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Title:
DEVICES AND METHODS FOR AN ELECTROMAGNETIC COIL
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/089786
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Example implementations herein relate to electromagnetic coils. One example device includes a plurality of coil windings. Each coil winding may extend around a shared core region inside the plurality of coil windings between a respective first end and a respective second end. The respective first end is electrically connected to a respective first-end electrical contact. The respective second end is electrically connected to a respective second-end electrical contact. The device also includes a plurality of mountable components. Each mountable component electrically couples a respective first coil winding to a respective second coil winding via the respective first-end electrical contact of the respective first coil winding and the respective second-end electrical contact of the second coil winding.

Inventors:
JOHNSON, Harry (1600 Amphitheatre ParkwayMountain View, CA, 94043, US)
Application Number:
US2018/058499
Publication Date:
May 09, 2019
Filing Date:
October 31, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
WAYMO LLC (1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA, 94043, US)
International Classes:
H01F5/04; H01F7/06; H01F17/06; H01F27/40; H01F41/08
Domestic Patent References:
WO2010004491A12010-01-14
Foreign References:
US20150310982A12015-10-29
US20140218149A12014-08-07
US20160372259A12016-12-22
US7106078B12006-09-12
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MACHONKIN, Richard, A. (McDonnell Boehnen Hulbert & Berghoff LLP, 300 South Wacker DriveChicago, IL, 60606, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A device comprising:

a piurality of coil windings associated with a shared core region inside the plurality of coil windings, wherein each coil winding extends around the shared core region between a 'respective first id an -a respective second end, wherein the respective first end is electrically, connected to a respective first-end electrical contact, and wherein the respective second end is electrically connected to a respective second-end electrical contact; and

plurality of mooniab!e components, wherein each rnountable component electrically couples a respective firs 'coil winding to a respective second coil winding via the respective first- end electrical contact of the respecti e first coil winding and the respective second-end electrical contact of the respective second coil winding.

2. The device of claim 1, wherein the plurality of maun table components -comprise a plurality of resistors,.

3. The device of claim 1, wherein the plurality of coil windings, are. in a toroidal arrangement about the shared core region.

4. The device of claim 1 , further comprising;

circuitry that causes one or more electrical currents to flo through the plurality of coil windings, wherein the one or more electrical currents cause the .plurality of coil windings to generate a magnetic field associated with the shared core region.

5. The device of claim .1, 'wherein two or more of the plurality of coil windings are connected hi a series circuit configuration via one or more of the plurality of monniable components.

6. The device of claim 1 , wherein two or more of the plurality of coil windings are connected in a parallel circuit configuration via one or more of the plurality, of mountable. 'components.

7. The device of claim 1, wherein the plurality of coil windings comprise:

a 'first plurality of conductive structures in a first eoplanar arrangement;

a second, plurality of conductive structures in a second coplanar arrangement; and

plurality of interconnects that electrically couple the first plurality of conductive'

Structures with the 'Second piiiralit o conductive structures to form the 'plurality of coil windings.

8. The device of claim 7, 'Wherein the first plurality' of conductive structures comprise:

a first conducti ve structure included in a first coi l winding; and

a second conductive structure adjacent to the first conductive structure in the first ceplariar arrangement, wbereia the second conductive structure is included in a second coil winding.

9. The device of claim 7, wherein the device further comprises a circuit board, wherein the first plurality of conductive structures are disposed in a first layer of the circuit board, wherein the second pluraliiy of conductive structures are disposed in a second layer of the circuit board, and wherein the plurality of interconnects comprise electrical connections between the first layer and the second layer.

10. The device of claim 7, wherein the first eoplanar arrangement is su stantiall parallel to. the second eoplanar arrangement.

11. The device of claim 7, further comprising:

a platform that rotates about an axis, wherein the first plurality of conductive structures is at a given distance to the axis.

12. The device Of claim .1.1 , wherein the second plurality of conductive structures is at the given distance to the axis.

13. The device of claim 1 1 , wherein the axis extends through a center of the first eoplanar arrangement and a center of the second eoplanar arrangement, and wherein the. axis is perpendicular t the first eoplanar arrangement and the second eoplanar arrangement.

1 . A method comprising:

obtaining electrical measurements of a plurality of coil windings associated- with shared core region inside the plurality of coil windings. wherein each coil winding extends around the shared core region between a respective first end and a respective second end and has a respective first-end electrical contact electrically connected to the respective first end and a respective seeond-em! electrical contact electrically connected to the respective second end, and

wherein obtaining the electrical measurements of the plurality of coil windings comprises measuring each coil winding via the respective fei-end electrical contact of the coil winding and the respective second-end electrical contac of the coil winding; determining electrical characteristics of the plurality of coil windings based o the electrical measurements; and

mounting a pluralit of nionntab!e components, wherein each monntable component electrically couples a respective first coil winding to a respective second coil winding via the respective first-end electrical contact of the respective first eo.il winding- and. the respective second-end electrical, contact of the respective second coil winding.

15. The method of claim 14, wherein, mounting the plurality of mountable components is based on. a comparison between the electrical characteristics of the plurality of coil windings and a threshold range of values.

16, The method of claim 14, w herein a given electrical, characteristic of a givers coil winding comprises a measurement of a resistance of the given coil winding between first-end and second-end electrical contacts connected to the given coil winding,: wherein mounting the plurality of mountable components is based on a determination that the measured resistance i within a threshold range.

17. A device .comprising:

a plurality of ioroidal coil windings associated with a shared core: region inside the plurality of toroidal coil windings, wherein each toroidal coil winding extends around the shared core region between a respective first end and a respective second end, wherein the respective first end is electrically connected to a respective first-end electrical, contact and wherein the respective second end is electrically connected to irrespective second-end electrical contact; and a plurality of mou abie components, wherein each mountable component electrically couple -a respective first toroidal coil winding to a respective second toroidal coil winding via the respective first-end electrical contact of the respective first toroidal coil winding and the respective second-end electrical contact of the respective second toroidal coil winding.

18. The device of claim 17, wherein the plurality of toroidal coil windings comprise: a first pl-uraiity of conductive structures in a first' coplanar arrangement;

a. second plurality of conductive structures in a second eoplanar arrangement; and a plurality of interconnects that electrically couple the first plurality of conductive structures with, the second plurality of conducti ve structures to form the plurality of toroidal coil windings,

19. The device of claim 18, furthe comprising;

a circuit board, wherein the first plurality of conductive structures are disposed in a first layer of the circuit board, wherein the second plurality of conductive staictures are disposed in a second layer of the circuit hoard, and wherei the plurality of interconnects extend from the first layer to the second layer.

20. The device of claim 18, wherein the first plurality of conductive stroetures -and the second plurality of -conductive structures are concentrically arranged -about an axis of symmetry of the pliiraiity of toroidal coil wiiidirigs.

Description:
Devices and Methods for an Electromagnetic Coil

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

jOOil] The present application ckifips priority to U.S. Patent Application No.

15/977,432, filed on October 31 , 2017, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

BACKGROUND

|¾Qi2| Unless otherwise indicated herein, the materials described in this section are not prior art to the claims in this application and are not admitted to be prior art by inclusion i this section.

|0W3) Electromagnetic coils can he employed in various devices, such as inductors, electromagnets, transforms, sensors, electric motors, or any other device configured to operate based on interaction between an electrical current and a magnetic field. In some arrangements, an electromagnetic coil can be employed to. generate a magnetic field by providing an electrical Current to the electromagnetic coil. In other arrangements, an electromagnetic coil can be employed to detect a magnetic field bv me surin g an electrical current fe.e. * induced bv the magnetic field) Sowing through- the electromagnetic- coil.

f0l¼14| An electromagnetic coil may include, one or more electrical conductors (e.g., wires, coil windings, etc.) in a coil, spiral, or helix arrangement, amon other possibilities. In some examples, the electromagnetic coil, may include multiple coil windings (e.g., coil -shaped wires, etc.) that extend around a core area (e.g., "magnetic axis") at the center of the coil.. Further, in some applications, the coil windings can he densely arranged adjacent and/or overlapping one another. To facilitate flow of an electrical current along the length of a particular coil winding before passing into another coil winding, the respective coil windings may be electrically insulated from one another along their respective lengths. For example, a coil winding may have a coating of a noneonduetive msulation material, such as plastic or enamel for instance, that extends between the (exposed) terminals or ends of the coil winding.

SUMMARY

{00051 .1» one example, a device includes a plurality of coil windings associated with a shared core region inside the plurality of coil windings. Each coil winding ex ends around the shared core region between a respective first end and a respective second end. The res ective first end is electrically connected to a respective first-end electrical contact. The respective second end is- electrically ' connected to a. .respective - second-end electrical contact. The device also includes a plurality of mountable components. Eac mountable component electrically couples a respective first coil winding to a respective second, coil, wisdiog via the respective first- end electrical contact of the respective first coil winding, and. the respective second-end . ' electrical con tact of the. respective second coil winding . fl0i<)) In another example, a method involves obtaining electrical measurements of a plurality of coil windings associated with a shared core region inside the plurality of coil windings. The. method also in volves determining electrical characteristic of the plural ity of coil windings based on the electrical measuremen s. The method also involves mounting a plurality of mountable..components. . Each mountable component electrically couples respective first coil winding to a respective second coil winding via a respective first-end electrical contact of the .respective , first coil winding and a respective second-end electrical contact of the respective second coil, winding,

{8887j in yet another example, a device includes a plurality of toroidal cod windings associated with a shared core region inside the plurality of toroidal coil windings. Each toroidal coil winding extends around the shared core region between a respective first end and a respecti e second end. The respective first end is electrically connected to a respective first-end electrical contact. The respective second end is electrically connected to a respective second-end electrical contact The device also includes a plurality of mountabie components. Each mountabie component electrically couples a respective first toroidal coll. winding to a respective second toroidal coil winding via the respective first-end electrical contact of the respective first toroidal coil winding and the respective second-end electrical contact of the respective second toroidal, coil winding. f O Sj In still another example, a system comprises means for obtaining electrical measurements of a plurality of coil windings associated with a shared core region inside the plurality of coil windings. The system also comprises means for determining electrical characteristics of the plurality of coil windings based, on the electrical measurements. The system also comprised -means, for mounting a plurality of mountabie- components. Each mountabie component electrically couples a respective first coil winding to a respective second coil windin via a respective first-end electrical contact, of the. respective first coil winding and a respecti ve second-end electrical contact of the respective second coil winding.

£θ§09] These as well a other aspects, advantages, and alternatives, will become apparent to those of " ordinary -skill i the art by reading the following detailed- ' description, with reference where appropriate -to the accompanying figures.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF TOE IGURES

{0010} Figure 1 is a simplified block diagram of a device that includes an electromagnetic coil,, according to rn example embodiment

{0011} Figure 2 is a simplified block diagram of a device that includes a rotary joint, according to an example embodiment.

10012} Figure 3A illustrates a side view of a device that includes a rotary joint, according to an example embodiment, 0913} Figure 3B Illustrates a cross-section view of the device in Figure 3 A. 00I4| Figure 3 C illustrates another cross-section view of the device in f igure 3A. 0015} Figure 3 D illustrates yet another cross-section view of the device in Figure 3 A.

1 1.6) Figure 4 is a simplified circuit diagram of a device that includes an electromagnetic coil, according to an example embodiment 0017} Figure 5 is a flowchart of a method, according to a example embodiment.

{001.8} Figure 6 is a flowchart of anothe method, according to an example embodiment

DETAILED DESCRIPTIO

|§019) The following detailed description describes various features and. functions of the disclosed implementations with reference to the ' accompanying figures. In the figures, similar symbols identify similar components, unless context dictates otherwise. The illustrative invplementations described herein are not meant to be limiting. It may e readily understood by those skilled in the art that certain aspects of the disclosed implementations can be arranged and combined in a wide- variety of different configurations,

I, Overview

£0020} In some implementations, an electromagnetic coil may include multiple coil windings in a coaxial relative arrangement about a shared core region. For example, the respective turns of the. coil windiags ma be interleaved or otherwise adjacent to one another to form a dense ring of coil windings that define one or more electrically conductive paths around the shared, core region. However, in some scenarios, adjacent, coil windings ' may be unintentionally (e.g., due to a defect or a manufacturing error, etc.) electrically coupled (e.g., shorted) at locations other than the terminals (e.g., ends) of the respecti e coil windings-. In these scenarios, the. resulting magnetic Held generated (or detected) by the coil may differ .from an expected magnetic , field that would be generated (or detected) without the defect.

|Ο021] To detect such defects, the electrical characteristics of the coil windings can be measured (e.g.., flying probe test, etc.) during or after assembly of a coil. For example, a measured resistance of a coil winding can be compared to a predefined value or a range o values expected when the coil winding is properly insulated from, adjacent coil windings. However, in some scenarios, testing each coil winding separately may be technically challenging- For example, after assembly of the electromagnetic coil, the terminals or ends of the individual coil windings may be connected to one another m series or parallel to form the electromagnetic coil.. $022) Accordingly, one example device includes a plurality of eoil windings associated with a shared core region inside the plurality of eoil windings *

[0023] 1» one implementation, the coil windings may comprise a plurality of coil-shaped wires that are wound around the shared core region. In ome instances, two or more of the eoil- shaped wires may be connected in series to form an electrically conductive path that extends along a length of the core region two or more times. In other instances;, two or more of the coil- shaped wires ma be conneeted in parallel to for two separate electrically conductive paths that each extend ' along a length o f the core region,

|0024) In another implementation, the coil windings can be formed in a multi-layer circuit board (e.g., printed circuit board (PCB)). For example, the coil windings ma comprise a first pi uraiity of conductive, structures (e.g., copper traces, etc.) in first layer of the PCB, and a second plurality of conductive structures in a second layer of the PCB, In one embodiment the conductive structures in both layers .may be circularly arranged around a common axis (e.g., to at least partially overlap one another). Further, a plurality of interconnects: (e.g., vias) in the PCB can be arranged to connect the conductiv structures in the two- layers to form one or more coil- shaped electrically conductive paths around the common axis:. With this arrangement for instance, the conductive structures and the interconnects may together define a plurality of toroidal coil windings that are interleaved with one another about a shared core region (e.g., insulation material between the two PCB layers),

|0025| The example device may also include a plurality of electrical contacts connected to respective ends of the plurality of co l windings. For example, each eoil winding may define a coil-shaped electrically conductive path that extends around the shared core, -region between two respective electrical contacts, In one embodiment, the electrical contacts (e.g., exposed copper traces) can be disposed along a mounting surface (e.g. , to o bottom layer) of a circuit board. }θθ2ΐ»1 The example device may also include a plurality of nio ntabie components, such as resistors, wires, removabl connectors, etc. A given ountahle component, when mounted, may electricall coapfe a first electrical contact of a first coil winding io a second electrical contact of a second coil winding, in one example, the give mountahle component may be configured, to connect two coil windings in a series circuit configuration. Thus, in this example, two coil-shaped- electrically conductive paths (e.g., the two coil windings) can be connected to One another to form a single electrically conducti ve path that extends along a length of the shared core region twice. In another example, the given moun table component ma be configured to connect two coil windings in a parallel circuit configuration. Thus, in this example, two coil- shaped electrically conductive paths (e.g., the two coil windings) connected in parallel can support two electrical currents (e.g. s phase-shifted AC signals, etc) in parallel

{0027J With this arrangement lor instance, each coil winding can be individually tested prior to mounting , the mou able com on nts that connect the coil windings to one another. For instance, the resistance and/or inductance of a -particular coil winding can be measured or probed at the electrical contacts (i.e., terminals) of the particular coil winding prior to connecting the particular coil winding (in series or parallel) with, another coil winding. ' The .measured resistance and/or inductance can then be compared with a predetermined value or range of value to determine whether the .particular coil winding has a defect.

f 0028J By way of example, the measured resistance and/or inductance ' may be outside the predetermined range of values if a loop (e.g., turn) of the particular coil winding is unintentionally connected (e.g., "short circuit") to a loop of another coil winding, or if the particular coil winding does not ' define art electrically conductive path between the two associated electrical contacts (e.g., "open circuit" '' between two loops of die particular coil winding), among other possibilities.

|i029| Ja some implementations, after testing the coil windings individually, the plurality of moimtab!e components can then he mounted to the example device to connect the coil windings and form an electromagnetic coil having tire shared core region.

II, Example Systems and Devices

fOO30| Systems: and devices in which example embodiments may be implemented will now he described in greater detail Irs general, one or more embodiments disclosed herein can be used, with any system that includes an electromagnetic coil. A non-exhaustive list of example system includes electric motors, sensor coils, inductors, transformers, electromagnets, transducers, speakers, rotary joints, or any other system that include an electromagnetic coil, f 0031 Figure 1. is a simplified block diagram of a device 100 that includes an electromagnetic coil, according to an example embodiment As shown, device 1.00 includes an electromagnetic coil 1.40 and circuitry 150.

j(!i32| Coil 140 ma comprise one or more loops of electrically conductive materials

(e.g., copper, gold, other metal, ete. that define- one or more electrically conductive paths aroun shared core region inside coil 140. in a first example, coil 140 may include an electrical conductor, such as a wire for instance, in- the shape of a coil, spiral, or helix extending around a core regio inside coil 140. In a second example, coil 140 may include multiple electrical conductors (e.g.:, wires), each ' having ' the shape of a coil, spiral, helix, etc., that are wounded around a shared core region. In this example, each electrical conductor may correspond to a coil wmding of coil !40; 1» a third example, coil 1 0 may include one or more arrangements of coplanar conductive structures that are connected to one another to form one or more coil windings (i.e,, electrically conductive paths, etc.) around the core region of coil 140. Other examples are possible,

[0033] Ja the example shown, co.il 140 includes a plurality of coil windings 1 10, a plurality ' of electrical contacts 1.20, arid a plurality of iftouniable components 130.

[0934] Coil windings 1.10 can be implemented in various ways, in some examples, a. coil winding can be formed from a wire or other electrical conductor that is wound around a core region to define a magnetic axis of coil 140; in other examples, a coil winding can be formed from multiple conductive .structures that, are connected t one another to form an electrically conductive path in the shape of a coil, helix, spiral, etc. To that end, the core region of coil 1.40 can have various shapes -such as a cylindrical shape or a toroidal shape, amon others.

[9935] A shown, coil windings 11 may include a plurality of conducti ve structures 1.12 and a plurality of interconnects 114.

[9936] Conductive structures 112 may comprise portions of electrically conductive material (e.g.., copper, other metal, etc.) thai ate electrically coupled together to. define at least one (e.g. 5 coil-shaped) electrically conductive path around the core region or magnetic axis of coil 1.40. To that end, interconnects .1 14 may comprise an. arrangement of electrical connections between particular conductive structures to define the electrically conductive paths of coil windings 1 10. j0937j In one embodiment conductive structures 1 12 may include a first -plurality of conductive .structures in a first cop!anar and circular arrangement. 1» this embodiment, conductive structures 112 may also include a second plurality of conductive structures in a

JO second copianar -anuagemettt and circular arrangement that overlaps (e.g., parallel to) the first pluralit of conductive structures. For instance, in a circuit board implementation, th first plurality of conductive structures can be disposed or patterned along a first layer of he circuit board, and the second plurality of conductive structures can be disposed or patterned along a second layer of the circuit board, f 038| In this embodiment, interconnects 114 may comprise conductive material that extends through a drilled hole between two layers of a circuit board (e.g., vias). With this arrangement, coil windings 1 10 can be formed about a toroidal core region having an axis of Symmet thai extends throug a center of the circular arrangements of conductive structures 112, Thus, in this embodiment, interconnects ' 1 14 may couple the first pluralit of conductive structures (in the first layer of the circuit board) to the second plurality of .conductive structures (in the second, layer of the circuit board) t define plurality of toroidal coil windings (i.e.. windings 1 10) extending around the toroidal axis o symmetry,

£θ§39] Other embodiments are possible as well, such as embodiments- where coil windings 1 10 are associated with a core region having a different shape (e.g., cylindrical,: etc.). f §40j Electrical eon tacts 120 may comprise conductive materials (e.g., copper, etc.) that are connected to terminals or ends of respective coil windings of coil windings 1 1.0. By way of example, where a particular eoil. winding includes a set of conductive structures that are connected to one another via interconnects 1 14, electrical contacts 120 may comprise two particular electrical contacts connected to -a first and last conductive structure of the particular coil winding. Thus, in this example, an electrical current flowing through the particular coji winding can be measured and/or pro vided at the terminals of the particular coil winding defined

Π by the two particular electrical contacts. In one embodiment, the two -particular electrical contacts can be . disposed on a mounting surface (e.g., top layer or bottom layer) of a circuit board that includes; conductive structures 112.

|β04!| Mmmtable components 130 may include resistors, wires, plugs, switches, or any other removably mountabie electronic component configured to, when mounted to device 100, electrically connect a first ekxtrieal contact of a first coil winding to a second electrical contact of a second coil winding, hi one example, two of coil windings 1 10 can be connected in series with one another via a given mountabie connector to define an electrically conductive path that extends two times along a length of the core region of coil 140.. In another example, two of coil windings 1 10 can be connected in parallel to one another to define two parallel electrically conductive paths that can support two separate electrical currents along a length of the core region of coil 140. hi one embodiment, mountabie components 130 .may include a low- resistance resistor (e.g.,- 0.002 ohms, etc) that is mounted onto a mountin surface of a circuit board to overlap two particular electrical contacts of two coil windings.

{004 j Circuitry 150 may · include- analog or digital components configured to provide

.and/or ' detect - electrical currents flowing through coil windings 110 of coil 140. To that, end, circuitry ' 150 may include any combination of power sources, controllers, filters, capacitors, transistors, sensors, or any other electronic component.

{{I043j In one example, circuitry 150 may include sensing elements that measure electrical eurrent(s) induced in coil 140 due to a magnetic field that intersects the core region of coil 140. in this example, circuitry 150 may also .include a controller or computer system that determines the magnetic field based on the measured electrical currentfs). |W4 | in another example, circuitry 150 may include controller that modulates electrical currents) flowing through coil 140 to cause coil 140 to generate a magnetic field, In one embodiment, circuitry 150 may provide a 3-poase AC signal through coil 140 to generate a rotating magnetic field using coil 140, Other examples are possible,: Further, in some instances, circuitry 150 can modulate the generated magnetic field by adjusting the electrical current(s) flowing through coil windings 110, Accordingly, circuitry 150 may include any combination of wiring, conductive material, capacitors, resistors, amplifiers, filters, comparators, voltage regulators, controllers, and/or any other circuitry arranged to provide and modulate electrical currents) flowing through coil 140.

[0045] As noted above, one or more embodiments: disclosed herein can be .used with an device that includes an electromagnetic coil. By way of example, a rotary joint device may include a first •• structure, (e.g.. rotor) configured io rotate .relative to a second structure (e.g., stater). Example systems that employ rotary joint devices include sensor systems (eg,, RADARs, LlDARs, etc.) and robotic systems (e.g., for directing microphones, speakers, robotic components, etc.),. among others. To that end, illustrative embodiments described herein include a; ' rotary joint device that includes an electromagnetic coil similarly to device 100.

|0046j Figure 2 is a simplified, block diagram of a device 200 that includes a rotar joint, according to an example embodiment. As shown,, device 200 includes .a- first platform.210 and a second platform 230.

{8847f First platform 210 ma comprise or may be coupled to a rotor or other moveable component. For example, platform. 210 can he configured ' to rotate relative to platform 230 and about an axis of rotation of platform 210 (e.g., rotor axis}:. Thus, platform 21 can be configured as a rotating platform in a rotary joint configuration. As shown, platform 21.0 includes a sensor 212, a controller 214, a coramimieaaoix interface 216, a power interface 2Ϊ8, and one or more magnets 2:20.

|βί)48| la some examples;,: platform 210 may comprise any solid materia! suitable for

•supporting and/or mounting the various components of platform 210, For instance.* platform 210 may include a. printed circuit board (PCB) tSiat mounts communication interface 216 and/or other components of platform 210. The PCB in this instance can also include -circuitry (not shown } to electrically couple one or more of the components of platform 210 (e.g., sensor 212, controller 214, communication mierface 216, power interface 218. etc.) to one another. The PCB in this instance can be. ' positioned such that -me. mounted components are along a side of platform 210 facing or opposite to a corresponding side of platform 230, With this arrangement, for instance, platforms 210 and 230 may remain within a given distance to one another in response to a rotation : f platform 210 relative to platform 230, f 049J Sensor 212 may include any combination of sensors mounted ' to platform 210. A non-exhaustive list of example sensors may include direction sensors (e.g., gyroscopes, acceiemraeters, etc.), remote sensing devices (e.g., .RADARs, OBARs, etc.), sound sensors (e.g., mierophon.es), among othe examples.

{0050] Controller 214 may be configured to operate one or more of the components of first platform 210. To tha end, controller 214 m y include any combination of general-purpose processors, special-purpose-processors, data storage, logic circuitry, and/or any other circuitry configured to operate one or more components of device 200. In one implementation, controller 214 includes one or more processors that execute: instruction stored i data storage to operat sensor 212., interface 216, etc. I another implementation, controller 214 alternativel or additionally includes circuitry wired to perform one or more of the functions and processes described herein for operating one or more components of device 200.. In one example, controller 214 cars be configured to receive sensor data collected by sensor 212, and to provide a modulated electrical signal indicative of the sensor data to communication interface 216, For instance, the sensor data may indicate a measured orientation, a scan of a surrounding en ironment, detected sounds, and/or any other sensor output of sensor 212.

{0051 J Communication interface 216 may include any combination of wireless or wired communication components (e.g., transmitters, receivers, antennas, light sources, light detectors, etc.) configured to transmit and/or receive data and/or instructions between platfoiros 210 and 23.0. In one example, where communication interface 2 6 is art optical communication interface, interface 216 may include one or more light sources arrariged to emit modulated, light signal 202 for receipt by a light: detector included in platform 230, For ' instance, signal 202 may indicate sensor data collected by sensor 212. Further, in this example, interface 216 ma include a light detector for receiving odulated light signal 204 emitted from platform 230. For instance, signal 204 may indicate mstruetmns for operating sensor .212 and/or any other component coupled, to platform 2.10. In. this instance, controller 214 can operate sensor 212: based on the received instructions detected via interface 216. f §§S2| Power interface 218 may include one or more components configured for wireless

(or wired) transmission · of power ' between platforms 210 and 230. By way of example, interface

218 may include transformer ' cotlfs) (not s ' howtt) arranged to receive a magnetic flux extending through the transformer coils to induce a electrical · current for powering one or more components (e.g., sensor 212, controller 214, communication interlace 216, etc.) of platform

210. For instance, the transformer coils can be arranged around a cente region of platform 21.0 opposite to corresponding transformer coils include in platform 230. Further, for instance, device 200 may also include a magnetic core (not shown) extending through the transformer coils in interface 218 (and/Or transformer coils included in platform 230} to guide the magnetic flux through the respective transformer coils thereby improving efficiency of power transmission between the two platforms. Other configurations are possible as well. 00531 Magset(s) 220 may can be formed from a ferromagnetic material such as iron, ferromagnetic compounds, ferrites, etc., and/or any other material that is magnetized to generate a first-piati rm magnetic field of platform 250, 0054) In one implementation, magnets 220 can be implemente as a plurality of magnets in a substantially circular arrangement around an axis of rotation of platform 10, For example, magnets 220 can be arranged along a circle that is concentric to the axis of rotation to generate a combined magnetic field extending toward and/or through platform. 230. Further, for instance, adjacent, magnets of magnets 220 can be magnetized in alternating directions such that a magnetic pole of a given magnet along a surface of the given magnet that is facing platform 230 is opposite to magnetic: pole of an adjacent magnet along a simila surface. With this arrangement for instance, a -magnetic field may extend from the -surface ' of the given magnet toward platform 230 and then toward the surface of the adjacent magnet. Further, another magnetic field may extend from a surface of the given magnet toward platform 230 and then toward another adjacent magnet. fOOSSj In another implementation, magnet 220 can be implemented as a single ring magnet that. is. concentric to the axis of rotation of the first platform. In this implementation, the ring magnet can be magnetized to have a magnetization -pattern similar to that of the plurality of

J 6 magiieis described above. For example, the ring magnet can be implemented as a printed magnet S aving a plurality of ring sectors (e.g., .regions .of the ring magnet betwee respecti ve radial axes thereof), in this example, adjacent ring sectors of the rin magnet can be magnetized m alternating directions to define a plurality of alternating magnetic poles facing platform 230. 056| As shown, rnagnet s) 220 can optionally include an index magnet 222. index magnet 222 may include a magnet (e.g., ferromagnetic material, etc.) that is configured to have a characteristic that differs from that of the other magnets i magnets 220. i57| Second platform 230 can be configured as a staior platform in a rotary joint configuration. For instance, the axis of rotatio of platform 210 can extend through platform 230 such that platform ' 210 rotates ' relative to platform 230 while remaining within a given distance to platform 230. As shown, platform 230 includes a controller 234, a communication interface 236, a power interface 238, an electromagnetic- coil 240, circuitry 250, and a magnetic field sensor 290. To that end, platform 230 can be formed from any combination of solid materials suitable fo supporting the varioits components moimied or otherwise coupled to platform 230, In some examples, piatform 230 ma ' comprise a circuit board that, mounts One or more components (e.g., interlaces 236, 238, sensor 290, etc.) of device 200.

[0058] Controller 234 can have various physical implementations (e.g,, processors, logic circuitry,, analog circuitry, data storage, eic.) similarly to controller 2.14, for -example. Further, controller 234 can operate communication interface 236 to transmit signal 204 indicating a transmission of data or instructions similarly to, respectively, controller 214, communication interface 2.16, and signal 202, for example. For instance, controller 234 can operate interface 236 (e.g., transceiver, antenna, light sources,, etc.) to provide a modulated wireless signal indicating instructions for operating sensor 212 and/or my oilier component of platform 21:0. Further, for instance, controller 290 can receive a modulated electrical signal from interface 236 indicating modulated signal 202 transmitted from pisiform .210.

P059| Communication interface 236 can be implemented similarly to interface 216 to facilitate communication between platforms 210 and 230 via signals 202 and 204.

|ΘΘ6Θ| Power interface 238 can be configured ' ' similarly to power interface 1 , and ma thus be operated in conjunction with power interface 238 to facilitate transmission of power between platforms 210 and 230. By way of example, interface 238 may comprise a transformer coil (not shown), and controller 234 can he configured to cause an electrical current to flow through, the transformer coil. The electrical current may then generate a magnetic flxnx that extends through a corresponding transformer coil, (not shown) of power interface 2 8 to induce an electrical current through the corresponding transformer coil. ' The induced electrical current could thus provide power for one or more components of platform. 10.

|(KK>lf Electromagnetic coil 240 and circuitry 250 may be similar, respectively, to electromagnetic coil. 1.40 and circuitry I SO, for example,

|0062J In one implementation, circuitry 250 (and/or controller 234) can cause one or more- electrical currents to flow through coil. 240 to generate a -second-platform magnetic field inside coil 240. Thus, the first-platform magnetic field of platform 21.0 may interact with the second-platform magnetic field o -platform 230 to provide ' a force or torque on platform 2.10. The induced force may then cause platform 210 to rotate, about the axis of rotation thereof Further., in. some instances, circuitr 250 (and/or controller 2.34) can modulate the second- platform magnetic field by adjusting the electrical currents) flowing through coil 240. By doing so, for instance, device 200 can control a direction or rate of rotation of platform 210. 0063| Magnetic field sensor 290 may b configured to measure one or more characteristics (e.g., direction, angle, .magnitude, flux density, etc) of the first-platform magnetic field associated with .raagnet(s) 220. For example, sensor 290; may include one or more magnetometers arranged to overlap tnagnet(s) 220 and/o the first-ρί at&mi magnetic field. A non-exhaustive list of example sensors includes proton magnetometers, -Overhauser effect sensors, cesium vapor sensors, potassium vapor sensors, rotating coil sensors. Hall effect sensors, magneto-resistive device sensors, fluxgate magnetometers, superconducting quantum interference de ic (SQUID) sensors, miero-^iectro-mec-hanical-sy^iem (MEMS) sensors, and spin-exchange: relaxation- free (SERF) atomic sensors, among other examples. in one implementation, senso 290 may comprise a three-dimensional (3D) Hail effect sensor that outputs an indication of an angle (and/or magnita.de) of the fitsj-plaiform .magnetic field at a .position of sensor 290 according to an orthogonal coordinate system representation- (e.g., x~y-¾ axis components) or other vector field representation.

{0064J Thus, device 200 could use output(s) from sensor 290 as a basis for determining an orientation or position of platform 210 about the axi s of rotation.. By way of example, sensor. 2.90 can be posi tioned to overlap a portion of the .first-platform .magnetic field extending between two adjacent magnets of magn.et(s) 220. As first platform 210 rotates, the angle of the portion may change at the position of sensor 290 and thus circuitry 250 (and/or controller 234) can sample outputs from sensor 290 to deduce the position of sensor 290 relative to the two adjacent magnets, f(lil65| Thus, with this arrangement, , device 200 could, use magnets) 220 as components) for both actuating ' platform 210 md -measuring the orientation of platform 210 (e-.g. s magnetic encoder). This arrangement can provide -an actuator and a .magnetic encode with reduced costs and with a more compact design.

[0066] In implementations where niagnet(s) 220 include index magnet 222, a particular portion of the .first-pktfbrm magnetic field extending between index magnet 222 and one or more magnets adjacent to index magnet 222 may have one or more differentiating characteristics- relative to other portions of the first-platform magnetic field. By of example, if index magnet 222 is positioned at a different distance to the axis of rotation of platform 210 than a substantially uniform -distance between the axis of rotation and other magnets of raagnet(s) 220, then a direction of the particular portion of the first-platform- -magnetic field may differ from respective directions of the other portions. Accordingly, in some examples, circuitry 250 (and/or controller 234) can associate detection of this difference with an orientation of platform 210 where sensor 290 overlaps index .magnet 222 r a region between inde magnet .222 and an adjacent magnet. Through this process, for instance, device 200 can map outputs of sensor 290 to. a range of .orientations of platform 2.10 relative to a position of index, magnet 222.

|8067j in some im lement tions, device 200 m include fewer or more components than those shown. In on example, device 200 can. he implemented without index magnet 222, sensor 290, and/or any other component: shown. In another example, platforms .210 and/or 230 may include additional or alternative sensors (e.g., microphone, etc.), computing subsystems, and/or any other componen Additionally, it is noted that the variou functional blocks shown can be arranged .or combined in ' different arrangement than those shown. For example, some of the components included in platform 210 can be alternatively included in platform 230 or implemented as separate components of device 200. |W6S| Fig re 3 A illustrates a side view of a device 300 that includes a rotary, joint, according to an example embodiment. As shown, device 300 includes a rotor platform 31.0 and a stator platform 330 that may be- ' similar, respectively, to platforms 210 and 230. In the example shown, a side 310a of platform 310 is positioned at a given distance 308 to a side 330a of platform 330. Platform 310 can be configured as a rotor piatform that rotates about axis of rotation 306. Further, platform 330 can. be configured: as a stator platform that remains within distance 308 to platform 310 in response to rotation of platform 310 about axis 306, in some examples, side 310a may correspond to a planar mounting surface of platform 31 (e.g., an outer layer of a circuit board). Similarly, for example, side 330a may correspond to a planar mounting surface of platform 330.

{I069J Figure 313 illustrates a cross-section view of device 300, In Figure 3 B, axis 306 extends: through the page. As shown in Figure 3 B, device 300 also incl des a mount 323 and a- pmrahty of magnets, exemplified by magnet 320, 322, 324, 326.

|ΘΙ7 | Magnets 320, 322, 324, 426, can be similar to magnet(s) 320, For example, as shown, magnets 320, 322, 324, 326, are mounted in a substantiall circular arrangement around axis of rotation 306. in some examples, adjacent magnets of device 300 can. be .magnetized, in alternating directions. For example, as shown, magnet 32 is magnetized in a direction, pointing into the page (e.g.. South. Pole indicated by letter pointing out of the page), magnet 322 is magnetized in a direction pointing out of the page (e.g., North Pole indicated by letter "N" pointing out of the page), magnet 324 is magnetized in the same direction as magnet 320, and so on. Thus, in some examples, the respective- magnetization directions of the plurality of ma ets: (e.g., 320, 322, 324, 326, etc) could he substantially parallel to axis 306, as ' shown. {007.1} Mount 3:28 may include any structure configured to support the plurality of magnets of platform 310 in a circular anangement around axis 306. To that end, mount 328 may include any solid structure (e.g., plastic, alumiaunl, other racial, etc.) suitable for su porting the plurality of magnets in the circular arrangement. For example, as shown, mount 328 can have a ring shape extending between (circular) edges 328a and 328b. Further., as shown, mount 328 may include i ndentations that accommodate the plurality of magnets in the circular arrangement. For instance, as shown, mount 328 iiiclodes an indentation (between walls 328c and 328d) shaped to accommodate magnet 326. Thus, during assembly for instance, the plurality of magnets could be fitted into respective indentations of mount 3 8: t facilitate placing the plurality of magnets in the circular arrangement. Further, as shown, ring-shaped mount 328 could be concentrically arranged relative to axis 306 (e.g., axis 306 aligned with a center axis of ring-shaped mount 328). Thus, for instance, circular edges 328a, 328b, and magnets 320, 322, 324, 326, etc. , could . remain within respective given distances to axis 306 in response to rotation of platform 31.0 about axis 306..

|0072j In some examples, similarly to index magnet 222, at least one magnet in device

300 can be configured as an inde magnet having one or more characteristics that .differ from a common characteristic of other magnets. As shown, for example, magnet 322 is mounted at a different distance to axis 306 than a distance between other magnets (e.g.., 320,. ' 324,. 326, etc.) and axis 306. To facilitate this, as shown, an indentation {e.g., defined by wail 328e) that accommodates index magnet 322 could have a smaller length than respective indentations accommodating magnets 320, 324, 326, etc. As a result, index magnet 322, when mounted, may be closer to edge 328a (and axis 306) than magnets 320, 324 ? 326, etc.

|8β73 ' { As shown in Figure 3B, platfor 310 may include & center gap defined by edge 3.10b. In this example, platform 310 ma include a transformer coil (not shown) arranged around edge 310b, Further, in this exam le, device 300 ma incl e a magnetic core (not shown) extending through the center gap to guide a magnetic- flux generated by a similar transformer co.il (not shown) -of platform 330. Thus, for instance, power can be transmitted between platforms 310 and 330, in. line with, the discussion above for power interfaces 218 and 238. f 74j It is noted tha platform 310 may include additional or fewer components than shown. In one example, mount 328 can be arranged along a periphery of a printed circuit board (PCB) or other circuit board. In another example, mount 328 can be disposed along a surface or layer of the circuit board. O075) Figures 3C and 3D illustrate other cross-section views of device 300. In the cross section view of Figure 3C, side 330a of platform 330 is along the surface of the page. The cross section view of Figure 3D may correspond to a view of a layer of platform 330 thai is. substantiall parallel to side 330a. For example, the layer shown in Figure 3D may correspond to a layer between sides 330a and 330b of platform 330 (e.g., inner layer, etc.). Alternati vely, for example, the layer shown in Figure 3D may correspond to a layer at side 330b of platform 33 (e.g., outer layer, ete.}.. In one implementation, platform ' 330 can be physically implemented as a multi-layer circuit board (e.g., PCB) or may comprise a multi-layer PGB embedded therein. To that end, one or mare components shown in Figure 3C may correspond to electrically conductive" material(s) (e.g., tracks, traces, copper, etc.) patterned along a first layer of the PCB, and one or more components shown in Figure 3D may correspond to electrically conductive materials) patterned along a second layer of the PCB. Other impiementaiions are possible as well,

{0876j A shown in. Figure 3C, device 300 also includes a first plurality of conductive structures, exemplified by structures 340, 342, 344, 346, 348, 349, a. plurality of ' interconnects, exemplified b interconnects 350, 352, 354, 356, 358, a magnetic field sensor 390, and connectors 392, 394. As shown in Figures 3D, device 300 also includes a second plurality of conductive .structures, exemplified by structures 360, 362, 364, 366. As shown in Figures 3C and 30, device 300 also includes a pluralit of electrical contacts, exemplified by contacts 332, 334, 436, 370, 372, 374, 376, 378,

10077} Electrical contacts 332, 334, 336 shown in Figure 3C may he configured to electrically couple, respectively, the first and second pluralities of conductive structures to a power source, voltag regulator, current amplifier, or other circuitry (e.g., circuitry 350) thai provides or conditions one or more electrical currents flowing through the respective conductive tracks coupled to the respective contacts. To that end, contacts 332, 334, 336 can be formed from a conductive material (e.g,, copper, etc:} disposed in the layer of platform 330 shown i Figure 3C in o e example, contacts 332, 334, 336 can he configured to provide a 3-phase AC signal into the cod windings defined by the conductive structures. In this example, 3-phase AC signal ca be ' modulated to control the siator-piatfor.m magnetic Held generated by platform 330. However, other implementations are possible as well (e.g., 2-phase signal, etc.),

108781 The first■ plurality of conductive structures (340, 342, 344, 346, 348, 349, etc) shown in Figure 3C ma comprise electricall conductive material (e.g,, copper, etc.) in. a circular -arrangement around axis 306. For instance, as shown in Figure 3C, the first plurality of conducti ve structures extends between circles 301 and. 302, which are concentric with axis 306.

A regio of side 330a between circles 301 and 302, : for instance, may at least ' partially overlap the plurality of magnets 320, 322, 324, 326, etc., of rotor platform 310, Further, as shown in figure 3C, each conductive structure (e.g., structure 342, etc.) is tilted in a first direction (e.g., clockwise) about axis 306. la addition, the first plurality of conductive structures is Its a substantially coplanar arrangement. Thus, for instance, structures 340, 342, 344, 346, 348, 349, etc, can be formed -as patterned conductive tracks along a single layer of a circuit board (e.g., PCB).

{0079J Similarly, the second plurality of conductive structures (360, 362, 364, 366, etc.) shown in Figure 3D are in a circular arrangement that is substantially coplana (e.g., along a second layer of the PCB), Thus, for example, the first plurality of conductive structures may be at a first distance to rotor platform 10 that is Jess tha a second distance between the second plurality ' -of conductive structures and rotor pi aiibrrn 310.

10080} Additionally, structures 360, 362, 364, 366, etc, extend, respectively, between circles 303 and 304. Circles 303 and 304 ma be similar to circles 301 and 302 and may thus be concentric to axis 306 with similar radii, respectively, as the radii of circles 301 and. 302. As shown in Figure 3D, the second, plurality of conductive structures is tilted in a second direction relati ve to axis 306 (e.g., counterclockwise direction). Thus, the second plurality of structures in Figure " 3D are tilted i an opposite direction to the tilting direction of the first plurality of structures of Figure 3C. For example, structure 340 (Figure 3C) is tilted, hi a clockwise direction around axis 306. Whereas* structure 360 (Figure 3C) is tilted in a counterclockwise direction around axis 306.

10081] As noted above, the first and second pluralities of conductive structures can be electrically coupled t one another to form a plurality of coil windings. To facilitate this, interconnects 350, 352, 354, 356, 358, etc., may comprise conductive material that extends throug platform, 330 (e.g., through the page) to connect respective conductive structures that overlap ai the respective positions of the interconnects. For example, interconnect 350 electrically couples conductive structure 340 (Figure 3C) to conductive structure 360 (Figure 3D). Similarly, interconnect 352 electrically couples conductive structure 342 (Figure 3C) to conductive structure 362 (Figure 3D), etc. 082| With this arrangement,, for example, first coil winding of device 300 may define a first conductive path that comprises, in this order: structure 340, interconnect 350, structure 360, interconnect 354, structure 344, etc, through structure 364. Thus, the first coil winding may extend around axis 306 and about a substantially ring-shaped core region inside the first coil winding, (ie.,. region inside platform.330 between circles 3.01 , 302, 03,: 304, and overlapping the first and second pluralities of conductive structures) * Thus, in the example shown * the first coil winding may be configured as a toroidal coil winding between the: terminals - of structures 340 and 364. Similarly, a second, coil winding of device: 3 . 00 may define a second conductive path that comprises, in this order: structure 342, interconnect 352, structure 362, interconnect 356, structure 346, etc., through structure 366.

(0083] Thus, i some instances, device 30 may include a plurality of interleaved toroidal coil windings, such as the first and second coil windings described above, thai are associated with a shared core region inside the plurality of coil windings. For instance, · in Figure 3C ; adjacent structures 340 and 342 may be included in two different toroidid. coil windings that, encompass a shared core region around axis 306. In one embodiment, where device 300 includes a PCB, the core region may ' be inc luded in middle layers of the PCB (between the layers shown in Figures 3G and 3D).

{0884{ To that end, for example, when electrical current(s) flow through the plurality of coil windin s, -a stator-piatform magnetic field may he generated inside the shared core region. The siator-platforrrs magnetic field could then interact with the rotor-platform magnetic field associated with the magnets in rotor platform 310 to cause a torqoe or force that rotates platform 310 about axis 306. j 085| Thus, in some examples, the conductive structures shown in Figures 3C and 3D

can be electrically coupled (e.g., by the interconnects) to form -a eoreless PCB motor coil For instance, the first plurality of conductive structures shown in Figure 3C can he separated from the second plurality of conductive structures shown in Figure 3D by an insulating material, such as ars electrically insulating layer (e.g., plastic, enamel etc.) .between the two layers shown in- Figures 3C and 3D. la this instance, the s ' tator-iplatfomt magnetic field could extend through the insulating material. ft>086| However, in other examples, device 300 may include ' a ' magnetically permeable core (not shown) Between the two layers of Figures 3C and 3D to direct or focus t e: generated stator-platform magnetic field. For instance, a. middle layer {not shown) of platform 330 may include a conductive material, (e.g., ring shaped copper trace, etc) disposed between the conductive structures of Figures 3C. and 3D. To thai end, the conductive material, in the middle layer may act -as a magnetic core that enhances the siatOr^platibrrn magnetic field therein.

|ίϊίί87| Similarly to contacts 332, 334, 336, etc., shown in Figure 3C, electrical contacts

370, 372, 374, 376, 378, etc., shown in Figure 3D may comprise conductive materials (e.g f , copper traces, etc.) that are connected to respective ends of the plurality of coil windings of device 300. Continuing with the example above,, a first end of the, first coil winding (e.g., -structure 364} is connected to electrical contact 370.. Similarly, an end of the second coil

7 winding Ce>g., structure 366) is connected to electrical contacts 372, and another end of the second coil, winding (e.g., structure 342) is connected, via interconnect 358, to electrical contact 0088| Thus, with this arrangement, the electrically conductive paths associated wit the various coil windings of device 300 can be electrically separated from one another when electrical contacts, 370, 372, 374, 376, 378, etc., are not connected to one another (e.g., "open circuit" configuration). Thus, in line with the discussion above, each coil winding can be individually tested by measuring electrical characteristics (e.g., flying-probe test, etc.) between two respective electrical contacts at the ends or terminals of the respective coil winding.

}0Θ89| Further, in some examples, two coil windings can be connected in a series circuit configuration by electrically coupling the electrical contracts. For example, the first coil winding (including structures 340 and 364) can be connected in series with the second coll winding (including structures 342 and 366) by connectin Contact .370 to contact 372. For instance, a mountable component (not shown), such as a resistor or a wire, can be mounted onto contacts 370 and 372 to connect the two colt windings. I this instance, an electrical current may flow .around ' axis 306 tw times by combining the. two conductive paths of the first and second coil windings. The combined ■■ conductive path may. comprise., for instance, in this order; contact 332, the first coil winding, contact 370, the mountable component (not shown), contact 37.2, interconnect 358, and then the second coil winding. f(Ni90 ' j Alternatively or additionally;, .in some examples, two coil windings can be connected in a parallel circuit configuration via the electrical contacts. For example, if a mountable component electrically couples contacts 374 and 376, then the second coil winding may be connected in parallel with a third coil winding around axis 306 (e.g., winding that ends at contact 378).

10091 J Magnetic field sensor 390 may be similar to sensor 290. To that end, sensor 390 may include-any ma etometer, such as a Hail effect sensor, etc., that is configured, to measure the rotor-plati rm. magnetic field generated by the magnets (e.g., 320, 322, 3:24, 326, etc.) of platform 310. Thus, for ■■ instance . , a computing system (e.g., controller 234, ' ircuitry .25.0, etc.) can determine an orientation of platform 310 about axis 306 based on outpu ts from sensor 390.

£0192) To facilitate this, in some examples, sensor 390 can be positioned at a location in platform 330 that substantially overlaps the rotor-platform magnetic field of platform 310. For example, as shown in Figure 3C, sensor 390 is positioned in the region between circles 301 and 302 (the region that at least partially overlaps the -magnets of platform 310). Additionally, to mitigate interference from the staior-platform magnetic field of the coil windings defined by the firs and second pluralities of conducti ve structures, a" portion, of the coil-shaped conductive paths extending around axis 306 in platform 330 could be interrupted or modified in the region of platform 330 where sensor 390 is located. fl§93j As- shown in Figure 3C, for example, the first plurality of conductive structures comprise a plurality of spaced-apart conductive stmctures that are spaced apart by a substantially uniform distance. However, the. : first plurality of conductive structures shown: i Figure 3C ma include two adjacent structures (e.g., 348 and 349) that are separated by a greater distance than the substantially uniform distance. Similarly, for example, the second plurality of conductive structures (shown in Figure 3D) may also include two adjacent structures that are separated by a greater distance than the substantially uniform distance between other structures of the second plurality- of structures. Thus, as -shown Figure 3C, sensor 430 can. be located between structures 348 and 349 (i.e., within the "gap" in the coil-shaped conductive parh(s) extending around axis 306). 0094| To facilitate this, connectors 392, 394, etc., which extend away from the region where sensor 390 is located (e.g., outside the region between circles 301 and 302, etc.), can be. employed to electrically couple a portion of the coil-shaped conductive pathl ' s) and .remaining- portion of the coil-shaped conductive pathfs). To that end, connectors 392 and 394 may comprise conductive material {e.g., copper, metal, metal compound, etc.) that is shaped and/or disposed at an appropriate distance: (mm sensor 390 to reduce the: effect of the stator-piatfonn magnetic field on the measurements by sensor 390. j W*>5) Further, although two connectors 392 and 394 are shown, device 300 may include additional or fewer connectors (e.g., a connector for each coil winding) than shown. Addi ionally, one or both of connectors 392 and 394 can. be alternatively disposed, in a different layer than, the layer shown in Figure 3C. Further, although magnetic sensor 390 is shown to be mounted: to side 330a of platform 330, in some examples, sensor 390 can he altemaiive!y positioned. along s different Side (e.g. , side 330b) of platform 330 or any other .location.

[0096] It is noted that the shapes, dimensions, and relative positions shown i Figures

3A-3D tor device 300 and/or components thereof are not necessarily to scale: and are only illustrated as shown for convenience in description. To that end, for example, device 300 and/or one or more components thereof -can have other forms, shapes, arrangements,, and or dimensions as well it is also noted thai device 400 may Include fewer or more, components than those shown, such as any of the components of device 300 (e.g., interfaces, sensors, controllers, etc.), among others.

|0097) Figure 4 is a simplified circuit diagram of a device 400 that includes an electromagnetic coil,, according to example embodiment Device 400 m y be similar io devices 100, 200, and/or 300, for example. As shown, device 400 includes a plurality of electrical contacts 432, 434, 436, 470, 472, 474, 476, a plurality of coil windings 440, 442, 444, 446, 448 , 450, and a plurality ofmountable components, exemplified by components 480, 482.

{0098) In some examples, the i limitation, in Figure 4 may correspond to a circuit representation of one or more components of device 300 of Figure 3. 0099) Contacts 432, 434, 436 may be similar, ; respectively, to contacts 332, 334, 336. In one implementation, contacts 432, 434, 436 may be connected to a power supply that provides a modulated power signal, suck as 3-phase alternating current (AC) signal for instance, thai flows through coil windings 440, 442, 444, 446, 448, 450 to generate a rotating magnetic field (e.g., similar to stator-plaiform . magnetic field described for device 300). However, other configurations of the input power signal are possible as well. Thus, in some implementations, device 400 ma he configured to provide an electrical signal (via contacts 432, 434, 436) to the coil windings- to generate a magnetic field.

(00100} In other implementations however, device 400 may be configured, to detect electrical currentfs) induced in the ' coil windings by a external magnetic field source (not shown). Fo example, in a power transformer system, device 400 may he configured to provide electrical, power based On a magnetic- field generated by another transformer coil (not shown). Thus, in these implementations, contacts 432, 434, 436 can foe connected to circuitry (e.g., circuitry 250) thai detects and/or otherwise conditions the electrical, currents induced in the coil windings.

|00.101 J Coil windings 440, 442, 46, 448, 450 may compris a plurality of coil, windings thai overlap a shared core region. To that end, it is noted that coil windings 440, 442, 446, 448, 430 are shown to be in separate physical locations only fo convenience in description. I» practise, for example, the coil windings may encompass a same core region inside the coil windings.

{00102} Referrin back to Figures 3C-3D for example, coil winding 440 may be implemented as the first toroidal coil winding that includes, in this order: structure 340, interconnect 350, structure 360, interconnect 354, structure 344, etc., through structure 364. Further, coil winding 442 may he implemented as the second toroidal coil winding that includes, in this order: structure 342, interconnect 352, structure 362, interconnect 356, structure 346, etc., through structure 366.

100193] As another example, where device 400 includes an electromagnetic coil having a cylindrical core region. Each coil winding may he implemented as a coil-shaped wire that extends around a circumference of the cylindrical core from, one end to an opposite: end of the Cylindrical core. For instance, the coil windings can be physically stacked to overlap one another around the cylindrical core. Other examples are possible.

100104} Thus, in some examples, conductive loops of coil windings 440, 442, 446, 448, 450 can be intertwined, interleaved, overlapping, or otherwise near one another along the lengths of the respective coil windings. f001O5j .Electrical contacts 470, 472, 474, 476, may be similar, respectively, to electrical contacts 370, 372, 374, 376.. For instance, the electrical contact can be used to electrically separate terminals (or ends) of the coil windings in device 400. Referring back to Figure 3D tot example, similarly to contacts 370 and 372, contacts 470 and 472 can be interposed between the terminals of coil windings 440 and 442. I¾rther, similarly to contacts 374 and 376, contacts 474 and 476 can be interposed between a terminal of coil winding 442 and th terminals Of coil windings 446 and 450.

110.1061 Motiiiiabie components 480, 482, etc., may be similar to mountahle components 130 of device 100, fir example. In one example, mountahle components 480, 482, etc. can be implemented as resistors that are mounted to device 400 to connect respective coil windings in a series and/or parallel coniguration. Referring back to Figure 3D for example, monniab!e component 480 (e.g., resistor, wire, etc.) can be mounted, on the mounting surface that includes contacts 370 and 372 to electrically connect contacts 370, 372 to one another. I this example, mtiiiiUab!e component 480 may thus connect two toroidal coil windings (e.g., windings 440 and 442) in a series circuit configuration relative to the- power lead (i.e., contacts 432, 434, 436} of the circuit. With this arrangement for instance, the two toroidal coil windings connected in series may define an electrically conductive path that extends around a length of the core region two times. As another example, moun table component 482 can be implemented as: a resistor that is mounted on contacts 474 and 476 to connect coil winding 442 to windings 446 and 450 i a parallel circuit configuration relative to the power leads (i.e., contacts: 432, 434, 436} of the circuit.

{001 7J Thus, with this arrangement, mountab e components 480, 482, etc., may allow various coil applications (e.g., t control the number of turns or loops in between powe terminals, to control the number of turns or loops in parallel conductive paths, etc.). Further, prior to mounting the mountable components, each individual coil winding can be tested for shorts or other defects without interference from the other coil windings. For example, the resistance, inductance, etc., .of coil winding 440 can be measured prior to mounting component 480 ' onto contacts 470 and 472. Similarly, for example, coil winding 442 can be iiidivklualiy tested and/or measured prior to mounting components 480 and 482.

HI. Example Methods and Computer-Readable Media

110.1081 Figure 5 is a flowchart of a method 500, according to an example embodiment Method 500 presents an embodiment of a method that could foe used with an of devices 100, 200, 300, and/or 400, for example. Method 500 may include one- or more operations, functions, or actions as- illustrated. fey one or more of blocks 502-504. Although the blocks are illustrated hi -a. sequential order, these blocks may in some instances be performed in parallel, and/or in a ' different order than those described herein. Also, the various blocks may be combined into fewer blocks, divided into additional blocks, and/or ' .removed based upon the desired implementation,. f00M¾>! In addition, for raethod 500 and other processes and. methods disclosed herein., the flowchart shows functionality and operation of one possible implementation of present embodime ts ' , in ibis regard, each block may represent a module, a segment, a portion of a manufacturing Or operation process, or a portion of program code, -which, include one or more instructions executable fey a processor for implementing specific logical functions or. steps in the process. The program, code may be stored on any type of computer readable medium, for example, such as a storage device including a disk or hard drive. The computer readable medium may include a non-tmnsiiory computer readable medium, for example, such as computer-readable media thai stores data for short periods of time like register memory, processor cache and Random Access Memory (RAM). The compuier readable medium may also include non-transitory media, such as secondary or persistent long term storage, like read only memory (ROM), optical or magnetic disks, compact-disc read only m mory (CD-ROM), for example. The computer readable- media may also be any other volatile at non- volatile storage systems. The- computer readable medium may be considered a -computer ' readable storage medium, for example, or a tangible storage device j I li}} In addition, for method 500 and other processes and methods disclosed herein, each block in Figure . 5 may represent circuitry that is wired to perform the specific logical functions in the process,

{Oil llj Method 500 is an example method for rotating a rotor platform (e.g., first platform 310) of a device (e.g., device 300) relative a stator platform (e.g., second platform 330) of the device and about, an axis of rotation of .the rotor platform (e.g., axis 306). Thus, in some examples, the rotor platform may remain within a given distance (e.g., distance 308) to the stator platform in response to rotation of the rotor platform, in line with the discussion above. Θ0Π2] At block 502, method 500 involves causing an electrical current to flow through an electrically conductive path included in the stator platform and extending around the axis of rotation of the rotor platform. By way of example, device.200 may include circuitry 230 (e,g., power souree(s), voltage regulators), current amplifiers), wiring, etc.) that provides the electrical current to the. electrically conductive path (e.g., coi! windings 440, 442, 444, 446, 448, 450, etc.). fill 13 j Thus, as noted above, the electrical current .flowing through the coil (i.e. , arrangement of planar conductive structures) may generate a stator-platfonn magnetic field that interacts with a rotor-platform magnetic field of the- rotor platform such that the .rotor-platform rotates about the axis of rotation. For example, the interaction, of the magnetic fields may induce a torque or force that causes the rotor platform to rotate about the axis of .rotation in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction, ' (depending on the provided current).

| J 14J At block 504, method 500 in volves modulating the electrical current to adjust an orientation of the first platform about the axis of rotation. B way of example, consider a scenario where sensor 212 is a gyroscope (e.g., direction) sensor mounted on platform 210. in the scenario, controller- 214 (or 234) ma he configured to process ou uts from sensor 212 and rotate-platform 210 until sensor 212 measure a specific target change in direction (e.g., a value of zero, etc.). in this scenario, circuitry 250 can modulate the electrical current to cause platform 310 to rotate- in a particular direction and/or speed opposite to a change in direction or speed measured, by sensor 3.12. Other scenarios are possible as well. jW! !Si Thus, in some implementations, method 500 also involves modulating a ' characteristic of the rotation of the rotor platform (e.g., rate, acceleration, direction, etc.). Additionally or alternatively, in some implementations, method 500 also involve obtaining output of a magnetic field sensor (e.g., sensor 290), and determining an orientation of the rotor platform abou t the ax i s of rotation based on the output of the magnetic field sensor.

{101 Mj Figure 6 is a flowchart of another method 600, according t an example embodiment. Method 600 presents a embodiment of a method that could he used with any of devices 100, 200, .300, and/or 400, for example. Method 600 may ' include one o more operations, functions, or actions as illustrated by one or more of blocks 602-606. Although the blocks are illustrated in- a sequential order, these blocks may in some instances be performed in parallel, and/or in a different order than those- described herein. Also, the various blocks may he combined into fewer blocks, divided into additional blocks, and/or removed based upon the desired i mplemeivtatson . j ' OOJ i?} At block 602; method 600- involves obtaining electrical measurements of a plurality of coil, windings associated with a shared core -region inside the plurality of coil windings. At block 604, metho 600 involves determining electrical characteristics of the plurality of coil windings based on the electrical measurements. 00118-1 -By way of example, a robotic device can- ' be- configured to detect the locations of the electrical contacts (e.g., via computer vision or other sensing apparatus) at tne respective ends of the coil windings, and then position probe terminals of a measurement device (e.g., voltmeter, ohmmeter, etc.) onto the electrical contacts. In one implementation, a flying board test system can be used to obtain the electrical measurements. For instance, an example system may be configured to electTO-mechanicaiiy control probes to access the electrical contacts on a mounting surface Of a PCB that Includes the coils. Other example systems are - possible as well, such as in-cireuit test (l-CT) systems, manufacturing defects analyze s (MDAs), bed-of-nails test systems, among others.

{00119} In some examples, each coil winding ma extend around the shared core region between -a respective first end (e.g., structure 340) and - respective second end (e.g., structure - 364), and may have a respective first-end electrical contact (e.g., contact 332) electrically connected to the respeetive fust end and a respeetive second-end electrical contact (e.g., contact 3 ?0) electrically connected to the respective second end.

100120 ' ! Thus, in some examples, obtaining the electrical measurements at block 602 may involve measuring each coil -winding via the respeetive first-end electrical contact of the coil winding and the respective second-end electrical contact of the coil winding. Referring back to

J / Figure 4 for example, electrical characteristics such as resistance, inductance, etc., can be measured for coil 440 between contact 470 and contact 432. Similarly,, the electrical characteristics of coil 442 can be measured between contacts 472 and 474 (e.g., by placing the terminals of a probe on contacts 472, 474), and so on. 00121 } .At block 606, method 600 involves mounting a plurality of moiintable components to electrically couple the plurality of coil windings. In some examples each mountable component may be configure to electrically couple a respective first coii winding to a respective second coil winding via the respective first-end electrical contact of the respective first coil winding and the respective second-end electrical contact of the respective second coil winding. Referring back to igure: 4 for example, mountable component 480 can be. mounted between terminals of coil windings 440 and 442 to connect the windings i a series circuit configuration. As another example, mouniable com ent 482 can. be mounted between terminal s- of windings 442 and 446 (and 450) to connect the windings in a parallel circuit configuration.

{00122} In some implementations * mounting the plurality of niountable components at block 606 is based on a. comparison between the electrical characteristics determined at. block

604 and a threshold range of valuer. Referring ' ack, t ' Figure 4 for example, prio to mounting components 480 and 482 to device 400, a computing system, (e.g.:, assembly apparatus., etc.) can compare a measured resistance of coil winding 442 with a predetermined range of values that are expected if winding 442 is not shorted (unintentionally) with another coii winding, if the measured resistance is within the range of values, then the computing system can operate a robotic arm or other apparatus to mount -component 480 between, contacts 470., 472, and/or to mount component 482 between contacts 474, 476. IV. Conclusion 00123} it should be understood that arrangements described herein are for purposes of example only. As such, those skilled in the art will appreciate that other arrangements and other elements (e.g. machines, interlaces, functions, orders, and groupings of functions, etc) can be used instead, and some elements may be omitted altogether according to the desired results. Further, many of the elements that are described are functional entities that may be implemented as discrete or distributed components or in conjunction with other components, in any suitable combination and location, or other structural elements described as independent structures may be combined.

1001241 While various aspects and embodiments have been disclosed herein, other aspects and embodiments will be apparent to those skilled in the art. The various aspects and embodiments disclosed herein are for purposes of illustration and are not intended to be limiting, with the true scope being indicated by the following claims, along with the full scope of equivalents to which such claims are entitled. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein, is for the purpose- of. describing . ' articular embodiments only, and is not intended, to be limiting.