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Title:
DYNAMIC BEAMFORMING TO IMPROVE SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO OF SIGNALS CAPTURED USING A HEAD-WEARABLE APPARATUS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2020/264299
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Method to perform dynamic beamforming to reduce SNR in signals captured by head-wearable apparatus starts with microphones generating acoustic signals. Microphones are coupled to first stem of the apparatus and to second stem of the apparatus. First and second beamformers generate first and second beamformer signals, respectively. Noise suppressor attenuates noise content from the first beamformer signal and the second beamformer signal. Noise content from first beamformer signal are acoustic signals not collocated in second beamformer signal and noise content from second beamformer signal are acoustic signals not collocated in first beamformer signal. Speech enhancer generates clean signal comprising speech content from first noisesuppressed signal and second noise-suppressed signal. Speech content are acoustic signals collocated in first beamformer signal and second beamformer signal.

Inventors:
ASFAW MICHAEL (US)
PATTON RUSSELL DOUGLAS (US)
SIMONS PATRICK TIMOTHY MCSWEENEY (US)
Application Number:
US2020/039826
Publication Date:
December 30, 2020
Filing Date:
June 26, 2020
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
SNAP INC (US)
International Classes:
H04R3/00; H04R1/10; G10L21/0208; G10L21/0216; G10L25/84
Domestic Patent References:
WO2009132646A12009-11-05
Foreign References:
EP2884763A12015-06-17
US10567898B12020-02-18
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
PERDOK, Monique M. et al. (US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A head-wearable apparatus comprising:

a frame;

a first stem coupled a first side of the frame, a first front microphone, and a first rear microphone, the first front microphone and the first rear microphone generating acoustic signals, respectively;

a second stem coupled to a second side of the frame, a second front microphone, and a second rear microphone, the second front microphone and the second rear microphone generating acoustic signals, respectively;

an audio processor that includes

a first beamformer to generate a first beamformer signal based on the acoustic signals from the first front microphone and the first rear microphone; a second beamformer to generate a second beamformer signal based on the acoustic signals from the second front microphone and the second rear microphone;

a noise suppressor to attenuate noise content from the first beamformer signal and the second beamformer signal to generate a first noise-suppressed signal and a second noise-suppressed signal,

the noise content from the first beamformer signal being acoustic signals not collocated in the second beamformer signal,

the noise content from the second beamformer signal being acoustic signals not collocated in the first beamformer signal; and a speech enhancer to generate a clean signal comprising speech content from the first noise-suppressed signal and the second noise-suppressed signal, the speech content being acoustic signals collocated in the first beamformer signal and the second beamformer signal.

2. The head-wearable apparatus of claim 1, wherein the first beamformer and the second beamformer are fixed beamformers.

3. The head-wearable apparatus of claim 1, further comprising: a beamformer controller that causes the first beamformer to be steered in a first direction and the second beamformer to be steered in a second direction.

4. The head-wearable apparatus of claim 3, wherein the first direction and the second direction are in a direction of a user’s mouth when the head-wearable apparatus is worn on by the user.

5. The head-wearable apparatus of claim 3, wherein the beamformer controller

dynamically changes the first direction and the second direction.

6. The head-wearable apparatus of claim 1, wherein the first front microphone and the first rear microphone form a first microphone array and wherein the second front microphone and the second rear microphone form a second microphone array.

7. The head-wearable apparatus of claim 6, wherein the first microphone array and the second microphone array are broadside arrays, endfire arrays or any combination thereof.

8. The head-wearable apparatus of claim 6, wherein the first front microphone and the first rear microphone are located on a first plane and wherein the second front microphone and the second rear microphone are located on a second plane.

9. A method comprising:

generating acoustic signals, respectively, by a first front microphone, a first rear microphone, a second front microphone, and a second rear microphone, wherein the first front microphone and the first rear microphone are coupled to a first stem, the first stem being coupled to a first side of a frame of a head-wearable apparatus, wherein the second front microphone and the second rear microphone are coupled to a second stem, the second stem being coupled to a second side of the frame of the head- wearable apparatus;

generating, by a first beamformer, a first beamformer signal based on the acoustic signals from the first front microphone and the first rear microphone;

generating, by a second beamformer, a second beamformer signal based on the acoustic signals from the second front microphone and the second rear microphone; attenuating, by a noise suppressor, noise content from the first beamformer signal and the second beamformer signal to generate a first noise-suppressed signal and a second noise-suppressed signal,

the noise content from the first beamformer signal being acoustic signals not collocated in the second beamformer signal,

the noise content from the second beamformer signal being acoustic signals not collocated in the first beamformer signal; and

generating, by a speech enhancer, a clean signal comprising speech content from the first noise-suppressed signal and the second noise-suppressed signal, the speech content being acoustic signals collocated in the first beamformer signal and the second beamformer signal.

10. The method of claim 9, wherein the first beamformer and the second beamformer are fixed beamformers.

11. The method of claim 9, further comprising:

causing, by a beamformer controller, the first beamformer to be steered in a first direction and the second beamformer to be steered in a second direction.

12. The method of claim 11, wherein the first direction and the second direction are in a direction of a user’s mouth when the head-wearable apparatus is worn on by the user.

13. The method of claim 11, wherein the beamformer controller dynamically changes the first direction and the second direction.

14. The method of claim 9, wherein the first front microphone and the first rear

microphone form a first microphone array and wherein the second front microphone and the second rear microphone form a second microphone array.

15. The method of claim 14, wherein the first microphone array and the second

microphone array are broadside arrays, endfire arrays or any combination thereof. 16. The method of claim 14, wherein the first front microphone and the first rear microphone are located on a first plane and wherein the second front microphone and the second rear microphone are located on a second plane.

17. A non-transitory computer-readable medium having stored thereon instructions, when executed by a processor, causes the processor to perform operations comprising: generating, using a first beamformer, a first beamformer signal based on acoustic signals from a first front microphone and a first rear microphone;

generating, using a second beamformer, a second beamformer signal based on acoustic signals from a second front microphone and a second rear microphone;

attenuating noise content from the first beamformer signal and the second beamformer signal to generate a first noise-suppressed signal and a second noise- suppressed signal,

the noise content from the first beamformer signal being acoustic signals not collocated in the second beamformer signal,

the noise content from the second beamformer signal being acoustic signals not collocated in the first beamformer signal.

18. The non-transitory computer-readable medium of claim 17, wherein the processor to perform operations further comprising:

generating a clean signal comprising speech content from the first noise- suppressed signal and the second noise-suppressed signal, the speech content being acoustic signals collocated in the first beamformer signal and the second beamformer signal.

19. The non-transitory computer-readable medium of claim 17, wherein

the first front microphone and the first rear microphone are coupled to a first stem, the first stem being coupled to a first side of a frame of a head-wearable apparatus, and

the second front microphone and the second rear microphone are coupled to a second stem, the second stem being coupled to a second side of the frame of the head- wearable apparatus. 20. The non-transitory computer-readable medium of claim 19, wherein the processor to perform operations further comprising:

causing the first beamformer to be steered in a first direction and the second beamformer to be steered in a second direction, the first direction and the second direction being in a direction of a user’s mouth when the head-wearable apparatus is worn on by the user.

21. The non-transitory computer-readable medium of claim 19, wherein the processor to perform operations further comprising:

causing the first beamformer to be steered in a first direction and the second beamformer to be steered in a second direction, wherein the beamformer controller dynamically changes the first direction and the second direction.

Description:
DYNAMIC BEAMFORMING TO IMPROVE SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO OF

SIGNALS CAPTURED USING A HEAD-WEARABLE APPARATUS

CROSS REFERENCED TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial No.

62/868,715, filed June 28, 2019, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Currently, a number of consumer electronic devices are adapted to receive speech via microphone ports or headsets. While the typical example is a portable telecommunications device (mobile telephone), with the advent of Voice over IP (VoIP), desktop computers, laptop computers, tablet computers, and wearable devices may also be used to perform voice communications.

[0003] When using these electronic devices, the user also has the option of using the speakerphone mode or a wired or wireless headset to receive his speech. However, a common complaint with these hands-free modes of operation is that the speech captured by the microphone port or the headset includes environmental noise such as wind noise, secondary speakers in the background or other background noises. This environmental noise often renders the user’s speech unintelligible and thus, degrades the quality of the voice communication.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0004] In the drawings, which are not necessarily drawn to scale, like numerals may describe similar components in different views. Like numerals having different letter suffixes may represent different instances of similar components. Some embodiments are illustrated by way of example, and not limitation, in the figures of the accompanying drawings in which:

[0005] Figure 1 illustrates a perspective view of a head-wearable apparatus to generate binaural audio according to one example embodiment.

[0006] Figure 2 illustrates a bottom view of the head-wearable apparatus from Figure 1, according to one example embodiment. [0007] Figure 3 illustrates a block diagram of a system performing dynamic beamforming to improve signal -to-noise ratio of signals captured using a head-wearable apparatus from Figure 1 according to one example embodiment.

[0008] Figure 4 is an exemplary flow diagram of a process of dynamic beamforming to improve signal-to-noise ratio of signals captured using a head-wearable apparatus from Figure 1 according to various aspects of the disclosure.

[0009] Figure 5 is a block diagram illustrating a representative software architecture, which may be used in conjunction with various hardware architectures herein described.

[0010] Figure 6 is a block diagram illustrating components of a machine, according to some exemplary embodiments, able to read instructions from a machine-readable medium (e.g., a machine-readable storage medium) and perform any one or more of the methodologies discussed herein.

[0011] Figure 7 is a high-level functional block diagram of an example head-wearable apparatus communicatively coupled a mobile device and a server system via various networks.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0012] The description that follows includes systems, methods, techniques, instruction sequences, and computing machine program products that embody illustrative embodiments of the disclosure. In the following description, for the purposes of explanation, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide an understanding of various embodiments of the inventive subject matter. It will be evident, however, to those skilled in the art, that embodiments of the inventive subject matter may be practiced without these specific details. In general, well-known instruction instances, protocols, structures, and techniques are not necessarily shown in detail.

[0013] To improve the signal-to-noise ratio of signals captured by current electronic mobile devices, some embodiments of the disclosure are directed to a head-wearable apparatus that performs dynamic beamforming and audio processing on the beamformer signals to enhance the speech content while attenuating the noise content. Specifically, the head-wearable apparatus can be a pair of eyeglasses that includes a right and a left stem that is coupled to either sides of the frame of the eyeglasses. Each stem is coupled to a microphone housing that comprises two microphones. The microphones on each stem form microphone arrays. Beamformers can steer the microphones arrays on each side the frame towards the user’s face or mouth. While a directional beamformer pointing in a direction of the user’s mouth will capture the acoustic signals from the user’s mouth, it will also capture acoustic content past the user’s mouth in that same direction. Accordingly, some embodiments leverage the microphone arrays being located on planes on either side of the user’s face or mouth to determine the content in the beamformer signals that are likely speech content. For example, when both microphone arrays are pointing to the user’s mouth from opposite directions, the content that is in between the microphone arrays or collocated in both the microphone arrays can be considered to be speech content.

[0014] In one embodiment, the system also includes a beamformer controller that causes the beamformers to be steered in different direction. The beamformer controller can dynamically change the directions of the beamformers relative to each other.

Knowing the direction and configuration of each beamformer, the system can perform audio processing to attenuate the acoustic content that is not expected to be received.

The system can also attenuate the acoustic content that is not between the beamformer beams or acoustic content that is not collocated.

[0015] In one embodiment, with the microphone arrays on opposite sides of the head- wearable apparatus, the system is able to cycle through various beamforming

configurations (e.g., dynamic beamforming) and capture raw acoustic data that is audio processed in real-time. This allows the system to maximize the attenuation of noise content (e.g., environmental noise, secondary speakers, etc.), enhance the speech content and thus, reduce the signal -to-noise ratio in the resultant clean signal.

[0016] Figure 1 illustrates a perspective view of a head-wearable apparatus 100 to perform dynamic beamforming to improve signal -to-noise ratio of signals captured using a head-wearable apparatus according to one example embodiment. Figure 2 illustrates a bottom view of the head-wearable apparatus 100 from Figure 1, according to one example embodiment. In Figure 1 and Figure 2, the head-wearable apparatus 100 is a pair of eyeglasses. In some embodiments, the head-wearable apparatus 100 can be sunglasses or goggles. Some embodiments can include one or more wearable devices, such as a pendant with an integrated camera that is integrated with, in communication with, or coupled to, the head-wearable apparatus 100 or a client device. Any desired wearable device may be used in conjunction with the embodiments of the present disclosure, such as a watch, a headset, a wristband, earbuds, clothing (such as a hat or jacket with integrated electronics), a clip-on electronic device, or any other wearable devices. It is understood that, while not shown, one or more portions of the system included in the head-wearable apparatus can be included in a client device (e.g., machine 800 in Figure 6) that can be used in conjunction with the head-wearable apparatus 100. For example, one or more elements as shown in Figure 3 can be included in the head- wearable apparatus 100 and/or the client device.

[0017] As used herein, the term“client device” may refer to any machine that interfaces to a communications network to obtain resources from one or more server systems or other client devices. A client device may be, but is not limited to, a mobile phone, desktop computer, laptop, portable digital assistants (PDAs), smart phones, tablets, ultra books, netbooks, laptops, multi-processor systems, microprocessor-based or

programmable consumer electronics, game consoles, set-top boxes, or any other communication device that a user may use to access a network.

[0018] In Figure 1 and Figure 2, the head-wearable apparatus 100 is a pair of eyeglasses that includes a frame 103 that includes eye wires (or rims) that are coupled to two stems (or temples), respectively, via hinges and/or end pieces. The eye wires of the frame 103 carry or hold a pair of lenses 104 1, 104 2. The frame 103 includes a first (e.g., right) side that is coupled to the first stem and a second (e.g., left) side that is coupled to the second stem. The first side is opposite the second side of the frame 103.

[0019] The apparatus 100 further includes a camera module that includes camera lenses 102 1, 102 2 and at least one image sensor. The camera lens may be a perspective camera lens or a non-perspective camera lens. A non-perspective camera lens may be, for example, a fisheye lens, a wide-angle lens, an omnidirectional lens, etc. The image sensor captures digital video through the camera lens. The images may be also be still image frame or a video including a plurality of still image frames. The camera module can be coupled to the frame 103. As shown in Figures 1 and 2, the frame 103 is coupled to the camera lenses 102 1, 102 2 such that the camera lenses face forward. The camera lenses 102 1, 102 2 can be perpendicular to the lenses 104 1, 104 2. The camera module can include dual-front facing cameras that are separated by the width of the frame 103 or the width of the head of the user of the apparatus 100.

[0020] In Figures 1 and 2, the two stems (or temples) are respectively coupled to microphone housings 101 1, 101 2. The first and second stems are coupled to opposite sides of a frame 103 of the head-wearable apparatus 100. The first stem is coupled to the first microphone housing 101 1 and the second stem is coupled to the second microphone housing 101 2. The microphone housings 101 1, 101 2 can be coupled to the stems between the locations of the frame 103 and the temple tips. The microphone housings 101 1, 101 2 can be located on either side of the user’s temples when the user is wearing the apparatus 100.

[0021] As shown in Figure 2, the microphone housings 101 1, 101 2 encase a plurality of microphones 110 1 to 110 N (N>1). The microphones 110 1 to 110_N are air interface sound pickup devices that convert sound into an electrical signal. More specifically, the microphones 110 1 to 1 IO N are transducers that convert acoustic pressure into electrical signals (e.g., acoustic signals). Microphones 110 1 to 110_N can be digital or analog microelectro-mechanical systems (MEMS) microphones. The acoustic signals generated by the microphones 110 1 to 1 IO N can be pulse density modulation (PDM) signals.

[0022] In Figure 2, the first microphone housing 101 1 encases microphones 110 3 and 110 4 and the second microphone housing 101 2 encases microphones 110 1 and 110 2. In the first microphone housing 101 1, the first front microphone 110 3 and the first rear microphone 110 4 are separated by a predetermined distance di and can form a first order differential microphone array. In the second microphone housing 101 2, the second front microphone 110 1 and the second rear microphone 110 2 are also separated by a predetermined distance and can form a first order differential microphone array. The predetermined distances di and d 2 can be the same distance or different distances. The predetermined distances di and d 2 can be set based on the Nyquist frequency. Content above the Nyquist frequency for a beamformer is

irrecoverable, especially for speech. The Nyquist frequency is determined by the equation:

[0023] In this equation, c is the speed of sound and d is the separation between the microphones. Using this equation, in one embodiment, the predetermined distances di and d2 can be set as any value of d that results in a frequency above 6 kHz, which is the cutoff for wideband speech. [0024] In one embodiment, the first front microphone 110 3 and the first rear microphone 110 4 form a first microphone array and the second front microphone 110 1 and the second rear microphone 110 2 form a second microphone array.

[0025] In one embodiment, the first microphone array and the second microphone array are both endfire arrays. An endfire array consists of multiple microphones arranged in line with the desired direction of sound propagation. When the first front microphone in the array (e.g., the first that sound propagating on-axis reaches) is summed with an inverted and delayed signal from the first rear microphone, this configuration is called a differential array, as discussed above. The first and second microphone arrays can be steered using beamformers to create cardioid or sub-cardioid pickup patterns. In this embodiment, the sounds for the rear of the microphone arrays are greatly attenuated.

[0026] In another embodiment, the first microphone array and the second microphone array are both broadside arrays. A broadside microphone array is an array in which a line of microphones is arranged perpendicular to the preferred direction of sound waves. The broadside microphone arrays attenuate sound coming for the side of the broadside microphone array. In one embodiment, the first microphone array is a broadside array and the second microphone array is an endfire array. Alternatively, the first microphone array is an endfire array and the second microphone array is a broadside array.

[0027] While, in Figure 1, the system 100 includes four microphones 110 1 to 110 4, the number of microphones can vary. In some embodiment, the microphone housings 101 1, 101 2 can include at least two microphones and can form a microphone array. Each of the microphone housings 101 1, 101 2 can also include a battery.

[0028] Referring to Figure 2, each of the microphone housings 101 1, 101 2 includes a front port and a rear port. The front port of the first microphone housing 101 1 is coupled to microphone 110 3 (e.g. first front microphone) and the rear port of the first microphone housing 101 1 is coupled to the microphone 110 4 (e.g., first rear microphone). In one embodiment, the microphone 110 3 (e.g. first front microphone) and the microphone 110 4 (e.g., first rear microphone) are located on the same plane (e.g., a first plane). The front port of the second microphone housing 101 2 is coupled to microphone 110 1 (e.g. second front microphone) and the rear port of the second microphone housing 101 2 is coupled to the microphone 110 2 (e.g., second rear microphone). In one embodiment, the microphone 110 1 (e.g. second front microphone) and the microphone 110 2 (e.g., second rear microphone) are located on the same plane (e.g., a second plane). In one embodiment, the microphones 101 1 to 101 4 can be moved further towards the temple tips on the stems of the apparatus 100 (e.g., the back of the apparatus 100).

[0029] Figure 3 illustrates a block diagram of a system performing dynamic

beamforming to improve signal -to-noise ratio of signals captured using a head-wearable apparatus 100 from Figure 1 according to one example embodiment. In some

embodiments, one or more portions of the system 300 can be included in the head- wearable apparatus 100 or can be included in a client device (e.g., machine 800 in Figure 6) that can be used in conjunction with the head-wearable apparatus 100.

[0030] System 300 includes the microphones 110 1 to 11 O N, beamformers 301 1 and 301 2, a noise suppressor 302, a speech enhancer 303, and a beamformer controller 304. The first front microphone 110 3 and the first rear microphone 110 4 encased in the first microphone housing 101 1 form a first microphone array. Similarly, the second front microphone 110 1 and the second rear microphone 110 2 encased in the second microphone housing 101 2 form a second microphone array. The first and second microphone arrays can be first-order differential microphone arrays. The first and second microphone arrays can also, respectively, be broadside arrays, endfire arrays, or a combination of one broadside array and one endfire array. The microphones 110 1 to 110 4 can be analog or digital MEMS microphones. The acoustic signals generated by the microphones 110 1 to 110 4 can be pulse density modulation (PDM) signals.

[0031] In one embodiment, the first beamformer 301 1 and the second beamformer 301 2, which have direction steering properties, are differential beamformers that allows for a flat frequency response except for the Nyquist frequency. The beamformers 301 1 and 301 2 can use the transfer functions of a first-order differential microphone array. In one embodiment, the beamformers 301 1 and 301 2 are fixed beamformers that includes fixed beam patterns that are sub-cardioid or cardioid.

[0032] As shown in Figure 3, the first beamformer 301 1 receives acoustic signals from the first front microphone 110 3 and the first rear microphone 110 4 and generates a first beamformer signal based on the acoustic signals received. The second beamformer 301 2 receives acoustic signals from the second front microphone 110 1 and the second rear microphone 110 2 and generates a second beamformer signal based on the acoustic signals received. [0033] In Figure 3, the beamformer controller 304 causes the first beamformer 301 1 to be steered in a first direction and the second beamformer 301 2 to be steered in a second direction. The first direction and the second direction can be in a direction of a user’s mouth when the head-wearable apparatus is worn on by the user. Since the first beamformer 301 1 and the second beamformer 301 2 are receiving acoustic signals from opposite sides of the user’s head, the first direction and the second direction are pointing towards the user’s mouth from opposite directions in this embodiment.

[0034] The beamformer controller 304 can also dynamically change the first direction and the second direction. In one embodiment, the first beamformer 301 1 and the second beamformer 301 2 can be steered in the first direction and the second direction that are different directions and relative to each other. By dynamically changing the directions, the beamformer controller 304 can cycle through a number of different configurations of the beamformers 301 1 and 301 2. Further, by knowing the configuration of the beamformers 301 1 and 301 2, the location of the speech content can be anticipated. For example, the speech content can be in between the microphone arrays, in between the beamformer signals, or collocated in the beamformer signals.

[0035] The noise suppressor 302 attenuates noise content from the first beamformer signal and the second beamformer signal. The noise suppressor 302 can be a two-channel noise suppressor and generates a first noise-suppressed signal and a second noise- suppressed signal. In one embodiment, the noise suppressor 302 can implement a noise suppressing algorithm. The noise content can be, for example, environmental noise, secondary speakers, etc. In one embodiment, system 300 leverages that the first beamformer 301 1 and the second beamformer 301 2 are receiving acoustic signals from opposite sides of the user’s head such that the first direction (e.g., of the first beamformer 301 1) and the second direction (e.g., of the second beamformer 301 2) are pointing towards the user’s mouth from opposite directions. Given that the first and second directions are pointing towards the user from opposite directions, the noise content from the first beamformer signal are acoustic signals not collocated in the second beamformer signal and the noise content from the second beamformer signal are acoustic signals not collocated in the first beamformer signal. Since the beamformers 301 1 and 301 2, from opposite sides, can point in a direction towards the users mouth as well as past the user’s mouth in that direction, the non-overlap (or non-collocated area) between the beamformer beams contains noise content. [0036] Further, the speech enhancer 303 generates a clean signal comprising speech content from the first noise-suppressed signal and the second noise-suppressed signal. For example, when both the first and the second beamformer signals are pointing in the direction of the user’s mouth from opposite sides of the user’s head, the overlap (or collocated area) between the beamformer beams contains speech content. In this embodiment, the speech content are acoustic signals collocated in the first beamformer signal and the second beamformer signal. In one embodiment, the speech enhancer 303 can implement a speech enhancement algorithm.

[0037] Figure 4 is an exemplary flow diagram of a process of dynamic beamforming to improve signal-to-noise ratio of signals captured using a head-wearable apparatus from Figure 1 according to various aspects of the disclosure.

[0038] Although the flowchart may describe the operations as a sequential process, many of the operations can be performed in parallel or concurrently. In addition, the order of the operations may be re-arranged. A process is terminated when its operations are completed. A process may correspond to a method, a procedure, etc. The steps of method may be performed in whole or in part, may be performed in conjunction with some or all of the steps in other methods, and may be performed by any number of different systems, such as the systems described in Figure 1 and/or Figure 6. The process 400 may also be performed by a processor included in head-wearable apparatus 100 in Figure 1 or by a processor included in a client device 800 of Figure 6.

[0039] The process 400 starts at operation 401 with microphones 110 1 to 110 4 generating acoustic signals. The microphones 110 1 to 110 4 can be MEMS

microphones that convert acoustic pressure into electrical signals (e.g., acoustic signals). The first front microphone 110 3 and the first rear microphone 110 4 are encased in a first microphone 101 1 housing that is coupled on a first stem of the head-wearable apparatus 100. In one embodiment, the first front microphone 110 3 and the first rear microphone 110 4 form a first microphone array. The first microphone array can be a first order differential array.

[0040] The second front microphone 1 10 1 and the second rear microphone 110 2 are encased in a second microphone housing 101 2 that is coupled on a second stem of the head-wearable apparatus 100. In one embodiment, the second front microphone 110 1 and the second rear microphone 110 2 form a second microphone array. The second microphone array can be a first order differential microphone array. The first and second stems are coupled to opposite sides of a frame 103 of the head-wearable apparatus 100.

[0041] At operation 402, a first beamformer 301 1 generates a first beamformer signal based on the acoustic signals from the first front microphone 110 3 and the first rear microphone 110 4. At operation 403, a second beamformer 301 2 generates a second beamformer signal based on the acoustic signals from the second front microphone 110 1 and the second rear microphone 110 2. In one embodiment, the first beamformer 301 1 and the second beamformer 301 2 are fixed beamformers. The fixed beamformers can include fixed beam patterns that are sub-cardioid or cardioid.

[0042] In one embodiment, a beamformer controller 304 steers the first beamformer in a first direction and the second beamformer in a second direction. The first direction and the second direction can be in a direction of a user’s mouth when the head-wearable apparatus is worn on by the user. The beamformer controller can dynamically change the first direction and the second direction.

[0043] At operation 404, a noise suppressor 302 attenuates noise content from the first beamformer signal and the second beamformer signal to generate a first noise-suppressed signal and a second noise-suppressed signal. The noise content from the first

beamformer signal can be acoustic signals not collocated in the second beamformer signal and the noise content from the second beamformer signal can be acoustic signals not collocated in the first beamformer signal.

[0044] At operation 405, a speech enhancer 303 generates a clean signal comprising speech content from the first noise-suppressed signal and the second noise-suppressed signal. The speech content are acoustic signals collocated in the first beamformer signal and the second beamformer signal.

[0045] Figure 5 is a block diagram illustrating an exemplary software architecture 706, which may be used in conjunction with various hardware architectures herein described. Figure 5 is a non-limiting example of a software architecture and it will be appreciated that many other architectures may be implemented to facilitate the functionality described herein. The software architecture 706 may execute on hardware such as machine 800 of Figure 6 that includes, among other things, processors 804, memory 814, and I/O components 818. A representative hardware layer 752 is illustrated and can represent, for example, the machine 800 of Figure 6. The representative hardware layer 752 includes a processing unit 754 having associated executable instructions 704. Executable instructions 704 represent the executable instructions of the software architecture 706, including implementation of the methods, components and so forth described herein. The hardware layer 752 also includes memory or storage modules memory /storage 756, which also have executable instructions 704. The hardware layer 752 may also comprise other hardware 758.

[0046] As used herein, the term“component” may refer to a device, physical entity or logic having boundaries defined by function or subroutine calls, branch points, application program interfaces (APIs), or other technologies that provide for the partitioning or modularization of particular processing or control functions. Components may be combined via their interfaces with other components to carry out a machine process. A component may be a packaged functional hardware unit designed for use with other components and a part of a program that usually performs a particular function of related functions.

[0047] Components may constitute either software components (e.g., code embodied on a machine-readable medium) or hardware components. A "hardware component" is a tangible unit capable of performing certain operations and may be configured or arranged in a certain physical manner. In various exemplary embodiments, one or more computer systems (e.g., a standalone computer system, a client computer system, or a server computer system) or one or more hardware components of a computer system (e.g., a processor or a group of processors) may be configured by software (e.g., an application or application portion) as a hardware component that operates to perform certain operations as described herein. A hardware component may also be implemented mechanically, electronically, or any suitable combination thereof. For example, a hardware component may include dedicated circuitry or logic that is permanently configured to perform certain operations.

[0048] A hardware component may be a special-purpose processor, such as a Field- Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) or an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). A hardware component may also include programmable logic or circuitry that is temporarily configured by software to perform certain operations. For example, a hardware component may include software executed by a general-purpose processor or other programmable processor. Once configured by such software, hardware components become specific machines (or specific components of a machine) uniquely tailored to perform the configured functions and are no longer general-purpose processors. It will be appreciated that the decision to implement a hardware component mechanically, in dedicated and permanently configured circuitry, or in temporarily configured circuitry (e.g., configured by software) may be driven by cost and time considerations.

[0049] A processor may be, or in include, any circuit or virtual circuit (a physical circuit emulated by logic executing on an actual processor) that manipulates data values according to control signals (e.g., "commands", "op codes", "machine code", etc.) and which produces corresponding output signals that are applied to operate a machine. A processor may, for example, be a Central Processing Unit (CPU), a Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC) processor, a Complex Instruction Set Computing (CISC) processor, a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), a Digital Signal Processor (DSP), an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), a Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuit (RFIC) or any combination thereof. A processor may further be a multi-core processor having two or more independent processors (sometimes referred to as "cores") that may execute instructions contemporaneously.

[0050] Accordingly, the phrase "hardware component"(or "hardware-implemented component") should be understood to encompass a tangible entity, be that an entity that is physically constructed, permanently configured (e.g., hardwired), or temporarily configured (e.g., programmed) to operate in a certain manner or to perform certain operations described herein. Considering embodiments in which hardware components are temporarily configured (e.g., programmed), each of the hardware components need not be configured or instantiated at any one instance in time. For example, where a hardware component comprises a general-purpose processor configured by software to become a special-purpose processor, the general-purpose processor may be configured as respectively different special-purpose processors (e.g., comprising different hardware components) at different times. Software accordingly configures a particular processor or processors, for example, to constitute a particular hardware component at one instance of time and to constitute a different hardware component at a different instance of time. Hardware components can provide information to, and receive information from, other hardware components. Accordingly, the described hardware components may be regarded as being communicatively coupled. Where multiple hardware components exist contemporaneously, communications may be achieved through signal transmission (e.g., over appropriate circuits and buses) between or among two or more of the hardware components. In embodiments in which multiple hardware components are configured or instantiated at different times, communications between such hardware components may be achieved, for example, through the storage and retrieval of information in memory structures to which the multiple hardware components have access.

[0051] For example, one hardware component may perform an operation and store the output of that operation in a memory device to which it is communicatively coupled. A further hardware component may then, at a later time, access the memory device to retrieve and process the stored output. Hardware components may also initiate communications with input or output devices, and can operate on a resource (e.g., a collection of information). The various operations of example methods described herein may be performed, at least partially, by one or more processors that are temporarily configured (e.g., by software) or permanently configured to perform the relevant operations. Whether temporarily or permanently configured, such processors may constitute processor-implemented components that operate to perform one or more operations or functions described herein. As used herein, "processor-implemented component" refers to a hardware component implemented using one or more processors. Similarly, the methods described herein may be at least partially processor-implemented, with a particular processor or processors being an example of hardware. For example, at least some of the operations of a method may be performed by one or more processors or processor-implemented components.

[0052] Moreover, the one or more processors may also operate to support performance of the relevant operations in a "cloud computing" environment or as a "software as a service" (SaaS). For example, at least some of the operations may be performed by a group of computers (as examples of machines including processors), with these operations being accessible via a network (e.g., the Internet) and via one or more appropriate interfaces (e.g., an Application Program Interface (API)). The performance of certain of the operations may be distributed among the processors, not only residing within a single machine, but deployed across a number of machines. In some exemplary embodiments, the processors or processor-implemented components may be located in a single geographic location (e.g., within a home environment, an office environment, or a server farm). In other exemplary embodiments, the processors or processor-implemented components may be distributed across a number of geographic locations.

[0053] In the exemplary architecture of Figure 5, the software architecture 706 may be conceptualized as a stack of layers where each layer provides particular functionality. For example, the software architecture 706 may include layers such as an operating system 702, libraries 720, applications 716 and a presentation layer 714. Operationally, the applications 716 or other components within the layers may invoke application programming interface (API) API calls 708 through the software stack and receive messages 712 in response to the API calls 708. The layers illustrated are representative in nature and not all software architectures have all layers. For example, some mobile or special purpose operating systems may not provide a frameworks/middleware 718, while others may provide such a layer. Other software architectures may include additional or different layers.

[0054] The operating system 702 may manage hardware resources and provide common services. The operating system 702 may include, for example, a kernel 722, services 724 and drivers 726. The kernel 722 may act as an abstraction layer between the hardware and the other software layers. For example, the kernel 722 may be responsible for memory management, processor management (e.g., scheduling), component

management, networking, security settings, and so on. The services 724 may provide other common services for the other software layers. The drivers 726 are responsible for controlling or interfacing with the underlying hardware. For instance, the drivers 726 include display drivers, camera drivers, Bluetooth® drivers, flash memory drivers, serial communication drivers (e.g., Universal Serial Bus (USB) drivers), Wi-Fi® drivers, audio drivers, power management drivers, and so forth depending on the hardware

configuration.

[0055] The libraries 720 provide a common infrastructure that is used by the applications 916 or other components or layers. The libraries 720 provide functionality that allows other software components to perform tasks in an easier fashion than to interface directly with the underlying operating system 702 functionality (e.g., kernel 722, services 724 or drivers 726). The libraries 720 may include system libraries 744 (e.g., C standard library) that may provide functions such as memory allocation functions, string manipulation functions, mathematical functions, and the like. In addition, the libraries 720 may include API libraries 946 such as media libraries (e.g., libraries to support presentation and manipulation of various media format such as MPREG4, H.264, MP3, AAC, AMR, JPG, PNG), graphics libraries (e.g., an OpenGL framework that may be used to render 2D and 3D in a graphic content on a display), database libraries (e.g., SQLite that may provide various relational database functions), web libraries (e.g., WebKit that may provide web browsing functionality), and the like. The libraries 720 may also include a wide variety of other libraries 748 to provide many other APIs to the applications 716 and other software components/modules.

[0056] The frameworks/middleware 718 (also sometimes referred to as middleware) provide a higher-level common infrastructure that may be used by the applications 716 or other software components/modules. For example, the frameworks/middleware 718 may provide various graphic user interface (GUI) functions, high-level resource management, high-level location services, and so forth. The frameworks/middleware 718 may provide a broad spectrum of other APIs that may be utilized by the applications 716 or other software components/modules, some of which may be specific to a particular operating system 702 or platform.

[0057] The applications 716 include built-in applications 738 or third-party applications 940. Examples of representative built-in applications 738 may include, but are not limited to, a contacts application, a browser application, a book reader application, a location application, a media application, a messaging application, or a game

application. Third-party applications 740 may include an application developed using software development kit (SDK) by an entity other than the vendor of the particular platform and may be mobile software running on a mobile operating system. The third- party applications 740 may invoke the API calls 708 provided by the mobile operating system (such as operating system 702) to facilitate functionality described herein.

[0058] The applications 716 may use built in operating system functions (e.g., kernel 722, services 724 or drivers 726), libraries 720, and frameworks/middleware 718 to create user interfaces to interact with users of the system. Alternatively, or additionally, in some systems interactions with a user may occur through a presentation layer, such as presentation layer 714. In these systems, the application/component "logic" can be separated from the aspects of the application/component that interact with a user.

[0059] Figure 6 is a block diagram illustrating components (also referred to herein as “modules”) of a machine 800, according to some exemplary embodiments, able to read instructions from a machine-readable medium (e.g., a machine-readable storage medium) and perform any one or more of the methodologies discussed herein. Specifically,

Figure 6 shows a diagrammatic representation of the machine 800 in the example form of a computer system, within which instructions 810 (e.g., software, a program, an application, an applet, an app, or other executable code) for causing the machine 800 to perform any one or more of the methodologies discussed herein may be executed. As such, the instructions 810 may be used to implement modules or components described herein. The instructions 810 transform the general, non-programmed machine 800 into a particular machine 800 programmed to carry out the described and illustrated functions in the manner described. In alternative embodiments, the machine 800 operates as a standalone device or may be coupled (e.g., networked) to other machines. In a networked deployment, the machine 800 may operate in the capacity of a server machine or a client machine in a server-client network environment, or as a peer machine in a peer-to-peer (or distributed) network environment. The machine 800 may comprise, but not be limited to, a server computer, a client computer, a personal computer (PC), a tablet computer, a laptop computer, a netbook, a set-top box (STB), a personal digital assistant (PDA), an entertainment media system, a cellular telephone, a smart phone, a mobile device, a wearable device (e.g., a smart watch), a smart home device (e.g., a smart appliance), other smart devices, a web appliance, a network router, a network switch, a network bridge, or any machine capable of executing the instructions 810, sequentially or otherwise, that specify actions to be taken by machine 800. Further, while only a single machine 800 is illustrated, the term "machine" shall also be taken to include a collection of machines that individually or jointly execute the instructions 1010 to perform any one or more of the methodologies discussed herein.

[0060] The machine 800 may include processors 804, memory memory/storage 806, and I/O components 818, which may be configured to communicate with each other such as via a bus 802. The memory /storage 806 may include a memory 814, such as a main memory, or other memory storage, and a storage unit 816, both accessible to the processors 804 such as via the bus 802. The storage unit 816 and memory 814 store the instructions 810 embodying any one or more of the methodologies or functions described herein. The instructions 810 may also reside, completely or partially, within the memory 814, within the storage unit 816, within at least one of the processors 804 (e.g., within the processor’s cache memory), or any suitable combination thereof, during execution thereof by the machine 800. Accordingly, the memory 814, the storage unit 816, and the memory of processors 804 are examples of machine-readable media.

[0061] As used herein, the term“machine-readable medium,”“computer-readable medium,” or the like may refer to any component, device or other tangible media able to store instructions and data temporarily or permanently. Examples of such media may include, but is not limited to, random-access memory (RAM), read-only memory (ROM), buffer memory, flash memory, optical media, magnetic media, cache memory, other types of storage (e.g., Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM)) or any suitable combination thereof. The term "machine-readable medium" should be taken to include a single medium or multiple media (e.g., a centralized or distributed database, or associated caches and servers) able to store instructions. The term "machine-readable medium" may also be taken to include any medium, or combination of multiple media, that is capable of storing instructions (e.g., code) for execution by a machine, such that the instructions, when executed by one or more processors of the machine, cause the machine to perform any one or more of the methodologies described herein.

Accordingly, a "machine-readable medium" may refer to a single storage apparatus or device, as well as "cloud-based" storage systems or storage networks that include multiple storage apparatus or devices. The term "machine-readable medium" excludes signals per se.

[0062] The I/O components 818 may include a wide variety of components to provide a user interface for receiving input, providing output, producing output, transmitting information, exchanging information, capturing measurements, and so on. The specific I/O components 818 that are included in the user interface of a particular machine 800 will depend on the type of machine. For example, portable machines such as mobile phones will likely include a touch input device or other such input mechanisms, while a headless server machine will likely not include such a touch input device. It will be appreciated that the I/O components 818 may include many other components that are not shown in Figure 6. The I/O components 818 are grouped according to functionality merely for simplifying the following discussion and the grouping is in no way limiting.

In various exemplary embodiments, the I/O components 818 may include output components 826 and input components 828. The output components 826 may include visual components (e.g., a display such as a plasma display panel (PDF), a light emitting diode (LED) display, a liquid crystal display (LCD), a projector, or a cathode ray tube (CRT)), acoustic components (e.g., speakers), haptic components (e.g., a vibratory motor, resistance mechanisms), other signal generators, and so forth. The input components 828 may include alphanumeric input components (e.g., a keyboard, a touch screen configured to receive alphanumeric input, a photo-optical keyboard, or other alphanumeric input components), point based input components (e.g., a mouse, a touchpad, a trackball, a joystick, a motion sensor, or other pointing instrument), tactile input components (e.g., a physical button, a touch screen that provides location or force of touches or touch gestures, or other tactile input components), audio input components (e.g., a microphone), and the like. The input components 828 may also include one or more image-capturing devices, such as a digital camera for generating digital images or video.

[0063] In further exemplary embodiments, the I/O components 818 may include biometric components 830, motion components 834, environmental environment components 836, or position components 838, as well as a wide array of other components. One or more of such components (or portions thereof) may collectively be referred to herein as a“sensor component” or“sensor” for collecting various data related to the machine 800, the environment of the machine 800, a user of the machine 800, or a combination thereof.

[0064] For example, the biometric components 830 may include components to detect expressions (e.g., hand expressions, facial expressions, vocal expressions, body gestures, or eye tracking), measure biosignals (e.g., blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, perspiration, or brain waves), identify a person (e.g., voice identification, retinal identification, facial identification, fingerprint identification, or electroencephalogram- based identification), and the like. The motion components 834 may include acceleration sensor components (e.g., accelerometer), gravitation sensor components, velocity sensor components (e.g., speedometer), rotation sensor components (e.g., gyroscope), and so forth. The environment components 836 may include, for example, illumination sensor components (e.g., photometer), temperature sensor components (e.g., one or more thermometer that detect ambient temperature), humidity sensor components, pressure sensor components (e.g., barometer), acoustic sensor components (e.g., one or more microphones that detect background noise), proximity sensor components (e.g., infrared sensors that detect nearby objects), gas sensors (e.g., gas detection sensors to detection concentrations of hazardous gases for safety or to measure pollutants in the atmosphere), or other components that may provide indications, measurements, or signals

corresponding to a surrounding physical environment. The position components 838 may include location sensor components (e.g., a Global Position system (GPS) receiver component), altitude sensor components (e.g., altimeters or barometers that detect air pressure from which altitude may be derived), orientation sensor components (e.g., magnetometers), and the like. For example, the location sensor component may provide location information associated with the system 800, such as the system’s 800 GPS coordinates or information regarding a location the system 1000 is at currently (e.g., the name of a restaurant or other business).

[0065] Communication may be implemented using a wide variety of technologies. The I/O components 818 may include communication components 840 operable to couple the machine 800 to a network 832 or devices 820 via coupling 822 and coupling 824 respectively. For example, the communication components 840 may include a network interface component or other suitable device to interface with the network 832. In further examples, communication components 840 may include wired communication components, wireless communication components, cellular communication components, Near Field Communication (NFC) components, Bluetooth® components (e.g.,

Bluetooth® Low Energy), Wi-Fi® components, and other communication components to provide communication via other modalities. The devices 820 may be another machine or any of a wide variety of peripheral devices (e.g., a peripheral device coupled via a Universal Serial Bus (USB)).

[0066] Moreover, the communication components 840 may detect identifiers or include components operable to detect identifiers. For example, the communication components 840 may include Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tag reader components, NFC smart tag detection components, optical reader components (e.g., an optical sensor to detect one-dimensional bar codes such as Universal Product Code (UPC) bar code, multi -dimensional bar codes such as Quick Response (QR) code, Aztec code, Data Matrix, Dataglyph, MaxiCode, PDF417, Ultra Code, UCC RSS-2D bar code, and other optical codes), or acoustic detection components (e.g., microphones to identify tagged audio signals). In addition, a variety of information may be derived via the

communication components 840, such as, location via Internet Protocol (IP) geolocation, location via Wi-Fi® signal triangulation, location via detecting an NFC beacon signal that may indicate a particular location, and so forth.

[0067] Figure 7 is a high-level functional block diagram of an example head-wearable apparatus 100 communicatively coupled a mobile device 800 and a server system 998 via various networks. [0068] Apparatus 100 includes a camera, such as at least one of visible light camera 950, infrared emitter 951 and infrared camera 952. The camera can include the camera module with the lens 104 1, 104 2 in Figures 1 and 2.

[0069] Client device 800 can be capable of connecting with apparatus 100 using both a low-power wireless connection 925 and a high-speed wireless connection 937. Client device 800 is connected to server system 998 and network 995. The network 995 may include any combination of wired and wireless connections.

[0070] Apparatus 100 further includes two image displays of the optical assembly 980A-B. The two image displays 980A-980B include one associated with the left lateral side and one associated with the right lateral side of the apparatus 100. Apparatus 100 also includes image display driver 942, image processor 912, low-power circuitry 920, and high-speed circuitry 930. Image display of optical assembly 980A-B are for presenting images and videos, including an image that can include a graphical user interface to a user of the apparatus 100.

[0071] Image display driver 942 commands and controls the image display of the optical assembly 980A-B. Image display driver 942 may deliver image data directly to the image display of the optical assembly 980 A-B for presentation or may have to convert the image data into a signal or data format suitable for delivery to the image display device. For example, the image data may be video data formatted according to compression formats, such as H. 264 (MPEG-4 Part 10), HEVC, Theora, Dirac,

RealVideo RV40, VPS, VP9, or the like, and still image data may be formatted according to compression formats such as Portable Network Group (PNG), Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) or exchangeable image file format (Exif) or the like.

[0072] As noted above, apparatus 100 includes a frame 103 and stems (or temples) extending from a lateral side of the frame 103. Apparatus 100 further includes a user input device 991 (e.g., touch sensor or push button) including an input surface on the apparatus 100. The user input device 991 (e.g., touch sensor or push button) is to receive from the user an input selection to manipulate the graphical user interface of the presented image.

[0073] The components shown in Figure 7 for the apparatus 100 are located on one or more circuit boards, for example a PCB or flexible PCB, in the rims or temples.

Alternatively or additionally, the depicted components can be located in the chunks, frames, hinges, or bridge of the apparatus 100. Left and right visible light cameras 950 can include digital camera elements such as a complementary metal-oxide- semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor, charge coupled device, a lens 104 1, 104 2, or any other respective visible or light capturing elements that may be used to capture data, including images of scenes with unknown objects.

[0074] Apparatus 100 includes a memory 934 which stores instructions to perform a subset or all of the functions described herein for generating binaural audio content. Memory 934 can also include storage device 604. The exemplary process illustrated in the flowchart in Figure 4 can be implemented in instructions stored in memory 934.

[0075] As shown in Figure 7, high-speed circuitry 930 includes high-speed

processor 932, memory 934, and high-speed wireless circuitry 936. In the example, the image display driver 942 is coupled to the high-speed circuitry 930 and operated by the high-speed processor 932 in order to drive the left and right image displays of the optical assembly 980A-B. High-speed processor 932 may be any processor capable of managing high-speed communications and operation of any general computing system needed for apparatus 100. High-speed processor 932 includes processing resources needed for managing high-speed data transfers on high-speed wireless connection 937 to a wireless local area network (WLAN) using high-speed wireless circuitry 936. In certain examples, the high-speed processor 932 executes an operating system such as a LINUX operating system or other such operating system of the apparatus 100 and the operating system is stored in memory 934 for execution. In addition to any other responsibilities, the high-speed processor 932 executing a software architecture for the apparatus 100 is used to manage data transfers with high-speed wireless circuitry 936.

In certain examples, high-speed wireless circuitry 936 is configured to implement Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 communication standards, also referred to herein as Wi-Fi. In other examples, other high-speed communications standards may be implemented by high-speed wireless circuitry 936.

[0076] Low-power wireless circuitry 924 and the high-speed wireless circuitry 936 of the apparatus 100 can include short range transceivers (Bluetooth™) and wireless wide, local, or wide area network transceivers (e.g., cellular or WiFi). Client device 800, including the transceivers communicating via the low-power wireless connection 925 and high-speed wireless connection 937, may be implemented using details of the architecture of the apparatus 100, as can other elements of network 995. [0077] Memory 934 includes any storage device capable of storing various data and applications, including, among other things, camera data generated by the left and right visible light cameras 950, infrared camera 952, and the image processor 912, as well as images generated for display by the image display driver 942 on the image displays of the optical assembly 980A-B. While memory 934 is shown as integrated with highspeed circuitry 930, in other examples, memory 934 may be an independent standalone element of the apparatus 100. In certain such examples, electrical routing lines may provide a connection through a chip that includes the high-speed processor 932 from the image processor 912 or low-power processor 922 to the memory 934. In other examples, the high-speed processor 932 may manage addressing of memory 934 such that the low- power processor 922 will boot the high-speed processor 932 any time that a read or write operation involving memory 934 is needed.

[0078] As shown in Figure 7, the processor 932 of the apparatus 100 can be coupled to the camera (visible light cameras 950; infrared emitter 951, or infrared camera 952), the image display driver 942, the user input device 991 (e.g., touch sensor or push button), and the memory 934.

[0079] Apparatus 100 is connected with a host computer. For example, the apparatus 100 is paired with the client device 800 via the high-speed wireless connection 937 or connected to the server system 998 via the network 995. Server system 998 may be one or more computing devices as part of a service or network computing system, for example, that include a processor, a memory, and network communication interface to communicate over the network 995 with the client device 800 and apparatus 100.

[0080] The client device 800 includes a processor and a network communication interface coupled to the processor. The network communication interface allows for communication over the network 925 or 937. Client device 800 can further store at least portions of the instructions for generating a binaural audio content in the client device 800’ s memory to implement the functionality described herein.

[0081] Output components of the apparatus 100 include visual components, such as a display such as a liquid crystal display (LCD), a plasma display panel (PDF), a light emitting diode (LED) display, a projector, or a waveguide. The image displays of the optical assembly are driven by the image display driver 942. The output components of the apparatus 100 further include acoustic components (e.g., speakers), haptic

components (e.g., a vibratory motor), other signal generators, and so forth. The input components of the apparatus 100, the client device 800, and server system 998, such as the user input device 991, may include alphanumeric input components (e.g., a keyboard, a touch screen configured to receive alphanumeric input, a photo-optical keyboard, or other alphanumeric input components), point-based input components (e.g., a mouse, a touchpad, a trackball, a joystick, a motion sensor, or other pointing instruments), tactile input components (e.g., a physical button, a touch screen that provides location and force of touches or touch gestures, or other tactile input components), audio input components (e.g., a microphone), and the like.

[0082] Apparatus 100 may optionally include additional peripheral device elements. Such peripheral device elements may include biometric sensors, additional sensors, or display elements integrated with apparatus 100. For example, peripheral device elements may include any I/O components including output components, motion components, position components, or any other such elements described herein.

[0083] For example, the biometric components include components to detect

expressions (e.g., hand expressions, facial expressions, vocal expressions, body gestures, or eye tracking), measure biosignals (e.g., blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, perspiration, or brain waves), identify a person (e.g., voice identification, retinal identification, facial identification, fingerprint identification, or electroencephalogram based identification), and the like. The motion components include acceleration sensor components (e.g., accelerometer), gravitation sensor components, rotation sensor components (e.g., gyroscope), and so forth. The position components include location sensor components to generate location coordinates (e.g., a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver component), WiFi or Bluetooth™ transceivers to generate positioning system coordinates, altitude sensor components (e.g., altimeters or barometers that detect air pressure from which altitude may be derived), orientation sensor components (e.g., magnetometers), and the like. Such positioning system coordinates can also be received over wireless connections 925 and 937 from the client device 800 via the low-power wireless circuitry 924 or high-speed wireless circuitry 936.

[0084] Where a phrase similar to“at least one of A, B, or C, 99 U at least one of A, B, and

99 U

C, one or more A, B, or C,” or“one or more of A, B, and C” is used, it is intended that the phrase be interpreted to mean that A alone may be present in an embodiment, B alone may be present in an embodiment, C alone may be present in an embodiment, or that any combination of the elements A, B and C may be present in a single embodiment; for example, A and B, A and C, B and C, or A and B and C.

[0085] Changes and modifications may be made to the disclosed embodiments without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. These and other changes or modifications are intended to be included within the scope of the present disclosure, as expressed in the following claims.