24 that provide a leak path between the compression chamber 36 and the interior 57 of the enclosure 55 provide fluid flow through the hole to equalize pressure of the first and second faces of the diaphragm 24.

If a hole 25 is added to diaphragm 24, then an all metal wetted flow path can be maintained by providing a second diaphragm 23 or other barrier which forms a small backing volume 21 or backpressure chamber as shown in Fig 2e. In this way, pressure equalization across diaphragm 24 is provided by pressurizing the backing volume 21, rather than pressurizing the entire interior volume 57 of enclosure 55. A smaller backing volume also allows the diameter of hole 25 to be reduced. In the embodiment of the pump 2 as shown in FIG. 2e, the all-metal wetted flow path of the fluid includes the discharge plenum 40, discharge port 42, suction plenum 46, suction port 48, compression chamber 36, second diaphragm 23 and hole 25. As well, the presence of an all-metal wetted flow path, allows the pump 2 to be used with a wide range of fluids and promotes chemical compatibility with high-purity, toxic, reactive, or environmentally hazardous fluids. In alternate embodiments where an all-metal wetted flow path is not required, the second diaphragm 23 can be eliminated utilizing the interior motor area as the diaphragm backing volume.

Diaphragm dimensions Turning to FIG. 5, a chart of diaphragm design parameters with a shaded area that represents a region of desired life and reliability for embodiments where the fluid is a gas.

Extended life and reliability of diaphragms can be achieved with proper design. The critical parameters that can be used to describe the diaphragm are its thickness t, outer clamped diameter D, and inner clamped diameter d. In FIG. 2, D is the inner diameter of clamp ring 26 and d is the outer diameter of piston cap 34.

The life and reliability of the diaphragm can be within a Dld ratio range of 1.25-2.00 and a thickness range of 4-20 mils. For operating conditions that span compression ratios of 2-6 and flow rates of 0.01-3.0 cfm, life and reliability are maximized for a Dld ratio range of 1.33-1.50 and a thickness range of 6-10 mils. The shaded area in FIG. 5 shows this region of dimensions although other regions can be utilized. High compression ratios would move the

design parameters into the upper left hand region of the shaded area and low compression ratios would move the design parameters into the lower right hand region of the shaded area.

The embodiment of Figs. 1 and 2 of the present invention uses a diaphragm thickness of 8 mils and a Dld ratio range 1. 33-1. 50.

The thickness of the diaphragm 24 can also be reduced due to the presence of the hole 25 which reduces the average pressure differential across the diaphragm. As the bending stresses in the diaphragm increase with the thickness cubed, reducing the diaphragm thickness reduces bending stress and increases life and reliability of the diaphragm. The addition of the leaf springs 60 to the diaphragm as the principle mechanical spring also allows the pump to be operated with greater stability and efficiency over a larger range of diaphragm stokes. This is in part due to the fact that diaphragm springs are nonlinear (i. e. the deflection force is not F = kx but rather is F = kx") and leaf springs 60 are more linear than a diaphragm spring. As shown in the embodiment of the pump according to Figs. 1 and 2, multiple level leaf springs 60 (60a, 60b, 60c) are utilized. The use of multiple leaf springs 60 provide significantly more stability than either a single or multiple diaphragm springs. The use of these leaf springs provides improved stability and greater rejection of non-axial motions of the piston-armature assembly.

The leaf springs 60 also provide increased reliability as they are less susceptible to being deformed by an annular buckling than a diaphragm utilized as a mechanical spring in isolation.

As depicted, the leaf springs 60 can be provided outside of the compression chamber 36, so stresses due to pressure deformation can be ignored in their design providing for simplicity of design.

Diaphragm displacement The volume displacement of the present invention can be calculated from standard piston compressor equations by substituting the diaphragm's effective diameter de for the piston's diameter. The effective diameter de d +ll3 (D-d), so that the swept volume V = saxe, = s (7v/4) (de) 2 where d-the piston diameter, D _ inner diameter of clamp ring 26, and s _ the piston stroke. For the embodiment of FIG. 2 typical values would be d = 4.75" D = 6.0" s = 0.050" yielding a swept volume of 1. 05 in3.

Electronic Controls During operation, variations can occur in the spring stiffness kg of the gas being compressed within compression chamber 36, and due to changes in compression ratio and flow rate. Spring rates kg, kd, and km can all change due to their nonlinearity with displacement. Thus, the mechanical resonance frequencyfo =11 (2) T). (ktlm,-p) 112 (where k,--spring rate sum, ma F _ total moving mass), will change as pressures and displacements change. These pressure and displacement variations can occur due to system-imposed changes or by user-imposed changes such as variable capacity. For applications where operating conditions causefo to vary, an electronic control can be used to make corresponding changes in the drive frequency in order to maintain a given offset between the drive frequency and the changing mechanical resonance frequency.

FIG. 6 illustrates a pump 90 having a motor 50 as described with respect to the embodiment of FIG. 1 connected to a power amp 75, which drives the stator coil 54 and a controller 77 for changing the drive frequency in response to changes info. FIG. 7 illustrates four of many different voltage waveforms W l, W2, W3, W4 that can be used to drive the stator coil 54 of FIG. 6. Closed-loop and/or open-loop methods also can be used with various embodiments to adjust the drive frequency during operation. For applications where operating conditions are very stable or where peak performance is not a priority, a fixed-frequency drive can be used and the controller eliminated.

In embodiments of the pump utilizing the closed-loop method, controller 77 could vary the drive frequency of power amp 75 in order to maximize power transfer, current, or power factor to the motor winding 54. The closed loop controller can be provided to find a desired drive frequency, based on a measured discharge pressure, which maximizes the power consumption for a fixed drive voltage and to operate the motor on such drive frequency. An alternate embodiment could use another feedback scheme of maximizing the pressure or flow.

Controller 77 could use, for example, a microprocessor based search algorithm. This closed loop controller could find a desired drive frequency of the motor to maximize flow or pressure at a fixed drive voltage in response to measured operating condition. Still further, a closed loop controller can be provided that is operatively connected with the motor for varying the drive frequency of the motor in responses to changes in the mass-spring

mechanical resonance frequency. Other methods known to one of skill in the art can be used for closed-loop method controllers in still further embodiments.

In embodiments of the pump utilizing the open-loop method, controller 77 varies the drive frequency of power amp 75 according to a predetermined mapping of the compressor's performance characteristics. In response to a given drive amplitude signal, controller 77 would select an ideal drive frequency from its characteristic performance map data. For example, higher compression ratios will cause the mechanical resonance frequency to shift up. In response, the controller would prescribe a higher drive frequency based on the performance map data.

Control stability, for a linear resonance pump, is enhanced when the drive frequency is below the peak of the mechanical resonance frequencyfo. FIG. 8 shows the pressure and power frequency response. These curves illustrate the hardening nonlinearity of the resonance, and thus the possibility of operating the pump at a frequency below, at, above, near, and/or around the resonance peak.

The degree to which the drive frequency of a particular controller will be offset from the mechanical resonance frequency depends on the requirements of a given application. The frequency offset between the mechanical resonance frequency and the drive frequency is a compromise between optimum performance and acceptable stability. Within the scope of the present invention, a continuum of frequency offsets can be used with a corresponding continuum of stability vs. performance, and thus resonant operation can be realized at various drive frequencies spanning a large portion of the mechanical resonance curve. In certain embodiments, the drive frequency can be operated above, at, near, around, and/or below the mechanical resonance frequency and can vary across the range of 0.5 to 0.95,0.5 to 1.5, 1. 05 to 1. 5, 0.5 to 1.05.0.95 to 1. 50, 0.95 to 1. 05, 0.95 to 1. 00, 1. 00 to 1. OS etc. of the mechanical resonance frequency based on specific operating conditions. In certain alternative embodiments, the drive frequency can be within approximately 25, 20, 15, 10, 5, 3, 2.5,1, and/or 0.5 percent of the mechanical resonance frequency. Still other embodiments can be operated at other drive frequencies spanning different ranges of the mechanical resonance curve.

Fixed displacement compressors often create an undesirable current in-rush, or current spike, upon start-up while the motor comes up to operating speed. Since the displacement of

the pump of present invention is variable, soft start-ups can be provided by slowly increasing the drive voltage amplitude of the motor 50, thereby avoiding the sudden load that can lead to current spikes. The elimination of current spikes can be useful for applications such as refrigeration systems on boats. The boats electrical system must be rated to withstand the compressor's current spikes. This can result in having to size the electrical supply system to handle currents that are many times the steady-state current draw of the compressor resulting in significant additional expense.

Many electronic control schemes and specific components can be used to detect and maintain the proper drive frequency.

Refrigerant compressor Turning now to FIG. 3, another embodiment of the pump according to the present invention is depicted in the form of a refrigerant compressor 102 for the compression of phase change refrigerants used in vapor-compression heat transfer systems. To the extent similar, like elements of the embodiment of the pump 101 of FIG. 3 as a refrigerant compressor are as described with respect to the description of the pump 2 of Figs. 1 and 2. While functionally similar to the compressor of FIG. 2, some design modifications can be needed to meet the hermitic sealing and refrigerant compatibility requirements of the typical vapor-compression application. Such design and operation differences are described. Significant differences include the use of metal compression springs 62 for the suspension elements and the use of metal copper tubing for the discharge tube 64 and suction tube 66. In addition, the two halves of the enclosure 68 may be joined by welding or brazing and the compressor inlet port 70 and outlet port 72 sealed by brazing in order to provide a hermetic seal. Like Figs. I and 2, the pump 101 further includes a motor 150. Electrical connection is made by way of a standard hermitic electrical pass-through 74 in the enclosure wall.

Like the embodiment of Figs. 1 and 2, the pump 101 includes a pump or compressor 102 suspended in an enclosure 104. However, the suspension is accomplished by suspension 106 in the form of metal compression springs 62. The suspension elements position the compressor 102 both radially and axially within the enclosure 104 and prevent contact between the compressor 102 and the inner surfaces of enclosure 104 during operation.

The refrigerant compressor 102 also comprises two main sub-assemblies, the pump head 108

and the motor 150 with similar elements as described in the Figs. 1 and 2. The description for like elements is incorporated by reference.

The pump head assembly 108 includes a similar diaphragm 124, which is positioned and secured in a similar manner as described with respect to Figs. 1 and 2. The pump head assembly 108 also comprises a similar valve head 138 and a piston 130 including a piston base 132 and a piston cap 134. During operation, piston 130 and diaphragm 124 operate in similar respect to the air compressor of Figs. 1 and 2. Still referring to Fig 3., the pump 102 further comprises a similar compression chamber 136 that is formed by components including piston cap 134, diaphragm 124, compression chamber plate 128, and a valve head 138. The pump further includes a similar discharge plenum 140 and a suction plenum 146 with discharge value 151 and suction valve 144.

Suitable refrigerants that can be used with the pump 102 include R134A, R410A (CFC), RI2, R22, R600A (isobutene); R280 (isopropane); R407; hydroflurocarbons and like refrigerants. The operation of the pump in FIG. 3 can be operated in accordance with the operation of the pump in Figures 1 and 2 applying principles of compression of refrigerants as known by those of skill in the art of compressors for refrigerators. For vapor-compression heat transfer systems, a wide range of refrigerant compatibility can result from the oil-free operation and variable capacity of certain embodiments of the present invention.

Linear Motors The linear motors shown in the embodiments of Figs. l, 2,3, and 6 are all of the variable reluctance type. Variable reluctance motors (like those shown in Figs. I & 2) can provide large forces over a small stroke. For a fixed current, the force of such variable reluctance motors increases with the inverse square of the air gap. So, they become much more efficient at creating force as the air gap is reduced. For the pump 2, valve tuning, resonance, and high frequency operation can all work synergistically to provide flows and pressures with comparatively small strokes. Thus, the pump 2 according to the present invention enables the efficient utilization of variable reluctance motors.

One exemplary embodiment of the pump uses a square wave (waveform W2 in FIG.

7) to drive the variable reluctance motor. The higher the drive voltage the more efficient the motor, since the delivered power = current x voltage and part of the motor's losses go with

12 R. So, the coil is sized to the highest available voltage.

In alternative embodiments, any type of linear motor that provides the needed displacement and force can be employed. Due to the low strokes of the pump, other types of high-force low-stroke motors such as magnetostrictive and piezoceramic motors can be provided. The selection of a given motor would be determined by the pump's operating frequency and size. For example, variable reluctance motors are well suited to larger units that operate at lower frequencies and piezoceramic motors may be better suited to miniaturized units with very small strokes and much higher frequencies.

Turning to FIG. 9, an alternate embodiment of the pump 150 of the present invention is shown using a more conventional voice-coil linear motor 74, having a voice-coil 76, permanent magnet 78, and pole piece 80. The voice-coil linear motor 74 provides the same function as motor 50 of FIG. 2, but unlike variable reluctance motors it can provide both push and pull forces to drive the piston. The voice coil driver is more readily available than the motor of Figs. 1 and 2, and may be considered for some applications.

FIG. 10 illustrates still another alternate embodiment of the present invention having a pump 160 with a linear motor 84, having a piezoelectric element 86, and an elliptically- shaped mechanical displacement amplifier 88 being rigidly connected to piston 92 and rigidly connected to mounting stud 94. The description of like elements from the embodiment of the pump in FIG. 1 and 2 is incorporated by reference with respect to this embodiment.

Alternatively, piezoelectric element 86 could also be a magnetostrictive element. In operation, piezoelectric element 86 alternately expands and contracts in response to an applied periodic voltage. The displacement provided by piezoelectric element 86 is increased, or amplified, by mechanical displacement amplifier 88. Displacement amplifier 88 is constrained by mounting stud 94 so that all of the displacement is applied to piston 92.

Alternatively, mounting stud 94 could be removed and linear motor 84 could operate in a reaction force mode. In alternative embodiment, any type of linear motor that provides the needed displacement and force can be employed.

FIG. 11 illustrates a further alternative embodiment of the present invention comprising a pump 170 having a piezoceramic bi-morph diaphragm 171, compression chamber 172, a diaphragm backing plate 173, backing volume 174, and diaphragm hole 175. Bi-morph diaphragm 171 replaces motor 50, leaf springs 60, and associated linkage components.

Resonant operation is achieved by choosing a spring stiffness for diaphragm 171 that, in combination with the fluid's spring stiffness, would provide a mechanical resonance at or near the desired operating frequency. Diaphragm hole 175 provides pressure equalization between compression chamber 172 and backing volume 174 as described in the previous embodiment of FIG. 2e. The simplicity and reduced number of components of the embodiment of FIG. 11 lends itself to miniaturization and to applications fields such as MEMs technology. As with other alternative embodiments, the description of like elements from the embodiment of Figs. 1 and 2 are incorporated by reference with respect to pump 170.

Liquids The linear resonance pump of the present invention can be designed in another embodiment to pump gases or liquids and the tuning of the system will generally reflect the compressibility of the fluid. For example, as the compressibility of the fluid decreases, the volume of the compression chamber can be increased to keep the resonance frequency constant.

The volume would have to be increased roughly by (afl aZ, where a> _ sound speed in fluid 1, and E= sound speed in fluid 2. Many typical liquids have sound speeds near 1000 m/s while air at ambient pressure and temperature has a sound speed of about 350 m/s. So changing from gas to liquid could require roughly an order of magnitude volume increase in order to keep the running frequency constant. Conversely, if the volume is not increased but instead run at corresponding higher frequency the reduced compressibility will generate higher pressures for given stroke. In some circumstances, the reduced compressibility of liquids are best matched to high force short stoke motors. Further tuning could involve adjusting the spring stiffness of the diaphragm and mechanical springs as well as the mass of the oscillating components. In general liquids have a more consistent sound speed over a wider range of pressure and temperature conditions than gasses ; however, care must be taken in most circumstances to avoid cavitations or degassing of liquid (i. e. low pressure). In addition to the compressibility effects, density and viscosity differences can cause differing fluid behavior (i. e. inertia, resistive drag) that can be compensated for by changes in fluid path geometry. For example, the tuning of the valve ports, including the quantity of ports, cross-section, and/or length, etc. can be adjusted to compensate for these differing fluid properties and/or behaviors. In this way, the linear resonance pump can

be designed to accommodate not only gases, but a wide range liquids such as water, fuel, oils, hydraulic fluid, and high-purity or hazardous chemicals, to name a few.

It should be understood that the preceding is merely a detailed description of one or more exemplary embodiments of this invention and that numerous changes to the disclosed embodiments can be made in accordance with the disclosure herein without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention. The preceding description, therefore, is not meant to limit the scope of the invention. Rather, the scope of the invention is to be determined only by the appended claims, every element of which can be replaced by any one of numerous equivalent alternatives without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention, only some of which equivalent alternatives are disclosed in the specification.




 
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