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Title:
DUAL CONTAINMENT FITTING AND DUAL CONTAINMENT FITTING ASSEMBLY
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/126140
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A dual containment fitting may include a primary tubing, a secondary tubing, and a dual containment body. The secondary tubing may surround and be concentric with a first portion of the primary tubing forming a first leak containment space between the primary tubing and the secondary tubing. The dual containment body may include a flare fitting portion and a primary containment nut portion. The flare fitting portion may surround and be concentric with the primary tubing forming a second leak containment space between the primary tubing and the flare fitting portion. The primary containment nut portion may surround and be concentric with the flared end of the primary tubing forming a third leak containment space between the primary tubing and the primary containment nut portion. The primary containment nut portion may include at least one leak passage hole connecting the third leak containment space with the second leak containment space.

Inventors:
NGUYEN, Hy B. (1485 Winston Ct, Upland, California, 91786, US)
DINH, Thuan An T. (14681 Westfall Rd, Tustin, California, 92780, US)
FREGOSO, Mario (15171 Goodhue St, Whittier, California, 90604, US)
SONI, Ankit (1915 Piedmont, Irvine, California, 92620, US)
Application Number:
US2018/066190
Publication Date:
June 27, 2019
Filing Date:
December 18, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
SAINT-GOBAIN PERFORMANCE PLASTICS CORPORATION (31500 Solon Road, Solon, Ohio, 44139, US)
International Classes:
F16L33/24; F16L19/02
Foreign References:
US20060157975A12006-07-20
US5934712A1999-08-10
US4871196A1989-10-03
US5655794A1997-08-12
US4817996A1989-04-04
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ABEL, Jeffrey S. et al. (ABEL LAW GROUP, LLP8911 N. Capital of Texas Hwy,Bldg. 4, Suite 420, Austin Texas, 78759, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A dual containment fitting comprising:

a primary tubing having a flared end;

a secondary tubing having a flared end, wherein the secondary tubing surrounds and is concentric with a first portion of the primary tubing forming a first leak containment space between the primary tubing and the secondary tubing;

a dual containment body comprising a flare fitting portion, a primary containment nut portion and a bore therethrough,

wherein the flare fitting portion surrounds and is concentric with a second portion of the primary tubing forming a second leak containment space between the primary tubing and the flare fitting portion,

wherein the flare fitting portion compressively engages with the flared end of the secondary tubing connecting the first leak containment space with the second leak containment space,

wherein the primary containment nut portion surrounds and is concentric with the flared end of the primary tubing forming a third leak containment space between the primary tubing and the primary containment nut portion, and wherein the primary containment nut portion comprises at least one leak passage hole connecting the third leak containment space with the second leak containment space.

2. A dual containment fitting assembly comprising:

a primary tubing having a flared end;

a secondary tubing having a flared end, wherein the secondary tubing surrounds and is concentric with a first portion of the primary tubing forming a first leak containment space between the primary tubing and the secondary tubing;

a dual containment body comprising a flare fitting portion, a primary containment nut portion and a bore therethrough,

wherein the flare fitting portion surrounds and is concentric with a second portion of the primary tubing forming a second leak containment space between the primary tubing and the flare fitting portion,

wherein the flare fitting portion compressively engages with the flared end of the secondary tubing connecting the first leak containment space with the second leak containment space, wherein the primary containment nut portion surrounds and is concentric with the flared end of the primary tubing forming a third leak containment space between the primary tubing and the primary containment nut portion, and

wherein the primary containment nut portion comprises at least one leak passage hole connecting the third leak containment space with the second leak containment space; and

a valve assembly annular fitting body comprising a first end, a second end and a bore therethrough;

wherein the first end of the annular fitting body is threadably engaged at the primary containment nut portion of the dual containment body so that the flared end of the primary tubing compressively engages within the first end if the annular fitting body.

3. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of claims 1 and 2, wherein the primary tubing, the secondary tubing or the dual containment body a polymer material.

4. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of claim 3, wherein the primary tubing, the secondary tubing or the dual containment body comprises perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

5. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of claim 3, wherein the primary tubing, the secondary tubing and the dual containment body comprises perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

6. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of claims 1 and 2, wherein the primary containment nut portion comprises a polymer material.

7. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of claim 6, wherein the polymer material comprises perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

8. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of claims 1 and 2, wherein the primary containment nut portion comprises an outer wall having a thickness of at least about 1 mm and not greater than about 5.0 mm.

9. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of claims 1 and 2, wherein the primary containment nut portion comprises an outer wall and wherein the at least one leak passage hole is disposed in the outer wall of the primary containment nut portion.

10. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of claim 9, wherein the primary containment nut portion comprises at least two leak passage holes disposed in the outer wall of the primary containment nut.

11. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of claim 10, wherein each of the leak passage holes are equally spaced around the outer wall of the primary containment nut portion.

12. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of claim 10, wherein each of the leak passage holes are configured for unidirectional fluid flow.

13. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of claim 12, wherein each of the leak passage holes are configured to allow flow from the third leak containment space to the second leak containment space.

14. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of claims 1 and 2, wherein the primary containment nut portion comprises an outer wall and wherein the at least one leak passage hole passed through the outer wall of the primary containment nut portion.

15. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of claims 1 and 2, wherein the at least one leak passage hole comprises an inner diameter of at least about 0.5 mm and not greater than about 2.0 mm.

Description:
DUAL CONTAINMENT FITTING AND DUAL CONTAINMENT FITTING

ASSEMBLY

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present disclosure relates generally to a dual containment fitting. More particularly, the present disclosure related to a dual containment fitting for connecting tubing to a secondary fluid transfer component in a dual containment fitting assembly.

Dual containment fitting assemblies are designed to connect threaded and non- threaded tubing to secondary components, such as other tubing or valve assemblies. The use of such assemblies can facilitate connections of concentric inner and outer plastic tubes in an arrangement such that the outer tubing contains any leakage of fluid from the inner tubing. Although such dual fitting assemblies reduces the problem of leakage from the inner tubing itself, in view of the aggressive nature of the caustic chemicals and process conditions that are used in the semiconductor manufacturing industry, it is desirable that additional containment options be developed for possible leakage around the connection between the tubing and the secondary components. It is therefore desirable that improved fitting assemblies continue to be developed in order to provide additional leakage protection around the intersections between the tubing and the secondary components.

SUMMARY

According to one aspect, a dual containment fitting may include a primary tubing having a flared end, a secondary tubing having a flared end, and a dual containment body.

The secondary tubing may surround and be concentric with a first portion of the primary tubing forming a first leak containment space between the primary tubing and the secondary tubing. The dual containment body may include a flare fitting portion, a primary containment nut portion and a bore therethrough. The flare fitting portion may surround and be concentric with a second portion of the primary tubing forming a second leak containment space between the primary tubing and the flare fitting portion. The flare fitting portion may compressively engage with the flared end of the secondary tubing connecting the first leak containment space with the second leak containment space. The primary containment nut portion may surround and be concentric with the flared end of the primary tubing forming a third leak containment space between the primary tubing and the primary containment nut portion. The primary containment nut portion may include at least one leak passage hole connecting the third leak containment space with the second leak containment space. According to yet another aspect, a dual containment fitting assembly may include a primary tubing having a flared end, a secondary tubing having a flared end, a dual containment body and a valve assembly annular fitting body. The secondary tubing may surround and be concentric with a first portion of the primary tubing forming a first leak containment space between the primary tubing and the secondary tubing. The dual containment body may include a flare fitting portion, a primary containment nut portion and a bore therethrough. The flare fitting portion may surround and be concentric with a second portion of the primary tubing forming a second leak containment space between the primary tubing and the flare fitting portion. The flare fitting portion may compressively engage with the flared end of the secondary tubing connecting the first leak containment space with the second leak containment space. The primary containment nut portion may surround and be concentric with the flared end of the primary tubing forming a third leak containment space between the primary tubing and the primary containment nut portion. The primary containment nut portion may include at least one leak passage hole connecting the third leak containment space with the second leak containment space. The valve assembly annular fitting body may include a first end, a second end and a bore therethrough. The first end of the annular fitting body may be threadably engaged at the primary containment nut portion of the dual containment body so that the flared end of the primary tubing compressively engages within the first end if the annular fitting body.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Embodiments are illustrated by way of example and are not limited to the

accompanying figures.

FIG. 1 includes an illustration of a perspective view of a dual containment fitting assembly according to certain embodiments described herein;

FIG. 2 includes an illustration of a perspective view of a dual containment fitting assembly according to certain embodiments described herein;

FIGS. 3-5 include illustrations of various views of the primary containment nut portion of the dual containment body of the dual containment fitting assembly illustrated in FIG. 1;

FIG. 6 includes an illustration of the dual containment body of the dual containment fitting assembly

Skilled artisans appreciate that elements in the figures are illustrated for simplicity and clarity and have not necessarily been drawn to scale. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMB ODIMENT (S )

The following discussion will focus on specific implementations and embodiments of the teachings. The detailed description is provided to assist in describing certain

embodiments and should not be interpreted as a limitation on the scope or applicability of the disclosure or teachings. It will be appreciated that other embodiments can be used based on the disclosure and teachings as provided herein.

The terms“comprises,”“comprising,”“includes,”“incl uding,”“has,”“having” or any other variation thereof, are intended to cover a non-exclusive inclusion. For example, a method, article, or apparatus that comprises a list of features is not necessarily limited only to those features but may include other features not expressly listed or inherent to such method, article, or apparatus. Further, unless expressly stated to the contrary,“or” refers to an inclusive-or and not to an exclusive-or. For example, a condition A or B is satisfied by any one of the following: A is true (or present) and B is false (or not present), A is false (or not present) and B is true (or present), and both A and B are true (or present).

Also, the use of“a” or“an” is employed to describe elements and components described herein. This is done merely for convenience and to give a general sense of the scope of the invention. This description should be read to include one, at least one, or the singular as also including the plural, or vice versa, unless it is clear that it is meant otherwise. For example, when a single item is described herein, more than one item may be used in place of a single item. Similarly, where more than one item is described herein, a single item may be substituted for that more than one item.

Embodiments described herein are generally directed to a dual containment fitting for connecting tubing or a tubing type component to a valve assembly or to another tubing type component. The dual containment fitting is configured such that the connection includes leak containment spaces surrounding a primary tubing and the intersection between the tubing component and the valve assembly or the additional tubing component. According to certain embodiments, the dual containment fitting that may include a primary tubing, a secondary tubing, and a dual containment body. According to still other embodiment, the combination of the dual containment fitting connected to the valve assemble or the additional tubing component may be referred to as a dual containment fitting assembly.

These concepts are better understood in view of the embodiments described below that illustrate and do not limit the scope of the present disclosure. FIG. 1 includes an illustration of a perspective view of a dual containment fitting assembly 100 that may include a dual containment fitting 102 connected to a valve assembly 104.

FIG. 2 includes an illustration of the dual containment fitting 102 connected to a valve assembly 104. According to particular embodiments, and as shown in FIG. 2, the dual containment fitting 102 may include a primary tubing 110, a secondary tubing 120, and a dual containment body 130. The primary tubing 110 may include a flared end 112, a first portion 114 and a second portion 116. The secondary tubing 120 may include a flared end 122.

As also shown in FIG. 2, according to certain embodiments, the secondary tubing 120 may surround the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110. According to still other embodiments, the secondary tubing 120 may be concentric with the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110. According to yet other embodiments, the secondary tubing 120 may form a first leak containment space 140 between the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 and the secondary tubing 120.

As further shown in FIG. 2, the dual containment body 130 may include a flare fitting portion 132, a primary containment nut portion 134 and a bore therethrough.

According to certain embodiments, the flare fitting portion 132 may surround the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110. According to yet other embodiments, the flare fitting portion 132 may be concentric with the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110. According to yet other embodiment, the flare fitting portion 132 second leak containment space 142 between the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 and the flare fitting portion 132 of the dual containment body 130. According to still other embodiments, the flare fitting portion 132 of the dual containment body 130 may compressively engage with the flared end 112 of the secondary tubing 120 connecting the first leak containment space 140 with the second leak containment space 142.

According to yet other embodiments, the primary containment nut portion 134 may surround the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110. According to still other embodiments, the primary containment nut portion 134 may be concentric with the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110. According to still other embodiments, the primary containment nut portion 134 may form a third leak containment space 144 between the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 and the primary containment nut portion 134 of the dual containment body 130. According to yet other embodiments, the primary containment nut portion 134 may include at least one leak passage hole 135 connecting the third leak containment space 144 with the second leak containment space 142.

As further shown in FIG. 2, the deal containment fitting 102 may further include a secondary containment nut 150. According to certain embodiments, the secondary containment nut 150 may surround the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120.

According to yet other embodiments, the secondary containment nut 150 may be concentric with the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120. According to still other embodiments, the secondary containment nut 150 may threadably engage with the flare fitting portion 132 of the dual containment body 130. According to yet other embodiments, the secondary containment nut 150 may compressively engage the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 with the flare fitting portion 132 of the dual containment bodyl30.

FIG. 3 includes an illustration of an alternative view of the primary containment nut portion 134 of the dual containment body 130 of the dual containment fitting 102 illustrated in FIG. 2. FIG. 3 further illustrates the leak passage hoes 135 through the primary

containment nut portion 134.

FIG. 4 includes an illustration of an alternative view of the primary containment nut portion 134 of the dual containment body 130 of the dual containment fitting 102 illustrated in FIG. 2. FIG. 4 further illustrates the leak passage hoes 135 through the primary

containment nut portion 134.

FIG. 5 includes an illustration of an alternative view of the primary containment nut portion 134 of the dual containment body 130 of the dual containment fitting 102 illustrated in FIG. 2. FIG. 3 further illustrates the leak passage hoes 135 through the primary

containment nut portion 134.

FIG. 6 includes an illustration of dual containment body 130. As shown in FIG. 6, the dual containment body 130 may include a flare fitting portion 132, a primary containment nut portion 134 and a bore therethrough as illustrated in FIG. 2.

According to certain embodiments, the primary tubing 110 may include a particular material. According to still other embodiments, the primary tubing 110 may include a polymer material. According to yet other embodiments, the primary tubing 110 may consist essentially of a polymer material. According to other embodiments, the polymer material of the primary tubing 110 may include perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to yet other embodiments, the polymer material of the primary tubing 110 may consist essentially of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to still other embodiments, the primary tubing 110 may include perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to yet other embodiments, the primary tubing 110 may consist essentially of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

According to still other embodiments, the primary tubing 110 may include an outer wall. According to yet other embodiments, the outer wall of the primary tubing 110 may have a particular thickness. For example, the outer wall of the primary tubing 110 may have a thickness of at least about 1 mm, such as, at least about 1.05 mm or at least about 1.1 mm or at least about 1.15 mm or at least about 1.2 mm or at least about 1.25 mm or at least about 1.3 mm or at least about 1.35 mm or at least about 1.4 mm or at least about 1.45 mm or even at least about 1.5 mm. According to still other embodiments, the outer wall of the primary tubing 110 may have a thickness of not greater than about 2.0 mm, such as, not greater than about 1.95 mm or not greater than about 1.9 mm or not greater than about 1.85 mm or not greater than about 1.8 mm or not greater than about 1.75 mm or not greater than about 1.7 mm or not greater than about 1.65 mm or even not greater than about 1.6 mm. It will be appreciated that the thickness of the outer wall of the primary tubing 110 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the thickness of the outer wall of the primary tubing 110 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to yet other embodiments, the primary tubing 110 may have a particular average inner diameter. For example, the average inner diameter of the primary tubing 110 may be at least about 3.0 mm, such as, at least about 3.25 mm or at least about 3.5 mm or at least about 3.75 mm or at least about 4.0 mm or at least about 4.25 mm or at least about 4.50 mm or at least about 4.75 mm or at least about 5.0 mm or at least about 5.25 mm or at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 5.75 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.25 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 6.75 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.25 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 7.75 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.25 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 8.75 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.25 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 9.75 mm or even at least about 10.0 mm. According to yet other embodiments, the average inner diameter of the primary tubing 110 may be not greater than about 20 mm, such as, not greater than about 19.75 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.25 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.75 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.25 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.75 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.25 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.75 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.75 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.25 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.75 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.25 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm. It will be appreciated that the average inner diameter of the outer wall of the primary tubing 110 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the inner diameter of the outer wall of the primary tubing 110 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to still other embodiments, the primary tubing 110 may have a particular average outer diameter. For example, the average outer diameter of the primary tubing 110 may be at least about 5 mm, such as, at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 10.0 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or even at least about 12.5 mm. According to yet other embodiments, the average outer diameter of the primary tubing 110 may be not greater than about 20 mm, such as, not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm or not greater than about 13.5 mm or even not greater than about 13 mm. It will be appreciated that the average outer diameter of the outer wall of the primary tubing 110 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the outer diameter of the outer wall of the primary tubing 110 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to certain embodiments, the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may include a particular material. According to still other embodiments, the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may include a polymer material. According to yet other embodiments, the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may consist essentially of a polymer material. According to other embodiments, the polymer material of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may include perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to yet other embodiments, the polymer material of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may consist essentially of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to still other embodiments, the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may include perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to yet other embodiments, the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may consist essentially of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

According to still other embodiments, the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may include an outer wall. According to yet other embodiments, the outer wall of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may have a particular thickness. For example, the outer wall of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may have a thickness of at least about 1 mm, such as, at least about 1.05 mm or at least about 1.1 mm or at least about 1.15 mm or at least about 1.2 mm or at least about 1.25 mm or at least about 1.3 mm or at least about 1.35 mm or at least about 1.4 mm or at least about 1.45 mm or even at least about 1.5 mm.

According to still other embodiments, the outer wall of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may have a thickness of not greater than about 2.0 mm, such as, not greater than about 1.95 mm or not greater than about 1.9 mm or not greater than about 1.85 mm or not greater than about 1.8 mm or not greater than about 1.75 mm or not greater than about 1.7 mm or not greater than about 1.65 mm or even not greater than about 1.6 mm. It will be appreciated that the thickness of the outer wall of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the thickness of the outer wall of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to yet other embodiments, the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may have a particular maximum inner diameter. For example, the maximum inner diameter of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may be at least about 5.0 mm, such as, at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 10.0 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11.0 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or even at least about 12.5 mm. According to still other embodiments, the maximum inner diameter of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may be not greater than about 25.0 mm, such as, not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm or not greater than about 22.5 mm or not greater than about 22.0 mm or not greater than about 21.5 mm or not greater than about 21.0 mm or not greater than about 20.5 mm or not greater than about 20.0 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm or not greater than about 13.5 mm or not greater than about 13.0 mm. It will be appreciated that the maximum inner diameter of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the maximum inner diameter of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to yet other embodiments, the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may have a particular minimum inner diameter. For example, the minimum inner diameter of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may be at least about 5.0 mm, such as, at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 10.0 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11.0 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or even at least about 12.5 mm. According to still other embodiments, the minimum inner diameter of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may be not greater than about 25.0 mm, such as, not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm or not greater than about 22.5 mm or not greater than about 22.0 mm or not greater than about 21.5 mm or not greater than about 21.0 mm or not greater than about 20.5 mm or not greater than about 20.0 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm or not greater than about 13.5 mm or not greater than about 13.0 mm. It will be appreciated that the minimum inner diameter of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the minimum inner diameter of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to yet other embodiments, the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may have a particular maximum outer diameter. For example, the maximum outer diameter of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may be at least about 5.0 mm, such as, at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 10.0 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11.0 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or even at least about 12.5 mm. According to still other embodiments, the maximum outer diameter of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may be not greater than about 25.0 mm, such as, not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm or not greater than about 22.5 mm or not greater than about 22.0 mm or not greater than about 21.5 mm or not greater than about 21.0 mm or not greater than about 20.5 mm or not greater than about 20.0 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm or not greater than about 13.5 mm or not greater than about 13.0 mm. It will be appreciated that the maximum outer diameter of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the maximum outer diameter of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to yet other embodiments, the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may have a particular minimum outer diameter. For example, the minimum outer diameter of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may be at least about 5.0 mm, such as, at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 10.0 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11.0 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or even at least about 12.5 mm. According to still other embodiments, the minimum outer diameter of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may be not greater than about 25.0 mm, such as, not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm or not greater than about 22.5 mm or not greater than about 22.0 mm or not greater than about 21.5 mm or not greater than about 21.0 mm or not greater than about 20.5 mm or not greater than about 20.0 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm or not greater than about 13.5 mm or not greater than about 13.0 mm. It will be appreciated that the minimum outer diameter of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the minimum outer diameter of the flared end 112 of the primary tubing 110 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to certain embodiments, the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may include a particular material. According to still other embodiments, the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may include a polymer material. According to yet other embodiments, the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may consist essentially of a polymer material. According to other embodiments, the polymer material of the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may include perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to yet other embodiments, the polymer material of the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may consist essentially of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to still other embodiments, the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may include perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to yet other embodiments, the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may consist essentially of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

According to still other embodiments, the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may include an outer wall. According to yet other embodiments, the outer wall of the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may have a particular thickness. For example, the outer wall of the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may have a thickness of at least about 1 mm, such as, at least about 1.05 mm or at least about 1.1 mm or at least about 1.15 mm or at least about 1.2 mm or at least about 1.25 mm or at least about 1.3 mm or at least about 1.35 mm or at least about 1.4 mm or at least about 1.45 mm or even at least about 1.5 mm. According to still other embodiments, the outer wall of the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may have a thickness of not greater than about 2.0 mm, such as, not greater than about 1.95 mm or not greater than about 1.9 mm or not greater than about 1.85 mm or not greater than about 1.8 mm or not greater than about 1.75 mm or not greater than about 1.7 mm or not greater than about 1.65 mm or even not greater than about 1.6 mm. It will be appreciated that the thickness of the outer wall of the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the thickness of the outer wall of the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to yet other embodiments, the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may have a particular maximum inner diameter. For example, the maximum inner diameter of the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may be at least about 3.0 mm, such as, at least about 3.5 mm or at least about 4.0 mm or at least about 4.5 mm or at least about 5.0 mm or at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 10.0 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11.0 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or even at least about 12.5 mm. According to still other embodiments, the maximum inner diameter of the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may be not greater than about 25.0 mm, such as, not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about

23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm or not greater than about 22.5 mm or not greater than about 22.0 mm or not greater than about 21.5 mm or not greater than about 21.0 mm or not greater than about 20.5 mm or not greater than about 20.0 mm or not greater than about

19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about

15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm or not greater than about 13.5 mm or not greater than about 13.0 mm. It will be appreciated that the maximum inner diameter of the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the maximum inner diameter of the first portion 114 of the primary tubing

110 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to yet other embodiments, the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may have a particular minimum inner diameter. For example, the minimum inner diameter of the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may be at least about 5.0 mm, such as, at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 10.0 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11.0 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or even at least about 12.5 mm. According to still other embodiments, the minimum inner diameter of the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may be not greater than about 25.0 mm, such as, not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm or not greater than about 22.5 mm or not greater than about 22.0 mm or not greater than about 21.5 mm or not greater than about 21.0 mm or not greater than about 20.5 mm or not greater than about 20.0 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm or not greater than about 13.5 mm or not greater than about 13.0 mm. It will be appreciated that the minimum inner diameter of the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the minimum inner diameter of the first portion 114 of the primary tubing 110 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to certain embodiments, the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may include a particular material. According to still other embodiments, the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may include a polymer material. According to yet other embodiments, the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may consist essentially of a polymer material. According to other embodiments, the polymer material of the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may include perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to yet other embodiments, the polymer material of the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may consist essentially of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to still other embodiments, the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may include perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

According to yet other embodiments, the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may consist essentially of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

According to still other embodiments, the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may include an outer wall. According to yet other embodiments, the outer wall of the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may have a particular thickness. For example, the outer wall of the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may have a thickness of at least about 1 mm, such as, at least about 1.05 mm or at least about 1.1 mm or at least about 1.15 mm or at least about 1.2 mm or at least about 1.25 mm or at least about 1.3 mm or at least about 1.35 mm or at least about 1.4 mm or at least about 1.45 mm or even at least about 1.5 mm. According to still other embodiments, the outer wall of the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may have a thickness of not greater than about 2.0 mm, such as, not greater than about 1.95 mm or not greater than about 1.9 mm or not greater than about 1.85 mm or not greater than about 1.8 mm or not greater than about 1.75 mm or not greater than about 1.7 mm or not greater than about 1.65 mm or even not greater than about 1.6 mm. It will be appreciated that the thickness of the outer wall of the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the thickness of the outer wall of the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to yet other embodiments, the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may have a particular maximum inner diameter. For example, the maximum inner diameter of the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may be at least about 3.0 mm, such as, at least about 3.5 mm or at least about 4.0 mm or at least about 4.5 mm or at least about 5.0 mm or at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 10.0 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11.0 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or even at least about 12.5 mm. According to still other embodiments, the maximum inner diameter of the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may be not greater than about 25.0 mm, such as, not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm or not greater than about 22.5 mm or not greater than about 22.0 mm or not greater than about 21.5 mm or not greater than about 21.0 mm or not greater than about 20.5 mm or not greater than about 20.0 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm or not greater than about 13.5 mm or not greater than about 13.0 mm. It will be appreciated that the maximum inner diameter of the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the maximum inner diameter of the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to yet other embodiments, the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may have a particular minimum inner diameter. For example, the minimum inner diameter of the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may be at least about 5.0 mm, such as, at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 10.0 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11.0 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or even at least about 12.5 mm. According to still other embodiments, the minimum inner diameter of the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may be not greater than about 25.0 mm, such as, not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm or not greater than about 22.5 mm or not greater than about 22.0 mm or not greater than about 21.5 mm or not greater than about 21.0 mm or not greater than about 20.5 mm or not greater than about 20.0 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm or not greater than about 13.5 mm or not greater than about 13.0 mm. It will be appreciated that the minimum inner diameter of the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the minimum inner diameter of the second portion 116 of the primary tubing 110 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to certain embodiments, the secondary tubing 120 may include a particular material. According to still other embodiments, the secondary tubing 120 may include a polymer material. According to yet other embodiments, the secondary tubing 120 may consist essentially of a polymer material. According to other embodiments, the polymer material of the secondary tubing 120 may include perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to yet other embodiments, the polymer material of the secondary tubing 120 may consist essentially of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to still other embodiments, the secondary tubing 120 may include perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to yet other embodiments, the secondary tubing 120 may consist essentially of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

According to still other embodiments, the secondary tubing 120 may include an outer wall. According to yet other embodiments, the outer wall of the secondary tubing 120 may have a particular thickness. For example, the outer wall of the secondary tubing 120 may have a thickness of at least about 1 mm, such as, at least about 1.05 mm or at least about 1.1 mm or at least about 1.15 mm or at least about 1.2 mm or at least about 1.25 mm or at least about 1.3 mm or at least about 1.35 mm or at least about 1.4 mm or at least about 1.45 mm or even at least about 1.5 mm. According to still other embodiments, the outer wall of the secondary tubing 120 may have a thickness of not greater than about 2.0 mm, such as, not greater than about 1.95 mm or not greater than about 1.9 mm or not greater than about 1.85 mm or not greater than about 1.8 mm or not greater than about 1.75 mm or not greater than about 1.7 mm or not greater than about 1.65 mm or even not greater than about 1.6 mm. It will be appreciated that the thickness of the outer wall of the secondary tubing 120 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the thickness of the outer wall of the secondary tubing 120 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to yet other embodiments, the secondary tubing 120 may have a particular average inner diameter. For example, the average inner diameter of the secondary tubing 120 may be at least about 5.0 mm or at least about 5.25 mm or at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 5.75 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.25 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 6.75 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.25 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 7.75 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.25 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 8.75 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.25 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 9.75 mm or at least about 10.0 mm or at least about

10.5 mm or at least about 11.0 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or even at least about 12.5 mm. According to yet other embodiments, the average inner diameter of the secondary tubing 120 may be not greater than about 30 mm, such as, not greater than about 29.5 or not greater than about 29.0 mm or not greater than about 28.5 mm or not greater than about 28 mm or not greater than about 27.5 mm or not greater than about 27.0 mm or not greater than about 26.5 mm or not greater than about 26.0 mm or not greater than about 25.5 mm or not greater than about 25.0 mm or not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm or not greater than about 22.5 mm or not greater than about 22.0 mm or not greater than about 21.5 mm or not greater than about 21.0 mm or not greater than about 20.5 mm or not greater than about 20.0 mm or not greater than about 19.75 mm or not greater than about

19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.25 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.75 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.25 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.75 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.25 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.75 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.75 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.25 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.75 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.25 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm. It will be appreciated that the average inner diameter of the outer wall of the secondary tubing 120 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the inner diameter of the outer wall of the secondary tubing 120 may be any value between any of the values noted above. According to still other embodiments, the secondary tubing 120 may have a particular average outer diameter. For example, the average outer diameter of the secondary tubing 120 may be at least about 10 mm, such as, or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or at least about 12.5 mm or at least about 13.0 mm or at least about

13.5 mm or at least about 14.0 mm or at least about 14.5 mm or at least about 15.0 mm or at least about 15.5 mm or at least about 16.0 mm or at least about 16.5 mm or at least about 17.0 mm or at least about 17.5 mm or at least about 18.0 mm or at least about 18.5 mm or at least about 19.0 mm or at least about 19.5 mm or at least about 20 mm or at least about 20.5 mm or at least about 21.0 mm or at least about 21.5 mm or at least about 22.0 mm or even at least about 22.5 mm. According to yet other embodiments, the average outer diameter of the secondary tubing 120 may be not greater than about 35 mm, such as, not greater than about

34.5 mm or not greater than about 34.0 mm or not greater than about 33.5 mm or not greater than about 33.0 mm or not greater than about 32.5 mm or not greater than about 32.0 mm or not greater than about 31.5 mm or not greater than about 31.0 mm or not greater than about

30.5 mm or not greater than about 30.0 mm or not greater than about 29.5 mm or not greater than about 29.0 mm or not greater than about 28.5 mm or not greater than about 28.0 mm or not greater than about 27.5 mm or not greater than about 27.0 mm or not greater than about

26.5 mm or not greater than about 26.0 mm or not greater than about 25.5 mm or not greater than about 25.0 mm or not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or even not greater than about 23.0 mm. It will be appreciated that the average outer diameter of the outer wall of the secondary tubing 120 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the outer diameter of the outer wall of the secondary tubing 120 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to certain embodiments, the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may include a particular material. According to still other embodiments, the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may include a polymer material. According to yet other embodiments, the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may consist essentially of a polymer material. According to other embodiments, the polymer material of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may include perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to yet other embodiments, the polymer material of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may consist essentially of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to still other embodiments, the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may include perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to yet other embodiments, the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may consist essentially of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

According to still other embodiments, the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may include an outer wall. According to yet other embodiments, the outer wall of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may have a particular thickness. For example, the outer wall of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may have a thickness of at least about 1 mm, such as, at least about 1.05 mm or at least about 1.1 mm or at least about 1.15 mm or at least about 1.2 mm or at least about 1.25 mm or at least about 1.3 mm or at least about 1.35 mm or at least about 1.4 mm or at least about 1.45 mm or even at least about 1.5 mm.

According to still other embodiments, the outer wall of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may have a thickness of not greater than about 2.0 mm, such as, not greater than about 1.95 mm or not greater than about 1.9 mm or not greater than about 1.85 mm or not greater than about 1.8 mm or not greater than about 1.75 mm or not greater than about 1.7 mm or not greater than about 1.65 mm or even not greater than about 1.6 mm. It will be appreciated that the thickness of the outer wall of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the thickness of the outer wall of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to yet other embodiments, the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may have a particular maximum inner diameter. For example, the maximum inner diameter of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may be at least about 10 mm, such as, or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or at least about 12.5 mm or at least about 13.0 mm or at least about 13.5 mm or at least about 14.0 mm or at least about 14.5 mm or at least about 15.0 mm or at least about 15.5 mm or at least about 16.0 mm or at least about 16.5 mm or at least about 17.0 mm or at least about 17.5 mm or at least about 18.0 mm or at least about 18.5 mm or at least about 19.0 mm or at least about 19.5 mm or at least about 20 mm or at least about 20.5 mm or at least about 21.0 mm or at least about 21.5 mm or at least about 22.0 mm or even at least about 22.5 mm. According to still other embodiments, the maximum inner diameter of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may be not greater than about 40 mm, such as, not greater than about 39.5 mm or not greater than about 39.0 mm or not greater than about 38.5 mm or not greater than about 38.0 mm or not greater than about 37 mm or not greater than about 36.5 mm or not greater than about 36 mm or not greater than about 35.5 mm not greater than about 35 mm or not greater than about 34.5 mm or not greater than about 34.0 mm or not greater than about 33.5 mm or not greater than about 33.0 mm or not greater than about 32.5 mm or not greater than about 32.0 mm or not greater than about 31.5 mm or not greater than about 31.0 mm or not greater than about

30.5 mm or not greater than about 30.0 mm or not greater than about 29.5 mm or not greater than about 29.0 mm or not greater than about 28.5 mm or not greater than about 28.0 mm or not greater than about 27.5 mm or not greater than about 27.0 mm or not greater than about

26.5 mm or not greater than about 26.0 mm or not greater than about 25.5 mm or not greater than about 25.0 mm or not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm. It will be appreciated that the maximum inner diameter of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the maximum inner diameter of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to yet other embodiments, the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may have a particular minimum inner diameter. For example, the minimum inner diameter of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may be at least about 10 mm, such as, at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or at least about 12.5 mm or at least about 13.0 mm or at least about 13.5 mm or at least about 14.0 mm or at least about

14.5 mm or at least about 15.0 mm or at least about 15.5 mm or at least about 16.0 mm or at least about 16.5 mm or at least about 17.0 mm or at least about 17.5 mm or at least about 18.0 mm or at least about 18.5 mm or at least about 19.0 mm or at least about 19.5 mm or at least about 20 mm or at least about 20.5 mm or at least about 21.0 mm or at least about 21.5 mm or at least about 22.0 mm or even at least about 22.5 mm. According to still other embodiments, the minimum inner diameter of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may be not greater than about 40 mm, such as, not greater than about 39.5 mm or not greater than about 39.0 mm or not greater than about 38.5 mm or not greater than about 38.0 mm or not greater than about 37 mm or not greater than about 36.5 mm or not greater than about 36 mm or not greater than about 35.5 mm not greater than about 35 mm or not greater than about 34.5 mm or not greater than about 34.0 mm or not greater than about 33.5 mm or not greater than about 33.0 mm or not greater than about 32.5 mm or not greater than about 32.0 mm or not greater than about 31.5 mm or not greater than about 31.0 mm or not greater than about 30.5 mm or not greater than about 30.0 mm or not greater than about 29.5 mm or not greater than about 29.0 mm or not greater than about 28.5 mm or not greater than about 28.0 mm or not greater than about 27.5 mm or not greater than about 27.0 mm or not greater than about 26.5 mm or not greater than about 26.0 mm or not greater than about 25.5 mm or not greater than about 25.0 mm or not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or even not greater than about 23.0 mm. It will be appreciated that the minimum inner diameter of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the minimum inner diameter of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to yet other embodiments, the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may have a particular maximum outer diameter. For example, the maximum outer diameter of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may be at least about 15.0 mm, such as, at least about 15.5 mm or at least about 16.0 mm or at least about 16.5 mm or at least about 17.0 mm or at least about 17.5 mm or at least about 18.0 mm or at least about 18.5 mm or at least about 19.0 mm or at least about 19.5 mm or at least about 20 mm or at least about 20.5 mm or at least about 21.0 mm or at least about 21.5 mm or at least about 22.0 mm or even at least about 22.5 mm. According to still other embodiments, the maximum outer diameter of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may be not greater than about 40 mm, such as, not greater than about 39.5 mm or not greater than about 39.0 mm or not greater than about 38.5 mm or not greater than about 38.0 mm or not greater than about 37 mm or not greater than about 36.5 mm or not greater than about 36 mm or not greater than about 35.5 mm not greater than about 35 mm or not greater than about 34.5 mm or not greater than about 34.0 mm or not greater than about 33.5 mm or not greater than about 33.0 mm or not greater than about

32.5 mm or not greater than about 32.0 mm or not greater than about 31.5 mm or not greater than about 31.0 mm or not greater than about 30.5 mm or not greater than about 30.0 mm or not greater than about 29.5 mm or not greater than about 29.0 mm or not greater than about

28.5 mm or not greater than about 28.0 mm or not greater than about 27.5 mm or not greater than about 27.0 mm or not greater than about 26.5 mm or not greater than about 26.0 mm or not greater than about 25.5 mm or not greater than about 25.0 mm or not greater than about

24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or even not greater than about 23.0 mm. It will be appreciated that the maximum outer diameter of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the maximum outer diameter of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to yet other embodiments, the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may have a particular minimum outer diameter. For example, the minimum outer diameter of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may be at least about 5.0 mm, such as, at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 10.0 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11.0 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or even at least about 12.5 mm. According to still other embodiments, the minimum outer diameter of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may be not greater than about 25.0 mm, such as, not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm or not greater than about 22.5 mm or not greater than about 22.0 mm or not greater than about 21.5 mm or not greater than about 21.0 mm or not greater than about 20.5 mm or not greater than about 20.0 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm or not greater than about 13.5 mm or not greater than about 13.0 mm. It will be appreciated that the minimum outer diameter of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the minimum outer diameter of the flared end 122 of the secondary tubing 120 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to certain embodiments, the flared fitting portion 132 of the dual containment body 130 may include a particular material. According to still other

embodiments, the flared fitting portion 132 of the dual containment body 130 may include a polymer material. According to yet other embodiments, the flared fitting portion 132 of the dual containment body 130 may consist essentially of a polymer material. According to other embodiments, the polymer material of the flared fitting portion 132 of the dual containment body 130 may include perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to yet other embodiments, the polymer material of the flared fitting portion 132 of the dual containment body 130 may consist essentially of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to still other embodiments, the flared fitting portion 132 of the dual containment body 130 may include perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to yet other embodiments, the flared fitting portion 132 of the dual containment body 130 may consist essentially of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

According to yet other embodiments, the flared fitting portion 132 of the dual containment body 130 may have a particular average inner diameter. For example, the average inner diameter of the flared fitting portion 132 of the dual containment body 130 may be an average inner diameter of at least about 5.0 mm, such as, at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 10.0 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11.0 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or even at least about 12.5 mm. According to still other embodiments, the average inner diameter of the flared fitting portion 132 of the dual containment body 130 may be not greater than about 30.0 mm or not greater than about 29.5 or not greater than about 29.0 mm or not greater than about 28.5 mm or not greater than about 28 mm or not greater than about 27.5 mm or not greater than about 27.0 mm or not greater than about 26.5 mm or not greater than about 26.0 mm or not greater than about 25.5 mm or not greater than about 25.0 mm or not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm or not greater than about 22.5 mm or not greater than about 22.0 mm or not greater than about 21.5 mm or not greater than about 21.0 mm or not greater than about 20.5 mm or not greater than about 20.0 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm or not greater than about 13.5 mm or not greater than about 13.0 mm. It will be appreciated that the average inner diameter of the flared fitting portion 132 of the dual containment body 130 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the average inner diameter of the flared fitting portion 132 of the dual containment body 130 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to certain embodiments, the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may include a particular material. According to still other embodiments, the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may include a polymer material. According to yet other embodiments, the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may consist essentially of a polymer material. According to other embodiments, the polymer material of the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may include perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

According to yet other embodiments, the polymer material of the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may consist essentially of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to still other embodiments, the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may include perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to yet other embodiments, the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may consist essentially of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

According to still other embodiments, the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may include an outer wall. According to yet other embodiments, the outer wall of the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may have a particular thickness. For example, the outer wall of the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may have a thickness of at least about 1 mm, such as, at least about 1.05 mm or at least about 1.1 mm or at least about 1.15 mm or at least about 1.2 mm or at least about 1.25 mm or at least about 1.3 mm or at least about 1.35 mm or at least about 1.4 mm or at least about 1.45 mm or even at least about 1.5 mm. According to still other embodiments, the outer wall of the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may have a thickness of not greater than about 5.0 mm, such as, not greater than about 4.75 mm or not greater than about 4.5 mm or not greater than about 4.25 mm or not greater than about 4.0 mm or not greater than about 3.75 mm or not greater than about 3.5 mm or not greater than about 3.25 mm or not greater than about 3.0 mm or not greater than about 2.75 mm or not greater than about 2.5 mm or not greater than about 2.25 mm or even not greater than about 2.0 mm. It will be appreciated that the thickness of the outer wall of the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the thickness of the outer wall of the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to yet other embodiments, the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may have a particular average inner diameter. For example, the average inner diameter of the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may be an average inner diameter of at least about 1 mm, such as, at least about 1.05 mm or at least about 1.1 mm or at least about 1.15 mm or at least about 1.2 mm or at least about 1.25 mm or at least about 1.3 mm or at least about 1.35 mm or at least about 1.4 mm or at least about 1.45 mm or even at least about 1.5 mm. According to still other embodiments, the average inner diameter of the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may be not greater than about 20 mm, such as, not greater than about 19.75 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.25 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.75 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.25 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.75 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.25 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.75 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.75 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.25 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.75 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.25 mm or even not greater than about 14.0 mm. It will be appreciated that the average inner diameter of the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the average inner diameter of the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to still other embodiments, the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may have a particular average outer diameter. For example, the average outer diameter of the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may be at least about 15.0 mm, such as, at least about 15.5 mm or at least about 16.0 mm or at least about 16.5 mm or at least about 17.0 mm or at least about 17.5 mm or at least about 18.0 mm or at least about 18.5 mm or at least about 19.0 mm or at least about 19.5 mm or at least about 20 mm or at least about 20.5 mm or at least about 21.0 mm or at least about 21.5 mm or at least about 22.0 mm or even at least about 22.5 mm. According to yet other embodiments, the average outer diameter of the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may be not greater than about 40 mm, such as, not greater than about 39.5 mm or not greater than about 39.0 mm or not greater than about 38.5 mm or not greater than about 38.0 mm or not greater than about 37 mm or not greater than about 36.5 mm or not greater than about 36 mm or not greater than about 35.5 mm not greater than about 35 mm or not greater than about 34.5 mm or not greater than about 34.0 mm or not greater than about 33.5 mm or not greater than about 33.0 mm or not greater than about 32.5 mm or not greater than about 32.0 mm or not greater than about 31.5 mm or not greater than about 31.0 mm or not greater than about 30.5 mm or not greater than about 30.0 mm or not greater than about 29.5 mm or not greater than about 29.0 mm or not greater than about 28.5 mm or not greater than about 28.0 mm or not greater than about 27.5 mm or not greater than about 27.0 mm or not greater than about 26.5 mm or not greater than about 26.0 mm or not greater than about 25.5 mm or not greater than about 25.0 mm or not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or even not greater than about 23.0 mm. It will be appreciated that the average outer diameter of the outer wall of the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the outer diameter of the outer wall of the primary containment nut potion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to yet other embodiments, the outer wall of the primary containment nut portion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may include a particular number of leak passage holes 135. For example, the outer wall of the primary containment nut portion 134 of the dual containment body 130 may have at least one leak passage hole, such as, at least two leak passage holes or at least three leak passage holes or at least four leak passage holes or at least five leak passage holes or even at least six leak passage holes.

According to still other embodiments, each of the leak passage holes 135 may be equally spaced around the outer wall of the primary containment nut portion 134 of the dual containment body 130. According to still other embodiments, each of the leak passage holes 135 may pass through the outer wall of the primary containment nut portion 134 of the dual containment body 130.

According to yet other embodiments, each of the leak passage holes 135 may be configured for unidirectional fluid flow. According to still other embodiments, each of the leak passage holes 135 may be configured to allow flow from the third leak containment space 144 to the second leak containment space 142.

According to yet other embodiments, any of the leak passage holes 135 may have a particular inner diameter. For example, the inner diameter of the leak passage holes 135 may be at least about 0.5 mm, such as, at least about 0.6 mm or at least about 0.7 mm or at least about 0.8 mm or at least about 0.9 mm or at least about 1.0 mm or at least about 1.1 mm or even at least about 1.2 mm. According to yet other embodiments, the inner diameter of the leak passage holes 135 may be not greater than about 2.0 mm, such as, not greater than about 1.95 mm or not greater than about 1.9 mm or not greater than about 1.85 mm or not greater than about 1.8 mm or not greater than about 1.75 mm or not greater than about 1.7 mm or not greater than about 1.65 mm or not greater than about 1.6 mm. It will be appreciated that the inner diameter of any of the leak passage holes 135 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the inner diameter of any of the leak passage holes 135 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to certain embodiments, the secondary containment nut 150 may include a particular material. According to still other embodiments, the secondary containment nut 150 may include a polymer material. According to yet other embodiments, the secondary containment nut 150 may consist essentially of a polymer material. According to other embodiments, the polymer material of the secondary containment nut 150 may include perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to yet other embodiments, the polymer material of the secondary containment nut 150 may consist essentially of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to still other embodiments, the secondary containment nut 150 may include perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). According to yet other embodiments, the secondary containment nut 150 may consist essentially of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

According to still other embodiments, the secondary containment nut 150 may include an outer wall. According to yet other embodiments, the outer wall of the secondary containment nut 150 may have a particular thickness. For example, the outer wall of the secondary containment nut 150 may have a thickness of at least about 3.0 mm, such as, at least about 3.25 mm or at least about 3.5 mm or at least about 3.75 mm or at least about 4.0 mm or at least about 4.25 mm or at least about 4.50 mm or at least about 4.75 mm or at least about 5.0 mm or at least about 5.25 mm or at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 5.75 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.25 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 6.75 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.25 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 7.75 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.25 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 8.75 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.25 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 9.75 mm or even at least about 10.0 mm. According to still other embodiments, the outer wall of the secondary containment nut 150 may have a thickness of not greater than about 20 mm, such as, not greater than about 19.75 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.25 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.75 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.25 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.75 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.25 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.75 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.75 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.25 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.75 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.25 mm or even not greater than about 14.0 mm. It will be appreciated that the thickness of the outer wall of the secondary containment nut 150 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the thickness of the outer wall of the secondary containment nut 150 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to yet other embodiments, the secondary containment nut 150 may have a particular inner diameter. For example, the inner diameter of the secondary containment nut 150 may be at least about 20.0 mm, such as, at least about 21.0 mm or at least about 22.0 mm or at least about 23.0 mm or at least about 24.0 mm or at least about 25.0 mm or at least about 26.0 mm or at least about 27.0 mm or at least about 28.0 mm or at least about 29.0 mm or even at least about 30.0 mm. According to yet other embodiments, the inner diameter of the secondary containment nut 150 may be not greater than about 50 mm, such as, not greater than about 49 mm or not greater than about 48 mm or not greater than about 47 mm or not greater than about 46 mm or not greater than about 45 mm or not greater than about 44 mm or not greater than about 43 mm or not greater than about 42 mm or not greater than about 41 mm or even not greater than about 40 mm. It will be appreciated that the inner diameter of the secondary containment nut 150 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the inner diameter of the secondary containment nut 150 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

According to yet other embodiments, the secondary containment nut 150 may have a particular outer diameter. For example, the outer diameter of the secondary containment nut 150 may be at least about 20.0 mm, such as, at least about 21.0 mm or at least about 22.0 mm or at least about 23.0 mm or at least about 24.0 mm or at least about 25.0 mm or at least about 26.0 mm or at least about 27.0 mm or at least about 28.0 mm or at least about 29.0 mm or even at least about 30.0 mm. According to yet other embodiments, the outer diameter of the secondary containment nut 150 may be not greater than about 60 mm, such as, not greater than about 59 mm or not greater than about 58 mm or not greater than about 57 mm or not greater than about 56 mm or not greater than about 55 mm or not greater than about 54 mm or not greater than about 53 mm or not greater than about 52 mm or not greater than about 51 mm or not greater than about 50 mm or not greater than about 49 mm or not greater than about 48 mm or not greater than about 47 mm or not greater than about 46 mm or not greater than about 45 mm or not greater than about 44 mm or not greater than about 43 mm or not greater than about 42 mm or not greater than about 41 mm or even not greater than about 40 mm. It will be appreciated that the outer diameter of the secondary containment nut 150 may be within a range between any of the values noted above. It will be further appreciated that the outer diameter of the secondary containment nut 150 may be any value between any of the values noted above.

Many different aspects and embodiments are possible. Some of those aspects and embodiments are described herein. After reading this specification, skilled artisans will appreciate that those aspects and embodiments are only illustrative and do not limit the scope of the present invention. Embodiments may be in accordance with any one or more of the embodiments as listed below.

Embodiment 1. A dual containment fitting comprising: a primary tubing having a flared end; a secondary tubing having a flared end, wherein the secondary tubing surrounds and is concentric with a first portion of the primary tubing forming a first leak containment space between the primary tubing and the secondary tubing; a dual containment body comprising a flare fitting portion, a primary containment nut portion and a bore therethrough, wherein the flare fitting portion surrounds and is concentric with a second portion of the primary tubing forming a second leak containment space between the primary tubing and the flare fitting portion, wherein the flare fitting portion compressively engages with the flared end of the secondary tubing connecting the first leak containment space with the second leak containment space, wherein the primary containment nut portion surrounds and is concentric with the flared end of the primary tubing forming a third leak containment space between the primary tubing and the primary containment nut portion, and wherein the primary

containment nut portion comprises at least one leak passage hole connecting the third leak containment space with the second leak containment space.

Embodiment 2. A dual containment fitting assembly comprising: a primary tubing having a flared end; a secondary tubing having a flared end, wherein the secondary tubing surrounds and is concentric with a first portion of the primary tubing forming a first leak containment space between the primary tubing and the secondary tubing; a dual containment body comprising a flare fitting portion, a primary containment nut portion and a bore therethrough, wherein the flare fitting portion surrounds and is concentric with a second portion of the primary tubing forming a second leak containment space between the primary tubing and the flare fitting portion, wherein the flare fitting portion compressively engages with the flared end of the secondary tubing connecting the first leak containment space with the second leak containment space, wherein the primary containment nut portion surrounds and is concentric with the flared end of the primary tubing forming a third leak containment space between the primary tubing and the primary containment nut portion, and wherein the primary containment nut portion comprises at least one leak passage hole connecting the third leak containment space with the second leak containment space; and a valve assembly annular fitting body comprising a first end, a second end and a bore therethrough; wherein the first end of the annular fitting body is threadably engaged at the primary containment nut portion of the dual containment body so that the flared end of the primary tubing

compressively engages within the first end if the annular fitting body. Embodiment 3. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the primary tubing comprises a polymer material.

Embodiment 4. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 3, wherein the comprises perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

Embodiment 5. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the primary tubing comprises an outer wall having a thickness of at least about 1 mm or at least about 1.05 mm or at least about 1.1 mm or at least about 1.15 mm or at least about 1.2 mm or at least about 1.25 mm or at least about 1.3 mm or at least about 1.35 mm or at least about 1.4 mm or at least about 1.45 mm or at least about 1.5 mm.

Embodiment 6. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the primary tubing comprises an outer wall having a thickness of not greater than about 2.0 mm or not greater than about 1.95 mm or not greater than about 1.9 mm or not greater than about 1.85 mm or not greater than about 1.8 mm or not greater than about 1.75 mm or not greater than about 1.7 mm or not greater than about 1.65 mm or not greater than about 1.6 mm.

Embodiment 7. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the primary tubing comprises an average inner diameter of at least about 3.0 mm or at least about 3.25 mm or at least about 3.5 mm or at least about 3.75 mm or at least about 4.0 mm or at least about 4.25 mm or at least about 4.50 mm or at least about 4.75 mm or at least about 5.0 mm or at least about 5.25 mm or at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 5.75 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.25 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 6.75 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.25 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 7.75 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.25 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 8.75 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.25 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 9.75 mm or at least about 10.0 mm.

Embodiment 8. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the primary tubing comprises an average inner diameter of not greater than about 20 mm or not greater than about 19.75 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.25 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.75 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.25 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.75 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.25 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.75 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.75 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.25 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.75 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.25 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm.

Embodiment 9. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the primary tubing comprises an average outer diameter of at least about 5 mm or at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 10.0 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or at least about 12.5 mm.

Embodiment 10. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the primary tubing comprises an average outer diameter of not greater than about 20 mm not greater than about 19.5 mm not greater than about 19.0 mm not greater than about 18 mm not greater than about 18.5 mm not greater than about 18 mm not greater than about 17.5 mm not greater than about 17.0 mm not greater than about 16.5 mm not greater than about 16.0 mm not greater than about 15.5 mm not greater than about 15.0 mm not greater than about 14.5 mm not greater than about 14.0 mm not greater than about 13.5 mm not greater than about 13 mm.

Embodiment 11. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the flared end of the primary tubing comprises a polymer material.

Embodiment 12. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 11, wherein the polymer material comprises perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

Embodiment 13. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the flared end of the primary tubing comprises an outer wall having a thickness of at least about 1 mm or at least about 1.05 mm or at least about 1.1 mm or at least about 1.15 mm or at least about 1.2 mm or at least about 1.25 mm or at least about 1.3 mm or at least about 1.35 mm or at least about 1.4 mm or at least about 1.45 mm or at least about 1.5 mm.

Embodiment 14. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the flared end of the primary tubing comprises an outer wall having a thickness of not greater than about 2.0 mm or not greater than about 1.95 mm or not greater than about 1.9 mm or not greater than about 1.85 mm or not greater than about 1.8 mm or not greater than about 1.75 mm or not greater than about 1.7 mm or not greater than about 1.65 mm or not greater than about 1.6 mm.

Embodiment 15. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the flared end of the primary tubing comprises a maximum inner diameter of at least about 5.0 mm or at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 10.0 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11.0 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or at least about 12.5 mm.

Embodiment 16. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the flared end of the primary tubing comprises a maximum inner diameter of not greater than about 25.0 mm or not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm or not greater than about 22.5 mm or not greater than about 22.0 mm or not greater than about 21.5 mm or not greater than about 21.0 mm or not greater than about 20.5 mm or not greater than about 20.0 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm or not greater than about 13.5 mm or not greater than about 13.0 mm.

Embodiment 17. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the flared end of the primary tubing comprises a minimum inner diameter of at least about 5.0 mm or at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 10.0 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11.0 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or at least about 12.5 mm.

Embodiment 18. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the flared end of the primary tubing comprises a minimum inner diameter of not greater than about 25.0 mm or not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm or not greater than about 22.5 mm or not greater than about 22.0 mm or not greater than about 21.5 mm or not greater than about 21.0 mm or not greater than about 20.5 mm or not greater than about 20.0 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm or not greater than about 13.5 mm or not greater than about 13.0 mm.

Embodiment 19. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the flared end of the primary tubing comprises a maximum outer diameter of at least about 5.0 mm or at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 10.0 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11.0 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or at least about 12.5 mm.

Embodiment 20. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the flared end of the primary tubing comprises a maximum outer diameter of not greater than about 25.0 mm or not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm or not greater than about 22.5 mm or not greater than about 22.0 mm or not greater than about 21.5 mm or not greater than about 21.0 mm or not greater than about 20.5 mm or not greater than about 20.0 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm or not greater than about 13.5 mm or not greater than about 13.0 mm.

Embodiment 21. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the first portion of the primary tubing comprises a polymer material.

Embodiment 22. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 21, wherein the polymer material comprises perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

Embodiment 23. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the first portion of the primary tubing comprises an outer wall having a thickness of at least about 1 mm or at least about 1.05 mm or at least about 1.1 mm or at least about 1.15 mm or at least about 1.2 mm or at least about 1.25 mm or at least about 1.3 mm or at least about 1.35 mm or at least about 1.4 mm or at least about 1.45 mm or at least about 1.5 mm.

Embodiment 24. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the first portion of the primary tubing comprises an outer wall having a thickness of not greater than about 2.0 mm or not greater than about 1.95 mm or not greater than about 1.9 mm or not greater than about 1.85 mm or not greater than about 1.8 mm or not greater than about 1.75 mm or not greater than about 1.7 mm or not greater than about 1.65 mm or not greater than about 1.6 mm.

Embodiment 25. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the first portion of primary tubing comprises an inner diameter of at least about 3.0 mm or at least about 3.25 mm or at least about 3.5 mm or at least about 3.75 mm or at least about 4.0 mm or at least about 4.25 mm or at least about 4.50 mm or at least about 4.75 mm or at least about 5.0 mm or at least about 5.25 mm or at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 5.75 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.25 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 6.75 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.25 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 7.75 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.25 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 8.75 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.25 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 9.75 mm or at least about 10.0 mm.

Embodiment 26. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the first portion of the primary tubing comprises an inner diameter of not greater than about 20 mm or not greater than about 19.75 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.25 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.75 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.25 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.75 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.25 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.75 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.75 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.25 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.75 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.25 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm.

Embodiment 27. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the first portion of the primary tubing comprises an outer diameter of at least about 5 mm or at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 10.0 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or at least about 12.5 mm.

Embodiment 28. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the first portion of the primary tubing comprises an outer diameter of not greater than about 20 mm not greater than about 19.5 mm not greater than about 19.0 mm not greater than about 18 mm not greater than about 18.5 mm not greater than about 18 mm not greater than about 17.5 mm not greater than about 17.0 mm not greater than about 16.5 mm not greater than about 16.0 mm not greater than about 15.5 mm not greater than about 15.0 mm not greater than about 14.5 mm not greater than about 14.0 mm not greater than about 13.5 mm not greater than about 13 mm.

Embodiment 29. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the second portion of the primary tubing comprises a polymer material.

Embodiment 30. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 29, wherein the polymer material comprises perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

Embodiment 31. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the second portion of the primary tubing comprises an outer wall having a thickness of at least about 1 mm or at least about 1.05 mm or at least about 1.1 mm or at least about 1.15 mm or at least about 1.2 mm or at least about 1.25 mm or at least about 1.3 mm or at least about 1.35 mm or at least about 1.4 mm or at least about 1.45 mm or at least about 1.5 mm.

Embodiment 32. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the second portion of the primary tubing comprises an outer wall having a thickness of not greater than about 2.0 mm or not greater than about 1.95 mm or not greater than about 1.9 mm or not greater than about 1.85 mm or not greater than about 1.8 mm or not greater than about 1.75 mm or not greater than about 1.7 mm or not greater than about 1.65 mm or not greater than about 1.6 mm.

Embodiment 33. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the second portion of primary tubing comprises an inner diameter of at least about 3.0 mm or at least about 3.25 mm or at least about 3.5 mm or at least about 3.75 mm or at least about 4.0 mm or at least about 4.25 mm or at least about 4.50 mm or at least about 4.75 mm or at least about 5.0 mm or at least about 5.25 mm or at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 5.75 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.25 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 6.75 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.25 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 7.75 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.25 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 8.75 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.25 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 9.75 mm or at least about 10.0 mm.

Embodiment 34. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the second portion of the primary tubing comprises an inner diameter of not greater than about 20 mm or not greater than about 19.75 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.25 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.75 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.25 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.75 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.25 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.75 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.75 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.25 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.75 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.25 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm.

Embodiment 35. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the second portion of the primary tubing comprises an outer diameter of at least about 5 mm or at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 10.0 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or at least about 12.5 mm.

Embodiment 36. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the second portion of the primary tubing comprises an outer diameter of not greater than about 20 mm not greater than about 19.5 mm not greater than about 19.0 mm not greater than about 18 mm not greater than about 18.5 mm not greater than about 18 mm not greater than about 17.5 mm not greater than about 17.0 mm not greater than about 16.5 mm not greater than about 16.0 mm not greater than about 15.5 mm not greater than about 15.0 mm not greater than about 14.5 mm not greater than about 14.0 mm not greater than about 13.5 mm not greater than about 13 mm. Embodiment 37. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the secondary tubing comprises a polymer material.

Embodiment 38. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 37, wherein the polymer material comprises perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

Embodiment 39. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the secondary tubing comprises an outer wall having a thickness of at least about 1 mm or at least about 1.05 mm or at least about 1.1 mm or at least about 1.15 mm or at least about 1.2 mm or at least about 1.25 mm or at least about 1.3 mm or at least about 1.35 mm or at least about 1.4 mm or at least about 1.45 mm or at least about 1.5 mm.

Embodiment 40. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the primary tubing comprises an outer wall having a thickness of not greater than about 2.0 mm or not greater than about 1.95 mm or not greater than about 1.9 mm or not greater than about 1.85 mm or not greater than about 1.8 mm or not greater than about 1.75 mm or not greater than about 1.7 mm or not greater than about 1.65 mm or not greater than about 1.6 mm.

Embodiment 41. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the secondary tubing comprises an average inner diameter of at least about 5.0 mm or at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 10.0 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11.0 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or at least about 12.5 mm.

Embodiment 42. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the secondary tubing comprises an average inner diameter of not greater than about 30.0 mm or not greater than about 29.5 or not greater than about 29.0 mm or not greater than about 28.5 mm or not greater than about 28 mm or not greater than about 27.5 mm or not greater than about 27.0 mm or not greater than about 26.5 mm or not greater than about 26.0 mm or not greater than about 25.5 mm or not greater than about 25.0 mm or not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm or not greater than about 22.5 mm or not greater than about 22.0 mm or not greater than about 21.5 mm or not greater than about 21.0 mm or not greater than about 20.5 mm or not greater than about 20.0 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm or not greater than about 13.5 mm or not greater than about 13.0 mm.

Embodiment 43. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the secondary tubing comprises an average outer diameter of at least about 10 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or at least about 12.5 mm or at least about 13.0 mm or at least about 13.5 mm or at least about 14.0 mm or at least about 14.5 mm or at least about 15.0 mm or at least about 15.5 mm or at least about 16.0 mm or at least about 16.5 mm or at least about 17.0 mm or at least about 17.5 mm or at least about 18.0 mm or at least about 18.5 mm or at least about 19.0 mm or at least about 19.5 mm or at least about 20 mm or at least about 20.5 mm or at least about 21.0 mm or at least about 21.5 mm or at least about 22.0 mm or at least about 22.5 mm.

Embodiment 44. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the secondary tubing comprises an average outer diameter of not greater than about 35 mm or not greater than about 34.5 mm or not greater than about 34.0 mm or not greater than about 33.5 mm or not greater than about 33.0 mm or not greater than about 32.5 mm or not greater than about 32.0 mm or not greater than about

31.5 mm or not greater than about 31.0 mm or not greater than about 30.5 mm or not greater than about 30.0 mm or not greater than about 29.5 mm or not greater than about 29.0 mm or not greater than about 28.5 mm or not greater than about 28.0 mm or not greater than about

27.5 mm or not greater than about 27.0 mm or not greater than about 26.5 mm or not greater than about 26.0 mm or not greater than about 25.5 mm or not greater than about 25.0 mm or not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about

23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm.

Embodiment 45. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the flared end of the secondary tubing comprises a polymer material.

Embodiment 46. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 45, wherein the polymer material comprises perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). Embodiment 47. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the flared end of the secondary tubing comprises an outer wall having a thickness of at least about 1 mm or at least about 1.05 mm or at least about 1.1 mm or at least about 1.15 mm or at least about 1.2 mm or at least about 1.25 mm or at least about 1.3 mm or at least about 1.35 mm or at least about 1.4 mm or at least about 1.45 mm or at least about 1.5 mm.

Embodiment 48. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the flared end of the secondary tubing comprises an outer wall having a thickness of not greater than about 2.0 mm or not greater than about

I.95 mm or not greater than about 1.9 mm or not greater than about 1.85 mm or not greater than about 1.8 mm or not greater than about 1.75 mm or not greater than about 1.7 mm or not greater than about 1.65 mm or not greater than about 1.6 mm.

Embodiment 49. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the flared end of the secondary tubing comprises a maximum inner diameter of at least about 10 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about

I I.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or at least about 12.5 mm or at least about 13.0 mm or at least about 13.5 mm or at least about 14.0 mm or at least about 14.5 mm or at least about 15.0 mm or at least about 15.5 mm or at least about 16.0 mm or at least about 16.5 mm or at least about 17.0 mm or at least about 17.5 mm or at least about 18.0 mm or at least about 18.5 mm or at least about 19.0 mm or at least about 19.5 mm or at least about 20 mm or at least about 20.5 mm or at least about 21.0 mm or at least about 21.5 mm or at least about 22.0 mm or at least about 22.5 mm.

Embodiment 50. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the flared end of the secondary tubing comprises a maximum inner diameter of not greater than about 40 mm or not greater than about 39.5 mm or not greater than about 39.0 mm or not greater than about 38.5 mm or not greater than about 38.0 mm or not greater than about 37 mm or not greater than about 36.5 mm or not greater than about 36 mm or not greater than about 35.5 mm not greater than about 35 mm or not greater than about 34.5 mm or not greater than about 34.0 mm or not greater than about 33.5 mm or not greater than about 33.0 mm or not greater than about 32.5 mm or not greater than about 32.0 mm or not greater than about 31.5 mm or not greater than about 31.0 mm or not greater than about 30.5 mm or not greater than about 30.0 mm or not greater than about 29.5 mm or not greater than about 29.0 mm or not greater than about 28.5 mm or not greater than about 28.0 mm or not greater than about 27.5 mm or not greater than about 27.0 mm or not greater than about 26.5 mm or not greater than about 26.0 mm or not greater than about 25.5 mm or not greater than about 25.0 mm or not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm.

Embodiment 51. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the flared end of the secondary tubing comprises a minimum inner diameter of at least about 10 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about

11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or at least about 12.5 mm or at least about 13.0 mm or at least about 13.5 mm or at least about 14.0 mm or at least about 14.5 mm or at least about 15.0 mm or at least about 15.5 mm or at least about 16.0 mm or at least about 16.5 mm or at least about 17.0 mm or at least about 17.5 mm or at least about 18.0 mm or at least about 18.5 mm or at least about 19.0 mm or at least about 19.5 mm or at least about 20 mm or at least about

20.5 mm or at least about 21.0 mm or at least about 21.5 mm or at least about 22.0 mm or at least about 22.5 mm.

Embodiment 52. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the flared end of the secondary tubing comprises a minimum inner diameter of not greater than about 40 mm or not greater than about 39.5 mm or not greater than about 39.0 mm or not greater than about 38.5 mm or not greater than about 38.0 mm or not greater than about 37 mm or not greater than about 36.5 mm or not greater than about 36 mm or not greater than about 35.5 mm not greater than about 35 mm or not greater than about 34.5 mm or not greater than about 34.0 mm or not greater than about 33.5 mm or not greater than about 33.0 mm or not greater than about 32.5 mm or not greater than about 32.0 mm or not greater than about 31.5 mm or not greater than about 31.0 mm or not greater than about 30.5 mm or not greater than about 30.0 mm or not greater than about 29.5 mm or not greater than about 29.0 mm or not greater than about 28.5 mm or not greater than about 28.0 mm or not greater than about 27.5 mm or not greater than about 27.0 mm or not greater than about 26.5 mm or not greater than about 26.0 mm or not greater than about 25.5 mm or not greater than about 25.0 mm or not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm.

Embodiment 53. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the flared end of the secondary tubing comprises a maximum outer diameter of at least about 15.0 mm or at least about 15.5 mm or at least about 16.0 mm or at least about 16.5 mm or at least about 17.0 mm or at least about 17.5 mm or at least about 18.0 mm or at least about 18.5 mm or at least about 19.0 mm or at least about 19.5 mm or at least about 20 mm or at least about 20.5 mm or at least about 21.0 mm or at least about 21.5 mm or at least about 22.0 mm or at least about 22.5 mm.

Embodiment 54. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the flared end of the secondary tubing comprises a maximum outer diameter of not greater than about 40 mm or not greater than about 39.5 mm or not greater than about 39.0 mm or not greater than about 38.5 mm or not greater than about 38.0 mm or not greater than about 37 mm or not greater than about 36.5 mm or not greater than about 36 mm or not greater than about 35.5 mm not greater than about 35 mm or not greater than about 34.5 mm or not greater than about 34.0 mm or not greater than about 33.5 mm or not greater than about 33.0 mm or not greater than about 32.5 mm or not greater than about 32.0 mm or not greater than about 31.5 mm or not greater than about 31.0 mm or not greater than about 30.5 mm or not greater than about 30.0 mm or not greater than about 29.5 mm or not greater than about 29.0 mm or not greater than about 28.5 mm or not greater than about 28.0 mm or not greater than about 27.5 mm or not greater than about 27.0 mm or not greater than about 26.5 mm or not greater than about 26.0 mm or not greater than about 25.5 mm or not greater than about 25.0 mm or not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm.

Embodiment 55. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein flared fitting portion of the dual containment body comprises a polymer material.

Embodiment 56. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 55, wherein the polymer material comprises perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

Embodiment 57. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the flared fitting portion of the dual containment body comprises an average inner diameter of at least about 5.0 mm or at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 10.0 mm or at least about 10.5 mm or at least about 11.0 mm or at least about 11.5 mm or at least about 12.0 mm or at least about 12.5 mm.

Embodiment 58. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the flared fitting portion of the dual containment body comprises an average inner diameter of not greater than about 30.0 mm or not greater than about 29.5 or not greater than about 29.0 mm or not greater than about 28.5 mm or not greater than about 28 mm or not greater than about 27.5 mm or not greater than about 27.0 mm or not greater than about 26.5 mm or not greater than about 26.0 mm or not greater than about 25.5 mm or not greater than about 25.0 mm or not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm or not greater than about 22.5 mm or not greater than about 22.0 mm or not greater than about 21.5 mm or not greater than about 21.0 mm or not greater than about 20.5 mm or not greater than about 20.0 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm or not greater than about 13.5 mm or not greater than about 13.0 mm.

Embodiment 59. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the primary containment nut portion comprises a polymer material.

Embodiment 60. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 59, wherein the polymer material comprises perfluoroalkoxy (PFA).

Embodiment 61. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the primary containment nut portion comprises an outer wall having a thickness of at least about 1 mm or at least about 1.05 mm or at least about 1.1 mm or at least about 1.15 mm or at least about 1.2 mm or at least about 1.25 mm or at least about 1.3 mm or at least about 1.35 mm or at least about 1.4 mm or at least about 1.45 mm or at least about 1.5 mm.

Embodiment 62. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the primary containment nut portion comprises an outer wall having a thickness of not greater than about 5.0 mm or not greater than about 4.75 mm or not greater than about 4.5 mm or not greater than about 4.25 mm or not greater than about 4.0 mm or not greater than about 3.75 mm or not greater than about 3.5 mm or not greater than about 3.25 mm or not greater than about 3.0 mm or not greater than about 2.75 mm or not greater than about 2.5 mm or not greater than about 2.25 mm or not greater than about 2.0 mm.

Embodiment 63. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the primary containment nut portion comprises an average inner diameter of at least about 1 mm or at least about 1.05 mm or at least about 1.1 mm or at least about 1.15 mm or at least about 1.2 mm or at least about 1.25 mm or at least about 1.3 mm or at least about 1.35 mm or at least about 1.4 mm or at least about 1.45 mm or at least about 1.5 mm.

Embodiment 64. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the primary containment nut portion comprises an average inner diameter of not greater than about 20 mm or not greater than about 19.75 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.25 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.75 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.25 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.75 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.25 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.75 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.75 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.25 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.75 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.25 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm.

Embodiment 65. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the primary containment nut portion comprises an average outer diameter of at least about 15.0 mm or at least about 15.5 mm or at least about 16.0 mm or at least about 16.5 mm or at least about 17.0 mm or at least about 17.5 mm or at least about 18.0 mm or at least about 18.5 mm or at least about 19.0 mm or at least about 19.5 mm or at least about 20 mm or at least about 20.5 mm or at least about 21.0 mm or at least about 21.5 mm or at least about 22.0 mm or at least about 22.5 mm.

Embodiment 66. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the primary containment nut portion comprises an average outer diameter of not greater than about 40 mm or not greater than about 39.5 mm or not greater than about 39.0 mm or not greater than about 38.5 mm or not greater than about 38.0 mm or not greater than about 37 mm or not greater than about 36.5 mm or not greater than about 36 mm or not greater than about 35.5 mm not greater than about 35 mm or not greater than about 34.5 mm or not greater than about 34.0 mm or not greater than about 33.5 mm or not greater than about 33.0 mm or not greater than about 32.5 mm or not greater than about 32.0 mm or not greater than about 31.5 mm or not greater than about 31.0 mm or not greater than about 30.5 mm or not greater than about 30.0 mm or not greater than about 29.5 mm or not greater than about 29.0 mm or not greater than about 28.5 mm or not greater than about 28.0 mm or not greater than about 27.5 mm or not greater than about 27.0 mm or not greater than about 26.5 mm or not greater than about 26.0 mm or not greater than about 25.5 mm or not greater than about 25.0 mm or not greater than about 24.5 mm or not greater than about 24.0 mm or not greater than about 23.5 mm or not greater than about 23.0 mm.

Embodiment 67. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the primary containment nut portion comprises an outer wall and wherein the at least one leak passage hole is disposed in the outer wall of the primary containment nut portion.

Embodiment 68. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 67, wherein the primary containment nut portion comprises at least two leak passage holes disposed in the outer wall of the primary containment nut, at least three leak passage holes, at least four leak passage holes, at least five leak passage holes, at least six leak passage holes.

Embodiment 69. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 68, wherein each of the leak passage holes are equally spaced around the outer wall of the primary containment nut portion.

Embodiment 70. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 68, wherein each of the leak passage holes are configured for unidirectional fluid flow.

Embodiment 71. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 70, wherein each of the leak passage holes are configured to allow flow from the third leak containment space to the second leak containment space.

Embodiment 72. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the primary containment nut portion comprises an outer wall and wherein the at least one leak passage hole passed through the outer wall of the primary containment nut portion.

Embodiment 73. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1, 2, 67, and 72, wherein the at least one leak passage hole comprises an inner diameter of at least about 0.5 mm or at least about 0.6 mm or at least about 0.7 mm or at least about 0.8 mm or at least about 0.9 mm or at least about 1.0 mm or at least about 1.1 mm or at least about 1.2 mm.

Embodiment 74. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1, 2, 67, and 72, wherein the at least one leak passage hole comprises an inner diameter of not greater than about 2.0 mm or not greater than about 1.95 mm or not greater than about 1.9 mm or not greater than about 1.85 mm or not greater than about 1.8 mm or not greater than about 1.75 mm or not greater than about 1.7 mm or not greater than about 1.65 mm or not greater than about 1.6 mm.

Embodiment 75. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of any one of embodiments 1 and 2, wherein the dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly further comprises a secondary containment nut.

Embodiment 76. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 75, wherein the secondary containment nut surrounds and is concentric with the flared end of the secondary tubing.

Embodiment 77. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 76, wherein the secondary containment nut threadably engages with the flare fitting portion of the dual containment body.

Embodiment 78. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 76, wherein the secondary containment nut is configured to compressively engage the flared end of the secondary tubing with the flare fitting portion of the dual containment body.

Embodiment 79. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 76, wherein the secondary containment nut comprises a polymer material.

Embodiment 80. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 79, wherein the polymer material comprises perfluoroalkoxy (PFA), ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF).

Embodiment 81. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 76, wherein secondary containment nut comprises an outer wall having a thickness of at least about 3.0 mm or at least about 3.25 mm or at least about 3.5 mm or at least about 3.75 mm or at least about 4.0 mm or at least about 4.25 mm or at least about 4.50 mm or at least about 4.75 mm or at least about 5.0 mm or at least about 5.25 mm or at least about 5.5 mm or at least about 5.75 mm or at least about 6.0 mm or at least about 6.25 mm or at least about 6.5 mm or at least about 6.75 mm or at least about 7.0 mm or at least about 7.25 mm or at least about 7.5 mm or at least about 7.75 mm or at least about 8.0 mm or at least about 8.25 mm or at least about 8.5 mm or at least about 8.75 mm or at least about 9.0 mm or at least about 9.25 mm or at least about 9.5 mm or at least about 9.75 mm or at least about 10.0 mm.

Embodiment 82. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 76, wherein the secondary containment nut comprises an outer wall having a thickness of not greater than about 20 mm or not greater than about 19.75 mm or not greater than about 19.5 mm or not greater than about 19.25 mm or not greater than about 19.0 mm or not greater than about 18.75 mm or not greater than about 18.5 mm or not greater than about 18.25 mm or not greater than about 18.0 mm or not greater than about 17.75 mm or not greater than about 17.5 mm or not greater than about 17.25 mm or not greater than about 17.0 mm or not greater than about 16.75 mm or not greater than about 16.5 mm or not greater than about 16.0 mm or not greater than about 15.75 mm or not greater than about 15.5 mm or not greater than about 15.25 mm or not greater than about 15.0 mm or not greater than about 14.75 mm or not greater than about 14.5 mm or not greater than about 14.25 mm or not greater than about 14.0 mm.

Embodiment 83. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 76, wherein the secondary containment nut comprises an average inner diameter of at least about 20.0 mm or at least about 21.0 mm or at least about 22.0 mm or at least about 23.0 mm or at least about 24.0 mm or at least about 25.0 mm or at least about 26.0 mm or at least about 27.0 mm or at least about 28.0 mm or at least about 29.0 mm or at least about 30.0 mm.

Embodiment 84. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 76, wherein the secondary containment nut portion comprises an average inner diameter of not greater than about 50 mm or not greater than about 49 mm or not greater than about 48 mm or not greater than about 47 mm or not greater than about 46 mm or not greater than about 45 mm or not greater than about 44 mm or not greater than about 43 mm or not greater than about 42 mm or not greater than about 41 mm or not greater than about 40 mm.

Embodiment 85. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 76, wherein the secondary containment nut portion comprises an average outer diameter of at least about 20.0 mm or at least about 21.0 mm or at least about 22.0 mm or at least about 23.0 mm or at least about 24.0 mm or at least about 25.0 mm or at least about 26.0 mm or at least about 27.0 mm or at least about 28.0 mm or at least about 29.0 mm or at least about 30.0 mm.

Embodiment 86. The dual containment fitting or dual containment fitting assembly of embodiment 76, wherein the secondary containment nut portion comprises an average outer diameter of not greater than about 60 mm or not greater than about 59 mm or not greater than about 58 mm or not greater than about 57 mm or not greater than about 56 mm or not greater than about 55 mm or not greater than about 54 mm or not greater than about 53 mm or not greater than about 52 mm or not greater than about 51 mm or not greater than about 50 mm or not greater than about 49 mm or not greater than about 48 mm or not greater than about 47 mm or not greater than about 46 mm or not greater than about 45 mm or not greater than about 44 mm or not greater than about 43 mm or not greater than about 42 mm or not greater than about 41 mm or not greater than about 40 mm.

Note that not all of the activities described above in the general description or the examples are required, that a portion of a specific activity may not be required, and that one or more further activities may be performed in addition to those described. Still further, the order in which activities are listed is not necessarily the order in which they are performed.

Benefits, other advantages, and solutions to problems have been described above with regard to specific embodiments. However, the benefits, advantages, solutions to problems, and any feature(s) that may cause any benefit, advantage, or solution to occur or become more pronounced are not to be construed as a critical, required, or essential feature of any or all the claims.

The specification and illustrations of the embodiments described herein are intended to provide a general understanding of the structure of the various embodiments. The specification and illustrations are not intended to serve as an exhaustive and comprehensive description of all of the elements and features of apparatus and systems that use the structures or methods described herein. Separate embodiments may also be provided in combination in a single embodiment, and conversely, various features that are, for brevity, described in the context of a single embodiment, may also be provided separately or in any subcombination. Further, reference to values stated in ranges includes each and every value within that range. Many other embodiments may be apparent to skilled artisans only after reading this specification. Other embodiments may be used and derived from the disclosure, such that a structural substitution, logical substitution, or another change may be made without departing from the scope of the disclosure. Accordingly, the disclosure is to be regarded as illustrative rather than restrictive.