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Title:
DRINKING WATER FORMULATION AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1999/024362
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
Drinking water formulations having appropriate amounts of mineral constituents including calcium, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, iodine, magnesium, nickel and selenium are effective in maintianing an individual's normal good health. Particular formulations are effective in preventing and minimizing disease states caused by various deficiencies in one or more of such mineral constituents. Methods for preparing drinking water formulations include distillation of water followed by addition of particular amounts of mineral constituents to achieve desired concentrations in accord with recommended daily allowances and yet below government regulations for levels of such elements. Other methods involve enriching existing water sources with particular amounts of mineral constituents to provide the drinking water formulation of the present invention. Still other formulations are generated for use by animals, especially companion animals, to promote good health.

Inventors:
Conger, Harry C. (2182 Augusta Drive Evergreen, CO, 80439, US)
Muzzy, James W. (6840 Chalet Circle Parker, CO, 80134, US)
Application Number:
PCT/US1998/024059
Publication Date:
May 20, 1999
Filing Date:
November 12, 1998
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
Rxh2o (11479 S. Pine Drive Parker, CO, 80134, US)
Conger, Harry C. (2182 Augusta Drive Evergreen, CO, 80439, US)
Muzzy, James W. (6840 Chalet Circle Parker, CO, 80134, US)
International Classes:
A23L1/304; C02F; (IPC1-7): C02F/
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Kovarik, Joseph E. (Sheridan Ross P.C. Suite 3500 1700 Lincoln Street Denver, CO, 80203-4501, US)
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Claims:
What is cl:<BR> <BR> <BR> <BR> <BR> <BR> <BR>
1. A drinking water formulation comprising drinking water substantially free of any microorganisms, such water containing one or more elements in the amounts as indicated, said elements selected from the group consisting of calcium in at least about 1001000 mg per liter; copper in at least about 01 mg per liter; fluoride in at least about. 51.5 mg per liter; iron in at least about 0.10.5 mg per liter; iodine in at least about 0.010.05 mg per liter; magnesium in at least about 10500 mg per liter; manganese in at least about 0. 05 mg per liter; nickel in at least about 00.1 mg per liter; selenium in at least about 00.05 mg per liter; chromium in at least about 0 0.1 mg per liter; potassium in at least about 2002000 mg per liter; zinc in at least about 15 mg per liter; and phosphorus in at least about 100400 mg per liter. 2.
2. A drinking water formulation of Claim 1, wherein said drinking water formulation is specifically formulated for an animal selected from the group consisting of dogs, cats, quines, porcines, bovines and poultry.
3. A drinking water formulation specifically formulated for human infants between six months and one year old, consisting essentially of calcium in at least 100 270 mg per liter; magnesium in at least 1035 mg per liter; fluoride in at least 005 mg per liter; iodine in at least 00.02 mg per liter; iron in at least 0.10.5 mg per liter; zinc in at least 12.5 mg per liter; copper in at least 00.5 mg per liter; phosphorus in at least 100200 mg per liter; and potassium in at least 200500 mg per liter.
4. A drinking water formulation for children between the ages of 1 and 11 years old, consisting essentially of calcium in at least 1001000 mg per liter; magnesium in at least 50100 mg per liter; selenium in at least 00.05 mg per liter; fluoride in at least 0.21.5 mg per liter; iodine in at least 0.010.05 mg per liter; iron in at least 0.10.5 mg per liter; zinc in at least 35 mg per liter; copper in at least 01 mg per liter; chromium in at least 00.1 mg per liter; phosphorus in at least 400800 mg per liter; and potassium in at least 10002000 mg per liter.
5. A drinldng water formulation for human adolescents of between 11 and 18 years old consisting essentially of calcium in at least 300600 mg per liter; magnesium in at least 100200 mg per liter; selenium in at least 0.010.05 mg per liter; fluoride in at least 0.51.5 mg per liter; iodine in at least 0.010.05 mg per liter; iron in at least 0.10.5 mg per liter; zinc in at least 25 mg per liter; nickel in at least 00.1 mg per liter; copper in at least 0.051 mg per liter; chromium in at least 00.1 mg per liter; phosphorus in at least 200400 mg per liter; and potassium in at least 5002000 mg per liter.
6. A drinking water formulation for human adults between the ages of 19 51 consisting essentially of calcium in at least 200400 mg per liter; magnesium in at least 100175 mg per liter; selenium in at least 0.010.05 mg per liter; fluoride in at least 11.5 mg per liter; iodine in at least. 030.05 mg per liter; iron in at least 0.10.5 mg per liter; zinc in at least 25 mg per liter; nickel in at least 00.1 mg per liter; copper in at least 0.051 mg per liter; chromium in at least 00.1 mg per liter; manganese in at least 0.010.05 mg per liter; phosphorus in at least 200400 mg per liter; and potassium in at least 10002000 mg per liter.
7. A drinking water formulation for human prenant females consisting essentially of calcium in at least 300600 mg per liter; magnesium in at least 100275 mg per liter; fluoride in at least 0.51.5 mg per liter; iodine in at least 0.010.05 mg per liter; iron in at least 0.10.5 mg per liter; zinc in at least 35 mg per liter; and phosphorus in at least 300600 mg per liter.
8. A drinking water formulation specifically formulated for individuals who consume at least about 1 liter of an alcoholic beverage per week, said formulation consisting essentially of calcium in at least 100300 mg per liter and magnesium in at least 300500 mg per liter and zinc in at least 15 mg per liter.
Description:
DRINKING WATER FORMULATION AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention is directe to drinking water having appropriate amounts of mineral constituents deemed essential for normal good health. Other embodiments are directe to drinking water having particular combinations of trace elements found effective in preventing or minimizing various diseases caused by deficiencies in such elements.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION With the current emphasis on health and fitness, there is an awareness of the need for proper nutrition. As a result, the marketplace has been flooded with a great number of mineral and vitamin products. Environmental awareness and reports of drinking water contamination have led people to increase their consumption of bottle drinking waters. While these products have been developed to meet the public's concern for contamination, taste and order, promoting various distillation, deionization and reverse osmosis procedures for drinking water, the emphasis has thus far been on creating a"pure"water for consumption.

During the last decade the popularity of bottled drinking water has increased significantly. Most commercial bottled waters are advertised as being particularly pure which is deemed to be an attractive attribute of such bottled waters by the general public. Indeed, numerus patents exist relating to devices and compositions for use in disinfecting water, including removal of heavy minerals.

In this increasingly health conscious society, individuals are appreciating that a proper diet is necessary to maintain good health. Included in the dietary requirements for a normal individual are certain amounts of mineral constituents such as, but not limited to, calcium, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, iodine, magnesium, nickel, selenium, etc. The failure of an individual to obtain sufficient amounts of such mineral constituents can lead to various specific diseases, and is believed to contribute to sub- optimal health at any given time. For example, deficiencies in calcium can lead to a weakness in bone structure; deficiencies in magnesium can preclude necessary calcium absorption and has been deemed necessary to prevent certain cardiovascular disorders; fluoride deficiencies can promote dental caries; iodine deficiency can lead to thyroid

disorders; iron deficiencies can impair hemoglobin production; nickel deficiencies create difficulties in iron absorption; selenium deficiencies have been linked to heart membrane disorders; and zinc deficiencies have been correlated with prostate problems and diminished sexual drives. It is also known that consumption of alcohol by individuals depletes magnesium and zinc and thus, individuals that consume significant quantities of alcohol could benefit from replenishment of such mineral constituents.

Although it has long been recognized by the general public and recommended by physicians that individuals consume a mixed diet sufficient to provide them with essential elements, including mineral constituents, such a basic task is easier said then done. Although a regime of daily vitamins is also well recognized, numerus individuals do not tolerate such vitamin supplements well. Still others do not require many of the constituents contained in standard one-a-day vitamins and thus, an excessive amont of such minerals can lead to undesired accumulation of such elements within the body. Physicians generally agree that obtaining of necessary essential elements from the diet (e. g., through the intake of food and liquids) is superior to the ingestion of a pill containing allegedly needed vitamins and minerals.

In addition to human health, there has been an increased emphasis on the health of animals, and in particular, companion animals such as domestic cats and dogs.

Although specifically formulated foods are available to address particular dietary requirements of various species and age dependent requirements of animals, no one has yet developed a specially formulated drinking water for animals that supplies desired amounts of mineral constituents to achieve good health for such animals.

Thus, there remains a need for a drinking water that contains appropriate amounts of mineral constituents so that an individual can consume in their normal course of consumption adequate amounts of requisit elements necessary for good health. There also existes a need for particular formulations of drinking water designed for individuals having particular dietary requirements.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention is directe to drinking water formulations containing desired amounts of mineral constituents deemed necessary for an individual to maintain good health. Various embodiments of the present invention are particularly directe to individuals having a specific need for mineral constituents in order to supplement deficiencies in such an individual's diet that may be caused by genetic and/or environmental factors. For example, one embodiment of the present invention relates to a drinking water for individuals who consume substantial amounts of alcohol which is known to deplete magnesium and zinc from a person's metabolism. Still other embodiments are directe to drinking water formulations for children, prenant mothers, elderly individuals and active athletic individuals. Further embodiments of the present invention are formulated drinking waters that address specific mineral deficiencies and thus can be used to treat such deficiencies.

A separate aspect of the present invention relates to the formulation of drinking waters specifically designed to be consume by animals, and in particular, companion animals such as dogs and cats. The particular formulations for any given species, size and/or species of an animal can be determined by one of ordinary skill in the art once such individual understands the general concept as disclosed in the present specification and in view of the general knowledge in the human and animal nutritional requirements field.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT The present invention relates to the use of inorganic compound (e. g., essential mineral elements) that are stable and that when dissolve in distille water or natural water sources, which have been disinfected and oxygenated, become readily available as bottle drinking water to supply a portion of the U. S. government's established recommended daily allowances for these essential minerals. A portion of a person's recommended daily allowances for such essential minerals can be contained in each serving portion of the bottled drinking water of the present invention. The present invention therefore relates to a bottiers drinking water that contains completely soluble mineral elements that are present in readily accessible form.

The present invention inclues a variety of various formulations having mineral constituents selected from the group of elements set forth in Table 1. Preferred embodiments of the present invention contain particular amounts of such elements, such as, for example, formulations containing amounts within the ranges as set forth in Table 1. It is important to note that the minimum range for each of the elements as set forth in Table 1 corresponds to a minimum amount deemed necessary to sustain good health in a typical individual. Conversely, the maximum amount within the ranges as set forth depicts, in most cases, an amount over which would be deemed ill advised and potentially unsafe by governmental agencies pursuant to various regulations.

It will therefore be appreciated by one of skill in the art that particular formulations can be concocte by selecting one or more elements from Table 1 within the ranges as set forth and combining such elements in a fashion to address particular deficiencies. In particular, one of skill in the art will appreciate that many of the elements listed in Table 1 have synergistic and/or counter-active effects when combine with one another. As such, particular formulations are designed to take into account such effets. For example, if a person suffers from a weakness in their bone structure it is known that calcium can cure such a deficiency. Without sufficient amounts of magnesium, however, preferably simultaneously administered with the calcium, calcium absorption is greatly reduced and thus, the desired objective of strengthening bone structure is defeated unless appropriate amounts of both calcium and magnesium are present in a drinking water formulation. Similar examples can be found with most if not all of the elements as set forth in Table 1 (e. g., anemia can be treated with iron supplements, but nickel is required to achieve desired iron absorption).

The present invention further provides a drinking water that has not only desired elements therein, but that also meets federal and state drinking water standards, whether such standards be mandatory or recommended. The present invention achieves this result without the unpleasant taste characteristics of so-called mineral waters and with no offensive or unpleasant odors emanating from such formulations. The present invention contemplates drinking water formulations that are additionally free of any organic contaminates, which coincidentally are believed to add to undesired odor and taste characteristics of water.

One aspect of the present invention relates to drinking water that has no additional flavorings added thereto nor carbonation. Moreover, preferred embodiments of the present invention do not include any vitamin supplements added to the mineral formulation. The mineral compositions for the drinking water of the present invention are preferably readily soluble at room temperature.

While the various formulations of drinking water pursuant to the present invention are not confine to a particular method for producing such drinking water compositions, one aspect of the present invention is directe to a particular method for obtaining desired drinking water formulations. In a preferred embodiment, healthy drinking water can be obtained from essentially any water source by first distillation, deionization and reverse osmosis of water obtained from a water source and then adding to such water a prescribed formulation of essential elements to achieve desired results. In view of the fact that natural waters (e. g., waters obtained naturally from surface or subsurface sources) contain various amounts of desired and undesired mineral constituents, it is preferred to entirely remove all mineral constituents from such water to obtain essentially pure H20 and then add back to such pure H20 mineral constituents in amounts within the ranges as set forth in Table 1. In other embodiments, however, where the particular mineral constituent concentration may be known in a natural water, the present invention further inclues the addition of only those mineral constituents that are not already present in the natural water, or to raise the concentration of desired elements that are present to produce the healthy drinking water of the present invention.

Although distillation as described above is preferred to eliminate any undesired mineral constituents, as well as any organic or bacterial components, a method for producing the novel formulations as set forth herein inclues filtering of natural water to remove undesired impurities, organic compound, bacteria, etc. to achieve a water formulation that may contain various mineral constituents, without other undesired elements or microorganisms. It is well within the skill of an ordinary artisan in the field of drinking water to perform necessary distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis and/or filtering steps. Similarly, the addition of particular mineral constituents to distille or otherwise purifie water (as described above) can be performed using conventional methods. The novelty of the present invention relates to the appreciation

and recognition that drinking water, contrary to popular belief, should not be in a"pure form"without beneficial mineral constituents contained therein, or that contain one or more of such essential minerals in sufficient amonts. The addition and/or supplementation of such essential mineral constituents to drinking water for the first time provides the consumer with a choice in the marketplace between water having essentially no health benefits, other than liquid replenishment, and the benefits derived from the drinking water of the present invention, which provides for desired mineral formulations to enhance and maintain a healthful condition.

In addition to the elements listed in Table 1, other minerals such as molybdenum, tin, vanadium and cobalt can also be added to various formulations of the present invention in ranges established by governmental entities in below toxic levels for such minerals. In particular embodiments, fluoride and iodine elements are preferably in the form of potassium, calcium or sodium salts. The other minerals listed in Table 1 are preferably in the form of carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides, phosphates and/or silicates. Additionally, the drinking water of the present invention can be disinfected by ozone and further oxygenated.

Based on consuming approximately two liters per day, the ranges set forth in Table 1 will provide between about 10% to about 100% of the RDA for all listed elements except iron, selenium, zinc, nickel, manganese, copper and iodine, which will provide between about 10% and 70% of the RDA. The specific formula and composition within the ranges set forth in Table 1 will be determined by age and specific health needs in preparing various formulations. If the water source utilized is distille water, it can be produced by well known distillation, deionization or reverse osmosis processes. The distille water is then preferably filtered through granular activated carbon, disinfected by ozone or alternatively ozone and ultraviolet light and is then preferably oxygenated, for example, with ambient air. The water soluble mineral mixture is then added to the water and dissolve completely prior to bottling.

Use of other water sources other than distille water, such as wells or community water supplies, can be disinfected by ozone or alternatively ozone and ultraviolet light and is then oxygenated with air prior to the addition of water soluble mineral mixtures being added thereto.

In one particular embodiment, preparation of the water-soluble mixture is prepared by dry blending various mineral ingredients in a powdered form. Calcium and magnesium can be added as salts of bicarbonate and/or carbonates and other elements may be in the form of salts of sulfates, phosphates, silicate and chloride. Fluoride and iodine (as iodate) are preferably present as salts of potassium and/or sodium. Thus, when the mineral elements are dissolve in distille water or other natural water source, they produce a composition within the ranges as shown in Table 1.

Additional attributs of preferred embodiments of the present invention are that the drinking water contains less than 10 mg of sodium. The amount of dissolve solids in a preferred embodiment is less than 1500 ppm (mg per liter). In addition to the mineral constituents listed in Table 1, the level of silica is less than 50 mg per liter.

The amont of sulfates is less than about 500 mg per liter. The amount of chloride is less than 500 mg per liter. The amount of lead is less than 0.005 mg per liter. The amount of total organics is less than 0.0002 mg per liter. Finally, the preferred pH of the preferred drinking water formulation is between about 6.5 and 8.5, more preferably between about 6.9 and 7.3 and most preferably about pH 7. 1.

While various embodiments of the present invention have been described in detail, it is apparent that further modifications and adaptations of the invention will occur to those sldlled in the art. However, it is to be expressly understood that such modifications and adaptations are within the spirit and scope of the present invention.

TABLE 1 FORMULATION PERCENTAGE MINERAL RANGE MG/L RDA MG/DAY SUPPLIEZ CALCIUM 100-1000 800 24-100 MAGNESIUM 10-500 350 6-100 SELENIUM 0-0.05 0.05-0.2*** 0-80 FLUORIDE 0.5-1.5 1-3 33-100 IODINE 0.01-0.05 0.03-0.15 13-70 IRON 0.1-0.5 10-18 2-10 ZINC 1-5 3-15 13-70

FORMULATION PERCENTAGE MINERVAL RANGE MG/L RDA MG/DAY ** SUPPLIE * NICKEL 0-0.1 0.15-0.5*** 0-40 COPPER 0-1 2-3*** 0-67 CHROMIUM 0-0.1 0.05-0.2*** 0-100 MANGANESE 0-0.05 2.5-5.0*** 0-20 PHOSPHORUS 100-400 800-1,200 25-100 POTASSIUM 200- 2,000 350- 5,600*** - 100 * BASE ON TWO LITERS PER DAY AND AVERAGED RDA RANGE ** WILL VARY ACCORDING TO GENDER AND AGE *** SUGGESTED/BASED ON ADEQUATE AND SAFE INTAKES TABLE1A (INFANTS0.5-1YR) FORMULATION PERCENTAGE MINERAI. RANGE MG/L RDA MG/DAY SUPPLIED CALCIUM 100-270 540 37-100 MAGNESIUM 10-35 70 29-100 SELENnJM--- FLUORIDE 0-0.5 0.2-1.0 0-100 IODINE 0-0.02 0.04 0-100 IRON 0.1-0.5 15 1-7 ZINC 1-2.5 5 40-100 NICKEL COPPER 0-0.5 0.5-1.0*** 0-100 CHROMIUM MANGANESE--- PHOSPHORUS 100-200 400 50-100 POTASSIUM 200-500 350-1,000 *** 100 * BASE ON TWO LITERS PER DAY AND AVERAGED RDA RANGE ** WILL VARY ACCORDING TO GENDER AND AGE *** SUGGESTED/BASED ON ADEQUATE AND SAFE INTAKES

TABLEZ (CHILDREN 1-11 YRS) FORMULATION PERCENTAGE MINERAL RANGE MG/L RDA MG/DAY SUPPLIEZ CALCIUM 100-1,000 800 30-100 MAGNESIUM 50-100 200 50-100 SELENIUM 0-0.05 0.02-0.08*** 0-100 FLUORIDE 0.2-1.5 0.5-2.5 50-100 IODINE 0.01-0.05 0.10 50-100 IRON 0.1-0.5 15 1-7 ZINC 3-5 10 60-100 NICKEL COPPER 0-1 1-3*** 0-80 CHROMIUM 0 - 0. 1 0.05-0.2*** 0-100 MANGANESE--- PHOSPHORUS 400-800 800 50-80 POTASSIUM 1,000-2,000 1,000-3,000 ( ?) 50-75 * BASE ON TWO LITERS PER DAY AND AVERAGED RDA RANGE ** WILL VARY ACCORDING TO GENDER AND AGE *** SUGGESTED/BASED ON ADEQUATE AND SAFE INTAKES TABLE 3A (ADOLESCENTS 11-18 YRS-MALE & FEMALE) FORMULATION PERCENTAGE MINERAL RANGE MG/L RDA MG/DAY SUPPLIEZ CALCIUM 300-600 1,200 50-100 MAGNESIUM 100-200 300-400 66-100 SELENIUM 0. 050.05-0.2***40-5001-0. FLUORIDE 0.5-1.5 1-3 100 IODINE 0. 050.10-0.1520-6701-0. IRON 0.1-0.5 10-18 2-6 ZINC 2-5 15 13-67 NICKEL 0-0.1 0.15-0.5*** 0-40 COPPER 0.05-1 2-3 4-80 CHROMIUM 0-0.1 0. 2***0-10005-0.

FORMULATION PERCENTAGE MINERAL RANGE MG/L RDA MG/DAY ** SUPPLIE * MANGANESE--- PHOSPHORUS 200-400 1,200 33-67 POTASSIUM 1 500-2,000 1,500-4,500*** 33-89 * BASE ON TWO LITERS PER DAY AND AVERAGED RDA RANGE ** WILL VARY ACCORDING TO GENDER AND AGE *** SUGGESTED/BASED ON ADEQUATE AND SAFE INTAKES TABLE 4A (ADULTS 19-51 YRS) FORMULATION PERCENTAGE MINERAL RANGE MG/L RDA MG/DAY SUPPLIEZ* CALCIUM 200-400 800 25-100 MAGNESI1UM 100-175 350 29-100 SELENIUM 0.01-0.05 0.05-0.2*** 40-100 FLUORIDE 1-1.5 1.5-3 60-80 IODINE. 03-0.05 0.10-0.15 75-100 IRON 0.1-0.5 10 0-10 ZINC 2-5 15 27-67 NICKEL 0-0.1 0.15-0.5*** 0-40 COPPER 0.05-1 2-3*** 5-66 CHROMIUM 0-0.1 0.05-0.2*** 0-100 MANGANESE 0.01-0.05 2.5-5.0*** 1-2 PHOSPHORUS 200-400 800 25-100 POTASSIUM 1,000-2,000 1,900-5,600*** 50-71 * BASE ON TWO LITERS PER DAY AND AVERAGED RDA RANGE ** WILL VARY ACCORDING TO GENDER AND AGE *** SUGGESTED/BASED ON ADEQUATE AND SAFE INTAKES TABLEZ (ADULTS) FORMULATION PERCENTAGE MINERAL RANGE MG/L RDA MG/DAY ** SUPPLIE* CALCIUM 100-300 800 24-75 -17535029-100MAGNESIUM50

FORMULATION PERCENTAGE MINERAL RANGE MG/L RDA MG/DAY SUPPLIED* SELENIJM FLUORIDE 51.5-344-1001-1. IODINE 0. 03 - 0.05 0.11 55-91 IRON ZINC NICKEL COPPER CHROMIUM MANGANESE PHOSPHORUS POTASSIUM * BASED ON TWO LITERS PER DAY AND AN AVERAGE OF THE RDA RANGES ** WILL VARY ACCORDING TO GENDER AND AGE *** SUGGESTED TABLE 4C<BR> (ADULTES) FORMULATION PERCENTAGE MINERAL RANGE MG/L RDA MG/DAY SUPPLIEZ* CALCIUM 100-300 800 24-75 MAGNESIUM 50-175 350 29-100 SELENnUM FLUORIDE 1-1.5 1.5-3 44-100 IODINE 0.03-0.05 0.11 55-91 IRON ZINC 1-5 15 13-67 NICKEL COPPER CHROMIUM MANGANESE PHOSPHORUS POTASSIUM

* BASE ON TWO LITERS PER DAY ** WILL VARY ACCORDING TO GENDER AND AGE *** SUGGESTED TABLE 4D<BR> (ADULTES) FORMULATION PERCENTAGE MINERAL RANGE MG/L RDA MG/DAY SUPPLIED* CALCIUM 100-300 800 24-75 MAGNESIUM 50-175 350 29-100 SELENIUM 0-0.05 0.05-0.2 0-100 FLUORIDE 1-1.5 1.5-3 44-100 IODINE 0.03-0.05 0.11 55-91 IRON ZINC 1-5 15 13-67 NICKEL 0-0.1 0.15-0.5 0-62 COPPER CHROMIUM MANGANESE PHOSPHORUS POTASSIUM * BASE ON TWO LITERS PER DAY ** WILL VARY ACCORDING TO GENDER AND AGE *** SUGGESTED TABLEZ (ADULTS) FORMULATION PERCENTAGE MINERAL RANGE MG/L RDA MG/DAY ** SUPPLIE* CALCIUM 100-300 800 24-75 MAGNESIUM 50-175 350 29-100 SELENEUM O-0.05 0.05-0.2 0-80 FLUORIDE 1-1. 5 1. 5-3 44-100 IODINE 0.03-0.05 0.11 55-91 IRON

FORMULATION PERCENTAGE MINERVAL RANGE MG/L RDA MG/DAY ** SUPPLIE* ZINC 1-5 15 13-67 NICKEL 0-0.1 0.15-0.5 0-62 COPPER CHROMIUM 0 - 0.1 0.05 - 0.2 0 - 100 MANGANESE PHOSPHORUS POTASSIUM * BASE ON TWO LITERS PER DAY ** WILL VARY ACCORDING TO GENDER AND AGE *** SUGGESTED TABLE 5A (PRENANT FEMALES) FORMULATION PERCENTAGE MINERAL RANGE MG/L RDA MG/DAY ** SUPPLIED* CALCIUM 300-600 1,200 25-100 MAGNES1UM 100-275 450 25-100 SELENIUM FLUORIDE 0.5-1.5 1-3 100 IODINE 0.01-0.05 0.125 16-80 IRON 0.1-0.5 18 1-6 ZINC 3-5 20 30-50 NICKEL COPPER--- CHROMILTM--- MANGANESE--- PHOSPHORUS 300-600 1,200 50-100 POTASSIUM * BASE ON TWO LITERS PER DAY AND AVERAGED RDA RANGE ** WILL VARY ACCORDING TO GENDER AND AGE *** SUGGESTED

TABLE 6A (FORMULATION FOR ALCOHOL-ABUSING INDIVIDUALS) FORMULATION PERCENTAGE MINERAL RANGE MG/L RDA MG/DAY SUPPLIED* CALCIUM 100-300 800 25-66 MAGNESILJM 300-500 350 70-270 SELENIUM FLUORIDE IODINE IRON ZINC 1-5 3-15 13-70 NICKEL COPPER CHROMIUM MANGANESE PHOSPHORUS POTASSIUM * BASE ON TWO LITERS PER DAY ** WILL VARY ACCORDING TO GENDER AND AGE ***SUGGESTED Another embodiment of the present invention relates to formulations that address the development and use of a healthy drinking water for livestock, swine, poultry and household pets such as dogs and cats.

The research done by many others skilled in the art of animal nutrition has proven the need by animals and poultry for many of the same minerals that humans require. These requirements have a significant impact on health and consequently, in the case of livestock and poultry, the commercial aspects of health and yield.

In many cases the minerals, such as iodine, are used as a treatment for various diseases in domestic livestock. Nickel interacts with 13 essential minerals in animals and plants. As in the case of humans, nickel deficiency in animals impairs iron absorption and can result in depressed levels of hemoglobin.

The teaching of supplying minerals to animals has been the same as with humans from the standpoint of mineral supplement provided separately or as a

supplement to food. The present invention is, however, directe to a formulated drinking water as an important source of nutritional health for livestock, swine, poultry and pets such as dogs and cats. The particular formulations for a specific animal will obviously vary dependent upon the age, species, gender and physical condition (e. g., prenant females), as well as on whether such animal is diseased. It is well within the skill of one of ordinary skill in the art given the guidance and instructions as supplie in the specification, to formulate effective drinking water formulations for particular animals, as discussed herein. In particular, however, for dogs and cats, it is believed that the recommended daily allowances of various mineral constituents as set forth in Table 1 would be appropriate for such animal formulations.