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Title:
A DISPENSER FOR AN ADHESIVE TAPE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2008/025042
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
A dispenser (10) for an adhesive tape (12) which has an adhesive surface (14) and a non-adhesive surface (16) which includes a body (22) which has a holder (24) for the tape, a guide formation (32, 32A) which is movably attached to the body and which has a bracket member (34) to which the adhesive surface is engageable, an application formation (42) which is engaged with the body, which is spaced from the bracket member and with which the non-adhesive surface is engageable and a cutter (44) which is attached to the body.

Inventors:
WITTHUHN THOMAS ADOLF (ZA)
Application Number:
ZA2007/000052
Publication Date:
February 28, 2008
Filing Date:
August 24, 2007
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
WITTHUHN THOMAS ADOLF (ZA)
International Classes:
B65H35/00
Foreign References:
US5381942A1995-01-17
DE1951339B1971-03-25
US4345966A1982-08-24
US4097328A1978-06-27
JP2001163509A2001-06-19
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MCCALLUM, RADEMEYER & FREIMOND et al. (7 June AvenueMaclyn Hous, Bordeaux 2125 Randburg, ZA)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A dispenser (10) for an adhesive tape (12) which has an adhesive surface (14) and a non-adhesive surface (16) which includes a body (22) which has a holder (24) for the tape, a guide formation (32, 32A) which is movably attached to the body and which has a bracket member (34) to which the adhesive surface is engageable, an application formation (42) which is engaged with the body, which is spaced from the bracket member and with which the non-adhesive surface is engaged and a cutter (44) which is attached to the body.

2. A dispenser according to claim 1 wherein the body includes an arm (26) which extends from the holder and to which the guide formation is attached.

3. A dispenser according to claim 2 wherein the arm terminates in the application formation.

4. A dispenser according to any one of claims 1 to 3 wherein the application formation is either an abutment surface (42) or an application roller (60).

5. A dispenser according to any one of claims 1 to 4 wherein the holder includes a cover formation (28) which at least partially encloses the tape.

6. A dispenser according to any one of claims 1 to 5 wherein the holder includes a rotation formation (30) with which the tape is rotatably engaged

7. A dispenser according to claim 6 wherein the rotation formation includes a tubular spindle (30).

8. A dispenser according to any one of claims 1 to 7 wherein the guide formation includes an actuator (50) which is movably engaged with the body and to which the bracket member is attached and which is actuated to move between a first position, which enables the application of a section of the adhesive tape (12A) to an object (46), and a second position, which disables the application of the section to the object.

9. A dispenser according to claim 8 which includes a biasing member (54) which acts between the actuator and the body to bias the actuator to the first position or the second position.

10. A dispenser according to claim 8 or 9 wherein the actuator is pivotally engaged with the body.

11. A dispenser according to any one of claims 1 to 10 wherein the bracket member includes a guide roller (38).

12. A dispenser according to claim 11 wherein the guide roller includes at least one circular spacer (40).

13. A dispenser according to any one of claims 1 to 12 wherein the cutter includes at least one blade.

14. A dispenser according to any one of claims 1 to 13 wherein the cutter is located between the bracket member and the application formation.

15. A dispenser according to any one of claims 1 to 13 wherein the cutter includes a pair of blades (44A, 44B) which engage with each other to sever the adhesive tape in a scissor-like manner.

16. A dispenser according to any one of claims 1 to 15 wherein the body includes a lock formation (55) attached to the body to at least partially trap the adhesive tape between the lock formation and the bracket member.

17. A dispenser (10) for an adhesive tape (12) which has an adhesive surface (14) and a non-adhesive surface (16) which includes a body (22) having a holder (24) for the tape, a guide formation (32A) which is movably attached to the body and which has a bracket member (34) to which the adhesive surface is engageable and an application formation (90, 42A) which is spaced from the bracket member and with which the non-adhesive surface is engaged and a cutter (44) which is attached to the body.

18. A dispenser according to claim 17 wherein the body includes an arm (26) which extends from the holder and to which the guide formation is pivotally attached.

19. A dispenser according to claim 17 or 18 wherein the application formation includes a flexible member (90) and an applicator surface (42A) at a leading edge of the flexible member.

20. A dispenser according to any one of claims 17 to 19 wherein the application formation is located between the bracket member and the cutter.

21. A dispenser according to any one of claims 17 to 20 wherein the holder includes a cover formation (28) which at least partially encloses the tape.

22. A dispenser according to any one of claims 17 to 21 wherein the holder includes a tubular spindle (30) with which the tape is rotatably engaged.

23. A dispenser according to any one of claims 17 to 22 wherein the guide formation includes an actuator (50) which is movably engaged with the body and to which the bracket member is attached and which is actuated to move between a first position, which enables the application of a section of the adhesive tape (12A) to an object (46), and a second position, which disables the application of the section to the object.

24. A dispenser according to claim 23 which includes a biasing member (54) which acts between the actuator and the body to bias the actuator to the first position or the second position.

25. A dispenser according to any one of claims 17 to 24 wherein the cutter includes at least one blade.

Description:

A DISPENSER

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0001] This invention relates to a dispenser for an adhesive tape.

[0002] Adhesive tape is often used in manual applications where users for example wrap packages with wrapping paper. The adhesive tape is used to hold the wrapping paper together. In this kind of application sections of adhesive tape are cut from a roll and used as required. In order to facilitate the wrapping of the package sections of tape are often pre-cut or alternatively the sections of tape are individually cut from a stationery dispenser on demand. When the sections of tape are pre-cut each section of tape is temporarily stored on an available surface. Whether the sections of tape are pre-cut or cut on demand a user requires a free hand to uplift or cut each section of tape.

[0003] This can be a laborious, time consuming and difficult operation depending on the type of package being wrapped.

[0004] It is important that no unnecessary pressure is placed on the package while the package is being wrapped or when the tape is severed. Once the tape is severed it is also important that sufficient tape remains accessible to recommence dispensing of the tape.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0005] The invention aims to provide a dispenser for an adhesive tape which might facilitate the dispensing and use of the adhesive tape.

[0006] The invention provides a dispenser for an adhesive tape which has an adhesive surface and an opposing non-adhesive surface which includes a body which has a holder for the tape, a guide formation which is movable relatively to the body and which has a bracket member which is movably attached to the holder and with which the adhesive surface is engageable, an application formation which is engaged with the body, which is spaced from the bracket member and with which the non-adhesive surface is engaged and a cutter which is attached to the body.

[0007] The body may include an arm which extends from the holder and to which the guide formation.

[0008] The holder may include a cover formation which at least partially encloses the tape. The holder may include a rotation formation with which the tape is rotatably engageable. The rotation formation may include a tubular spindle.

[0009] The guide formation may include an actuator which is movably engaged with the body and to which the bracket member is attached and which is actuated to move between a first position, which enables the application of a section of the adhesive tape to an object, and a second position, which disables the application of the section to the object.

[0010] The guide formation may include a biasing member which acts between the actuator and the body to bias the actuator in the first position or the second position.

[0011] The actuator may include a second abutment surface at a leading edge thereof.

[0012] The bracket member may include a guide member. The guide member may include a roller which may include at least one circular spacer. Preferably the roller includes two circular spacers which are spaced apart on the guide member and with which the adhesive surface is engageable in use.

[0013] The application formation may include an abutment surface or alternatively an application roller.

[0014] The cutter may include a blade. The cutter may be located between the bracket member and the application formation.

[0015] The cutter may be fixed to the body. Alternatively the cutter may be movable relatively to the body. The cutter may include a scissors member.

[0016] The dispenser may include a lock formation on the body against which the tape can be trapped in use.

[0017] The tape may be in the form of a roll.

[0018] The invention also provides for a dispenser for an adhesive tape which has an adhesive surface and a non-adhesive surface, which includes a body having a holder for the tape, a guide formation which is movably attached to the body and which has a bracket member to which the adhesive surface is engageable and an application

formation which is spaced from the bracket member and with which the non-adhesive surface is engaged, and a cutter, attached to the body, to sever the tape.

[0019] The body may include an arm which extends from the holder and to which the guide formation is pivotally attached.

[0020] The application formation may include a flexible member and an applicator surface at a leading edge of the flexible member.

[0021] The application formation may be located between the bracket member and the cutter.

[0022] The guide formation may include an actuator which is movably engaged with the body and to which the bracket member is attached and which is actuated to move between a first position, which enables the application of a section of the adhesive tape to an object, and a second position, which disables the application of the section to the object.

[0023] A dispenser may include a biasing member which acts between the actuator and the body to bias the actuator to the first position or the second position.

[0024] The invention further provides for a dispenser for an adhesive tape which has an adhesive surface and an opposing non-adhesive surface which includes a body which has a holder with a rotation formation with which the tape is rotatably engageable, a guide formation which is engaged with the body and which has a bracket member which is attached to the holder and a guide roller which is rotatably mounted on the bracket member and which has two spaced apart circular spacers with which the adhesive

surface is engageable, a cutter which is attached to the body and an application formation which is engaged with the body, which is positioned between the guide roller and the blade, which is spaced from the guide roller and the blade and with which the non-adhesive surface is engageable.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0025] The invention is further described by way of examples with reference to the accompanying drawings in which :

Figure 1 is a perspective view of a dispenser according to the invention;

Figure 2 is a side view of the dispenser of Figure 1 ; Figures 3 and 4 are side views of the dispenser of Figure 1 in use;

Figure 5 is a side view of a dispenser according to another form of the invention;

Figures 6 and 7 are side views of the dispenser of Figure 5 in use;

Figure 8 is a side view of a dispenser according to a further form of the invention;

Figures 9 and 10 are side views of the dispenser of Figure 8 in use; Figures 11 and 12 are side views of a dispenser according to another form of the invention; and

Figures 13 and 14 are side views of a dispenser in accordance with a further aspect of the invention.

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

[0026] Figures 1 and 2 illustrate a dispenser 10 for an adhesive tape 12.

[0027] The tape 12 is known and has an adhesive surface 14 and an opposing, non- adhesive surface 16. The tape 12 is in the form of a roll 18 on a spool 20.

[0028] The dispenser 10 has a body 22 which has a holder 24 and an arm 26 which extends from the holder 24. The holder 24 has a cover 28 which at least partially covers the roll 18 and a tubular spindle formation 30 with which the roll 18 is rotatably engaged and around which the spool 20 rotates as tape 12 is pulled from the roll 18.

[0029] The dispenser 10 has a guide 32 on the arm 26. In this example the guide 32 is fixed to the arm 26 and has a bracket 34 which is attached to the holder 24 by way of the arm 26. The bracket 34 has two opposing supports 36. Each support 36 is U- shaped and extends from the arm 26. A guide roller 38 is rotatably mounted and trapped between the supports 36. The guide roller 38 has two spaced apart circular spacers 40 thereon with which the adhesive surface 14 is engageable. Although two spacers 40 are shown in this example the guide roller 38 may have a single spacer 40.

[0030] The guide 32 has a shoulder formation 41 with which the non-adhesive surface 14 is engageable. The shoulder 41 opposes the spacers 40 and the tape 12 passes between the shoulder 41 and the spacers 40.

[0031] An application formation in the form of an abutment surface 42 is engaged with the body 22 and extends from the arm 26. The abutment surface 42 is spaced from the guide roller 38 in order for the guide roller 38 to be positioned between the abutment surface 42 and the holder 24. The non-adhesive surface 16 is engageable with the abutment surface 42.

[0032] A cutter 44 which is in this example in the form of a blade is attached to the body 22 at the arm 26. The blade 44 is spaced from the abutment surface 42 and in

this example the abutment surface 42 is positioned between the blade 44 and the guide roller 38.

[0033] In use, and as is illustrated in Figures 3 and 4 the tape 12 is applied to an object 46 by bringing the adhesive surface 14 into contact with the object 46 at the abutment surface 42. The abutment surface 42 is used to establish firm contact and adhesion between the adhesive surface 14 and the object 46 where after the body 22 is moved away from the initial point of contact as is shown in Figure 3. As the body 22 is moved the tape 12 is dispensed from the dispenser 10 as the tape 12 rolls from the spool 20 to pass over the guide 32 and the abutment surface 42. The abutment surface 42 is used to press the tape 12 into firm contact with the object 46. Once a desired length of tape 12 has been fixed to the object 46 the body 22 is rotated away from the object 46 as is shown in Figure 4. The body 12 pivots about the abutment surface 42 and the blade 44 is brought into contact with the tape 12. If sufficient tension is applied to the tape 12 and the body 22 is rotated to an appropriate degree the blade 44 cuts the tape 12 and a section 12A of the tape 12 remains on the object 46.

[0034] As the tape 12 moves through the guide 32 the adhesive surface 14 contacts the spacers 40. The tape 12 however does not permanently adhere to the spacers 40 as the points of contact between the adhesive surface 14 and the spacers 40 are limited. The guide 32 holds the tape 12 in position for the dispensing of another section 12A of the tape 12 in the same manner as previously described. As the blade 44 is remote from the abutment surface 42 a sufficient length 12B of the tape 12 remains available for the application of a new section 12A.

[0035] The dispenser 10 allows a user the advantage to dispense and cut the tape 12 into sections 12A while simultaneously sticking the section 12A to the object 46. The spool 20 is replaceable on the spindle 30.

[0036] Figures 5, 6 and 7 illustrate a dispenser 10A according to another form of the invention. Similar reference numerals are used in respect of the dispenser 10A to identify similar components described in respect of the dispenser 10 and only the differences between the dispenser 10A and the dispenser 10 are described.

[0037] The dispenser 10A has a guide 32A which is movable relatively to the body 22. The guide 32A has an actuator 50 which extends from the arm 26 and which is movably engaged with the body 22. The guide roller 38 is attached to the actuator 50 by way of the bracket 34 which is movably attached to the body 22 by way of the actuator 50. The abutment surface 42 is connected to the actuator 50 by way of a feeding connector 52 with which the non-adhesive surface 16 is engageable.

[0038] A biasing member 54 in the form of a coil spring, connected at an upper end to the actuator and at a lower end to the body, thereby acts between the body 22 and the actuator 50 in order to bias the guide 32A away from a blade 44A which, in this example, is fixed to the body 22 and projects inwardly towards the holder 24.

[0039] A lock formation 55 is formed on the body 22 at the arm 26 adjacent to the actuator 50. When the actuator 50 is biased away from the blade 44A the lock 55 projects through the feeding connector 52 thereby to at least partially trap the tape 12 between the lock 55 and the guide roller 38 (see Figure 7).

[0040] In use a user, in order to dispense the tape 12 from the dispenser 10A applies pressure to the actuator 50 against the action of the spring 54 in order to move the guide roller 38, connector 52 and abutment surface 42 towards and past the blade 44A as is shown in Figure 6. While this position is maintained the adhesive surface 14 is brought into contact with the object 46 and an appropriate length of tape 12 is dispensed from the dispenser 10. In order to cut the section 12A from the remaining tape 12 pressure is released from the actuator 50 to allow the actuator 50, guide roller 38, connector 52 and abutment surface 42 to move away from the blade 44A, under the biasing force of the spring 54, to its original position. In this position the tape 12, trapped between the lock 55 and the guide roller 38, is brought into contact with the blade 44A. If the body 22 is moved away from the section 12A the blade 44A severs the tape 12 as is shown in Figure 7.

[0041] Importantly little pressure is applied to the object 46 by way of the body 22 as the guide 32A is moved relatively to the body 22 by applying pressure to the actuator 50 relatively to the body 22. Again as the blade 44B is remote from the abutment surface 42 a sufficient length 12B of the tape 12 remains available for the application of a new section 12A.

[0042] Figures 8, 9 and 10 illustrate another dispenser 10B. Similar reference numerals used in respect of the dispensers 10 and 10A are used in respect of the dispenser 10B to indicate similar components and only the differences between the dispenser 10B and the dispensers 10 and 10A are described.

[0043] The dispenser 10B has an application roller 60 which is rotatably attached to the arm 26 and which acts as an application formation. The single blades 44, 44A are in

this example replaced with scissor blades 44B. One of the blades 44B is fixed to the arm 26 and the opposing blade 44B is resiliently movable relatively to the arm 26. An appropriately shaped leaf spring 62 is attached to the movable blade 44B and is connected to the arm 26 at connection points 64. The actuator 50 has a spigot 66 which extends therefrom and which can be brought into contact with the leaf spring 62.

[0044] In use, pressure is applied to the actuator 50 in order to move the actuator 50, guide roller 38 and connector 52 past the fixed blade 44B. As the actuator 50 moves past the leaf spring 62 the spigot 66 contacts the leaf spring 62 and forces the movable blade 44B away from the fixed blade 44B. The respective blades 44B are thus moved apart in order for the tape 12 to pass between the blades 44B.

[0045] The tape 12 is fixed to the object 46 in the manner described except that the application roller 60 is used to apply pressure to the tape 12 onto the object 46.

[0046] In order to sever the tape 12 the actuator 50 is released and forced away from the blades 44B as a result of the biasing action of the leaf spring 62 on the spigot 66 or, alternatively as a result of a biasing action on the actuator 50 by a coil spring (not shown) of the kind shown in Figures 5, 6 and 7. As the actuator 50 and guide roller 38 move away from the blades 44B the movable blade 44B moves towards the fixed blade 44B as a result of the actions of the leaf spring 62 and the blades 44B sever the tape 12 in a scissor-like manner.

[0047] Figures 11 and 12 illustrate a further dispenser 10C. Similar reference numerals used in respect of the dispensers 10, 10A and 10B are used in respect of the dispenser

10C to indicate similar components and only the differences between the dispenser 10C and the dispensers 10, 10A and 10B are described.

[0048] In the dispenser 10C the guide 32A is pivotally attached to the body 22 at pivot point 80. A feeding connector 52A extends from the pivot point 80 past a bracket 34A which is fixed to the actuator 50. In this example the bracket 34A does not have a roller 40 attached thereto and is fixed. A passage 82 is formed between the bracket 34A and the connector 52A where through the tape 12 passes. The non-adhesive side 16 of the tape 12 runs on the connector 52A and the adhesive side 14 of the tape 12 passes over the bracket 34A.

[0049] As is shown in Figure 12 the coil spring 54 again biases the guide 32A, away from the blade 44C, towards the body 22. An aperture 84 is formed in the body 22 and the actuator 50 extends there through. The actuator 50 abuts against the walls of the aperture 84 in its various positions and the aperture 84 limits the pivotal movement of the guide 32A relatively to the body 22.

[0050] The blade 44C projects towards the guide 32A and is positioned between the abutment surface 42 and the guide 32A.

[0051] In use, pressure is applied to the actuator 50 to pivot the guide 32A about the pivot point 80 in order to move the connector 52A and bracket 34A rotatably towards the object 46, past the blade 44C, to bring the adhesive surface 14 into contact with the object 46 thereby to dispense an appropriate length of tape 12 from the dispenser 10C. In order to cut the section 12A from the remaining tape 12 pressure is released from the actuator 50 to allow the guide 32A, connector 52A and bracket 34A to move away from

the blade 44C and the object 46, towards the body 22 in order to bring the tape 12 into contact with the blade 44C.

[0052] In this position the tape 12 is pulled taught by its adherence to the bracket 34A, into contact with a cutting edge of the blade 44C as is shown in Figure 12. If the body 22 is moved away from the section 12A the blade 44C severs the tape 12. Once the tape 12 is severed, the adhesive side 14 lies on the bracket 34A and this prevents the tape 12 from disengaging from the guide 32A. A sufficient length 12B of the tape 12 therefore remains available between the bracket 34A and the blade 44C for the application of a new section 12A.

[0053] In this embodiment, the leading edge 42A of the connector 52 is the principal abutment surface, used to bring the adhesive side 14 into contact with the object 46. The abutment surface 42, in the present embodiment, functions primarily to protect the object 46 from the blade 44C, in the event that the object is a material such as paper or fabric.

[0054] Figures 13 and 14 illustrate a dispenser 10D in accordance with another aspect of the invention. Similar reference numerals used in respect of the dispensers 10, 10A, 10B and 10C are used in respect of the dispenser 10D to indicate similar components and only the differences between the dispenser 10D and the dispensers 10, 10A, 10B and 10C are described.

[0055] In the dispenser 10D the guide 32A, comprises the moving parts of an actuator 50, a feeding connector 52A, a bracket 34A and a flexible member 90 terminating, at a leading edge 42A, in an applicator surface. The guide 32A is pivotally attached to the

body 22 at pivot point 80. In this embodiment, like the prior embodiment, the bracket 34A does not have a roller 40 attached thereto and is fixed. A passage 82 is formed between the bracket 34A and the connector 52A where through the tape 12 passes. The non-adhesive side 16 of the tape 12 runs on the connector 52A and the adhesive side 14 of the tape 12 passes over the bracket 34A.

[0056] The leading edge 42A, includes the applicator surface which, in this particular embodiment, is the principal abutment surface used to press the tape 12 into firm contact with the object 46.

[0057] As is shown in Figure 13 a flexible plastic or metal leaf spring 91 biases the guide 32A, towards the blade 44C, away from the body 22. An aperture 84 is formed in the body 22 and the actuator 50 extends there through. The actuator 50 abuts against the walls of the aperture 84 in its various positions and the aperture 84 limits the pivotal movement of the guide 32A relatively to the body 22. An abutting formation 96, projecting from the flexible member 90, and a pin 93, which projects inwardly from an inner surface of the body 22, also aid in limiting, respectively, the counter clockwise and clockwise pivotal movement of the guide relatively to the body 22.

[0058] The blade 44C projects inwardly towards the guide 32A and is positioned between an abutment surface 42 and the guide 32A. The blade is mounted askew, in a planar respect, relatively to the guide 32A, to initiate the severance of the adhesive tape 12 at one side thereof.

[0059] In use, without application of pressure to the actuator 50, the guide 32A is biased, past the blade 44C and towards the object 46, by the flexible leaf spring 91. In

this position, the leading edge 42A contacts a length 12B of the tape 12, between the leading edge 42A and the bracket 34A, and presents the adhesive surface 14 of the length 12B to the object 46. Due to the flexible nature of the flexible member 90, when the leading edge 42A abuts against the object 46, the flexible member flexes inwardly towards the feeding connector 52A effectively sandwiching a portion of the length 12B between it and the object 46. The adhesive surface 14 of the tape 12 is now at least partly lifted from the bracket 34A and, by pulling the dispenser 10D backwardly, an appropriate length of the tape 12 can be dispensed therefrom,

[0060] In order to sever a dispensed section 12A from the tape 12, pressure is applied to the actuator 50 by pulling backwardly on a projecting applicator 94 to pivot the guide 32A about pivot point 80, thereby moving the guide 32A away from the blade 44C and the object 46. This pivotal movement compresses the leaf spring 91 against a second pin 95.

[0061] With the guide 32A in this position, the tape 12 is pulled taught by the raising of the feeding connector 52A, bringing the adhesive side 14 into contact with the bracket 34A, bringing the tape into contact with a cutting edge of the blade 44C as is shown in Figure 14 thereby to sever the tape 12.

[0062] The severing process is enhanced by increasing the tension in a length 12C of the tape 12, between the blade 44C and the bracket 34A, and the adhesion of the adhesive side 14 to the bracket 34A, by the pulling action of the bracket 34A on the tape 12. Once the tape 12 is severed the adhesive side 14 lies on the bracket 34A and this, together with the action of pin 93 pushing the tape against the bracket, prevents the tape 12 from disengaging from the guide 32A.

[0063] The body can be pivoted forwardly to present the abutting surface 42 to the object 46, sandwiching a trailing portion of the dispensed section 12A between the abutting surface 42 and the object 46, to aid the cutting process by further increasing the tension in the length 12C.

[0064] To guide the tape 12 to the leading edge 42A, the roll 18 can be aligned to the leading edge, aided by spacers 97 on the body 22.

[0065] Once again, as with the earlier mentioned embodiments, little pressure is applied to the object 46 by way of the body 22 in the application of the tape 12 to the object 46. In this embodiment, with the introduction of the flexible member 90 and the leading edge 42A, the blade 44C can be placed remotely from the bracket 34A, allowing an increase in the length 12C, relatively to the length 12B of prior mentioned embodiments, which remains available for the application of a new section 12A, without the tape 12 lifting the object 46 (such as a paper or fabric object) which has a tendency to occur when such a length is increased.

[0066] The dispensers 10, 10A, 10B, 10C and 10D allow a user to dispense sections 12A of the tape 12 during the wrapping of the object 46 while only enough pressure is maintained on the object 46 through the abutment surface 42 and application roller 16 to ensure adhesion of the tape 12 to the object 46.




 
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