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Title:
DOUGH MIXTURE COMPRISING PARTICLES COMPRISED OF STARCH FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BAKERY PRODUCTS WITH AN OPEN CRUMB STRUCTURE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/108131
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a dough mixture for the production of bakery products with an open crumb structure. Specifically, the present invention relates to a dough mixture for the production of bakery products with an open crumb structure, wherein said dough mixture comprises particles comprised of starch or starch derived products. The present invention further relates to methods for the production of bakery products with an open crumb structure and bakery products obtainable by this method.

Inventors:
WEEGELS, Peter Louis (Van der Molenallee 131, 6865 CC Doorwerth, 6865 CC, NL)
Application Number:
EP2015/081164
Publication Date:
June 29, 2017
Filing Date:
December 23, 2015
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
SONNEVELD GROUP B.V. (Rietgorsweg 1-3, 3356 LJ Papendrecht, 3356 LJ, NL)
International Classes:
A21D2/18; A21D8/04; A21D10/00; A21D10/02; A21D13/02
Domestic Patent References:
WO2001025414A12001-04-12
WO2013175119A12013-11-28
Foreign References:
US20120207881A12012-08-16
EP1119345B12009-04-29
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
VAN KOOIJ, Adriaan et al. (Bezuidenhoutseweg 57, 2594 AC Den Haag, 2594 AC, NL)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. Dough mixture for the production of bakery products with an open crumb structure, wherein said dough mixture comprises particles comprised of starch or starch derived products, wherein said particles comprised of starch or starch derived products have a particle size of 3 mm to 5 mm.

2. Dough mixture for the production of bakery products with an open crumb structure according to claim 1, wherein the open crumb structure of the bakery products has a porosity of at least 10% coarse cell volume over the total volume of the bakery food.

3. Dough mixture for the production of bakery products with an open crumb structure according to claim 1 or claim 2, wherein said particles comprised of starch or starch derived products have a particle density of between 35 g/L to 300 g/L. 4. Dough mixture for the production of bakery products with an open crumb structure according to any of claim 1 to 3, wherein said dough mixture comprises 50 weight% to 65 weight% (ofw) of water.

5. Dough mixture for the production of bakery products with an open crumb structure according to any of claim 1 to 4, wherein said dough mixture comprises 2 weight% to 15 weight% (ofw) of said particles comprised of starch or starch derived products.

6. Dough mixture for the production of bakery products with an open crumb structure according to any of claim 1 to 5, wherein said particles comprised of starch or starch derived products are selected from grits, grain or cereals.

7. Dough mixture for the production of bakery products with an open crumb structure according to any of claim 1 to 6, wherein said particles comprised of starch or starch derived products are comprised of wheat and/or maize.

8. Dough mixture for the production of bakery products with an open crumb structure according to any of claim 1 to 7, wherein said particles comprised of starch or starch derived products are comprised of enzymes, preferably amylases, more preferably heat stable endo-amylases.

9. Dough mixture for the production of bakery products with an open crumb structure according to any of claim 1 to 8, wherein said particles comprised of starch or starch derived products comprises of oils and/or fats.

10. Method for the production of bakery products with an open crumb structure, wherein the methods comprises the following steps

a) providing a dough mixture according to any of claim 1 to claim 9;

b) mixing said particles comprised of starch or starch derived products

through said dough mixture, such that said particles comprised of starch or starch derived products remain intact and providing a homogenous dough mixture;

c) proofing of said homogenous dough mixture for 15 to 120 minutes,

providing a proofed dough mixture;

d) baking of said proofed dough mixture in order to obtain a bakery food.

11. Method for the production of bakery products with an open crumb structure according to claim 12, wherein the open crumb structure of the bakery products has a porosity of at least 10% coarse cell volume over the total volume of the bakery food.

12. Method for the production of bakery products with an open crumb structure according to claim 10 or 11, wherein said particles comprised of starch or starch derived products are expanded by extrusion, gun puffing, vacuum expansion, or microwave heating, preferably by extrusion.

Bakery product obtainable by a method according to any of claim 10 to 12.

Description:
DOUGH MIXTURE COMPRISING PARTICLES COMPRISED OF STARCH FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BAKERY PRODUCTS WITH AN OPEN CRUMB STRUCTURE

DESCRIPTION

The present invention relates to a dough mixture for the production of bakery products with an open crumb structure. The present invention further relates to methods for the production of bakery products with an open crumb structure and bakery products obtainable by this method.

The structure of bread largely determines the sensory properties, and thus the consumer appreciation of bakery products. Often, a fine structure is desired because this gives a soft mouthfeel. There are also products with an open crumb structure which consumers appreciate as ciabatta, traditional French baguettes and sourdough bread.

The structure and type of bread that is being produced is determined by its dough. Dough is generally made by mixing flour with a small amount of water and sometimes includes yeast or other leavening agents, salt as well as other ingredients such as various fats, emulsifiers, enzymes or flavorings. A wide variety of bakery products can be produced, depending on the process of making and shaping dough, like breads and bread-based items, but also biscuits, cakes, cookies, dumplings, flatbreads, noodles, pasta, pastry, pizza, piecrusts, etc. Doughs are made from a wide variety of flours, commonly wheat but also other flours made from maize, rice, rye, legumes, almonds, and other cereals and crops can be added.

The production process of bakery products starts with the mixing of the raw materials including water and flour to obtain dough. Mixing occurs until the dough has a smooth appearance. Mixing has two functions: to evenly distribute the various ingredients and allow the development of a protein (gluten) network to give the best bread possible. Then the dough is fermented, "proofing of the dough", at proofing temperature, followed by pressing of the dough to release any large gas holes that may have formed during proofing, to release excess gas and to redistribute gas bubbles. Then the dough is molded into the desired bakery product shape. During the final proofing the bakery product fills with more bubbles of gas, and once this has proceeded far enough they are transferred to a preheated oven for baking. Such a high heat will kill the yeast, thus stopping its process of proofing rising and growth. Finally the bakery product is cooled to about 35°C before slicing. In large scale production of bakery products, the steps of mixing, kneading, baking and slicing are performed by industrial equipment suitable for processing. In view of the complexity, seamless processing is prerequisite. The dough properties on current production lines are of key importance to guarantee continuous processing. Excess water in the dough or water release during proofing due to the enzymatic action or a dough mixing that is not optimal are the main causes of dough stickiness. Stickiness of dough is the main cause of interruption of the production process, whether it is during dividing, rounding, proofing or molding.

The production process of bakery products with an open crumb structure is characterized in the fact that the dough recipe contains a lot of water (70% on flour basis, or more), and that it requires very long proofing of the dough of preferentially 3 hours or longer. This makes the production process of bakery products with an open crumb structure less economical and more time consuming compared to the "regular" bakery types. For the production of regular bakery types, less time is required for proofing of the dough, typically 45 minutes up to 2 hours.

Furthermore, because of the lower water content of regular bakery types, 50% to 65% based on the flour weight, the dough is also simpler and cheaper to process. Doughs having higher water content, like the dough of bakery products with an open crumb structure, are very sticky and consequently require the use of lots of dusting flour or oil during processing to prevent sticking of the dough to the machines and processing lines. Because of the sticky properties limited types of equipment are suitable for processing these doughs having higher water content.

Considering the above, there is a need in the art for dough of bakery products with an open crumb structure that is simpler and cheaper to process. Furthermore there is a need in the art for a production method of bakery products with an open crumb structure that is more economical and time consuming.

It is an object of the present invention, amongst other objects, to address the above need in the art. The object of present invention, amongst other objects, is met by the present invention as outlined in the appended claims.

Specifically, the above object, amongst other objects, is met, according to a first aspect, by the present invention by a dough mixture for the production of bakery products with an open crumb structure, wherein said dough mixture comprises particles comprised of starch or starch derived products, wherein said particles comprised of starch or starch derived products have a particle size of 3 mm to 5 mm. Surprisingly, it has been found that the addition of particles comprised of starch or starch derived products to dough, results in the generation of an open structure without the requirement of a long proofing time of the dough. The bakery product is baked under normal water additions, under regular baking conditions and times, depending on the specific bakery product.

According to a preferred embodiment, the present invention relates to the dough mixture, wherein the open crumb structure of the bakery products has a porosity of at least 10% coarse cell volume over the total volume of the bakery food. To determine the coarse cell volume a C-Cell was used. The C-Cell is a food structure image analysis instrument that enables food manufacturers to evaluate aerated food by taking a sample snapshot, for example a slice of bread so that the internal or external features can be analysed for information on its cellular structure, such as size, shape and location of cells.

According to another preferred embodiment, the present invention relates to the dough mixture comprises 50 weight% to 65 weight% (on flour weight; ofw) of water, preferably 52 weight% to 60 weight% (ofw), more preferably 54 weight% to 58 weight% (ofw), most preferably 55 weight% to 57 weight% (ofw). Baker's percentage (also known as baker's math) is a baker's notation used in the art indicating the flour-relative proportion of an ingredient used when producing bakery products as based on flour weight (ofw). In using baker's percentage, each ingredient in a formula is expressed as a percentage of the flour weight, wherein the flour weight is expressed as 100%. In the present context, when baker's percentages are used according to present invention, this will be indicated by the "ofw" phrase. Dough with such percentages of water content is much less sticky than the dough used for bakery products with an open crumb structure, that have a higher water content of 70% (ofw) or higher.

According to the present invention the particles comprised of starch or starch derived products have a particle density of between 35 g/L to 300 g/L. Preferably the particles comprised of starch or starch derived products have a particle density of between 50 g/L to 150 g/L, most preferably between 60 g/L to 90 g/L. In extrusion, the particle density can be adjusted with water and/or fat. Increasing the water/fat content can increases the density up to 300 g/L. It is important to prevent that the particles dissolve into the dough mixture. There is a tendency of obtaining a more open structure of the bakery product when particle densities are higher and when the particles are added at the beginning of mixing of the dough. When the particles are larger, or when the particles comprised of starch or starch derived products are added at the end of after mixing of the dough, the structure is also more open.

According to the present invention the dough mixture comprises 2 weight% (ofw) to 15 weight% (ofw) of the particles comprised of starch or starch derived products, preferably 4 weight% (ofw) to 12 weight% (ofw), more preferably 5 weight% (ofw) to 10 weight% (ofw), most preferably 6 weight% (ofw)to 8 weight% (ofw).

According to another preferred embodiment of the present invention the particles comprised of starch or starch derived products are selected from grits, grain or cereals. The particles comprised of starch or starch derived products can for instance be flour, grits, whole grains or cereals/pseudo-cereals, such as wheat, rice, buckwheat, oat, rye, maize, teff, quinoa, etc. Preferably, according to present invention, the particles comprised of starch or starch derived products are comprised of wheat and/or maize.

According to yet another preferred embodiment of the present invention the particles comprised of starch or starch derived products are comprised of enzymes, preferably amylases, more preferably heat stable endo-amylases, and/or oils and/or fats. These enzymes, oils and/or fats can be added to make the structure of the crumb even more open. In addition, the main function of amylase in particles is to break down complex starches into simple sugars. This reduces the viscosity of the starch in the particles and thus enlarges the gas cells further during proofing and baking.

The present invention, according to a second aspect, relates to a method for the production of bakery products with an open crumb structure, wherein the methods comprises the following steps

a) providing a dough mixture according to the present invention;

b) mixing the particles comprised of starch or starch derived products trough the dough mixture, such that the particles comprised of starch or starch derived products remain intact and providing a homogenous dough mixture;

c) proofing of the homogenous dough mixture for 15 to 120 minutes,

providing a proofed dough mixture;

d) baking of the proofed dough mixture in order to obtain a bakery food. Mixing of the particles comprised of starch or starch derived products through the dough mixture (step b), needs to be done with care. It is important that the expanding substances do not get damaged during the mixing process, such that the expanding properties of the particles are negatively affected. This will in turn affect the open crumb structure of the bakery product obtained in the process.

According to a preferred embodiment of the present method for the production of bakery products with an open crumb structure, the open crumb structure of the bakery products has a porosity of at least 10% coarse cell volume over the total volume of the bakery food.

According to another preferred embodiment of the present method, the particles comprised of starch or starch derived products are expanded by extrusion, gun puffing, vacuum expansion, or microwave heating, preferably by extrusion.

The present invention, according to a further aspect, relates to a bakery product obtainable by the methods according to present invention.

The present invention will be further detailed in the following examples and figures wherein:

Figure 1 : Shows ciabatta bread produced according to the process described in example

2. The left and middle figures show ciabatta bread produced in the short and long process respectively with a common dough mixture, the right figure shows ciabatta bread produced in the short process with the dough mixture according to the present invention, resulting in a open crumb structure of the bread;

Figure 2: Shows French baguettes produced according to the process described in

example 4. The left figure shows the baguettes produced with common dough. The middle and right figure show the baguettes produced from with the dough mixture according to the present invention, resulting in a open crumb structure of the bread, in which the wheat extrudates were mixed in before (middle) or at the end of the mixing of the dough (right). Example 1

Water was added to wheat grits to obtain a water level of 18% and extruded in a single screw extruder, with a die with openings of 1.4 mm. The cutter was adjusted to obtain an extrudate size of 3 to 5 mm. Depending on the extruder conditions, densities can be obtained between 60 and 90 g/L. Increasing the water content increased the density up to 300 g/L. The density of the extrudates is not an essential feature when they are mixed at the final stage of mixing, but there is a tendency of obtaining a more open structure of the dough mixture at higher densities, when the extrudates are added at the beginning of mixing.

Example 2

Ciabatta

Ciabattas were prepared according to two different processes using the following recipe:

Flour (+ Vitason Ciabatta Rye) 100%

Yeast 5% (ofw)

Rapeseed oil 5% (ofw)

Water 54% (ofw) (short process)

Water 71 % (ofw) (long process)

In the references of fast and long process no wheat extrudates were added. In the fast process the extrudate (7% ofw) was added at the end of mixing and mixed for another 180 turns.

1. Short process

a. Mixing in a Diosna spiral mixer 280 turns slow and 1400 turns fast + 180 turns when extrudates were added.

b. Direct sheeting of the dough in a sheeter, position 15 mm

c. Cutting squares out of the dough and position on a perforated baking plate d. Proofing for 50 min at 32°C at 70% relative humidity

e. Baking in a Miwe Deck oven for 30 min at 230-220°C top and 220-210°C bottom temperature with steam at the start

2. Long process

a. Mixing in a Diosna spiral mixer 280 turns slow and 2000 turns fast, while washing in the last part of the dough water.

b. 140 min bulk proof at 22°C; after 35 mm folding of the dough in three c. Sheeting of the dough in a sheeter, position 15 mm

d. Cutting squares out of the dough and position on a perforated baking plate e. Proofing for 20 min at 32°C at 70% relative humidity

f. Baking in a Miwe Deck oven for 30 min at 230-220°C top and 220-210°C bottom temperature with steam at the beginning

After 24 h the breads were cut horizontally at a height of 12 mm and placed in a C- Cell device (C-Cell Mono Food Imaging System, Calibre Control International Ltd.) to assess the crumb properties. Three replicates were measured. Examples of the acquired images are found in Figure 1. C-Cell provided the following relevant parameters (Table 1). Table 1. C-Cell values for number of holes and coarse cell volume.

From experience the current invention can provide a similar number of holes as the long process and has an increased coarse cell volume. The number of holes that is obtained according to the present invention is larger than 0.025 holes/cm 2 and typically between 0.04 and 0.09 holes/cm 2 . The coarse cell volume obtained according to the present invention is larger than 10% of the area and typically between 10 and 20% of the area.

Example 3

Ciabatta water levels

To investigate the effect of water level, ciabattas were prepared according to the following recipe:

The extrudate (7% ofw) was added before mixing or at the end of mixing and mixed for another 180 turns

a. Mixing in a Diosna spiral mixer 280 turns slow and 1400 turns fast + 180 turns when extrudates were added.

b. Bulk proof for 20 min at ambient temperature

c. Sheeting of the dough in a sheeter, position 15 mm

d. Cutting squares out of the dough and position on a perforated baking plate e. Proofing for 40 min at 32°C at 70% relative humidity

f. Baking in a Miwe Deck oven for 30 min at 230-220°C top and 220-210°C bottom temperature with steam at the beginning

After cooling for 2 h the ciabattas were cut horizontally. No differences were observed in the open structure between the doughs with 60 or 70% water (ofw). Therefore the effect of open structure is not affected by the water content of the dough. Mixing the extrudates at the end of mixing gave the best results.

Example 4

Wheat extrudates (7% ofw) were added either before or at the end of mixing and mixed for another 180 turns a. Mixing in a Diosna spiral mixer 300 turns slow and 1500 turns fast. b. Portioning of 300 grams and form in oblong shaped dough

c. Proof covered for 30 min at ambient temperature d. Molding in a baguette molder

e. Position on a French sticks baking plate

f. Proofing for 60 min at 32°C at 70% relative humidity

g. Cutting of the surface

h. Baking in a Miwe Deck oven for 22 min phase 1 ; 17 min, 230°C top - 240°C floor, 500 steam; phase 2; 5 min, 210°C top - 220°C floor, valve open

After 2 hours cooling the sticks were cut horizontally and evaluated (Figure 2). As one can observe the best result is obtained when the extrudates are mixed in at the end of mixing, although there is also an effect when they are mixed in at the beginning of mixing.