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Title:
E-SELECTIN ANTAGONISTS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2012/037034
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Compounds, compositions and methods are provided for inhibiting in vitro and in vivo processes mediated by E-selectin binding. More specifically, particular glycomimetic compounds are described, wherein the compounds are E- selectin antagonists.

Inventors:
ERNST, Beat (Hohenweg 1, Magden, Magden, CH)
WECKERLE, Celine, E. (Magdenstrasse 25, Basel, Basel, CH)
EGGER, Jonas, K. (Frobenstrasse 64, Basel, Basel, CH)
Application Number:
US2011/051234
Publication Date:
March 22, 2012
Filing Date:
September 12, 2011
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
GLYCOMIMETICS, INC. (401 Professional Drive, Suite 250Gaithersburg, Maryland, 20879, US)
ERNST, Beat (Hohenweg 1, Magden, Magden, CH)
WECKERLE, Celine, E. (Magdenstrasse 25, Basel, Basel, CH)
EGGER, Jonas, K. (Frobenstrasse 64, Basel, Basel, CH)
International Classes:
C07H15/207; A61K31/7056; A61P29/00; C07H15/26
Domestic Patent References:
WO2008060378A2
Foreign References:
US20080161546A1
US20080200406A1
Other References:
M. PULLAGURLA, M. DUKAT, B. L. ROTH, V. SETOLA, B. A. GLENNON MED. CHEM. RES. vol. 14, 2005, pages 1 - 18
Y. W. LI, T. J. MARKS J. AM. CHEM. SOC. vol. 118, 1996, pages 9295 - 9306
Y. LI, P.-F. FU, T. J. MARKS ORGANOMETALLICS vol. 13, 1994, pages 439 - 440
S. SHELKE, B. CUTTING, X. JIANG, H. KOLIWER-BRANDL, D. S. STRASSER, S. KELM, O. SCHWARDT, B. ERNST ANGEW. CHEM. INT. ED. vol. 49, 2010, pages 5721 - 5725
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SHARKEY, Richard, G. et al. (Seed Intellectual Property Law Group PLLC, Suite 5400701 Fifth Avenu, Seattle Washington, 98104-7064, US)
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Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

2. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

3. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

5. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

6. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

7. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

8. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

9. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

10. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

11. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

13. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

14. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

15. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

16. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

17. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having

18. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

19. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

20. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

21. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

22. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

23. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

24. A compound or physiologically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:

25. A composition comprising a compound or salt thereof according to any one of claims 1 to 24 in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.

26. A compound or salt thereof according to any one of claims 1 to 24 for inhibiting an E-selectin.

27. A compound or salt thereof according to any one of claims 1 to 24 for treatment of a disease or complication associated therewith in which an E- selectin-mediated function is involved.

28. The compound or salt thereof according to claim 27 wherein the E-selectin-mediated function is an E-selectin-mediated intercellular adhesion.

29. Use of a compound or salt thereof according to any one of claims 1 to 24 for inhibiting an E-selectin.

30. Use of a compound or salt thereof according to any one of claims 1 to 24 for treatment of a disease or complication associated therewith in which an E- selectin-mediated function is involved.

31. The use according to claim 30 wherein the E-selectin-mediated function is an E-selectin-mediated intercellular adhesion.

Description:
E-SELECTIN ANTAGONISTS

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This application claims the benefit under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/382,716 filed September 14, 2010, where this provisional application is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

BACKGROUND

Technical Field

The present invention relates generally to compounds, compositions and methods for inhibiting E-selectin, and more specifically to particular glycomimetics which are E-selectin antagonists.

Description of the Related Art

When a tissue is infected or damaged, the inflammatory process directs leukocytes and other immune system components to the site of infection or injury.

Within this process, leukocytes play an important role in the engulfment and digestion of microorganisms. Thus, the recruitment of leukocytes to infected or damaged tissue is critical for mounting an effective immune defense.

Selectins are a group of structurally similar cell surface receptors that are important for mediating leukocyte binding to endothelial cells. These proteins are type

1 membrane proteins and are composed of an amino terminal lectin domain, an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain, a variable number of complement receptor related repeats, a hydrophobic domain spanning region and a cytoplasmic domain. The binding interactions appear to be mediated by contact of the lectin domain of the selectins and various carbohydrate ligands.

There are three known selectins: E-selectin, P-selectin and L-selectin. E-selectin is found on the surface of activated endothelial cells, which line the interior wall of capillaries. E-selectin binds to the carbohydrate sialyl-Lewis x (SLe x ), which is presented as a glycoprotein or glycolipid on the surface of certain leukocytes

(monocytes and neutrophils) and helps these cells adhere to capillary walls in areas where surrounding tissue is infected or damaged; and E-selectin also binds to sialyl- Lewis a (SLe a ), which is expressed on many tumor cells. P-selectin is expressed on inflamed endothelium and platelets, and also recognizes SLe x and SLe a , but also contains a second site that interacts with sulfated tyrosine. The expression of E-selectin and P-selectin is generally increased when the tissue adjacent to a capillary is infected or damaged. L-selectin is expressed on leukocytes. Selectin-mediated intercellular adhesion is an example of a selectin-mediated function.

Modulators of selectin-mediated function include the PSGL-1 protein

(and smaller peptide fragments), fucoidan, glycyrrhizin (and derivatives), anti-selectin antibodies, sulfated lactose derivatives, and heparin. All have shown to be unsuitable for drug development due to insufficient activity, toxicity, lack of specificity, poor ADME characteristics and/or availability of material.

Although selectin-mediated cell adhesion is required for fighting infection and destroying foreign material, there are situations in which such cell adhesion is undesirable or excessive, resulting in tissue damage instead of repair. For example, many pathologies (such as autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, shock and reperfusion injuries) involve abnormal adhesion of white blood cells. Such abnormal cell adhesion may also play a role in transplant and graft rejection. In addition, some circulating cancer cells appear to take advantage of the inflammatory mechanism to bind to activated endothelium. In such circumstances, modulation of selectin-mediated intercellular adhesion may be desirable.

Accordingly, there is a need in the art for identifying inhibitors of selectin-mediated function, e.g. , of selectin-dependent cell adhesion, and for the development of methods employing such compounds to inhibit conditions associated with excessive selectin activity. The present invention fulfills these needs and further provides other related advantages. BRIEF SUMMARY

Briefly stated, this invention provides compounds, compositions and methods for inhibiting E-selectin. The compounds are particular E-selectin antagonists. Such compounds may be combined with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent to form a pharmaceutical composition. The compounds or compositions may be used in a method to inhibit an E-selectin-mediated function, such as inhibiting an E- selectin-mediated intercellular adhesion.

In one aspect of the present invention, a compound is provided having one of the following formulae:

A compound of the present invention includes physiologically acceptable salts thereof. A compound of the present invention in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent provides a composition of the present invention. In the chemical formula herein, the abbreviation "Me" or a single line extending from a carbon implied by the intersection of two other lines, represents a methyl group.

These and other aspects of the present invention will become apparent upon reference to the following detailed description and attached drawings. All references disclosed herein are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety as if each was incorporated individually.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Figure 1 is a diagram illustrating the synthesis of the precursor glycomimetic ligand 1. Glycomimetic ligand 1 was synthesized according to International Application Publication No. WO 2008/060378 (e.g., Example 1 and Figure 1).

Figure 2 is a diagram of a general description of the synthesis of selectin antagonists with triazole linker.

Figure 3 is a diagram illustrating the synthesis of the alkynyl glycomimetic ligands.

Figure 4 is a diagram illustrating the synthesis of the indole derivatives starting from 5-nitro-lH-indole.

Figure 5 is a diagram illustrating the synthesis of the indole derivatives starting from 2-iodo-4-nitroaniline (Larock indole synthesis).

Figure 6 is a diagram illustrating the synthesis of the selectin antagonists with triazole linker.

Figure 7 is a diagram illustrating the synthesis of the selectin antagonists with piperazine linker. DETAILED DESCRIPTION

As noted above, the present invention provides compounds which are E-selectin antagonists, compositions thereof and methods for inhibiting E-selectin- mediated functions. Such antagonists may be used in vitro or in vivo, to inhibit E- selectin-mediated functions in a variety of contexts. Examples of E-selectin-mediated functions include intracellular adhesion.

The E-selectin antagonists of the present invention are particular compounds that surprisingly show significant inhibitory activity at nanomolar concentrations. The compounds include physiologically acceptable salts thereof. The compounds have the following formulae:

10

Binding affinities of the compounds are set forth in Table 1 below.

All compounds of the present invention or useful thereto (e.g., for pharmaceutical compositions or methods of treating), include physiologically acceptable salts thereof. Examples of such salts are Na, K, Li, Mg, Ca and CI.

Compounds as described herein may be present within a pharmaceutical composition. A pharmaceutical composition comprises one or more compounds in combination with (i.e., not covalently bonded to) one or more pharmaceutically or physiologically acceptable carriers, diluents or excipients. Such compositions may comprise buffers (e.g., neutral buffered saline or phosphate buffered saline), carbohydrates (e.g., glucose, mannose, sucrose or dextrans), mannitol, proteins, polypeptides or amino acids such as glycine, antioxidants, chelating agents such as EDTA or glutathione, adjuvants (e.g., aluminum hydroxide) and/or preservatives. Within yet other embodiments, compositions of the present invention may be formulated as a lyophilizate. Compositions of the present invention may be formulated for any appropriate manner of administration, including for example, topical, oral, nasal, intravenous, intracranial, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, or intramuscular administration.

The compositions described herein may be administered as part of a sustained release formulation (i.e., a formulation such as a capsule or sponge that effects a slow release of compound following administration). Such formulations may generally be prepared using well known technology and administered by, for example, oral, rectal or subcutaneous implantation, or by implantation at the desired target site. Carriers for use within such formulations are biocompatible, and may also be biodegradable; preferably the formulation provides a relatively constant level of compound release. The amount of compound contained within a sustained release formulation depends upon the site of implantation, the rate and expected duration of release and the nature of the condition to be treated.

The above described compounds including equivalents thereof are useful in methods of the present invention to treat individuals in need thereof. As used herein, such individuals include humans, as well as non-human warm-blooded animals such as non-human mammals. A preferred individual for treatment is a human. Typically a compound will be administered to an individual as a pharmaceutical composition, i.e., in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.

The above described compounds may be administered in a manner appropriate to the disease to be treated. Appropriate dosages and a suitable duration and frequency of administration may be determined by such factors as the condition of the patient, the type and severity of the patient's disease and the method of

administration. In general, an appropriate dosage and treatment regimen provides the compound(s) in an amount sufficient to provide therapeutic and/or prophylactic benefit. Within particularly preferred embodiments of the invention, a compound may be administered at a dosage ranging from 0.001 to 1000 mg/kg body weight (more typically 0.01 to 1000 mg/kg), on a regimen of single or multiple daily doses.

Appropriate dosages may generally be determined using experimental models and/or clinical trials. In general, the use of the minimum dosage that is sufficient to provide effective therapy is preferred. Patients may generally be monitored for therapeutic effectiveness using assays suitable for the condition being treated, which will be familiar to those of ordinary skill in the art.

In an embodiment, an individual who is in need of treatment of a disease (or complication associated therewith) in which an E-selectin-mediated function is involved is administered at least one {i.e., one or more) of the above described compounds in an amount effective for the treatment.

A variety of conditions are associated with a selectin-mediated function. Such conditions include, for example, tissue transplant rejection, platelet-mediated diseases {e.g., atherosclerosis and clotting), hyperactive coronary circulation, acute leukocyte-mediated lung injury (e.g., adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)), Crohn's disease, inflammatory diseases (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease), autoimmune diseases (MS, myasthenia gravis), infection, cancer (and metastasis), thrombosis, wounds (and wound-associated sepsis), burns, spinal cord damage, digestive tract mucous membrane disorders (gastritis, ulcers), osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, asthma, allergy, psoriasis, septic shock, traumatic shock, stroke, nephritis, atopic dermatitis, frostbite injury, adult dyspnoea syndrome, ulcerative colitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes and reperfusion injury following ischaemic episodes. Compounds may also be administered to a patient prior to heart surgery to enhance recovery. Other uses include pain management, prevention of restinosis associated with vascular stenting, and for undesirable angiogenesis, e.g., associated with cancer.

The term "treatment," as set forth above, refers to any of a variety of positive effects from the treatment including, for example, eradicating a complication associated with the disease, relieving to some extent a complication, slowing or stopping progression of the disease, and prolonging the survival time of the recipient. The treatment may be used in conjunction with one or more other therapies for any of the illnesses (or complications associated therewith) described above.

Compounds as described above are capable, for example, of inhibiting selectin-mediated cell adhesion. This ability may generally be evaluated using any of a variety of in vitro assays designed to measure the effect on adhesion between selectin- expressing cells (e.g., adhesion between leukocytes or tumor cells and platelets or endothelial cells). For example, such cells may be plated under standard conditions that, in the absence of compound, permit cell adhesion. In general, a compound is an inhibitor of selectin-mediated cell adhesion if contact of the test cells with the compound results in a discernible inhibition of cell adhesion. For example, in the presence of compounds (e.g., micromolar levels), disruption of adhesion between leukocytes or tumor cells and platelets or endothelial cells may be determined visually within approximately several minutes, by observing the reduction of cells interacting with one another. The following Examples are offered by way of illustration and not by way of limitation.

EXAMPLES EXAMPLE 1

SYNTHESIS OF THE ALKYNYL GLYCOMIMETIC LIGANDS (FIGURE 3)

Synthesis of intermediate 2

6-(Trimethylsilyl)-hex-5-yn- 1 -ol

Under argon, hex-5-yn-l-ol (1.03 g, 10.5 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous THF (10 mL) and cooled to -90 °C. feuLi (1.6 M in pentane; 14.4 mL, 23.1 mmol) was added over a period of 10 minutes, which lead to refreezing of the reaction mixture. Gradual warming to -10 °C over 15 min led to liquefaction, and after

2 h of stirring, Me 3 SiCl (3.0 mL, 23.1 mmol) was added. After 2 h, 1 M aq. HC1 (3 mL) was added and stirring was continued for another hour. The reaction mixture was extracted with Et 2 0 (3 x 40 mL), the combined organic layers were washed with satd. aq. NaHC0 3 (20 mL) and brine (20 mL). The dried (Na 2 S0 4 ) organic phases were concentrated in vacuo, and alcohol 2 was obtained as a colorless oil (2.10 g), which was used without further purification.

Synthesis of intermediate 3

3 -(Trimethylsilyl)prop-2-ynyl methanesulfonate 3-(trimethylsilyl)prop-2-yn-l-ol (1.56 g, 12.2 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous CH 2 C1 2 (37 mL) under argon. The solution was cooled to -78 °C, followed by addition of Et 3 N (3.37 mL, 24.3 mmol). MeS0 2 Cl (0.948 mL, 12.2 mmol) was added to the solution over a period of 10 min, leading to the formation of a white precipitate. After stirring at -78 °C for 30 min, the reaction mixture was washed with 0.5 M aq. HC1 (15 mL), satd. aq. NaHC0 3 (20 mL), and brine (20 mL). After extraction of the aqueous layers with CH 2 C1 2 (2x 30 mL), the combined organic layers were dried over Na 2 S0 4 , and the solvent was removed in vacuo to give the mesylate 3 as a pale yellow liquid (2.46 g) which was used without further purification.

Synthesis of intermediate 4

4-(Trimethylsilyl)but-3 -ynyl methanesulfonate Following the procedure for 3, MeS0 2 Cl (2.05 mL, 26.3 mmol) was added to a solution of 4-(trimethylsilyl)but-3-yn-l-ol (3.12 g, 21.9 mmol) and Et 3 N (6.07 mL, 43.8 mmol) in anhydrous CH 2 C1 2 (65 mL) at -15 °C. After 1.5 h, the reaction mixture was worked up, and the mesylate 4 was obtained as a pale yellow oil (4.88 g), which was used without further purification. Synthesis of intermediate 5

5 -(Trimethylsilyl)pent-4-ynyl methanesulfonate

Following the procedure for 3, MeS0 2 Cl (1.37 mL, 17.6 mmol) was added to a solution of 5-(trimethylsilyl)pent-4-yn-l-ol (2.29 g, 14.7 mmol) and Et 3 N (4.07 mL, 29.4 mmol) in anhydrous CH 2 C1 2 (50 mL) at -15 °C. After 2 h, the reaction mixture was worked up, and the mesylate 5 was obtained as a pale yellow oil (3.56 g), which was used without further purification.

Synthesis of intermediate 6

6-(Trimethylsilyl)hex-5 -ynyl methanesulfonate

MeS0 2 Cl (0.98 mL, 12.6 mmol) was added to a solution of 2 (2.10 g) and Et 3 N (2.9 mL, 21.0 mmol) in anhydrous CH 2 C1 2 (35 mL) at -15 °C. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm to r.t., and after 1.5 h, it was washed with 0.5 M aq. HCl (10 mL), satd. aq. NaHC0 3 (15 mL), and brine (15 mL). After extraction of the aqueous layers with CH 2 C1 2 (2x 30 mL), the combined organic layers were dried over Na 2 S0 4 , and the solvent was removed in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (petrol ether/CH 2 Cl 2 linear gradient) to afford mesylate 6 as a colorless liquid (2.26 g). Synthesis of intermediate 7

(3 -Azidoprop- 1 -ynyl)trimethylsilane

Mesylate 3 (2.46 g, 11.9 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous DMF (50 mL) under argon. NaN 3 (0.87 g, 13.4 mmol) was added, and the suspension was heated to 65 °C. After vigorous stirring of the viscous reaction mixture for 35 min, water (30 mL) was added, and the suspension was filtered through a plug of celite. The celite was washed with diethyl ether (80 mL). The water-DMF mixture was extracted with Et 2 0 (3 x 60 mL), and the organic layers were thoroughly washed with water (2 x 40 mL) and brine (40 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over Na 2 S0 4 , the solvent was removed in vacuo, and azide 7 was obtained as a yellow liquid (1.82 g), which was used without further purification.

Synthesis of intermediate 8

(4-Azidobut- 1 -ynyl)trimethylsilane

Following the procedure for 7, mesylate 4 (4.88 g, 22.1 mmol) was reacted with NaN 3 (1.57 g, 24.1 mmol) in anhydrous DMF (55 mL). After 3 h, the reaction was filtered and worked up to give azide 8 as a yellow liquid (3.35 g), which was used without further purification.

Synthesis of intermediate 9

(5 -Azidopent- 1 -ynyl)trimethylsilane Following the procedure for 7, mesylate 5 (3.56 g, 15.2 mmol) was reacted with NaN 3 (1.10 g, 16.9 mmol) in anhydrous DMF (35 mL). After 2.5 h, the reaction was filtered and worked up to give azide 9 as a yellow liquid (2.62 g), which was used without further purification.

Synthesis of intermediate 10

(5 -Azidohex- 1 -ynyl)trimethylsilane

Following the procedure for 7, mesylate 6 (2.26 g, 9.10 mmol) was reacted with NaN 3 (716 mg, 11.0 mmol) in anhydrous DMF (20 mL). After 1 h, the reaction was filtered and worked up to afford azide 10 as a yellow liquid (1.41 g), which was used without further purification.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 0.12 (s, 9H, Me 3 Si), 1.57-1.66 (m, 2H, H-3), 1.81-1.89 (m, 2H, H-2), 2.99 (s, 3H, MeS0 2 ), 4.24 (t, J= 6.4 Hz, 2H, H-l); 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 0.18 (Me 3 Si), 19.32 (C-4), 24.49 (C-3), 28.22 (C-2), 37.49 (MeS0 2 ), 69.59 (C-l), 85.52 (C-6), 106.19 (C-5).

Synthesis of intermediate 11

3 -(Trimethylsilyl)-prop-2-yn- 1 -amine

To a solution of azide 7 (1.82 g, 11.9 mmol) in THF (50 mL) and water (1 mL) was added PPh 3 (3.18 g, 12.2 mmol). The solution was stirred at 50 °C for 2 h. After careful removal of the solvent in vacuo (> 200 mbar), the reaction mixture was subjected to vacuum distillation (oil bath temperature: 100 °C; approx. 5 mbar;

additional cooling trap with liquid nitrogen) to give amine 11 as a colorless liquid (1.29 g, 83% over 3 steps).

1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 0.11 (s, 9H, TMS-H), 1.37 (s, 2H, NH 2 ),

3.38 (s, 2H, H-l). 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 0.09 (3C, TMS-C), 32.51 (C-l), 86.72 (C-2), 107.41 (C-3); IR (film on NaCl): v = 3375 (s, NH 2 ), 3295 (s, NH 2 ), 3181 (m, NH 2 ), 2960 (vs), 2900 (s), 2850 (m), 2167 (vs, C≡C), 1599 (w, NH 2 ), 1409 (w), 1379 (w), 1332 (s), 1251 (s, SiCH 3 ), 1074 (m), 998 (s), 955 (m), 908 (m), 842 (m, Me 3 Si), 760 (m, Me 3 Si), 734 (m), 699 (m), 642 (m), 584 (m) cm "1 .

The NMR spectral data were in accordance with previously published values [I. Maclnnes, J. C. Walton, J. Chem. Soc, Perkin Trans. 2 1987, 8, 1077-1082].

Synthesis of intermediate 12

4-(Trimethylsilyl)-but-3 -yn- 1 -amine To a solution of azide 8 (3.35 g, 20.0 mmol) in THF (90 mL) and water

(1.8 mL) was added PPh 3 (5.76 g, 21.9 mmol). The solution was stirred at 50 °C for 1.5 h. After removal of the solvent in vacuo, the reaction mixture was subjected to vacuum distillation (oil bath temperature: 120 °C; approx. 0.1 mbar; additional cooling trap with liquid nitrogen) to give the amine 12 as a colorless liquid (2.49 g, 80% over 3 steps).

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 0.12 (s, 9H, Me 3 Si), 1.40 (s, 2H, NH 2 ), 2.34 (t, 2H, H-l), 2.80 (t, 2H, H-2); 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 0.23 (Me 3 Si), 25.08 (C-2), 41.09 (C-1), 86.29 (C-3), 105.09 (C-4). IR (film on NaCl): v 3373 (m, NH 2 ), 3297 (m, NH 2 ), 2959 (vs), 2896 (s,), 2868 (s, C-H), 2174 (vs, C≡C), 1678 (m, NH 2 ), 1621 (w), 1455 (m), 1425 (m), 1409 (m), 1383 (m), 1355 (m), 1250 (vs, SiCH 3 ), 1179 (vw), 1157 (vw), 1119 (vw), 1085 (w), 1034 (s), 979 (m), 908 (s), 844 (vs, Me 3 Si), 760 (vs, Me 3 Si), 734 (vs), 699 (m), 639 (s), 574 (m) cm "1 .

The 1H NMR spectral data were in accordance with previously published values [M. Pullagurla, M. Dukat, B. L. Roth, V. Setola, B. A. Glennon, Med. Chem. Res. 2005, 14, 1-18.].

Synthesis of intermediate 13

5 -(Trimethylsilyl)-pent-4-yn- 1 -amine To a solution of azide 9 (1.30 g, 7.17 mmol) in THF (100 mL) and water

(1 mL) was added PPh 3 (2.24 g, 8.5 mmol). The solution was stirred at 50 °C for 4.5 h. After removal of the solvent in vacuo, the reaction mixture was subjected to vacuum distillation (oil bath temperature: 120 °C; approx. 0.1 mbar) to give amine 13 as a colorless oil (0.973 g, 43% over 3 steps).

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 0.12 (s, 9H, Me 3 Si), 1.18 (s, 2H, NH 2 ),

1.62 (p, 2H, H-2), 2.27 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H, H-3), 2.77 (t, J= 6.9 Hz, 2H, H-l); 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 0.23 (Me 3 Si), 17.42 (C-3), 32.42 (C-2), 41.34 (C-1), 84.95 (C-4), 106.92 (C-5). IR (film on NaCl): v 3376 (m, NH 2 ), 3297 (w, NH 2 ), 3181 (w, NH 2 ), 2955 (vs), 2861 (vs), 2173 (vs, C≡C), 1682 (w), 1602 (w, NH 2 ), 1431 (s), 1408 (m), 1324 (m), 1250 (vs, Me 3 Si), 1087 (s), 1000 (m), 914 (s), 843 (vs, Me 3 Si), 760 (vs, Me 3 Si), 734 (vs), 698 (s), 640 (s), 579 (w) cm "1 .

The spectral data were in accordance with previously published values [Y. W. Li, T. J. Marks, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 9295-9306.], [Y. Li, P.-F. Fu, T. J. Marks, Organometallics 1994, 13, 439-440.] Synthesis of intermediate 14

6-(Trimethylsilyl)-hex-5 -yn- 1 -amine

To a solution of azide 10 (1.41 g, 7.22 mmol) in THF (100 mL) and water (1 mL) was added PPh 3 (2.27 g, 8.65 mmol). The solution was stirred at 50 to 60 °C for 4.5 h. After removal of the solvent in vacuo, the reaction mixture was subjected to vacuum distillation (oil bath temperature: 120 °C; approx. 0.1 mbar) to give the amine 14 as a colorless oil (1.10 g, 62% over 4 steps).

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 0.43 (s, 9H, Me 3 Si), 1.39 (s, 2H, NH 2 ), 1.82-1.87 (m, 4H, H-2, H-3), 2.53 (t, J= 6.6 Hz, 2H, H-4), 2.98-3.03 (m, 2H, H-l); 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 0.06 (Me 3 Si), 19.62 (C-4), 25.89 (C-3), 32.87 (C-2), 41.65 (C-l), 84.89 (C-6), 107.12 (C-5). IR: v 3371 (s, NH 2 ), 3296 (s, NH 2 ), 3181 (m, NH 2 ), 2957 (vs), 2929 (vs), 2901 (vs), 2860 (vs), 2173 (vs, C≡C), 1596 (m, NH 2 ), 1455 (m), 1431 (m), 1408 (m), 1364 (w), 1326 (m), 1249 (vs, Me 3 Si), 1051 (m), 1027 (m), 998 (w), 937 (m), 842 (vs, Me 3 Si), 760 (vs, Me 3 Si), 698 (s), 639 (s), 619 (vw), 461 (s) cm "1 . Synthesis of intermediate 15

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-0-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy]-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy]-5-methyl-cy clohexanecarboxylic acid

Ester 1 (268 mg, 0.355 mmol) was dissolved in a 1 M solution of NaOH in H 2 0/MeOH 1 : 1 (8 mL) and stirred at r.t. for 3 h. The reaction was stopped by addition of 0.5 M aq. HC1 (1.6 mL), and the solvent was removed in vacuo. The residue was purified using preparative HPLC-MS (H 2 0/MeCN + 0.2% HCOOH) yielding diacid 15 as a white powder (207 mg, 79%). The starting material was partially recovered (25 mg, 9%>).

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.50-0.75 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.86-0.97 (m,

1H, Cy), 1.11 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.06-1.16 (m, 2H, H-6 a , H-2 a ), 1.33 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H, Fuc H-6), 1.19-1.38 (m, 5H, 5Cy), 1.38-1.47 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 a ), 1.47-1.56 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 b ), 1.56-1.72 (m, 2H, Cy, H-5), 1.78(d, J= 12.8 Hz, 1H, H-6), 2.29-2.40 (m, 2H, H-2, H-l), 3.11 (t, J= 9.5 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.58 (t, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.64-3.80 (m, 6H, Gal H-3, H-3, Fuc H-2, 2Gal H-6, Fuc H-4), 3.85 (dd, J= 3.0, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.96 (s, 1H, Gal H-4), 4.03-4.08 (m, 1H, Lac H-2), 4.71 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.93-4.97 (m, 1H, Fuc H-l), 4.99 (dd, J= 6.1, 12.6 Hz, 1H, Fuc H- 5), 5.44 (t, J= 8.8 Hz, 1H, Gal H-2), 7.46-7.52 (m, 2H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.58-7.64 (m, 1H, C 6 H 5 ), 8.04-8.11 (m, 2Η, C 6 H 5 ); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.70 (Fuc C-6), 19.20 (Me), 26.53 (Cy), 26.72 (Cy), 27.28 (Cy), 33.08 (Cy), 34.17 (Cy), 35.05 , 35.08 (2C, Cy, C- 2), 37.10 (C-6), 39.20 (C-5), 41.38 (C-l), 42.78 (Lac C-), 62.68 (Gal C-6), 67.70 , 67.75 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.32 (Fuc C-2), 71.44 (Fuc C-3), 73.01 (Gal C-2), 73.97 (Fuc C-4), 75.89 (Gal C-5), 77.91 (Lac C-2), 79.95 (C-3), 83.16 (C-4), 83.67 (Gal C-3), 100.49 (Fuc C-l), 100.61 (Gal C-l), 129.68 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.92 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.53 (C 6 H 5 ), 134.35 (C 6 H 5 ), 166.94 (0(C=0)Ph), 177.88 (cHex COOH), 178.89 (Lac COOH);

elemental analysis calcd (%) for (758.80): C 56.98, H 7.14; found: C 57.09/57.08, H 6.93/6.97; [a] D 20 = -67.2 (c = 0.40, MeOH); IR (KBr): v = 3433 (vs, OH), 2927 (s), 2854 (m) 1720 (vs, C=0), 1638 (w), 1450 (m), 1339 (m), 1316 (m), 1272 (vs), 1207 (m), 1167 (m), 1 111 (vs), 1079 (vs), 999 (m), 967 (w), 846 (w), 806 (vw), 771 (vw) 712 (s), 677 (w), 628 (w), 559 (w) cm "1 .

General procedure I for the synthesis of intermediates 16-19

The carboxyl group attached to the cyclohexanediole ring (cHex COOH) in 15 can selectively be converted into an active ester using HBTU/HOBt in presence of the lactic acid carboxyl group (Lac COOH). This finding was exploited for the attachment of the alkyne linker to the cyclohexanediole ring as described below.

Dicarboxylic acid 15 (1 equiv.) and HOBt (3 equiv.) were dissolved in anhydrous DMF (approx. 0.025 M) under argon. HBTU (1.1-1.2 equiv.) was added and the solution was stirred at r.t. for 5 min. An excess of alkyne amine (approx. 10% v/v) was added, and stirring was continued until no further consumption of starting material was observed in MS (after 1.5 to 3 h). The solvent was removed in vacuo, and the residue was purified by preparative HPLC-MS (H 2 0/MeCN + 0.2 % HCOOH), and the desired monoamide was isolated based on its retention time (tR( C Hex amide) > ¼Lac amide)). The identity of the amide was verified by 2D HMBC spectra (coupling of linker and cyclohexyl protons to the amide C=0). General procedure II for the synthesis of products 20-23

To an approx. 0.03 mM solution of TMS-protected alkyne amide (1 equiv.) in anhydrous THF, TBAF (2 equiv.; 1 M solution in THF) was added at r.t. under argon. The solution was stirred for 1 to 2 h, and the solvent was removed in vacuo. The residue was purified by RP-18 chromatography (water/MeOH) or preparative HPLC-MS (H 2 0/MeCN + 0.2 % HCOOH).

Synthesis of intermediate 16

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-0-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy]-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy]-5-methyl-N- [3-(trimethylsilyl)prop- 2-yn- 1 -yl] cyclohexanecarboxamide

Following general procedure I, dicarboxylic acid 15 (100 mg,

0.135 mmol), HOBt (55.2 mg, 0.408 mmol), HBTU (53.6 mg, 0.141 mmol) and alkyne amine 11 (500 μί) were stirred at r.t. for 3 h to afford the desired monoamide 16 as a white solid (41 mg, 35%). The starting material (15) was partially recovered (28 mg, 28%).

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.15 (s, 9H, TMS-H), 0.52-0.75 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.91 (d, J= 12.6 Hz, 1H, Cy), 1.10 (d, J= 6.3 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.14-1.39 (m, 10H,H- 2a, H-6 a , 5Cy, Fuc H-6), 1.39-1.47 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 a ), 1.47-1.55 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 b ), 1.55-1.71 (m, 3H, Cy, H-6 b , H-5), 2.12-2.18 (m, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.27 (s, 1H, H-l), 3.14 (t, J = 9.5 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.57 (t, J= 5.7 Hz, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.62-3.81 (m, 6H, Gal H-3, H-3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, Gal H-6), 3.83-3.90 (m, 2H, Fuc H-3, H-l' a ), 3.92-3.99 (m, 2H, Gal H-4, H-l' b ), 4.04 (dd, J= 2.7, 9.5 Hz, 1H, Lac H-2), 4.69 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.94-5.00 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.43 (t, J= 8.8 Hz, 1H, Gal H-2), 7.48-7.54 (m, 2H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.59-7.64 (m, 1H, CeHs), 8.03-8.08 (m, 2Η, CeHs). 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ -0.07 (Me 3 Si), 16.69 (Fuc C-6), 19.22 (Me), 26.55 (Cy), 26.68 (Cy), 27.24 (Cy), 30.37 (C-Γ), 33.12 (Cy), 34.17 (Cy), 35.02 (Cy), 35.31 (C-2), 37.25 (C-6), 39.25 (C-5), 42.73 (Lac C-3), 42.87 (C-1), 62.71 (Gal C-6), 67.68, 67.77 (2C, Fuc C-5, Gal C- 4), 70.30 (Fuc C-2), 71.43 (Fuc C-3), 72.99 (Gal C-2), 73.94 (Fuc C-4), 75.94 (Gal 5- C), 77.99 (Lac C-2), 79.89 (C-3), 83.02 (C-4), 83.68 (Gal C-3), 87.81 (C-3 * ), 100.41 (Fuc C-1), 100.54 (Gal C-1), 103.04 (C-2'), 129.74 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.87 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.53 (C 6 H 5 ), 134.34 (C 6 H 5 ), 166.84 (0(C=0)Ph), 176.41 (CONH), 178.81 (COOH); MS: m/z calcd. for C 4 2H 63 NOi 5 Si [M-H] ~ : 848.39; found: 848.54.

Synthesis of intermediate 17

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy]-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy]-5-methyl-N- [4-(trimethylsilyl)but-3- yn- 1 -yl] cyclohexanecarboxamide

Following general procedure I, dicarboxylic acid 15 (31.7 mg,

0.0428 mmol), HOBt (17.7 mg, 0.135 mmol), HBTU (19.1 mg, 0.0504 mmol) and alkyne amine 12 (200 μί) were stirred at r.t. for 1.5 h to afford the desired monoamide 17 as a white solid (30 mg, 70%). The starting material (15) was partially recovered (6.5 mg, 18%).

1H NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.15 (s, 9H, TMS-H), 0.52-0.73 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.91 (d, J= 12.1 Hz, 1H, Cy), 1.11 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.14-1.38 (m, 10H, H- 2a, H-6 a , 5Cy, Fuc H-6), 1.38-1.46 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 a ), 1.47-1.71 (m, 4H, Lac H-3 b , Cy, H-6 b , H-5), 2.09-2.16 (m, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.23-2.30 (m, 1H, H-l), 2.32-2.38 (m, 2H, H-2'), 3.11-3.20 (m, 2H, H-4, H-l' a ), 3.20-3.28 (m, 1H, H-l' b ), 3.55 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 1H, Gal H- 5), 3.63 (dd, J= 2.8, 9.7 Hz, 1H, Gal H-3), 3.66-3.81 (m, 5H, H-3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, Gal H-6), 3.86 (dd, J= 3.2, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.97 (d, J= 2.1 Hz, 1H, Gal H-4), 4.05 (dd, J= 2.6, 9.7 Hz, 1H, Lac H-2), 4.67 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.97-5.02 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.44 (dd, J= 8.5, 9.3 Hz, 1H, Gal H-2), 7.48-7.53 (m, 2H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.60-7.65 (m, 1Η, CeHs), 7.94 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 1H, CONH), 8.04-8.09 (m, 2Η, C 6 H 5 ). 13 C NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.30 (Me 3 Si), 16.70 (Fuc C-6), 19.26 (Me), 21.02 (C-2'), 26.53 (Cy), 26.68 (Cy), 27.23 (Cy), 33.07 (Cy), 34.14 (Cy), 35.02 (Cy), 35.51 (C-2), 37.33 (C-6), 39.24 (C-5), 39.29 (C-Γ), 42.72 (Lac C-3), 43.11 (C-1), 62.69 (Gal C-6), 67.66, 67.73 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.26 (Fuc C-2), 71.38 (Fuc C-3),

72.94 (Gal C-2), 73.93 (Fuc C-4), 75.94 (Gal C-5), 77.93 (Lac C-2), 79.86 (C-3), 82.96 (C-4), 83.62 (Gal C-3), 86.23 (C-4'), 100.41 (Fuc C-1), 100.56 (Gal C-1), 105.35 (C-3 * ), 129.73 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.87 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.48 (C 6 H 5 ), 134.37 (C 6 H 5 ), 166.78 (0(C=0)Ph), 177.06 (CONH), 178.71 (COOH); MS: m/z: calcd. for C 4 3H 65 NOi 5 Si [M-H] ~ : 862.41; found: 862.38.

Synthesis of intermediate 18

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy]-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy]-5-methyl-N- [5-(trimethylsilyl)pent- 4-yn- 1 -yl] cyclohexanecarboxamide

Following general procedure I, dicarboxylic acid 15 (120 mg,

0.159 mmol), HOBt (67 mg, 0.496 mmol), HBTU (74 mg, 0.195 mmol) and alkyne amine 13 (520 μί) were stirred at r.t. for 2 h to afford the desired monoamide 18 as a white solid (57 mg, 40%). The starting material (15) was partially recovered (23 mg, 19%).

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.13 (s, 9H, TMS-H), 0.51-0.62 (m, 1H, Cy), 0.62-0.73 (m, 3H, Cy), 0.85-0.96 (m, 1H, Cy), 1.11 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.15- 1.38 (m, 10H, H-2 a , H-6 a , 5Cy, Fuc H-6), 1.37-1.44 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 a ), 1.47-1.55 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 b ), 1.55-1.69 (m, 6H, Cy, H-6 b , H-5, H-2'), 2.12 (d, J= 11.1 Hz, 1H, H-2), 2.22 (t, J= 7.2 Hz, 3H, H-3 * , H-l), 3.10-3.24 (m, 3H, Η-Γ, H-4), 3.56 (t, J= 5.7 Hz, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.62 (dd, J= 2.9, 9.7 Hz, 1H, Gal H-3), 3.65-3.81 (m, 5H, H-3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, Gal H-6), 3.87 (dd, J= 3.3, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.96 (d, J= 7.1 Hz, 2H, Lac H-2, Gal H-4), 4.68 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.95-5.02 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.43 (dd, J= 8.3, 9.4 Hz, 1H, Gal H-2), 7.48-7.53 (m, 2H, CeHs), 7.59-7.64 (m, 1H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.77 (t, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H, CONH), 8.04-8.08 (m, 2Η, C 6 H 5 ); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.23 (TMS-C), 16.72 (Fuc C-6), 18.03 (C-2'), 19.22 (Me), 26.56 (Cy), 26.70 (Cy), 27.26 (Cy), 29.64 (C-3 * ), 33.09 (Cy), 34.15 (Cy), 35.06 (Cy), v (C-2), 37.35 (C-6), 39.33 (C-5), 39.43 (C-Γ), 42.76 (Lac C-3), 43.34 (C-1), 62.70 (Gal C-6), 67.69, 67.72 (Gal H-4, Fuc H-5), 70.28 (Fuc C-2), 71.40 (Fuc C-3), 72.96 (Gal C-2), 73.97 (Fuc C-4), 75.93 (Gal 5-C), 77.77 (Lac C-2), 79.90 (C-3), 83.01 (C-4), 83.67 (Gal C-3), 85.42 (C-5 * ), 100.49 (Fuc C-1), 100.56 (Gal C-1), 107.62 (C-4'), 129.79 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.87 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.56 (C 6 H 5 ), 134.41 (C 6 H 5 ), 166.77 (0(C=0)Ph), 177.12 (CONH), 178.75 (COOH); MS: calcd for C 44 H 67 NOi 5 Si [M-H] ~ : 876.42; found: 862.63; [a] D 20 = -61.5 (c = 0.79, MeOH); IR (KBr): v = 3430 (vs, OH), 2927 (s), 2854 (m), 2175 (vw), 1726 (s, C=0), 1650 (m, C=0), 1542 (vw), 1535 (vw), 1450 (w), 1369 (w), 1338 (w), 1315 (w), 1271 (s), 1250 (m), 1166 (w), 1140 (vs), 1079 (vs) 1036 (s), 1001 (w), 969 (vw), 844 (m, Me 3 Si), 760 (vw), 709 (w) cm "1 . Synthesis of intermediate 19

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy]-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy]-5-methyl-N- [6-(trimethylsilyl)hex- 5 -yn- 1 -yl] cyclohexanecarboxamide

Following general procedure I, dicarboxylic acid 15 (47 mg,

0.0634 mmol), HOBt (26 mg, 0.192 mmol), HBTU (29 mg, 0.0765 mmol) and alkyne amine 14 (200 μί) were stirred at r.t. for 2 h to afford the desired monoamide 19 as a white solid (25 mg, 44%). The starting material (15) was partially recovered (5.5 mg, 12%).

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.12 (s, 9H, TMS-H), 0.51-0.75 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.86-0.96 (m, 1H, Cy), 1.11 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.15-1.28 (m, 3H, H-6 a , H-2 a , Cy), 1.27-1.38 (m, 7H, Fuc H-6, Cy), 1.38-1.45 (m, 1H, Lac H3 a ), 1.45-1.62 (m, 7H, Lac H3 b , H-3 * , H-2', H-6 b , Cy), 1.62-1.71 (m, 1H, H-5), 2.08-2.14 (m, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.21- 2.28 (m, 3H, H-4', H-l), 3.08-3.12 (m, 2H, Η-Γ), 3.15 (t, J= 9.6 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.56 (t, J= 5.9 Hz, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.65 (dd, J= 2.7, 9.8 Hz, 1H, Gal H-3), 3.67-3.81 (m, 5H, H- 3, Fuc H-2, Gal H-6), 3.86 (dd, J= 3.2, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.96 (d, J= 2.3 Hz, 1H, Gal H-4), 4.06 (dd, J= 2.7, 9.7 Hz, 1H, Lac H-2), 4.69 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.95-5.01 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.43 (t, J= 8.9 Hz, 1H, Gal H-2), 7.48-7.53 (m, 2H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.60-7.65 (m, 1Η, CeHs), 7.77 (t, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H, CONH), 8.05-8.08 (m, 2Η, C 6 H 5 ); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.28 (TMS-C), 16.71 (Fuc C-6), 19.25 (Me), 20.07 (C-4'), 26.53 (Cy), 26.68 (Cy), 26.96 (C3 * ), 27.24 (Cy), 29.54 (C-2'), 33.11 (Cy), 34.15 (Cy), 35.02 (Cy), 35.36 (C-2), 37.51 (C-6), 39.33 (C-5), 39.70 (C-Γ), 42.72 (Lac C-3), 43.31 (C-1), 62.71 (Gal C-6), 67.69 (Gal C-4), 67.74 (Fuc C-5), 70.27 (Fuc C-2), 71.39 (Fuc C-3), 72.99 (Gal C-2), 73.95 (Fuc C-4), 75.92 (Gal C-5), 77.85 (Lac C-2), 79.84 (C-3), 83.00 (C-4), 83.63 (Gal C-3), 85.22 (C-6 * ), 100.44 (Fuc C-1), 100.52 (Gal C-1), 108.17 (C-5 * ), 129.76 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.85 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.53 (C 6 H 5 ), 134.40 (C 6 H 5 ), 166.78 (0(C=0)Ph), 176.96 (CONH), 178.72 (COOH).

Synthesis of product 20

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy]-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy]-5-methyl-N- (prop-2-yn- 1 - yl)cyclohexanecarboxamide

Following general procedure II, 16 (49 mg, 0.0576 mmol) was reacted with TBAF (115 μί, 0.115 mmol) in 2 mL anhydrous THF. After purification with preparative HPLC-MS, 36 mg (80%) of 20 was obtained as a white solid.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.52-0.75 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.85-0.97 (m,

IH, Cy), 1.11 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.14-1.27 (4 Cy, H-6 a , H-2 a ), 1.27-1.38 (m, 4H, Cy), 1.34 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H, Fuc H-6a), 1.38-1.46 (m, IH, Lac H-3 a ), 1.51 (ddd, J = 3.9, 10.1, 13.7 Hz, IH, Lac H-3 b ), 1.54-1.71 (m, 3H, H-6 b , Cy, H-5), 2.11-2.18 (m, IH, H-2 b ), 2.22-2.31 (m, IH, H-l), 2.59 (t, J= 2.3 Hz, IH, H-3 * ), 3.14 (t, J= 9.5 Hz, IH, H- 4), 3.57 (t, J= 5.9 Hz, Gal H-5), 3.65 (dd, J= 2.94, 9.77 Hz, IH, Gal H-3), 3.67-3.92 (m, 8H, H-3, Fuc H-4, 2 Gal H-6, Fuc H-3, 2 Η-Γ), 3.96 (d, J= 2.2 Hz, IH, Gal H-4), 4.05 (dd, J= 2.7, 9.6 Hz, IH, Lac H-2), 4.69 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, IH, Gal H-l), 4.96-5.00 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.42-5.45 (m, IH, Gal H-2), 7.48-7.51 (m, 2H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.60- 7.63 (m, 1Η, C 6 H 5 ), 8.05-8.06 (m, 2Η, C 6 H 5 ); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.70 (Fuc C-6), 19.22 (Me), 26.51 (Cy), 26.68 (Cy), 27.25 (Cy), 29.39 (C-Γ), 33.12 (Cy), 34.17 (Cy), 35.02 (Cy), 35.25 (C-2), 37.25 (C-6), 39.26 (C-5), 42.72 (Lac C-3), 42.93 (C-1), 62.72 (Gal C-6), 67.69, 67.78 (2C, Fuc C-5, Gal C-4), 70.31 (Fuc C-2), 71.42 (Fuc C-3), 72.17 (C-3 * ), 72.98 (Gal C-2), 73.95 (Fuc C-4), 75.94 (Gal 5-C), 77.96 (Lac C-2), 79.86 (C-3), 80.67 (C-2'), 83.00 (C-4), 83.65 (Gal C-3), 100.42 (Fuc C-1), 100.55 (Gal C-1), 129.74 (), 130.86 (), 131.51 (), 134.38 (6C, C 6 H 5 ), 166.85 (0(C=0)Ph),

176.52 (CONH), 178.75 (COOH); [a] D 20 = -67.5 (c = 1.6 , MeOH); IR (KBr): v = 3436 (vs, OH), 3308 (s, C≡C), 2927 (s), 2851 (m), 1727 (s, C=0), 1651 (m, C=0), 1534 (w), 1450 (m), 1341 (m), 1314 (m), 1270 (s), 1160 (m), 1111 (vs), 1079 (vs), 1030 (s), 966 (w), 773 (w), 712 (m), 674 (w), 631 (w) cm "1 . Synthesis of product 21

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy] -N-(but-3 -yn- 1 -yl)-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy] -5 -methyl- cyclohexanecarboxamide Following general procedure II, 17 (80 mg, 0.0925 mmol) was reacted with TBAF (185 μί, 0.185 mmol) in 3.5 mL anhydrous THF. After purification with RP-18 chromatography, 68 mg (93%) of 21 was obtained as a white solid.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.53-0.76 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.86-0.97 (m, 1H, Cy), 1.11 (d, J= 6.3 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.14-1.27 (m, 3 H, Cy, H-6 a , H-2 a ), 1.27-1.38 (m, 4H, Cy), 1.34 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H, Fuc H-6), 1.38-1.46 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 a ), 1.46-1.54 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 b ), 1.54-1.73 (m, 3H, H-6 b , Cy, H-5), 2.13 (d, J= 11.8 Hz, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.21-2.32 (m, 4H, H-l, 2 H-2', H-4'), 3.15 (t, J= 9.5 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.18-3.27 (m, 2H, Η-Γ), 3.54-3.59 (m, 1 H, Gal H-5), 3.63-3.82 (m, 6H, Gal H-3, H-3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, 2 Gal H-6), 3.87 (dd, J= 3.1, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.96 (d, J= 1.8 Hz, 1H, Gal H-4), 4.05 (dd, J= 2.7, 9.6 Hz, 1H, Lac H-l), 4.68 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.94-5.92 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.41-5.45 (m, 1H, Gal H-2), 7.48-7.51, 7.61-7.64, (2 m, 3H, C 6 H 5 ), 8.06-8.07 (m, 2H, C 6 H 5 ); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.69 (Fuc C-6), 19.25 (Me), 19.77 (C2'), 26.50 (Cy), 26.67 (Cy), 27.24 (Cy), 33.13 (Cy), 34.16 (Cy), 35.00 (Cy), 35.44 (C-2), 37.36 (C-6), 39.27 (C-5), 39.33 (C-Γ), 42.71 (Lac C-3), 43.18 (C-1), 62.72 (Gal C-6), 67.68, 67.77 (2C, Fuc C-5, Gal C-4), 70.31 (Fuc C-2), 70.78 (C- 4'), 71.41 (Fuc C-3), 72.99 (Gal C-2), 73.94 (Fuc C-4, 75.93 (Gal C-5), 77.96 (Lac C- 2), 79.87 (C-3), 82.22 (C3 * ), 82.98 (C-4), 83.61 (Gal C-3), 100.40 (Fuc C-1), 100.56 (Gal C-1), 129.71, 130.86, 131.52, 134.36 (6C, C 6 H 5 ), 166.79 (0(C=0)Ph), 177.12 (CONH), 178.74 (COOH); [a] D 20 = -72.8 (c = 1.15 , MeOH); IR (KBr): v = 3435 (s), 331 l(s, C≡C), 2927 (s), 2853 (m), 2115 (vw), 1727 (s, C=0), 1648 (m, C=0), 1544 (w), 1450 (m), 1364 (m), 1340 (m), 1315 (m), 1270 (s), 1221 (m), 1166 (m), 1111 (vs), 1073 (vs), 1031 (s), 999 (m), 966 (m), 901 (vw), 867 (vw), 806 (vw), 770 (w), 712 (m), 675 (w), 632 (w) cm "1 . Synthesis of product 22

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy] -4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy] -5 -methyl-N-(pent-4-yn- 1 - yl)cyclohexanecarboxamide Following general procedure II, 18 (77 mg, 0.0877 mmol) was reacted with TBAF (175 μί, 0.175 mmol) in 3.5 mL anhydrous THF. After purification with RP-18 chromatography, 69 mg (98%) of 22 was obtained as a white solid.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.50-0.61 (m, 1 H, Cy), 0.61-0.75 (m, 3 H, Cy), 0.86-0.97 (m, 1 H, Cy), 1.11 (d, J = 6.5 Hz, 3 H, Me), 1.15-1.26 (m, 3 H, Cy, H-6 a , H-2 a ), 1.27-1.38 (m, 4H, Cy), 1.34 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H, Fuc H-6) 1.39-1.49 (m, 1 H, Lac H-3 b ), 1.51 (ddd, J= 3.8, 10.1, 13.7 Hz, 1 H, Lac H-3 a ), 1.55-1.61 (m, 2 H, Cy, H-6 b ), 1.61-1.71 (m, 3 H, H-2', H-5), 2.08-2.15 (m, 1 H, H-2 b ), 2.18 (td, J= 2.6, 7.2 Hz, 2 H, H-3 * ), 2.20-2.28 (m, 1 H, H-l), 2.29 (t, J= 2.6 Hz, 1 H, H-5 * ), 3.14 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 1 H, H-4), 3.14-3.24 (m, 2 H, Η-Γ), 3.54-3.59 (m, 1 H, Gal H-5), 3.64-3.80 (m, 6 H, Gal H-3, H-3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, 2 Gal H-6), 3.86 (dd, J= 3.2, 10.3 Hz, 1 H, Fuc H-3), 3.96 (d, J= 2.3 Hz, 1 H, Gal H-4), 4.04 (dd, J= 2.6, 9.8 Hz, 1 H, Lac H-2), 4.69 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1 H, Gal H-l), 4.96 (d, J= 4.0 Hz, 1 H, Fuc H-l), 4.98-5.01 (m, 1 H, Fuc H-5), 5.43 (dd, J= 8.6, 9.2 Hz, 1 H, Gal H-2), 7.49-7.52, 7.61-7.64 (2 m, 3 H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.80 (t, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H, CONH), 8.05-8.07 (m, 2 Η, C 6 H 5 ); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.66, 16.71 (2 C, C-3 * , Fuc C-6), 19.23 (Me), 26.53, 26.70 (2 C, Cy), 27.27 (Cy), 29.48 (C-2'), 33.11, 34.17 (2 C, Cy), 35.06, 35.47 (2 C, Cy, C-2)), 37.39 (C-6), 39.31, 39.39 (2 C, C-r, C-5), 42.79 (Lac C-3), 43.31 (C-l), 62.75 (Gal C-6), 67.70, 67.74 (2 C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.10, 70,29 (2 C, Fuc C-2, C-5 * ), 71.40 (Fuc C-3), 72.99 (Gal C- 2), 73.96 (Fuc C-4), 75.95 (Gal C-5), 78.01 (Lac C-2), 79.89 (C-3), 83.00 (C-4), 83.65 (Gal C-3), 84.23 (C-4'), 100.46 (Fuc C-l), 100.57 (Gal C-l), 129.76, 130.85, 131.54, 134.42 (6 C, C 6 H 5 ), 166.8 (0(C=0)Ph), 177.10 (CONH), 179.01 (COOH); [a] D 20 = - 66.4 (c = 2.07 , MeOH); IR (KBr): v = 3443 (vs, OH), 2928 (s, C≡C), 2115 (vw), 1726 (s, C=0), 1648 (m, C=0), 1544 (w), 1450 (m), 1270 (s), 1166 (m), 1111 (s), 1078 (vs), 1031 (s), 966 (s), 712 (m) cm "1 . Synthesis of product 23

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy]-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy]-N-(hex-5-yn -l-yl)-5-methyl- cyclohexanecarboxamide Following general procedure II, 19 (25 mg, 0.0280 mmol) was reacted with TBAF (84 μΐ ^ , 0.0840 mmol) in 1 mL anhydrous THF. After purification with preparative HPLC-MS, 20 mg (87%) of 23 was obtained as a white solid.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.51-0.75 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.86-0.97 (m, 1H, Cy), 1.11 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.16-1.27 (m, 3H, H-6 a , H-2 a , Cy), 1.27-1.38 (m, 7H, Fuc H-6, Cy), 1.38-1.45 (m, 1H, Lac H3 a ), 1.46-1.62 (m, 7H, Lac H3 b , H-3 * , H-2', H-6 b , Cy), 1.63-1.71 (m, 1H, H-5), 2.08-2.15 (m, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.16-2.30 (m, 4H, H-4', H- 6 * , H-l), 3.05-3.13 (m, 2H, Η-Γ), 3.15 (t, J= 9.5 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.57 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.63-3.82 (m, 6H, Gal H-3, H-3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, Gal H-6), 3.87 (dd, J = 2.9, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.94-3.98 (m, 1H, Gal H-4), 4.02-4.07 (m, 1H, Lac H-2), 4.69 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.95-5.03 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.44 (t, J= 8.9 Hz, 1H, Gal H-2), 7.47-7.53 (m, 2H, CeHs), 7.60-7.65 (m, 1Η, C 6 H 5 ), 8.04-8.09 (m, 2Η, C 6 H 5 ); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.71 (Fuc C-6), 18.70 (C-4'), 19.25 (Me), 26.52 (Cy), 26.68 (Cy), 26.90 (C3 * ), 27.25 (Cy), 29.46 (C-2'), 33.12 (Cy), 34.16 (Cy), 35.04 (Cy), 35.36 (C-2), 37.50 (C-6), 39.33 (C-5), 39.68 (C-Γ), 42.77 (Lac C-3), 43.32 (C-1), 62.74 (Gal C-6), 67.69 (Gal C-4), 67.75 (Fuc C-5), 69.85 (C-6 * ), 70.29 (Fuc C-2), 71.40 (Fuc C-3), 72.98 (Gal C-2), 73.94 (Fuc C-4), 75.94 (Gal C-5), 78.02 (Lac C-2), 79.83 (C-3), 83.00 (C-4), 83.64 (Gal C-3), 84.70 (C-5 * ), 100.42 (Fuc C-1), 100.51 (Gal C-1), 129.73 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.85 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.54 (C 6 H 5 ), 134.38 (C 6 H 5 ), 166.79

(0(C=0)Ph), 176.96 (CONH), 178.99 (COOH); IR (KBr): v = 3436 (s, OH), 2928 (s), 2868 (m), 1731 (s, C=0), 1653 (m), 1550 (w), 1451 (m), 1350 (w), 1298 (m), 1270 (s), 1114 (vs), 1078 (vs), 1034 (s), 996 (w), 966 (w), 712 (m) cm "1 . EXAMPLE 2

SYNTHESIS OF THE INDOLE DERIVATIVES (FIGURE 4 AND FIGURE 5)

Synthesis of intermediate 24

1 -(2-Bromoethyl)-5-nitro- lH-indole 5-nitro-lH-indole (1.00 g, 6.17 mmol) was added to powdered KOH

(431 mg, 7.68 mmol) dissolved in DMF (40 mL) at r.t.. To this, 1 ,2-dibromoethane (1.55 mL, 18.5 mmol) was quickly added, and the solution was stirred for 25 h. Water (100 mL) was added to the reaction mixture, and it was extracted with Et 2 0 (3 x 100 mL). The organic phases were washed with 0.5 M aq. HCl, satd. NaHC0 3 , and brine (60 mL). The organic layer was dried over Na 2 S0 4 , and the solvent was removed under reduced pressure. Silica gel chromatography (EtOAc in petrol ether, gradient 0 to 85%) afforded 24 (198 mg, 19%) as a yellow solid. Approximately 600 mg of the starting material was recovered.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 3.68 (t, J= 6.6 Hz, 2H, Η-Γ), 4.59 (t, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H, H-2'), 6.71-6.74 (m, 1H, H-3), 7.29-7.33 (m, 1H, H-2), 7.36-7.40 (m, 1H, H-7), 8.13-8.17 (m, 1H, H-6), 8.59-8.64 (m, 1H, H-4).

Synthesis of intermediate 25

1 -(3-Bromopropyl)-5-nitro- lH-indole

5-nitro-lH-indole (2.01 g, 12.3 mmol) was added to powdered KOH (0.692 g, 12.3 mmol) dissolved in DMF (100 mL) at r.t., leading to a red solution. To this, dibromopropane (3.77 mL, 37.0 mmol) was quickly added, accompanied by a color change to yellow. After 40 min, additional 0.5 mL (4.90 mmol) of

dibromopropane was added, whereupon some precipitation occurred. After 17 h of stirring at r.t., water (200 mL) was added to the reaction mixture, and it was extracted with Et 2 0 (3 x 200 mL). The organic phases were washed with 0.5 M aq. HCl, satd. NaHC0 3 , and brine (100 mL). The organic layers were dried over Na 2 S0 4 , and the solvent was removed under reduced pressure. Silica gel chromatography (EtOAc in petrol ether, gradient 0 to 85%) afforded 25 as a yellow crystals (1.59 g, 46%). 0.565 g (28%) of the starting material was recovered.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 2.35-2.41 (m, 2H, H-2'), 3.30-3.33 (m, 2H, H-3 * ), 4.40 (t, J= 6.5 Hz, 2H, Η-Γ), 6.70 (m, 1H, H-3), 7.30-7.32 (m, 1H, H-2), 7.40-7.43 (m, 1H, H-7), 8.10-8.13 (m, 1H, H-6), 8.57 (m, 1H, H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 30.05 (C-3'), 32.70 (C-2'), 44.53 (C-l '), 104.54 (C-3), 109.33 (C-7), 117.52 (C-6), 118.42 (C-4), 127.92 (C-9), 131.22 (C-2), 138.84 (C-8), 141.79 (C-5); elemental analysis calcd (%) for CnHnBrN 2 0 2 (283.12): C 53.87, H 4.52, N 28.56; found: C 53.86/53.77, H 4.71/4.65, N 28.29/28.32; IR (KBr): v = 1606 (vw), 1577 (vw), 1511 (s, N0 2 ), 1480 (m), 1459 (m), 1431 (vw), 1404 (w), 1331 (vs, N0 2 ), 1296 (s), 1253 (m), 1226 (m), 1183 (w), 1157 (w), 1068 (m), 975 (vw), 934 (vw), 902 (w), 816 (w), 768 (w), 749 (s) cm "1 .

Synthesis of intermediate 26

1 -(4-Bromobutyl)-5-nitro- lH-indole To a solution of 5-nitro-lH-indole (2.00 g, 12.3 mmol) in anhydrous

EtOAc (20 mL) was added K 2 C0 3 (3.39 g, 24.5 mmol) and TBAB (4.76 g, 14.8 mmol). The suspension was stirred at 50 °C for 30 min followed by the addition of 1,4- dibromobutane (1.74 mL, 14.8 mmol). Stirring was continued under reflux for 21 h. Upon completion of the reaction, water (20 mL) was added to the reaction mixture, the phases were separated, and the aqueous phase was further extracted with EtOAc (2 x 40 mL). The organic layers were washed with 0.5 M aq. HCl, satd. NaHC0 3 , and brine (20 mL), subsequently dried over Na 2 S0 4 and concentrated. The residue was purified using silica gel chromatography (EtOAc in petrol ether) to afford bromide 26 as a yellow solid (1.67 g, 46%).

1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 1.83-1.90 (m, 2H, H-2'), 2.02-2.09 (m,

2H, H-3 * ), 3.40 (t, J= 6.4 Hz, 2H, H-4'), 4.22 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H, Η-Γ), 6.68-6.71 (m, 1H, H-3), 7.24-7.25 (m, 1H, H-2), 7.34-7.38 (m, 1H, H-7), 8.11-8.15 (m, 1H, H-6), 8.58-8.61 (m, 1H, H-4). Synthesis of product 27

l-(2-Azidoethyl)-5-nitro-lH-indole

NaN 3 (69.6 mg, 1.07 mmol) was added to a solution of bromide 24

(198 mg, 0.736 mmol) in DMF (2 mL), and the resulting suspension was stirred at 60 °C. After 12 h, water (10 mL) was added, and the reaction mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 20 mL). The organic layers were washed with water and brine (10 mL) and subsequently dried over Na 2 S0 4 . Silica gel chromatography (EtOAc in petrol ether) afforded azide 27 (90 mg, 52%) as a yellow solid.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 3.76 (t, J= 5.6 Hz, 2H, H-2'), 4.48 (t, J= 5.6 Hz, 2H, H-l '), 6.77-6.83 (m, 1H, H-3), 7.66-7.70 (m, 1H, H-2), 7.74-7.80 (m, 1H, H-7), 8.02-8.08 (m, 1H, H-6)), 8.54-8.62 (m, 1H, H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, DMSO-d6): 5 45.32 (C-1 '), 50.66 (C-2'), 104.18 (C-3), 110.51 (C-7), 116.53 (C-6), 117.59 (C-4), 127.50 (C-9), 132.56 (C-2), 138.95 (C-8), 140.86 (C-5).

Synthesis of product 28

1 -(3-Azidopropyl)-5-nitro- lH-indole

NaN 3 (434 mg, 6.68 mmol) was added to a solution of bromide 25

(1.34 g, 4.73 mmol) in DMF (10 mL), and the resulting suspension was stirred at 55 °C. After 12 h, water (20 mL) was added, and the reaction mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 30 mL). The organic layers were washed with water and brine (20 mL) and subsequently dried over Na 2 S0 4 . Silica gel chromatography (EtOAc in petrol ether) afforded azide 28 (950 mg, 82%) as a yellow solid.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 2.03 (p, J= 6.8 Hz, 2H, H-2'), 3.32 (t, J= 6.7 Hz, 2H, H-3 * ), 4.34 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H, Η-Γ), 6.76-6.79 (m, 1H, H-3), 7.65- 7.69 (m, 1H, H-2), 7.69-7.75 (m, 1H, H-7), 8.01-8.07 (m, 1H, H-6), 8.58 (s, 1H, H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 28.97 (C-2'), 43.30 (C-Γ), 48.00 (C-3 * ), 103.91 (C- 3), 110.32 (C-7), 116.46 (C-6), 117.64 (C-4), 127.36 (C-9), 132.50 (C-2), 138.68 (C-5), 140.73 (C-5). Synthesis of product 29

l-(4-Azidobutyl)-5-nitro-lH-indole

NaN 3 (531 mg, 8.17 mmol) was added to a solution of bromide 26

(1.60 g, 5.38 mmol) in DMF (5 mL), and the resulting suspension was stirred at 55 °C. After 14 h, water (10 mL) was added, and the reaction mixture was extracted with

EtOAc (3 x 20 mL). The organic layers were washed with water and brine (10 mL) and subsequently dried over Na 2 S0 4 . Silica gel chromatography (EtOAc in petrol ether) afforded azide 29 (1.10 g, 79%) as a yellow solid.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 1.43-1.50 (m, 2H, H-3'), 1.78-1.85 (m, 2H, H-2'), 3.31-3.38 (m, 2H, H-4'), 4.30 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H, H-l '), 6.74-6.77 (m, 1H, H-3), 7.66-7.68 (m, 1H, H-2), 7.71-7.75 (m, 1H, H-7), 8.00-8.05 (m, 1H, H-6), 8.56-8.58 (m, 1H, H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 25.63 (C-3'), 27.10 (C-2'), 45.44 (C-l '), 50.15 (C-4'), 103.70 (C-3), 110.40 (C-7), 116.37 (C-6), 117.64 (C-4), 127.32 (C-9), 132.55 (C-2), 138.67 (C-8), 140.66 (C-5); elemental analysis calcd (%) for Ci 2 Hi 3 N 5 0 2 (259.26): C 55.59, H 5.05, N 27.01; found C 55.66/55.64, H 5.20/5.21, N 26.81/26.79.

Synthesis of intermediate 30

(5-Nitro- lH-indol- 1 -yl)methanol

5-nitro-lH-indole (995 mg, 6.14 mmol) and K 2 C0 3 (396 mg,

2.87 mmol) were dissolved in EtOH in a bomb tube. The solution was stirred at 60 °C for 5 min, and 8 mL of freshly prepared ~30% aq. methanal (preparation: 3.00 g paraformaldehyde and 0.901 g of K 2 C0 3 were suspended in 10 mL H 2 0 and stirred at 60 °C until complete dissolution of the paraformaldehyde) were added. Stirring was continued at 60 °C for another 20 min. After removal of the solvent, the crude mixture was redissolved in EtOAc and adsorbed on silica gel. The adsorbed material was subjected to silica gel chromatography (EtOAc in petrol ether, gradient 30 to 70%) to afford alcohol 30 as a yellow solid (784 mg, 66%>).

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 5.62 (s, 2H, Η-Γ), 6.67-6.72 (m, 1H, H- 3), 7.48-7.52 (m, 1H, H-2), 7.60-7.65 (m, 1H, H-7), 8.05-8.10 (m, 1H, H-6), 8.50-8.54 (m, 1H, H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 70.45 (C-Γ), 105.21 (C-3), 111.17 (C- 7), 117.95 (C-6), 118.54 (C-4), 129.92 (C-9), 132.41 (C-2), 140.12 (C-8), 143.16 (C-5); elemental analysis calcd (%) for C 9 H 8 N 2 0 3 (192.17): C 56.25, H H 4.20, N 14.58;

found: C 56.14/56.35; H H 4.21/4.20; N 14.60/14.72; IR (KBr): v = 3486 (vs, OH), 1609 (w), 1580 (vw), 1512 (s, N0 2 ), 1466 (m), 1399 (w), 1331 (vs, N0 2 ), 1279 (s), 1206 (w), 1147 (vw), 1100 (w), 1073 (w), 1040 (s), 988 (vw), 894 (vw), 814 (vw), 763 (vw), 744 (s), 722 (vw) cm "1 .

Synthesis of product 31

l-(Azidomethyl)-5-nitro-lH-indole Alcohol 30 (770 mg, 4.01 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous THF

(13 mL) under argon. At -15 °C (ice-salt bath), MeS0 2 Cl (0.312 mL, 4.01 mmol) and Et 3 N (1.1 mL, 8.02 mmol) were added. After 10 min, the ice bath was removed and stirring was continued for 1 h, when 15-Crown-5 (0.397 mL, 2.01 mmol) and NaN 3 (521 mg, 8.02 mmol) were added to the solution. After another 5 h, the solvent was removed. The crude mixture was dissolved in EtOAc (75 mL) and H 2 0 (50 mL). The two phases were separated, and the organic phase was washed with brine (50 mL). The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over Na 2 S0 4 , and the solvent was removed under reduced pressure. After silica gel chromatography (EtOAc in petrol ether, gradient 20 to 70%), the azide 31 was obtained as yellow crystals (297 mg, 34%). Furthermore, 30 mg of 5-nitro-lH-indole and 42 mg (5%) of the starting material were isolated.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 5.51 (s, 2H, Η-Γ), 6.75-6.79 (m, 1H, H- 3), 7.33-7.35 (m, 1H, H-2), 7.47-7.50 (m, 1H, H-7), 8.18-8.21 (m, 1H, H-6), 8.60-8.62 (m, 1H, H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 61.56 (C-l * ), 106.03 (C-3), 109.68 (C-7), 118.43 (C-6), 118.50 (C-4), 128.73 (C-9), 130.71 (C-2), 138.88 (C-8), 142.84 (C-5); elemental analysis calcd (%) for C 9 H 7 N 5 0 2 (217.18): C 49.77, H 3.25, N 32.25; found: C 49.83/49.59; H 3.28/3.28; N 32.56/32.46; IR (KBr): v = 3101 (vw), 2924 (vw), 2118 (m, N 3 ), 2092 (m, N 3 ), 1612 (w), 1583 (vw), 1509 (s, N0 2 ), 1480 (m), 1451 (m), 1401 (vw), 1336 (vs, N0 2 /N 3 ), 1287 (vs, N 3 ), 1266 (m), 1231 (m), 1208 (w), 1179 (m), 1147 (w), 1076 (w), 1065 (w), 1029 (vw), 934 (vw), 906 (w), 876 (w), 821 (w), 745 (s) cm "1 .

Synthesis of intermediate 32

5 -Nitro- lH-indole-3 -carbaldehyde Intermediate 32 was synthesized according to the procedure described in

[S. Shelke, B. Cutting, X. Jiang, Η. Koliwer-Brandl, D. S. Strasser, S. Kelm, O.

Schwardt, B. Ernst, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 5721-5725.].

1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 7.71-7.74 (m, 1H, H-7), 8.14-8.17 (m, 1H, H-6), 8.57 (s, 1H, H-2), 8.94-8.96 (m, 1H, H-4), 10.03 (s, 1H, H-Γ); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 113.29 (C-7), 117.07 (C-4), 118.83 (C-3), 119.07 (C-6), 123.55 (C-9), 140.17 (C-2), 141.51 (C-5), 142.91 (C-2), 185.59 (C-Γ).

Synthesis of intermediate 33

(5-Nitro- lH-indol-3-yl)methanol

Intermediate 33 was synthesized according to the procedure described in [S. Shelke, B. Cutting, X. Jiang, Η. Koliwer-Brandl, D. S. Strasser, S. Kelm, O.

Schwardt, B. Ernst, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 5721-5725.].

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 4.84 (s, 2H, Η-Γ), 7.43 (s, 1H, H-2), 7.45-7.49 (m, 1H, H-7), 8.03-8.07 (m, 1H, H-6), 8.66-8.69 (m, 1H, H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 56.74 (C-Γ), 112.46 (C-7), 117.20 (C-4), 118.02 (C-6), 119.29 (C-3), 127.53 (C-9), 128.04 (C-2), 141.38 (C-8), 142.56 (C-5); elemental analysis calcd (%) for C 9 H 8 N 2 0 3 (192.17): C 56.25, H 4.20, N 14.58; found: C 56.18/56.00, H 4.41/4.45, N 14.65/14.60.

Synthesis of product 34

3 -(Azidomethyl)-5-nitro- 1 H-indole To alcohol 33 (752 mg, 3.91 mmol) suspended in toluene (10 mL) under argon were added diphenyl phosphoryl azide (1.0 mL, 4.69 mmol) and dropwise at - 10 °C DBU (0.7 mL, 4.69 mmol). The suspension was allowed to warm to r.t., and 5 mL THF were added leading to the formation of two phases. The reaction was continued under vigorous stirring for 18 h. After removal of the THF in vacuo, EtOAc (80 mL) was added to the reaction mixture, and the organic phases were washed with satd. aq. NaHC0 3 (2 x 40 mL), 0.5 M aq. HC1 (40 mL), satd. aq. NaHC0 3 (40 mL) and brine (40 mL). The aqueous layers were extracted with EtOAc (2 x 80 mL), and the organic phase was dried over Na 2 S0 4 . Silica gel chromatography (1. CH 2 Cl 2 /MeOH 10: 1 in CH 2 C1 2 , gradient 0 to 100%; 2. CH 2 C1 2 ) afforded only impure product.

Subsequent crystallization from CH 2 C1 2 afforded pure azide 34 as yellow crystals (658 mg, 78%). 140 mg (19%>) of the starting material was recovered.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 4.70 (s, 2H, Η-Γ), 7.56-7.62 (m, 1H,

H-7), 7.75 (s, 1H, H-2), 8.01-8.08 (m, 1H, H-6), 8.65 (s, 1H, H-4), 11.90 (s, 1H, NH); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 45.16 (C-Γ), 111.57 (C-3), 112.38 (C-7), 115.76 (C-4), 117.07 (C-6), 125.88 (C-9), 129.50 C-2), 139.53 (C-8), 140.88 (C-5); elemental analysis calcd (%) for C 9 H 7 N 5 02 (217.18): C 49.77, H 3.25, N 32.25; found: C

49.61/49.73, H 3.31/3.27, N 32.07/32.14; IR (KBr): v = 3257 (m, NH), 2117 (vs, N 3 ), 1625 (w), 1580 (w), 1551 (m), 1515 (s, N0 2 ), 1472 (m), 1456 (m), 1436 (m), 1376 (w), 1331 (vs, N 3 / N0 2 ), 1261 (m), 1224 (m), 1196 (m), 1128 (w), 1113 (m), 1102 (m), 1045 (w), 976 (w), 939 (vw), 920 (vw), 894 (m), 863 (w), 836 (m), 816 (m), 782 (w), 769 (w), 751 (m), 735 (m), 686 (m), 631 (m), 613 (w), 563 (m), 559 (m) cm "1 . Synthesis of intermediate 35

tert-Butyl N-[l-(3-bromopropyl)-lH-indol-5-yl]carbamate

Nitroindole 25 (700 mg, 2.50 mmol) and Pt0 2 (35 mg, 5%> w/w) were suspended in a solution of Boc 2 0 (1.76 g, 8.06 mmol) in EtOH (23 mL) under argon. The flask was flushed with H 2 , and the solution was stirred under H 2 (atm. press.) at r.t. for 45 min (color change from yellow to green), when another 35 mg of Pt0 2 was added. After stirring for additional 30 min, the now colorless mixture was filtrated (PTFE membrane filter) and the solvent was removed in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc (100 mL) and washed with 0.5 M aq. HC1 (50 mL), satd. aq.

NaHC0 3 (50 mL), and brine (50 mL). The organic layer was dried over Na 2 S0 4 , and the solvent was removed under reduced pressure. After purification by silica gel chromatography (EtOAc in petrol ether, gradient 0 to 25%), 35 (637 mg, 72%) was obtained as a pale yellow oil, which eventually crystallized and turned pink after 24 h at -18 °C.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 1.50 (s, 9H, 'Βιι-Η), 2.28 (p, J= 6.4 Hz,

2H, H-2'), 3.28 (m, 2H, H-3'), 4.27 (t, J= 6.5 Hz, 2H, H-l '), 6.35 (m, 1H, H-3), 7.10 (m, 1H, H-6), 7.16 (m, 1H, H-2), 7.30 (m, 1H, H-7), 7.57 (s, 1H, H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 28.80 ('Bu-OL,), 31.16 (C-3'), 34.31 (C-2'), 45.05 (C-1 '), 80.44 (¾u- CCH 3 ), 102.08 (H-3), 110.37 (C-7), 112.84 (C-6), 116.67 (C-4), 129.81 (C-2), 130.26 (C-9), 132.41 (C-8), 134.36 (C-5), 156.27 (OCONH); elemental analysis calcd (%) for Ci 6 H 2 iBrN 2 0 2 (353.25): C 54.40, H 5.99, N 7.93; found: C 54.29/54.35, H 5.97/5.96, N 7.86/7.76; IR (KBr): v = 2972 (w) 2932 (w), 1695 (vs, C=0), 1625 (vw), 1584 (m), 1532 (s), 1509 (m), 1490 (s), 1447 (m), 1441 (m), 1392 (m), 1367 (s), 1334 (m), 1312 (vw), 1295 (m), 1287 (m), 1261 (m), 1232 (s), 1163 (vs), 1092 (vw), 1053 (m), 1027 (vw), 889 (vw), 863 (vw), 825 (vw), 802 (vw), 756 (w), 726 (w), 623 (vw), 563 (vw) cm "1 .

Synthesis of intermediate 36

tert- utyl N- [ 1 -(3 -azidopropyl)- 1 H-indol-5 -yl] carbamate

To a solution of 35 (570 mg, 1.61 mmol) in anhydrous DMF (15 mL), NaN 3 (528 mg, 8.12 mmol) was added at r.t. After 2 h, H 2 0 (50 mL) was added to the reaction mixture, and the aqueous layers were extracted with EtOAc (100 mL). The organic layers were washed with satd. NaHC0 3 , brine, and dried over Na 2 S0 4 . After removal of the solvent under reduced pressure, the crude product was purified by silica gel chromatography (EtOAc in petrol ether, gradient 0 to 25%) to afford 36 (458 mg, 90%) as slightly yellowish crystals.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 1.52 (s, 9H, 'Bu-H), 2.02 (p, J= 6.6 Hz, 2H, H-2'), 3.22 (t, J= 6.5 Hz, 2H, H-3'), 4.22 (t, J= 6.7 Hz, 2H, H-l '), 6.36-6.39 (m, 1H, H-3), 7.10-7.15 (m, 1H, H-6), 7.15-7.17 (m, 1H, H-2), 7.28-7.32 (m, 1H, H-7), 7.59 (s, 1H, H-4). 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 28.80 ('BU-OL , 30.51 (C-2'), 44.02 (C- 1 '), 49.54 (C-3 '), 80.40 ('Bu-CCH 3 ), 102.01 (H-3), 1 10.27 (C-7), 1 12.79 (C-6), 1 16.63 (C-4), 129.72 (C-2), 130.20 (C-9), 132.32 (C-8), 134.38 (C-5), 156.24 (OCONH); elemental analysis calcd (%) for Ci 6 H 2 iN 5 0 2 (315.37): C 60.94, H 6.71 , N 22.21 ;

found: 61.07/61.04, H 6.69/6.70, N 22.18/22.17; IR (KBr): v = 2976 (w), 2930 (w), 2873 (vw), 2099 (vs, N 3 ), 1697 (s, C=0), 1625 (vw), 1584 (w), 1529 (m), 1510 (m), 1489 (s), 1450 (m), 1440 (m), 1392 (w), 1366 (m), 1334 (w), 1286 (m), 1236 (m), 1 159 (s), 1096 (vw), 1085 (vw), 1051 (w), 1051 (m), 1026 (w) cm "1 .

Synthesis of intermediate 37

l-(3-Azidopropyl)-lH-indol-5-amine Carbamate 36 (408 mg, 1.29 mmol) was dissolved in CH 2 C1 2 (40 mL), and trifluoroacetic acid (3 mL) was added. After stirring at r.t. for 30 min, the solvent was removed in vacuo, and the mixture was co-evaporated with toluene. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc (50 mL), the organic layer was washed with satd. aq. NaHC0 3 and brine (30 mL), and the aqueous layers were extracted with EtOAc (50 mL). The crude product obtained after drying the combined organic phase over Na 2 S0 4 and removal of the solvent under reduced pressure was subjected to silica gel

chromatography (MeOH in CH 2 C1 2 10: 1). The amine 37 (239 mg, 86%) was obtained as a mixture of inseparable products (brownish oil).

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 1.52 (s, 9H, 'Bu-H), 2.02 (p, J= 6.6 Hz, 2H, H-2'), 3.22 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H, H-3 '), 4.22 (t, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H, H-l '), 6.37 (m, 1H, H- 3), 7.13 (m, 1H, H-6), 7.16 (m, 1H, H-2), 7.30 (m, 1H, H-7), 7.59 (s, 1H, H-4).

Synthesis of product 38

N-[ 1 -(3-Azidopropyl)- lH-indol-5-yl]acetamide

To a solution of amine 37 (43 mg, 0.200 mmol) was added Et 3 N (28 μί, 0.200 mmol) and Ac 2 0 (18 μί, 0.200 mmol), and the solution was stirred for 3 h. The solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue purified using silica gel chromatography (EtOAc in CH 2 C1 2 ). 38 (44 mg, 86%) was obtained as a mixture of inseparable products (brownish oil). 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 1.92-1.96 (m, 2H, Η-2'), 2.07 (s, 3H, Ac-Me), 3.12 (t, J = 6.3 Hz, 2H, H-3 '), 4.09 (t, J= 6.6 Hz, 2H, H-l '), 6.34-6.35 (m, 1H, H-3), 6.97-6.99 (m, 1H, H-2), 7.14-7.16 (m, 2H, H-6, Ind H-7), 7.70 (s, 1H, H-4); 13 C- NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 24.38 (Ac-Me), 29.35 (C-2'), 43.14 (C-l '), 48.33 (C-3 '), 101.72 (C-3), 109.33 (C-7), 1 13.41 (C-4), 1 16.48 (C-6), 128.71 , 128.72 (2C, C-2, C-9), 130.38 (C-8), 133.42 (C-5), 168.85 (MeCONH). MS: m/z calcd for Ci 3 Hi 5 N 5 0

[M+Na] + : 280.12; found: 280.20.

Synthesis of intermediate 39

2,5-Dioxopyrrolidin- 1 -yl 2-[2-(2- {[(9H-fluoren-9- ylmethoxy)carbonyl] amino} ethoxy)ethoxy]acetate

2-[2-(2-{[(9H-fluoren-9- ylmethoxy)carbonyl] amino }ethoxy)ethoxy] acetic acid (185 mg, 0.480 mmol) and N- hydroxysuccinimide (1 10 mg, 0.956 mmol) were dissolved in anhydrous THF (1.5 mL). DIC was added dropwise to the solution at r.t., leading to the precipitation of a white solid. After 2 h, the reaction mixture was filtrated through a PTFE membrane filter (0.2 μΜ), and the solvent was removed. The crude product was redissolved in Et 2 0. The organic phase was washed with aq. NaHC0 3 and 0.5 M aq. HC1. The organic layer was dried over Na 2 S0 4 , and the solvent was removed. The crude product was dissolved in CH 2 C1 2 , and the solution was filtrated. After removal of the solvent, the crude product 39 (210 mg) was used in the synthesis of 40 without further purification.

Synthesis of product 40

9H-Fluoren-9-ylmethyl-N- {2-[2-({[l-(3-azidopropyl)-lH-indol-5- yl] carbamoyl} methoxy)ethoxy] ethyl} carbamate

Amine 37 (50 mg, 0.232 mmol) and succinimide ester 39 (120 mg, 0.249 mmol) were dissolved in anhydrous DMF (1 mL) and stirred at r.t. for 15 h. The solvent was removed in vacuo, and the residue was purified using silica gel

chromatography (EtOAc in CH 2 C1 2 , gradient 0 to 80%). 70 mg (52%) of 40 was obtained as mixture of inseparable products (green-yellow oil). 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 1.88-1.96 (m, 2H, Η-2'), 3.10 (t, J= 6.3 Hz, 2H, H-3'), 3.32-3.38 (m, 2H, H-6"), 3.56 (t, J= 5.0 Hz, 2H, H-5"), 3.64 (d, J= 4.2 Hz, 2H, H-4"), 3.73 (d, J= 4.4 Hz, 2H, H-3"), 4.02-4.11 (m, 5H, H-9", H-2". Η-Γ), 4.25 (d, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H, H-8"), 6.36-6.40 (m, 1H, Ind H-3), 6.96-6.99 (m, 1H, Ind H-2), 7.15-7.25 (m, 4H, Ind H-6. Ind H-7, B), 7.27-7.34 (m, 2H, C), 7.42-7.48 (m, 2H, A), 7.64-7.71 (m, 2H, D), 7.79-7.82 (m, J= 1.4 Hz, 1H, Ind H-4), 8.56 (s, 1H, CONH); 13 C- NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 29.43 (C-2'), 40.82 (C-6"), 43.23 (C-l '), 47.31 (C-9"), 48.40 (C-3'), 66.83 (C-8"), 70.23 , 70.43, 70.90, 71.28, 101.91 (C-3), 109.60 (C-7), 113.11 (C-4), 115.99 (C-6), 120.11 (Fmoc-C), 125.22 (Fmoc-C), 127.19 (Fmoc-C), 127.83 (Fmoc-C), 128.91 (Fmoc-C), 128.93 (Fmoc-C), 129.62 (C-8), 133.63 (C-5), 141.41 (Fmoc-C), 144.06 (Fmoc-C), 156.60 (OCONH), 167.97 (CH 2 CONH); MS: m/z calcd for C 32 H 34 N 6 0 5 [M+Na] + : 605.25; found: 605.22.

Synthesis of intermediate 41

tert-Butyldimethyl[(4-(trimethylsilyl)but-3-yn-l-yl)oxy]s ilane To a solution of 4-trimethylsilyl-3-butyne-l-ol (854 mg, 6.0 mmol) in

DMF (4 mL) was added imidazole (816 mg, 12.0 mmol), followed by tert- butyldimethylsilyl chloride (1.05 g, 7.2 mmol). After stirring at r.t. overnight, the reaction mixture was poured into 10% aq. NaHC0 3 and extracted with hexane (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with brine, dried over Na 2 S0 4 and concentrated to give 41 (1.53 g, quant.) as a colorless oil.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 0.09 (s, 6H, 2 CH 3 ), 0.14 (s, 9H, Si(CH 3 ) 3 ), 0.88 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ), 2.44 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 3.72 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ).

Synthesis of intermediate 42

tert-Butyl(hex-5 -yn- 1 -yloxy)dimethylsilane

Hex-5-yn-l-ol (1.25 g, 12.7 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous CH 2 C1 2 under argon. At 0 °C, Et 3 N (2.6 mL, 19.1 mmol) and tert-butyldimethylsilyl chloride (2.29 g, 15.2 mmol) were added via a syringe. After 30 min of stirring, the solution was allowed to warm to r.t., which led to precipitation of a white solid. After another 4 h of stirring, the reaction mixture was washed with 0.5 M aq. HC1, satd. aq. NaHC0 3 , and brine (5 mL). The aqueous layers were washed with CH 2 CI 2 (2 x 10 mL), and the combined organic phases were dried over Na 2 S0 4 , filtrated through a silica plug and again dried over Na 2 S0 4 . The solvent was removed in vacuo yielding 42 (2.31 g, 85%) as a colorless liquid, which was used without further purification.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.04 (d, J= 2.7 Hz, 6H, Si-C¾), 0.89 (s, 9H, 'Bu-CH 3 ), 1.54-1.67 (m, 4H, H-3, H-2), 1.93 (t, J = 2.6 Hz, 1H, H-6), 2.21 (td, J = 2.5, 6.8 Hz, 2H, H-4), 3.63 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 2H, H-l); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ - 5.24 (2C, Si-CH 3 ), 18.29 (C-4), 18.41 (¾u-C) 25.04 (C-3), 26.03 (3C, 'Bu-CH 3 ), 31.89 (C-2), 62.66 (C-l), 68.33 (C-6), 84.59 (C-5).

Synthesis of intermediate 43

tert-Butyldimethyl[(6-(trimethylsilyl)hex-5-yn- 1 -yl)oxy]silane

Under argon, intermediate 42 (2.3 g, 10.9 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous THF (10 mL) at 0 °C, and 1.6 M fert-butyllithium in pentane (8.12 mL,

13.0 mmol) was added over a period of 25 min via a syringe, followed by the addition of trimethylsilyl chloride (1.64 mL, 13.0 mmol). The resulting suspension was allowed to warm to r.t. and stirred for 14 h. Et 2 0 (5 mL) and 0.5 M HCl (2 mL) were added to the reaction mixture, which was then washed with H 2 0, 0.5 M HCl, aq. NaHC0 3 , and brine (10 mL). The aqueous layers were extracted with Et 2 0 (2 x 30 mL), the combined organic layers were dried over Na 2 S0 4 and concentrated in vacuo. 43 (2.99 g, 97%) was obtained as a yellow oil, which was used without further purification.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 0.04 (s, 6H, TBS-CH 3 ), 0.13 (s, 9H, TMS-CH 3 ), 0.88 (s, 9H, 'Bu-CH 3 ), 1.51-1.64 (m, 4H, H-3, H-2), 2.23 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 2H, H-4), 3.62 (t, J= 6.1 Hz, 2H, H-l); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ -5.14 (TBS-CH 3 ), 0.31 (TMS-CH 3 ), 18.47 ( i Bu-C-CH 3 ), 19.78 (C-4), 25.19 (C-3), 26.10 ('BU-OL , 32.03 (C-2), 62.83 (C-l), 84.59 (C-6), 107.52 (C-5). Synthesis of intermediate 44

3 - [2-(tert-Butyldimethylsilyloxy)ethyl] -5 -nitro-2-(trimethylsilyl)- lH-indole

A mixture of 2-iodo-4-nitroaniline (792 mg, 3.00 mmol), 41 (1.54 g, 6.00 mmol), KOAc (1.47 g, 15.0 mmol), LiCl (127 mg, 3.00 mmol) and Pd(OAc) 2 (68 mg, 0.3 mmol) in dry DMF (10 mL) was heated at 70-75 °C for 2.5 h. The cooled reaction mixture was diluted with ether (20 mL) and ice-water (20 mL), the aqueous phase was separated and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 20 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with water and brine, dried over Na 2 S0 4 and concentrated in vacuo. Purification of the residue by chromatography on silica gel (petrol ether/EtO Ac 8: 1) gave 44 (731 mg, 62%) as a yellow solid.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ -0.01 (s, 6H, 2 CH 3 ), 0.42 (s, 9H, Si(CH 3 ) 3 ), 0.85 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ), 3.09 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.84 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 7.36 (d, J= 9.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H), 8.07 (dd, J = 2.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H), 8.28 (br s, 1H, Ar-H), 8.62 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H, Ar-H); MS: calcd for Ci 9 H 32 N 2 Na0 3 Si 2 [M+Na] + : 415.18, found 415.10.

Synthesis of intermediate 45

3-[3-(tert-Butyldimethylsilyloxy)propyl]-5-nitro-2-(trimethy lsilyl)-lH-indole

According to the procedure described for 44, a mixture of 2-iodo-4- nitroaniline (1.58 g, 6.00 mmol), tert-butyldimethyl[(5-(trimethylsilyl)pent-4-yn-l- yl)oxy]silane (2.60 g, 9.60 mmol), KOAc (2.94 g, 30.0 mmol), LiCl (254 mg,

6.00 mmol) and Pd(OAc) 2 (1 10 mg, 0.6 mmol) in dry DMF (16 mL) was heated at 70- 75 °C for 2.5 h. Work-up and purification gave crude 45 (2.40 g) as a yellow solid.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 0.1 (s, 6H, 2 CH 3 ), 0.42 (s, 9H,

Si(CH 3 ) 3 ), 0.94 (s, 9H, C(CH 3 ) 3 ), 1.86 (m, 2H, CH 2 ), 2.93 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 3.74 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 7.35 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H), 8.07 (dd, J= 2.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H), 8.19 (br s, 1H, Ar-H), 8.57 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1H, Ar-H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ -5.3 (2C, 2 CH 3 ), -0.8(3C, Si(CH 3 ) 3 ), 22.4 (3C, C(CH 3 ) 3 ), 26.0 (CH 2 ), 35.2 (CH 2 ), 62.7 (CH 2 ), 1 10.6, 1 16.4, 1 17.8, 128.4, 137.1 , 141.0, 141.2 (Ar-C). Synthesis of intermediate 46

3 - [4-(tert-Butyldimethylsilyloxy)butyl] -5 -nitro-2-(trimethylsilyl)- lH-indole

According to the procedure described for 44, a mixture of 2-iodo-4- nitroaniline (500 mg, 1.90 mmol), 43 (1.12 g, 3.94 mmol), KOAc (97 mg, 0.988 mmol), LiCl (80 mg, 1.89 mmol) and Pd(OAc) 2 (43 mg, 0.200 mmol) in dry DMF (40 mL) was heated at 70-75 °C for 2.5 h. Work-up and purification gave crude 46 (385 mg, 48%) as a yellow solid.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 0.04 (s, 6H, TBS-Me-H), 0.41 (s, 9H, TMS-Me-H), 0.88 (s, 9H, TBS-tBu-H), 1.59-1.68 (m, 2H, H-3 * ), 1.69-1.75 (m, 2H, H- 2'), 2.81-2.88 (m, 2H, Η-Γ), 3.66 (t, J= 6.2 Hz, 2H, H-4'), 7.34-7.37 (m, 1H, H-7), 8.05-8.08 (m, 1H, H-6), 8.31 (s, 1H, NH), 8.55-8.56 (m, 1H, H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ -5.16 (TBS-Me-C), -0.60 (TMS-C), 18.43, 26.04, 26.06 (2C, C-Γ, TBS-tBu-C), 28.66 (C-2'), 33.33 (C-3 * ), 63.02 (C-4'), 110.79 (C-7), 116.57 (C-4), 117.87 (C-6), 128.41, 128.50 (2C, C-3, C-9), 137.27 (C-2), 141.21, 141.36 (2C, C-5, C- 8); elemental analysis calcd (%) for C 2 iH 36 N 2 0 3 Si 2 (420.69): C 59.96, H 8.62, N 6.66; found: C 59.85, H 8.68, N 6.28.

Synthesis of intermediate 47

3 -(2-Hydroxyethyl)-5 -nitro- lH-indole

To a solution of 44 (220 mg, 0.560 mmol) in MeCN (5 mL) was added 48% aq. HF (0.75 mL, 20.7 mmol) in portions. The mixture was stirred at rt for 48 h, then cautiously basified with saturated aq. Na 2 C0 3 and extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic phases were washed with brine, dried over Na 2 S0 4 and concentrated.

The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (petrol ether/EtOAc 1 : 1 to 1 :3) to afford 47 (101 mg, 88%) as yellow solid.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CD 3 OD): δ 3.02 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 3.83 (t, J

= 7.0 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 7.30 (s, 1H, Ar-H), 7.43 (d, J= 9.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H), 8.02 (dd, J =

2.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H), 8.57 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H). Synthesis of intermediate 48

3 -(3 -Hydroxypropyl)-5 -nitro- 1 H-indole

According to the procedure described for 47, to a solution of crude 45 (2.40 g) in MeCN (25 mL) was added 48% aq. HF (2.5 mL) and the mixture was stirred at rt for 48 h. Work-up and purification yielded 48 (820 mg, 62% over two steps) as a yellow solid.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CD 3 OD): δ 1.93 (m, 2H, CH 2 ), 2.86 (t, J= 8.0 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 3.64 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 7.24 (s, 1H, Ar-H), 7.41 (d, J= 9.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H), 8.00 (dd, J= 2.5, 9.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H), 8.53 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 22.0 (CH 2 ), 34.3 (CH 2 ), 62.4 (CH 2 ), 112.2, 116.7, 117.7, 119.1, 126.5, 128.2, 141.2, 142.1 (Ar-C).

Synthesis of intermediate 49

3 -(4-Hydroxybutyl)-5 -nitro- lH-indole

To a solution of 46 (371 mg, 0.884 mmol) in anhydrous THF (20 mL) was added TBAF (4.4 mL, 1 M in THF) at 0 °C under Argon. The solution was allowed to warm to r.t., and after 3.5 h, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure.

Purification of the residue by silica gel chromatography (CH 2 C1 2 , CH 2 Cl 2 /MeOH 5: 1, gradient 0 to 75%>) gave 49 (109 mg, 53%>) as a yellow viscous oil.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 1.59-1.67 (m, 2H, H-3 * ), 1.74-1.83 (m, 2H, H-2'), 2.78-2.84 (m, 2H, Η-Γ), 3.60 (t, J= 6.5 Hz, 2H, H-4'), 7.23 (s, 1H, H-2), 7.38-7.43 (m, 1H, H-7), 7.97-8.02 (m, 1H, H-6), 8.49-8.52 (m, 1H, H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 25.56 (C-Γ), 27.78 (C-2'), 33.43 (C-3 * ), 62.80 (C-4'), 112.21 (C- 7), 116.70 (C-4), 117.65 (C-6), 119.57 (C-3), 126.46 (C-2), 128.18 (C-9), 141.19 (C-8), 142.07 (C-5). Synthesis of intermediate 50

3 -(2-Bromoethyl)-5 -nitro- lH-indole

To a solution of 47 (91.5 mg, 0.443 mmol) in dry MeCN (10 mL) was added PPh 3 (175 mg, 0.665 mmol) followed by portion-wise addition of CBr 4 (221 mg, 0.665 mmol) at 0 °C under argon. The mixture was stirred at rt for 2 h, then diluted with ethyl acetate, washed with H 2 0 and brine and dried over Na 2 S0 4 . The solvents were evaporated and the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (petrol ether/EtOAc 4: 1 to 1 : 1) to give 50 (105 mg, 87%) as a yellow solid.

1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 3.33 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 3.77 (t,

J= 7.0 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 7.52-7.54 (m, 2H, Ar-H), 7.99 (dd, J= 2.5, 9.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H), 8.60 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H), 11.71 (s, 1H, Ar-H).

Synthesis of intermediate 51

3 -(3 -Bromopropyl)-5 -nitro- lH-indole According to the procedure described for 50, to a solution of 48 (725 mg, 3.29 mmol) in MeCN (15 mL) was added PPh 3 (1.30 g, 4.94 mmol) and CBr 4 (1.638 g, 4.94 mmol) at 0 °C under argon. The mixture was stirred at rt for 2 h. Workup and purification gave 51 (900 mg, 96%) as a yellow solid.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CD 3 OD): δ 2.23 (m, 2H, CH 2 ), 2.97 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H, CH2), 3.48 (t, J= 6.5 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 7.29 (s, 1H, Ar-H), 7.44 (d, J= 9.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H), 8.03 (dd, J= 2.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H), 8.55 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): 5 24.0 (CH 2 ), 33.9 (CH 2 ), 34.5 (CH 2 ), 112.4, 116.6, 117.8, 117.8, 127.0, 128.0, 141.2, 142.3 (Ar-C).

Synthesis of intermediate 52

3-(4-Bromobutyl)-5-nitro- lH-indole

According to the procedure described for 50, to a solution of 49

(100 mg, 0.427 mmol) in MeCN (3 mL) was added PPh 3 (135 mg, 0.515 mmol) and CBr 4 (180 mg, 0.543 mmol) at 0 °C under argon. The mixture was stirred at rt for 2 h. Work-up and purification gave 52 (108 mg, 85%>) as a yellow solid.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 1.85-1.93 (m, 2H, H-2'), 1.93-2.00 (m,

2H, H-3 * ), 2.83 (t, J= 7.4 Hz, 2H, Η-Γ), 3.46 (t, J= 6.6 Hz, 2H, H-4'), 7.14-7.18 (m, 1H, H-2), 7.36-7.42 (m, 1H, H-7), 8.08-8.13 (m, 1H, H-6), 8.44 (s, 1H, NH), 8.54-8.59 (m, 1Η, H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 24.17 (C-Γ), 28.64 (C-2'), 32.55 (C-3 * ), 33.68 (C-4'), 1 1 1.20 (C-7), 1 16.44 (C-4), 1 17.89 (C-6), 1 18.96 (C-3), 124.39 (C-2), 127.08 (C-9), 139.45 (C-8), 141.63 (C-5); elemental analysis calcd (%) for

Ci 2 Hi 3 BrN 2 0 2 (297.15): C 48.50, H 4.41 , N 9.43; found C 48.55/48.45, H 4.52/4.54, N 9.28/9.27. Synthesis of product 53

3 -(2- Azidoethyl)-5 -nitro- lH-indole

To a solution of 50 (240 mg, 0.89 mmol) in dry DMF (7 mL) was added NaN 3 (145 mg, 2.23 mmol) and 15-crown-5 (50 μΐ ^ ). The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 16 h. The solvent was evaporated and the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (petrol ether/EtOAc 3 : 1) to give 53 as yellow solid (202 mg, 98%).

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 3.09 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 3.62 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 7.27 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H), 7.42 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H), 8.13 (dd, J = 2.5, 9.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H), 8.58 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): 5 24.8 (CH 2 ), 51.4 (CH 2 ), 1 1 1.3, 1 15.1 , 1 16.0, 1 17.9, 125.4, 126.7, 139.2, 141.7 (Ar-C); IR (KBr): 3409, 2101 , 1507, 1468, 1326 cm "1 ; HR-MS Calcd for

Ci 0 H 9 N 5 NaO 2 [M+Na] + : 254.0654, Found 254.0654; elemental analysis calcd (%) for CioH 9 N 5 0 2 : C, 51.95, H, 3.92, N, 30.29, found: C, 52.07, H, 4.04, N, 30.15.

Synthesis of product 54

3 -(3 - Azidopropyl)-5 -nitro- lH-indole According to the procedure described for 53, to a solution of 51 (900 mg, 3.17 mmol) in DMF (15 mL) was added NaN 3 (309 mg, 4.76 mmol) and 15-crown- 5 (50 μΐ ^ ). The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 16 h. Work-up and purification afforded 54 as a yellow solid (725 mg, 93%).

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 2.98 (m, 2H, CH 2 ), 2.90 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 3.36 (t, J= 6.5 Hz, 2H, CH 2 ), 7.27 (s, 1H, Ar-H), 7.43 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H), 8.03 (dd, J = 2.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H), 8.54 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H, Ar-H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): 5 22.7 (CH 2 ), 30.6 (CH 2 ), 51.9 (CH 2 ), 1 12.4, 1 16.6, 1 17.8, 1 18.2, 126.8, 128.0, 141.2, 142.2 (Ar-C); HR-MS: calcd for CiiHnN 5 Na0 2 [M+Na] :

268.0810, found 268.0813.

Synthesis of product 55

3 -(4- Azidobutyl)-5 -nitro- lH-indole According to the procedure described for 53, to a solution of 52 (98 mg,

0.330 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) was added NaN 3 (108 mg, 1.66 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 16 h. Work-up and purification afforded 55 as a yellow solid (80 mg, 94%).

1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 1.66-1.74 (m, 2H, H-3 * ), 1.78-1.87 (m, 2H, H-2'), 2.80-2.90 (m, 2H, Η-Γ), 3.31-3.38 (m, 2H, H-4'), 7.25-7.29 (m, 1H, H-2), 7.42-7.47 (m, 1H, H-7), 8.02-8.06 (m, 1H, H-6), 8.53-8.56 (m, 1H, H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 25.26 (C-Γ), 28.52 (C-2'), 29.66 (C-3 * ), 52.31 (C-4'), 112.28 (C- 7), 116.65 (C-4), 117.72 (C-6), 119.15 (C-3), 126.56 (C-2), 128.10 (C-9, 141.21 (C-8), 142.14 (C-5); elemental analysis calcd (%) for Ci 2 Hi 3 N 5 0 2 (259.26): C 55.59, H 5.05, N 27.01; found: C 55.68/55.75, H 5.12/5.20, N 26.71/26.73; IR (KBr): v = 3413 (s), 2959 (vw), 2920 (w), 2858 (vw), 2090 (vs, N 3 ), 1619 (w), 1508 (m, N0 2 ), 1468 (m), 1328 (vs, N 3 /N0 2 ), 1300 (m), 1262 (m), 1212 (w), 1107 (w), 1087 (m), 1073 (m), 897 (vw), 814 (w), 733 (w), 584 (vw), 541 (vw) cm "1 .

EXAMPLE 3

SYNTHESIS OF THE SELECTIN ANTAGONISTS WITH TRIAZOLE LINKER (FIGURE 6)

General procedure III for the synthesis of antagonists with triazole linker

Alkyne (1.0 equiv.) and azide (1.3 equiv.) were dissolved in i BuOH/H 2 0/THF 1 : 1 : 1 (approx. 0.015 M) under argon, and the solution was degassed in an ultrasound bath for 20 min. Degassed 0.1 M aq. Na-L-ascorbate (0.5 equiv.) and 0.1 M aq. CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (0.25 equiv.) were added, and the mixture was stirred at r.t. for 1-4 h until full conversion as indicated by MS. The solvent was removed in vacuo, the residue was redissolved in H 2 0/MeCN 1 : 1 + 1-2 drops of Et 3 N, filtrated (PTFE membrane filter) and purified by preparative HPLC-MS (H 2 0/MeCN + 0.1% HCOOH).

All triazole inhibitors were isolated as yellow solids.

% : chemical shift was obtained from HSQC spectrum

§ : chemical shift was obtained from HMBC spectrum Synthesis of product 56

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-0-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy]-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy]-5-methyl-N- ({l-[(6-nitro-lH-indol-

3-yl)methyl]-lH-l,2,3-triazol-4-yl}methyl)cyclohexanecarb oxamide

Following general procedure III, alkyne 20 (8.4 mg, 10.8 μιηοΐ), azide 31 (3.6 mg, 16.6 μιηοΐ), Na-L-ascorbate (54 uL, 5.40 μιηοΐ) and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (27 μί, 2.70 μιηοΐ) were dissolved in 'BuOH^O/THF 1 : 1 : 1 (1 mL; no prior degassing). After 3 h, 10.1 mg (94%>) of triazole 56 was isolated by preparative HPLC-MS.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.49-0.60 (m, 1H, Cy), 0.61-0.73 (m, 3H, Cy), 0.85-0.97 (m, 1H, Cy), 1.06 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.10-1.27 (m, 3H, Cy, H- 6 a , H-2 a ), 1.26-1.45 (m, 8H, Fuc H-6, 4Cy, Lac H-3 a ), 1.46-1.65 (m, 4H, Lac H-3 b , H- 6b, Cy, H-5), 2.07-2.14 (m, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.18-2.26 (m, 1H, H-l), 3.10 (t, J= 9.6 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.54 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.59-3.68 (m, 2H, Gal H-3, H-3), 3.68-3.80 (m, 4H, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, 2Gal H-6), 3.85 (dd, J= 3.2, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.93-3.97 (m, 1H, Gal H-4), 3.99-4.05 (m, 1H, Lac H-2), 4.30 (t, J= 5.3 Hz, 2H, Η-Γ), 4.64 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.92-5.00 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.42 (t, J= 8.9 Hz, 1H, Gal H-2), 6.77-6.80 (m, 1H, Ind H-3), 6.84-6.84 (d, J= 14.8 Hz, 1H, H-l" a ), 6.88 (d, J = 14.8 Hz, 1H, H-l"b), 7.37-7.43 (m, 2H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.52-7.58 (m, 1Η, CeHs), 7.71-7.74 (m, 1Η, Ind H-2), 7.86-7.91 (m, 1H, Ind H-7), 8.02 (s, 3H, C 6 H 5 , Η-3 * ), 8.11-8.16 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-6), 8.19 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H, CONH), 8.53-8.56 (m, 1H, Ind H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.73 (Fuc C-6), 19.22 (Me), 26.55, 26.72, 27.29 (3C, Cy), 33.10, 34.19, 35.00 (3C, Cy), 35.09 (C-2), 35.45 (C-Γ), 37.48 (C-6), 39.31 (C-5), 42.84 (Lac C-3), 42.95 (C-l), 59.70 (C-Γ), 62.76 (Gal C-6), 67.71 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.28 (Fuc C-2), 71.39 (Fuc C-3), 72.98 (Gal C-2), 73.95 (Fuc C-4), 75.95 (Gal C-5), 78.25 (Lac 79.70 (C-3), 83.00 (C-4), 83.69 (Gal C-3), 100.44 (Fuc C-l), 100.47 (Gal C-1), 106.81 (Ind C-3), 111.48 (Ind C-7), 118.74 (Ind C-6), 118.78 (Ind C-4), 123.94 (C-3 * ), 129.69 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.10 (Ind C-9), 130.86 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.52 (C 6 H 5 ), 132.58 (Ind C- 2), 134.33 (C 6 H 5 ), 140.07 (Ind C-8), 143.86 (Ind C-5), 146.95 (C-2'), 166.85

(0(C=0)Ph), 176.93 (CONH), 179.38 (COOH); [a] D 20 = -58.0 (c = 0.32, MeOH);

HPLC (λ = 350 nm): purity = 95%, t R = 14.150 min; IR (KBr): v = 3430 (vs, OH), 2927 (s), 2846 (w), 1723 (s, C=0), 1648 (m, C=0), 1616 (w), 1584 (vw), 1520 (m), 1476 (vw), 1450 (m), 1403 (w), 1337 (vs, N0 2 ), 1314 (m), 1273 (s), 1226 (w), 1170 (w), 1114 (s), 1092 (s), 1073 (vs), 1040 (s), 999 (w), 966 (vw), 766 (w), 746 (w), 713 (m) cm "1 . Synthesis of product 57

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy] -4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy] -5 -methyl-N-( { 1 - [2-(5 -nitro- 1 H- indol-1 -yl)ethyl]- 1H- 1 ,2,3-triazol-4-yl}methyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide

Alkyne 20 (15.0 mg, 19.3 μιηοΐ), azide 27 (5.5 mg, 23.8 μιηοΐ), Na-L- ascorbate (approx. 1.9 mg, 9.59 μιηοΐ), and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (1.9 mg, 7.61 μιηοΐ) were dissolved in i BuOH/H 2 0/THF 1 : 1 : 1 (1 mL) under argon (no degassing). After 2 h, triazole 57 (12.9 mg, 66%) was isolated according to general procedure III.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.49-0.60 (m, 1H, Cy), 0.61-0.72 (m, 3H, Cy), 0.91 (d, J= 11.6 Hz, 1H, Me), 1.12-1.25 (m, 3H, Cy, H-6 a , H-2 a ), 1.25-1.37 (m, 7H, Fuc H-6, 4Cy), 1.37-1.45 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 a ), 1.45-1.61 (m, 3H, Lac H-3 b , H-6 b , Cy), 1.61-1.71 (m, 1H, H-5), 2.06-2.14 (m, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.20 (tt, J= 3.1, 12.8 Hz, 1H, H- 1), 3.14 (t, J= 9.6 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.59 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.64 (dd, J= 2.9, 9.7 Hz, 1H, Gal H-3), 3.66-3.82 (m, 5H, H-3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, 2Gal H-6), 3.87 (dd, J = 3.3, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.94-4.01 (m, 2H, Gal H-4, Lac H-2), 4.15 - 4.18 (m, 2H), 4.70 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H, Gal H-1), 4.75 (t, J= 5.3 Hz, 2H, H-2"), 4.78-4.83 (m, 2H, H- 1"), 4.97 (t, J= 5.1 Hz, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.43 (dd, J= 8.3, 9.5 Hz, 1H, Gal H-2), 6.67-6.69 (m, 1H, Ind H-3), 7.15-7.21 (m, 1H, Ind H-7), 7.21-7.25 (m, 1H, Ind H-2), 7.37 (s, 1H, H-3 * ), 7.38-7.44 (m, 2H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.54-7.60 (m, 1Η, C 6 H 5 ), 7.96-8.03 (m, 3Η, Ind Η-6, C 6 H 5 ), 8.06 (t, J= 5.3 Hz, 1H, CONH), 8.50-8.54 (m, 1Η, Ind H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.74 (Fuc C-6), 19.25 (Me), 26.54, 26.69, 27.27 (3C, Cy), 33.11, 34.17 (2C, Cy), 35.05 (C-2), 35.09 (C-Γ), 35.32 (Cy), 37.51 (C-6), 39.31 (C-5), 42.81 (Lac C-3), 42.91 (C-l), 47.53 (C-2"), 51.43 (C-l"), 62.74 (Gal C-6), 67.72 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.32 (Fuc C-2), 71.41 (Fuc C-3), 72.99 (Gal C-2), 73.97 (Fuc C-4), 75.95 (Gal C-5), 78.09 (Lac C-2), 79.78 (C-3), 83.01 (C-4), 83.73 (Gal C-3), 100.46 (Fuc C-l), 100.52 (Gal C-l), 105.73 (Ind C-3), 110.25 (Ind C-7), 117.99 (Ind C-6), 118.71 (Ind C-4), 124.91 (C-3 * ), 129.18 (Ind C-9), 129.70 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.88 (C 6 H 5 ),

131.54 (C 6 H 5 ), 132.55 (Ind C-2), 134.32 (C 6 H 5 ), 140.46 (Ind C-8), 142.89 (Ind C-5),

146.55 (C-2'), 166.84 (0(C=0)Ph), 176.74 (CONH), 179.18 (COOH); HR-MS: m/z calcd for C 4 9H 6 4N 6 Oi7 [M+ Na] + : 1031.4220; found: 1031.4222; HPLC (λ = 350 nm): purity = 97%, t R = 14.483 min; [a] D 20 = -53.0 (c = 1.09, MeOH); IR (KBr): v = 3435 (vs, OH), 2927 (m), 2852 (w), 1721 (m, C=0), 1643 (m, C=0), 1583 (w), 1516 (w), 1449 (w), 1402 (w), 1383 (w), 1335 (s, N0 2 ), 1272 (m). 1215 (vw), 1166 (w), 1111 (m), 1095 (m), 1073 (s), 1032 (m), 966 (vw), 897 (vw), 804 (vw), 776 (vw), 765 (vw), 744 (w), 713 (w) cm "1 .

Synthesis of product 58

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy] -4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy] -5 -methyl-N-( { 1 - [3 -(5 -nitro- 1 H- indol-l-yl)propyl]-lH-l,2,3-triazol-4-yl}methyl)cyclohexanec arboxamide Following general procedure III, alkyne 20 (12.0 mg, 15.4 μηιοΐ), azide

28 (5.7 mg, 23.2 μιηοΐ), Na-L-ascorbate (77 μί, 7.70 μιηοΐ), and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (39 μΐ,, 3.90 μιηοΐ) were dissolved in 'BuOH^O/THF 1 : 1 : 1 (1 mL). After 3 h, triazole 58 (13.5 mg, 85%) was isolated by preparative HPLC-MS.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.50-0.72 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.85-0.95 (m, 1H, Cy), 1.08 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.13-1.25 (m, 3H, H, Cy, H-6 a , H-2 a ), 1.24-1.37 (m, 7H, 4Cy, Fuc H-6), 1.37-1.44 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 a ), 1.45-1.58 (m, 2H, Lac H-3 b , Cy), 1.58-1.71 (m, 2H, H-6 b , H-5), 2.13-2.19 (m, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.25-2.33 (m, 1H, H-l), 2.47 (p, J= 6.8 Hz, 2H, H-2"), 3.13 (t, J= 9.5 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.56 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.61 (dd, J= 2.5, 9.7 Hz, 1H, Gal H-3), 3.73 (qdd, J= 5.7, 10.3, 11.7 Hz, 5H, H-3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, 2Gal H-6), 3.86 (dd, J= 3.3, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.95 (s, 1H, Gal H- 4), 4.01 (d, J= 7.9 Hz, 1H, Lac H-2), 4.31 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H, H-3"), 4.33 (s, 2H, Η-Γ), 4.39 (t, J= 6.7 Hz, 2H, H-l"), 4.67 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.93-4.99 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.40-5.45 (m, 1H, Gal H-2), 6.72-6.75 (m, 1H, Ind H-3), 7.38-7.45 (m, 3H, Ind H-7, C 6 H 5 ), 7.46-7.50 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-2), 7.53-7.58 (m, 1Η, C 6 H 5 ), 7.75 (s, 1Η, Η-3 * ), 7.99-8.02 (m, 2Η, CeHs), 8.05-8.09 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-6), 8.20-8.24 (m, 1Η, CONH), 8.55-8.57 (m, 1Η, Ind H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.73 (Fuc C-6), 19.24 (Me), 26.53, 26.68, 27.26 (3C, Cy), 31.48 (C-2"), 33.12, 34.18 (2C, Cy), 35.04, 35.09 (2C, Cy, C-2), 35.64 (C-Γ), 37.51 (C-6), 39.34 (C-5), 42.77 (Lac C-3), 43.03 (C-l), 44.50 (C-3"), 49.85 (C-l"), 62.76 (Gal C-6), 67.72, 67.75 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.31 (Fuc C-2), 71.41 (Fuc C-3), 72.98 (Gal C-2), 73.95 (Fuc C-4), 75.99 (Gal C-5), 77.98 (Lac 79.75 (C-3), 83.03 (C-4), 83.71 (Gal C-3), 100.43 (Fuc C-l), 100.47 (Gal C-l), 105.24 (Ind C-3), 110.69 (Ind C-7), 117.94 (Ind C-6), 118.84 (Ind C-4), 124.44 (C-3 * ), 129.36 (Ind C-9), 129.68 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.87 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.55 (C 6 H 5 ), 132.79 (Ind C- 2), 134.30 (C 6 H 5 ), 140.24 (Ind C-8), 142.85 (Ind C-5), 166.82 (0(C=0)Ph), 176.96 (CONH); HR-MS: m/z calcd for C 5 oH 66 N 6 Oi7 [M+H] + : 1023.4557; found: 1023.4561; [a] D 20 = -51.9 (c = 1.15, MeOH); HPLC (λ = 350 nm): purity = 96%, t R = 14.317 min; IR (KBr): v = 3429 (vs, OH), 2928 (m), 2852 (w), 1723 (m, C=0), 1643 (m, C=0), 1580 (vw), 1516 (m), 1479 (w), 1449 (w), 1402 (w), 1380 (w), 1335 (s, N0 2 ), 1269 (m), 1210 (w), 1163 (w), 1111 (m), 1070 (s), 1032 (m), 963 (w), 894 (vw), 768 (vw), 745 (w), 712 (w), 672 (w) cm "1 .

Synthesis of product 59

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy] -4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy] -5 -methyl-N-( { 1 - [4-(5 -nitro- 1 H- indol-l-yl)butyl]-lH-l,2,3-triazol-4-yl}methyl)cyclohexaneca rboxamide

Following general procedure III, alkyne 20 (9.7 mg, 12.5 μηιοΐ), azide 29 (4.2 mg, 162 μιηοΐ), Na-L-ascorbate (124 μί, 12.4 μιηοΐ), and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (62 μί, 6.20 μιηοΐ) were dissolved in 'BuOH/H^/THF 1 : 1 : 1 (1 mL). After 1 h, triazole 59 (6.4 mg, 49%) was isolated by preparative HPLC-MS. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.50-0.73 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.86-0.96 (m, 1H, Cy), 1.07 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.17 (dt, J= 12.5, 35.3 Hz, 3H, Cy, H-6 a , H-2 a ), 1.32 (dd, J= 8.9, 15.8 Hz, 7H, 4Cy, Fuc H-6), 1.38-1.45 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 a ), 1.50 (ddd, J= 3.9, 10.0, 13.8 Hz, 1H, Lac H-3 b ), 1.54-1.69 (m, 3H, Cy, H-6, H-5), 1.77-1.93 (m, 4H, H-3", H-2"), 2.11-2.18 (m, 1H, H-2), 2.22-2.30 (m, 1H, H-l), 3.12 (t, J= 9.5 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.55 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.62 (dd, J= 2.9, 9.7 Hz, 1H, Gal H-3), 3.64-3.82 (m, 5H, H-3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, 2Gal H-6), 3.86 (dd, J= 3.3, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.95-3.97 (m, 1H, Gal H-4), 4.01 (dd, J= 2.5, 9.6 Hz, 1H, Lac H-2), 4.26 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H, H-4"), 4.31 (s, 2H, Η-Γ), 4.39 (t, J= 6.6 Hz, 2H, H-l"), 4.67 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.94-4.99 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.40-5.45 (m, 1H, Gal H-2), 6.71 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, 1H, Ind H-3), 7.41-7.47 (m, 3H, Ind H-7, C 6 H 5 ), 7.50-7.54 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-2), 7.56-7.60 (m, 1Η, CeHs), 7.72 (s, 1Η, Η-3 * ), 8.02-8.05 (m, 2Η, CeHs), 8.05- 8.09 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-6), 8.53-8.58 (m, 1Η, Ind H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.73 (Fuc C-6), 19.23 (Me), 26.54, 26.70, 27.28 (3C, Cy), 28.16, 28.48 (2C, C-2", C- 3"), 33.13 (Cy), 34.20 (Cy), 35.06, 35.10 (2C, Cy, C-2), 35.58 (C-Γ), 37.44 (C-6),

39.31 (C-5), 42.83 (Lac C-3), 42.97 (C-l), 46.81 (C-4"), 50.70 (C-l"), 62.78 (Gal C-6), 67.72, 67.76 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.31 (Fuc C-2), 71.41 (Fuc C-3), 73.00 (Gal C- 2), 73.96 (Fuc C-4), 75.99 (Gal C-5), 78.29 (Lac C-2), 79.76 (C-3), 83.00 (C-4), 83.72 (Gal C-3), 100.43 (Fuc C-l), 100.50 (Gal C-l), 104.94 (Ind C-3), 110.76 (Ind C-7), 117.80 (Ind C-6), 118.81 (Ind C-4), 124.19 (C-3 * ), 129.27 (Ind C-9), 129.71 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.89 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.59 (C 6 H 5 ), 132.79 (Ind C-2), 134.33 (C 6 H 5 ), 140.27 (Ind C-8), 142.72 (Ind C-5), 146.16 (C-2') § , 166.85 (0(C=0)Ph), 176.90 (CONH), 179.31 (COOH); HR-MS: m/z calcd for C 5 iH 6 8N 6 0i7 [M-H+2Na] + : 1081.4353; found:

1081.4342; [a] D 20 = -57.0 (c = 0.62, MeOH); HPLC (λ = 350 nm): purity = 95%, t R = 14.633 min; IR (KBr): v = 3431 (vs, OH), 2927 (m), 2852 (m), 1725 (m, C=0), 1639 (m, C=0), 1580 (w), 1516 (m), 1479 (w), 1448 (w), 1402 (w), 1383 (w), 1334 (s, N0 2 ), 1271 (m), 1111 (m), 1071 (s), 1032 (m), 999 (vw), 966 (vw), 933 (vw), 897 (vw), 837 (vw), 804 (vw), 768 (vw), 746 (vw), 713 (w), 667 (vw), 593 (vw) cm "1 . Synthesis of product 60

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy]-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy]-5-methyl-N- (2- { 1 -[(6-nitro- 1H- indol-3 -yl)methyl]- 1H- 1 ,2,3-triazol-4-yl} ethyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide Following general procedure III, alkyne 21 (10.4 mg, 13.1 μηιοΐ), azide

31 (4.3 mg, 19.8 μηιοΐ), Na-L-ascorbate (66 μΐ,, 6.60 μηιοΐ) and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (33 μί, 3.30 μηιοΐ) were dissolved in 'BuOH^O/THF 1 : 1 : 1 (1 mL; no prior degassing). After 4 h, 8.8 mg (66%) of triazole 60 was isolated by preparative HPLC-MS.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.49-0.59 (m, 1H, Cy), 0.59-0.71 (m, 3H, Cy), 0.85-0.99 (m, 2H, Cy, H-6 a ), 1.02 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.04-1.13 (m, 1H, H-2 a ), 1.17-1.37 (m, 8H, Fuc H-6, 5Cy), 1.37-1.45 (m, 2H, Lac H-3 a , H-6 b ), 1.46-1.62 (m, 3H, Lac H-3 b , H-5, Cy), 2.06-2.12 (m, 2H, H-2, H-l), 2.76 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H, H-2'), 3.08 (t, J= 9.5 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.55 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.59-3.66 (m, 2H, Gal H-3, H-3), 3.69-3.81 (m, 4H, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, 2Gal H-6), 3.86 (dd, J= 3.2, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.94-3.97 (m, 1H, Gal H-4), 3.98-4.03 (m, 1H, Lac H-2), 4.66 (d, I = 8.0 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.93-5.01 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.43 (t, J= 8.9 Hz, 1H, Gal H- 2), 6.78 (d, J= 14.8 Hz, 1H, H-l" a ), 6.80-6.82 (m, 1H, Ind H-3), 6.85 (d, J= 14.7 Hz, 1H, H-l" b ), 7.41-7.46 (m, 2H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.50-7.55 (m, 1Η, C 6 H 5 ), 7.65-7.68 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-2), 7.82-7.85 (m, 1Η, Η-4'), 7.87-7.90 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-7), 8.03-8.07 (m, 2Η, C 6 H 5 ), 8.14-8.18 (m, 1Η, Ind H-6), 8.56-8.59 (m, 1H, Ind H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.74 (Fuc C-6), 19.18 (Me), 26.41, 26.54, 26.72 (3C, 2Cy, C-2'), 27.28 (Cy), 33.11, 34.21 35.10 (Cy), 35.35 (C-2'), 37.26 (C-6), 39.24 (C-5), 39.66 (C-Γ, 42.88, 43.08 (2C, Lac C-3, C-l), 59.63 (C-Γ), 62.78 (Gal C-6), 67.71 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.31 (Fuc C-2), 71.42 (Fuc C-3), 73.05 (Gal C-2), 73.98 (Fuc C-4), 76.00 (Gal C-5), 78.33 (Lac C-2)*, 79.87 (C-3), 82.91 (C-4), 83.69 (Gal C-3), 100.44 (Fuc C-l), 100.62 (Gal C-l), 106.92 (Ind C-3), 111.49 (Ind C-7), 118.78 (Ind C-6), 118.84 (Ind C-4), 123.30 (C-4'), 129.73 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.06 (Ind C-9), 130.93 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.62 (C 6 H 5 ), 132.52 (Ind C-2), 134.36 (C 6 H 5 ), 140.09 (Ind C-8), 143.89 (Ind C-5), 147.06 (C-3 * ), 166.81 (0(C=0)Ph), 176.99 (CONH), 179.82 (COOH) § ; [a] D 20 = -67.5 (c = 0.23, MeOH); HPLC (λ = 350 nm): purity = 95%, t R = 14.000 min; IR (KBr): v = 3429 (vs, OH), 2927 (s), 2853 (w), 1722 (s, C=0), 1648 (m, C=0), 1616 (w), 1584 (vw), 1520 (m), 1476 (vw), 1450 (m), 1403 (w), 1337 (vs, N0 2 ), 1317 (s), 1273 (s), 1224 (w), 1169 (w), 1114 (s), 1095 (s), 1073 (vs), 1034 (s), 1000 (vw), 966 (vw), 760 (vw), 746 (w), 713 (m) cm "1 .

Synthesis of product 61

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cyc lohexyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy]-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy]-5-methyl-N- (2-{l-[2-(5-nitro-lH- indol- 1 -yl)ethyl]- IH- 1 ,2,3-triazol-4-yl} ethyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide

Alkyne 21 (15.3 mg, 19.3 μηιοΐ), azide 27 (5.8 mg, 2.51 μηιοΐ), Na-L- ascorbate (2.3 mg, 11.6 μιηοΐ), and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (1.3 mg, 5.21 μιηοΐ) were dissolved in i BuOH/H 2 0 1 : 1 (1 mL) under argon (no degassing). After 4 h, triazole 61 (15.7 mg, 79%) was isolated according to general procedure III.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.49-0.61 (m, IH, Cy), 0.61-0.73 (m, 3H, Cy), 0.83-0.96 (m, IH, Cy), 1.09 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.11-1.26 (m, 3H, H-2 a , H-6 a , Cy), 1.26-1.37 (m, 8H, 5Cy, 3Fuc H-6), 1.37-1.46 (m, IH, Lac H-3 a ), 1.45-1.61 (m, 3H Lac H-3 b , H-6, Cy), 1.60-1.70 (m, IH, H-5), 2.06-2.13 (m, IH, H-2), 2.13-2.22 (m, IH, H-l), 2.61 (t, J= 7.4 Hz, 2H, H-2'), 3.09-3.19 (m, 3H, Η-Γ, H-4), 3.53-3.59 (m, IH, Gal H-5), 3.59-3.83 (m, 6H, Gal H-3, H-3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, 2Gal H-6), 3.87 (dd, J= 3.3, 10.3 Hz, IH, Fuc H-3), 3.91-4.00 (m, 2H, Gal H-4, Lac H-2), 4.68 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, IH, Gal H-l), 4.73-4.78 (m, 2H, H-2"), 4.78-4.82 (m, 2H, H-l"), 4.92-5.01 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.39-5.46 (m, IH, Gal H-2), 6.70 (d, J= 3.2 Hz, IH, Ind H-3), 7.24- 7.28 (m, 2H, Ind H-2, Ind H-7), 7.29 (s, IH, H-4'), 7.40-7.46 (m, 2H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.51-7.55 (m, 1Η, C 6 H 5 ), 7.67 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, IH, CONH), 7.97-8.01 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-6), 8.02-8.06 (m, 2Η, C 6 H 5 ), 8.49-8.54 (m, 1Η, Ind H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.72 (Fuc C-6), 19.25 (Me), 26.35 (C-2'), 26.53, 26.70 (2C, Cy), 27.27 (Cy), 33.15 (Cy), 34.22 (Cy), 35.07 (Cy), 35.31 (C-2), 37.38 (C-6), 39.29 (C-5), 40.03 (C-Γ), 42.82 (Lac C-3), 43.20 (C-1), 47.50 (C-2"), 51.30 (C-1"), 62.78 (Gal C-6), 67.71, 67.77 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.33 (Fuc C-2), 71.43 (Fuc C-3), 73.04 (Gal C-2), 73.96 (Fuc C-4), 76.00 (Gal C-5), 79.84 (C-3), 82.99 (C-4), 83.66 (Gal C-3), 100.41 (Fuc C-1), 100.57 (Gal C- 1), 105.73 (Ind C-3), 110.26 (Ind C-7), 117.96 (Ind C-6), 118.74 (Ind C-4), 124.34 (C- 4'), 129.20 (Ind C-9), 129.69 (C 6 H 5 ), 129.74 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.89 (C 6 H 5 ), 132.54 (Ind C-2), 134.32 (C 6 H 5 ), 140.44 (Ind C-8), 142.97 (Ind C-5), 146.47 (C-3 * ), 166.82 (0(C=0)Ph), 176.94 (CONH); HR-MS: m/z calcd for C 5 oH 66 N 6 Oi7 [M-H+2Na] + : 1067.4202; found: 1067.4207; HPLC (λ = 350 nm): purity = 96%, t R = 14.500 min; [a] D 20 = -88.2 (c = 0.29, MeOH); IR (KBr): v = 3418 (s, OH), 2926 (s), 2853 (m), 1722 (s, C=0), 1648 (m, C=0), 1619 (m), 1583 (w), 1517 (s), 1479 (w), 1451 (m), 1404 (w), 1334 (vs, N0 2 ), 1290 (m), 1271 (w), 1223 (w), 1166 (m), 1112 (s), 1095 (s), 1071 (vs), 1032 (s), 967 (w), 999 (m), 935 (vw), 897 (vw), 809 (vw), 778 (w), 766 (w), 747 (m), 712 (s), 677 (w), 593 (w) cm "1 . Synthesis of product 62

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy] -4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy] -5 -methyl-N-(2- { 1 -[3 -(5 -nitro- 1H- indol-l-yl)propyl]-lH-l,2,3-triazol-4-yl}ethyl)cyclohexaneca rboxamide

Alkyne 21 (17.3 mg, 21.8 μηιοΐ) and azide 28 (7.0 mg, 28.5 μηιοΐ) were dissolved in i BuOH/H 2 0/THF 1 : 1 : 1 (1 mL). The solution was degassed by 3 pump- freeze cycles, and the Na-L-ascorbate (110 μΐ,, 11.0 μιηοΐ) and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (55 μΐ,, 5.50 μιηοΐ) solutions were added under argon. After 3 h, triazole 62 (14.4 mg, 63%) was isolated according to general procedure III.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.49-0.74 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.83-0.97 (m, 1H, Cy), 1.05 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.07-1.25 (m, 3H, H-2 a , H-6 a , Cy), 1.26-1.37 (m, 7H, Fuc H-6, 4Cy), 1.36-1.45 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 a ), 1.45-1.58 (m, 3H, Lac H-3 b , H-6 b , Cy), 1.58-1.69 (m, 1H, H-5), 2.07-2.15 (m, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.17-2.26 (m, 1H, H-l), 2.46 (p, J= 6.6 Hz, 2H, H-2"), 2.79 (t, J= 7.1 Hz, 2H, H-2'), 3.11 (t, J = 9.6 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.32- 3.41 (m, 2H, Η-Γ), 3.54 (t, J= 6.1 Hz, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.61 (dd, J = 2.8, 9.8 Hz, 1H, Gal H-3), 3.63-3.82 (m, 6H, H-3, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-4, Gal H-6), 3.85 (dd, J= 3.3, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.95 (d, J= 2.5 Hz, 1H, Gal H-4), 3.97-4.03 (m, 1H, Lac H-2), 4.30 (t, J = 6.9 Hz, 2H, H-3"), 4.37 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 2H, H-l"), 4.66 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.93-5.00 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.42 (dd, J= 8.2, 9.5 Hz, 1H, Gal H-2), 6.73 (d, J = 3.0 Hz, 1H, Ind H-3), 7.41-7.53 (m, 4H, CeHe, Ind Η-2, Ind Η-7), 7.57 (m, 1Η, C 6 H 6 ), 7.68 (s, 1H, H-4'), 7.81 (t, J= 5.3 Hz, 1H, CONH), 8.02-8.06 (m, 2Η, C 6 H 6 ), 8.06-8.10 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-6), 8.54-8.58 (m, 1Η, Ind H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.72 (Fuc C-6), 19.24 (Me), 26.53, 26.62, 26.71 (3C, 2 Cy, C-2'), 27.27 (Cy), 31.48 (C-2"), 33.15 (Cy), 34.22 (Cy), 35.07 (Cy), 35.26 (C-2), 37.52 (C-6), 39.31 (C-5), 39.94 (C-Γ), 42.84 (Lac C-3), 43.23 (C-1), 44.60 (C-3"), [48.16 (C-1")], 62.80 (Gal C-6), 67.72,

67.77 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.33 (Fuc C-2), 71.42 (Fuc C-3), 73.04 (Gal C-2), 73.96 (Fuc C-4), 76.01 (Gal C-5), [77.78 (Lac C-1)], 79.77 (C-3), 82.98 (C-4), 83.69 (Gal C- 3), 100.40 (Fuc C-1), 100.52 (Gal C-1), 105.21 (Ind C-3), 110.75 (Ind C-7), 117.92 (Ind C-6), 118.83 (Ind C-4), 123.83 (C-4'), 129.39 (Ind C-9), 129.72 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.90 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.62 (C 6 H 5 ), 132.84 (Ind C-2), 134.34 (C 6 H 5 ), 140.25 (Ind C-8), 142.90 (Ind C-5), [146.71 (C-3 * ), 166.81 (0(C=0)Ph), 177.01 (CONH); HR-MS: m/z calcd for

CsiHesNeOiv [-H+2Na] + : 1081.4358; found: 1081.4360; HPLC (λ = 350 nm): purity = 95%, t R = 15.033 min; [a] D 20 = -60.4 (c = 0.32 , MeOH); IR (KBr): v = 3431 (vs, OH), 2927 (s), 2852 (w), 1724 (s, C=0), 1644 (m,C=0), 1578 (w), 1516 (m), 1476 (w), 1451 (m), 1404 (w), 1334 (vs, N0 2 ), 1271 (s), 1220 (w), 1163 (m), 1109 (s), 1071 (vs), 1032 (s), 967 (w), 899 (vw), 807 (vw), 765 (w), 746 (m), 713 (m), 593 (w) cm "1 .

Synthesis of product 63

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy]-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy]-5-methyl-N- (2-{l-[4-(5-nitro-lH- indol- 1 -yl)butyl]- 1H- 1 ,2,3-triazol-4-yl} ethyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide

Alkyne 21 (14.0 mg, 17.7 μηιοΐ), azide 29 (6.1 mg, 23.5 μηιοΐ), Na-L- ascorbate (approx. 5 mg, 25.2 μιηοΐ), and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (3.1 mg, 12.5 μιηοΐ) were dissolved in 'BuOH^O/THF 1 : 1 : 1 (1 mL). After 4 h, triazole 63 (9.3 mg, 50%) was isolated according to general procedure III.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.49-0.72 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.84-0.95 (m,

1H, Cy), 1.06 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.08-1.26 (m, 3H, Cy, H-6 a , H-2 a ), 1.26-1.36 (m, 7H, 4 Cy, H-6), 1.36-1.44 (m, 1H, Lac H-3), 1.46-1.59 (m, 3H, Lac H-3, H-6 b , Cy), 1.59-1.66 (m, 1H, H-5), 1.77-1.91 (m, 4H, H-3", H-2"), 2.09-2.15 (m, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.19 (tt, J= 3.1, 12.6 Hz, 1H, H-l), 2.76 (t, J= 7.2 Hz, 2H, H-2'), 3.11 (t, J= 9.6 Hz, 1H, H- 4), 3.32 (m, 1H, Η-Γ) 3.53-3.58 (m, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.61-3.81 (m, 6H, Gal H-3, H-3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, 2 Gal H-6), 3.86 (dd, J= 3.3, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.95 (d, J= 2.3 Hz, 1H, Gal H-4), 4.03 (dd, J= 2.8, 9.8 Hz, 1H, Lac H-l), 4.27 (t, J= 6.7 Hz, 2H, Η-Γ), 4.36 (t, J= 6.4 Hz, 2H, H-l"), 4.68 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.94 (d, J= 4.0 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-l), 4.98 (q, J= 6.6 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-5), 5.43 (dd, J= 8.3, 9.5 Hz, 1H, Gal H- 2), 6.71 (dd, J= 0.5, 3.2 Hz, 1H, Ind H-), 7.43-7.47 (m, 3H, C 6 H 5 , Ind H-2), 7.52-7.58 (m, 2H, Ind H-7, C 6 H 5 ), 7.64 (s, 1H, H-4'), 8.03-8.09 (m, 3H, 2 C 6 H 5 , Ind H-6), 8.56 (m, 1H, Ind H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.74 (Fuc C-6), 19.24 (Me), 26.53, 26.59, 26.70 (3C, 2 Cy, C-2', 27.27 (Cy), 28.11 (C-3"), 28.50 (C-2"), 33.12 (Cy), 34.18 (Cy), 35.05 (Cy), 35.27 (C-2), 37.46 (C-6), 39.31 (C-5), 39.97 (C-Γ), 42.80 (Lac C-3), 43.22 (C-1), 46.85 (C-2"), 50.61 (C-1"), 62.75 (Gal C-6), 67.70, 67.74 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.31 (Fuc C-2), 71.42 (Fuc C-3), 73.02 (Gal C-2), 73.96 (Fuc C-4), 75.98 (Gal C-5), 78.07 (Lac C-2), 79.79 (C-3), 83.00 (C-4), 83.68 (Gal C-3), 100.43 (Fuc C- 1), 100.51 (Gal C-1), 104.93 (Ind C-3), 110.78 (Ind C-7), 117.79 (Ind C-6), 118.84 (Ind C-4), 123.58 (C-4'), 129.29 (Ind C-9), 129.73 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.91 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.58 (C 6 H 5 ), 132.88 (Ind C-2), 134.36 (C 6 H 5 ), 140.24 (Ind C-8), 142.72 (Ind C-5), 146.35 (C-3 * ), 166.81 (0(C=0)Ph), 176.99 (CONH), 179.14 (COOH) § ; HR-MS: m/z calcd for C 52 H 7 oN 6 Oi7 [M+H] + : 1051.4870; found: 1051.4868; HPLC (λ = 350 nm): purity = 97%, t R = 15.283 min; [a] D 20 = -60.1 (c = 0.86, MeOH); IR (KBr): v = 3414 (vs, OH), 2927 (s), 2852 (m), 1722 (s, C=0), 1648 (m, C=0), 1610 (w), 1580 (w), 1515 (m),

1479 (w), 1450 (m), 1404 (w), 1334 (vs), 1272 (s), 1215 (w), 1163 (m), 1112 (s), 1072 (vs), 1032 (s, N0 2 ), 967 (w), 897 (vw), 807 (vw), 768 (w), 747 (m), 713 (m), 675 (w), 628 (w), 593 (w) cm "1 .

Synthesis of product 64

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cyc lohexyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy]-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy]-5-methyl-N- (3- { 1 -[(5-nitro- 1H- indol-1 -yl)methyl]- 1H- 1 ,2,3-triazol-4-yl}propyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide

Following general procedure III, alkyne 22 (9.7 mg, 12.0 μηιοΐ), azide 31 (3.9 mg, 18.0 μιηοΐ), Na-L-ascorbate (60 μί, 6.00 μιηοΐ) and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (30 μί, 3.00 μηιοΐ) were dissolved in 'BuOH^O/THF 1 : 1 : 1 (1 mL; no prior degassing). After 3 h, 7.5 mg (61%) of triazole 64 was isolated by preparative HPLC-MS.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.49-0.59 (m, 1H, Cy), 0.59-0.71 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.85-0.95 (m, 1H. Cy), 1.09 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.1 1-1.25 (m, 3H, Cy, H- 6 a , H-2 a ), 1.25-1.36 (m, 7H, Cy, Fuc H-6), 1.36-1.45 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 a ), 1.45-1.60 (m, 3H, Lac H-3 b , Cy, H-6 b ), 1.60-1.67 (m, 1H, H-5), 1.67-1.74 (m, 2H, H-2'), 2.07-2.13 (m, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.17-2.25 (m, 1H, H-l), 2.60 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H, H-3*), 3.04-3.10 (m, 2H, Η-Γ), 3.13 (t, J = 9.6 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.56 (t, J = 5.9 Hz, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.62-3.81 (m, 6H, Gal H-3, H-3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, Gal H-6), 3.86 (dd, J= 3.2, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.96 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H, Gal H-4), 4.02 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 1H, Lac H-2), 4.66 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.95-5.00 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l , Fuc H-5), 5.39-5.44 (m, 1H, Gal H-2), 6.79-6.82 (m, 1H, Ind H-3), 6.85 (s, 2H, H-l"), 7.24-7.29 (m, 2H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.30-7.35 (m, 1Η, C 6 H 5 ), 7.69-7.76 (m, 2Η, CONH, Ind Η-2), 7.88-7.92 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-7), 7.94 (s, 1Η, Η-5*), 7.96-7.99 (m, 2Η, CeHs), 8.13-8.17 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-6), 8.55-8.56 (m, 1Η, Ind H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.70 (Fuc C-6), 19.24 (Me), 23.46 (C-3*), 26.52 (Cy), 26.70 (Cy), 27.26 (Cy), 30.12 (C-2'), 33.12 (Cy), 34.19 (Cy), 35.05 (Cy), 35.52 (C-2), 37.38 (C-6), 39.30, 39.42 (2 C, C-5, C-Γ), 42.78 (Lac C-3), 43.37 (C-l), 59.70 (C-O, 62.77 (Gal C-6), 67.71 , 67.76 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.33 (Fuc C-2), 71.42 (Fuc C-3), 73.04 (Gal C-2), 73.97 (Fuc C-4), 75.99 (Gal C-5), 78.28 (Lac C-2)*, 79.91 (C-3), 82.98 (C-4), 83.61 (Gal C-3), 100.45 (Fuc C-l), 100.63 (Gal C-l), 106.81 (Ind C-3), 1 1 1.47 (Ind C-7), 1 18.80, 1 18.81 (2C, Ind C-4, Ind C-6), 123.10 (C-5*), 129.58 (Ind C-9), 130.1 1 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.76 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.48 (C 6 H 5 ), 132.58 (Ind C-2), 134.21 (C 6 H 5 ), 140.1 1 (Ind C-8), 143.89 (Ind C-5), 149.16 (C-4'), 166.76 (0(C=0)Ph), 177.05 (CONH); HR-MS: m/z calcd for C 5 oH 66 N 6 Oi7 [M+Na] + : 1045.4377; found: 1045.4376; [a] D 20 = -42.3 (c = 0.72, MeOH). Synthesis of product 65

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy] -4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy] -5 -methyl-N-(3 - { 1 -[2-(5 -nitro- 1H- indol-1 -yl)ethyl]- 1H- 1 ,2,3-triazol-4-yl}propyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide Following general procedure III, alkyne 22 (14.6 mg, 18.1 μηιοΐ), azide

27 (5.5 mg, 23.8 μηιοΐ), Na-L-ascorbate (91 μί, 9.10 μηιοΐ) and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (45 μί, 4.50 μηιοΐ) were dissolved in 'BuOH/F^O/MeCN 1 : 1 (0.8 mL) and MeCN (0.1 mL). As no product could be detected after 1 h, further 91 μΐ, and 45 μΐ, of the Na-L-ascorbate and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 solution were added. After another 18 h, triazole 65 (12.8 mg, 68%) was isolated by preparative HPLC-MS.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.48-0.59 (m, 1H, Cy), 0.59-0.70 (m, 3H, Cy), 0.84-0.93 (m, 1H, Cy), 1.11 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.14-1.36 (m, 10H, Cy, H-6 a , H-2 a , 4Cy, Fuc H-6), 1.36-1.44 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 a ), 1.44-1.54 (m, 3H, Lac H-3 b , H-2'), 1.54-1.62 (m, 2H, Cy, H-6 b ), 1.62-1.72 (m, 1H, H-5), 2.12-2.18 (m, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.19-2.27 (m, 1H, H-1), 2.47 (t, J= 7.4 Hz, 2H, H-3 * ), 2.86-2.93 (m, 2H, Η-Γ), 3.15 (t, J= 9.6 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.59 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.65 (dd, J= 2.7, 9.7 Hz, 1H, Gal H-3), 3.67-3.82 (m, 5H, H-3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, 2Gal H-6), 3.88 (dd, J= 3.3, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.94-3.99 (m, 2H, Gal H-4, Lac H-2), 4.72-4.78 (m, 3H, Gal H-1, H- 2"), 4.79-4.83 (m, 2H, H-1"), 4.95-5.02 (m, 2H, Fuc H-1, Fuc H-5), 5.43 (dd, J= 8.4, 9.3 Hz, 1H, Gal H-2), 6.69-6.71 (m, 1H, Ind H-3), 7.15-7.19 (m, 1H, Ind H-7), 7.21 (s, 1H, H-5 * ), 7.31-7.34 (m, 1H, Ind H-2), 7.35-7.39 (m, 2H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.49-7.54 (m, 1Η, C 6 H 5 ), 7.94-7.97 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-6), 8.01-8.04 (m, 2Η, C 6 H 5 ), 8.48-8.52 (m, 1Η, Ind Η- 4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.73 (Fuc C-6), 19.27 (Me), 23.28 (C-3 * ), 26.54, 26.71, 27.30 (3C, Cy), 30.26 (C-2'), 33.11, 34.24, 35.13 (3C, Cy), 35.38 (C-2), 37.49 (C-6), 39.31, 39.36 (2C, C-5, C-Γ), 42.98 (Lac C-3), 43.32 (C-1), 47.51 (C-2"), 51.46 (C-1"), 62.87 (Gal C-6), 67.73, 67.76 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.34 (Fuc C-2), 71.42 (Fuc C-3), 73.02 (Gal C-2), 73.97 (Fuc C-4), 76.03 (Gal C-5), 78.78 (Lac 79.85 (C-3), 83.05 (C-4), 83.72 (Gal C-3), 100.44 (Fuc C-1), 100.56 (Gal C-1), 105.87 (Ind C-3), 110.18 (Ind C-7), 117.98 (Ind C-6), 118.73 (Ind C-4), 124.12 (C-5 * ), 129.11 (Ind C-9), 129.65 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.85 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.62 (C 6 H 5 ), 132.46 (Ind C-2), 134.25 (C 6 H 5 ), 140.57 (Ind C-8), 142.88 (Ind C-5), 148.44 (C-4'), 166.82 (0(C=0)Ph), 176.99

(CONH), 180.71 (COOH); HR-MS: m/z calcd for C 5 iH 6 8N 6 0i7 [M+H] + : 1037.4714; found: 1037.4711; HPLC (λ = 350 nm): purity = 96%, t R = 14.583 min; [a] D = -51.0 (c = 0.89, MeOH); IR (KBr): v = 3421 (s, OH), 2927 (m), 2852 (w), 1718 (m, C=0), 1646 (m, C=0), 1638 (m), 1620 (m), 1580 (w), 1517 (m), 1476 (w), 1429 (w), 1402 (w), 1383 (w), 1336 (vs, N0 2 ), 1270 (m), 1218 (w), 1166 (w), 1095 (s), 1070 (s), 1029 (s), 996 (m), 966 (w), 933 (vw), 894 (vw), 826 (vw), 809 (vw), 779 (vw), 771 (vw), 746 (w), 712 (w), 675 (vw), 589 (vw) cm "1 .

Synthesis of product 66

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cyc lohexyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy] -4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy] -5 -methyl-N-(3 - { 1 -[3 -(5 -nitro- 1H- indol-l-yl)propyl]-lH-l,2,3-triazol-4-yl}propyl)cyclohexanec arboxamide

Alkyne 22 (106 mg, 132 μηιοΐ) and azide 28 (48.0 mg, 196 μηιοΐ) were dissolved in 'BuOH/ ^O/THF 1 : 1 : 1 (8 mL), and the 0.1 M Na-L-ascorbate (658 μί, 65.8 μιηοΐ) and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (329 μΐ,, 32.9 μιηοΐ) solutions were added under argon. After 40 min, the THF was removed under reduced pressure, and the residue was subjected to RP-18 silica gel chromatography (MeOH in H 2 0, linear gradient, 0 to 95%). The product fractions were concentrated and further purified by preparative HPLC-MS (H 2 0/MeCN + 0.1% HCOOH) to afford triazole 66 (125 mg, 91%).

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.46-0.70 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.81-0.93 (m,

1H, Cy), 1.11 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.14-1.36 (m, 10H, H-2 a , H-6 a , 5Cy, Fuc H-6), 1.36-1.44 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 a ), 1.44-1.50 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 b ), 1.50-1.57 (m, 1H, Cy), 1.60 (dd, J= 2.5, 13.2 Hz, 1H, H-6 b ), 1.63-1.71 (m, 1H H-5), 1.71-1.81 (m, 2H, H-2'), 2.10- 2.19 (m, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.25 (ddd, J= 3.2, 8.0, 12.7 Hz, 1H, H-l), 2.49 (p, J= 6.8 Hz, 2H, H-2"), 2.65 (t, J= 7.4 Hz, 2H, H-3 * ), 3.05-3.19 (m, 3H, Η-Γ, H-4), 3.57 (t, J= 6.1 Hz, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.64 (dd, J= 3.0, 9.7 Hz, 1H, Gal H-3), 3.66-3.83 (m, 5H, H-3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, Gal H-6), 3.87 (dd, J= 3.3, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.96 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H, Gal H-4), 4.00 (dd, J= 2.9, 9.8 Hz, 1H, Lac H-2), 4.32 (t, J= 6.9 Hz, 2H, H-3"), 4.40 (t, J= 6.7 Hz, 2H, H-l"), 4.70 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.95-5.01 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.43 (dd, J= 8.2, 9.6 Hz, 1H, Gal H-2), 6.71-6.73 (m, 1H, Ind H-3), 7.34- 7.38 (m, 2H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.44-7.52 (m, 3Η, Ind Η-7, Ind Η-2, C 6 H 5 ), 7.65 (s, 1Η, Η-5 * ), 7.98-8.02 (m, 2Η, C 6 H 5 ), 8.04-8.08 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-6), 8.55-8.56 (m, 1Η, Ind H-4); 13 C- NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.73 (Fuc C-6), 19.26 (Me), 23.54 (C-3 * ), 26.50, 26.67, 27.25 (3C, Cy), 30.22 (C-2'), 31.41 (C-2"), 33.11 , 34.18, 35.04 (3C, Cy), 35.42 (C-2), 37.50 (C-6), 39.35, 39.48 (2C, C-5, C-Γ), 42.82 (Lac C-3), 43.35 (C-1), 44.64 (C-3"), 48.56 (C-1"), 62.79 (Gal C-6), 67.71, 67.77 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.33 (Fuc C-2), 71.42 (Fuc C-3), 73.00 (Gal C-2), 73.96 (Fuc C-4), 75.99 (Gal C-5), 78.32 (Lac C-2), 79.85 (C-3), 83.03 (C-4), 83.67 (Gal C-3), 100.45 (Fuc C-1), 100.54 (Gal C-1), 105.21 (Ind C-3), 110.70 (Ind C-7), 117.90 (Ind C-6), 118.83 (Ind C-4), 123.54 (C-5 * ), 129.36 (Ind C-9), 129.65 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.83 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.56 (C 6 H 5 ), 132.81 (Ind C-2), 134.26 (C 6 H 5 ), 140.24 (Ind C-8), 142.83 (Ind C-5), 148.51 (C-4'), 166.78 (0(C=0)Ph), 177.04 (CONH), 179.26 (COOH); HR-MS: m/z calcd for C 52 H 7 oN 6 Oi7 [M+Na] + : 1073.4690; found: 1073.4684; [a] D 20 = -53.1 (c = 0.99, MeOH); HPLC (λ = 350 nm): purity = 97%, t R = 14.267min; IR (KBr): v = 3433 (vs, OH), 2926 (m), 2852 (w), 1725 (m, C=0), 1638 (m, C=0), 1514 (w), 1449 (w), 1402 (w), 1383 (w), 1334 (m, N0 2 ), 1268 (m), 1213 (w), 1163 (w), 1111 (m), 1070 (s), 1032 (m), 996 (w), 963 (vw), 933 (vw), 897 (vw), 807 (vw), 777 (vw), 744 (w), 712 (w) cm "1 .

Synthesis of product 67

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cyc lohexyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy] -4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy] -5 -methyl-N-(3 - { 1 -[4-(5 -nitro- 1H- indol-l-yl)butyl]-lH-l,2,3-triazol-4-yl}propyl)cyclohexaneca rboxamide

Following general procedure III, alkyne 21 (12.0 mg, 14.9 μηιοΐ) and azide 29 (5.8 mg, 22.4 μιηοΐ), Na-L-ascorbate (74 μΐ, 7.40 μιηοΐ), and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (36 μί, 3.70 μιηοΐ) were dissolved in 'BuOH/H^/THF 1 : 1 : 1 (1 mL). After 2 h, triazole 67 (9.4 mg, 59%) was isolated by preparative HPLC-MS.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.49-0.70 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.83-0.94 (m, 1H, Cy), 1.10 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.14-1.37 (m, 10H, H-2 a , H-6 a , Cy, 4Cy, Fuc H- 6), 1.40 (dd, J= 9.1, 11.8 Hz, 1H, Lac H-3 a ), 1.45-1.62 (m, 3H, Lac H-3 b , Cy, H-6 b ), 1.62-1.70 (m, 1H, H-5), 1.70-1.78 (m, 2H, H-2'), 1.78-1.93 (m, 4H, H-3", H-2"), 2.1 1- 2.18 (m, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.21-2.29 (m, 1H, H-l), 2.63 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H, H-3*), 3.03-3.19 (m, 3H, Η-Γ, H-4), 3.57 (t, J = 5.9 Hz, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.64 (dd, J = 2.8, 9.7 Hz, 1H, Gal H-3), 3.66-3.83 (m, 5H, H-3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, Gal H-6), 3.87 (dd, J = 3.2, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.95-4.03 (m, 2H, Gal H-4, Lac H-2), 4.28 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 2H, H-4"), 4.38 (t, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H, H-l"), 4.70 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.95-5.02 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l , Fuc H-5), 5.40-5.45 (m, 1H, Gal H-2), 6.68-6.72 (m, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H, Ind H-3), 7.33- 7.40 (m, 2H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.42-7.46 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-2), 7.46-7.54 (m, 2Η, QHs, Ind Η-7), 7.63 (s, 1Η, Η-5*), 7.98-8.04 (m, 2Η, C 6 H 5 ), 8.04-8.08 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-6), 8.53-8.57 (m, 1Η, Ind H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.73 (Fuc C-6), 19.26 (Me), 23.53 (C-3*), 26.52, 26.69, 27.27 (3C, Cy), 28.1 1 , 28.47 (2C, C-2", C-3"), 30.23 (C-2'), 33.12, 34.20, 35.07 (3C, Cy), 35.44 (C-2), 37.48 (C-6), 39.34, 39.45 (2C, C-5, C-Γ), 42.86 (2C, C-5, C-Γ), 43.34 (C-l), 46.87 (C-2"), 50.61 (C-l"), 62.81 (Gal C-6), 67.71 , 67.76 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.33 (Fuc C-2), 71.42 (Fuc C-3), 73.02 (Gal C-2), 73.97 (Fuc C-4), 76.00 (Gal C-5), 78.36 (Lac C-2), 79.87 (C-3), 83.01 (C-4), 83.67 (Gal C-3), 100.44 (Fuc C-l), 100.58 (Gal C-l), 104.90 (Ind C-3), 1 10.78 (Ind C-7), 1 17.78 (Ind C-6), 1 18.82 (Ind C-4), 123.35 (C-5*), 129.31 (Ind C-9), 129.65 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.83 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.57 (C 6 H 5 ), 132.89 (Ind C-2), 134.26 (C 6 H 5 ), 140.26 (Ind C-8), 142.71 (Ind C-5), 148.45 (C-4'), 166.78 (0(C=0)Ph), 177.03 (CONH), 179.61 (COOH); HR-MS: m/z calcd for C 53 H 72 N 6 Oi 7 [M+Na] + : 1087.4846; found: 1087.4848; [a] D 20 = -53. Γ (c = 0.82, MeOH); HPLC (λ = 350 nm): purity = 99%, t R = 14.517 min; IR (KBr): v = 3436 (vs, OH), 2926 (w), 2852 (vw), 1723 (w, C=0), 1632 (m, C=0), 1512 (w), 1451 (w), 1383 (w), 1334 (m, N0 2 ), 1270 (m), 1210 (vw), 1 166 (vw), 1 1 1 1 (m), 1070 (m), 1032 (m), 996 (vw), 966 (vw), 744 (w), 71 1 (w) cm "1 . Synthesis of product 68

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy]-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy]-5-methyl-N- (4- { 1 -[(6-nitro- 1H- indol-3-yl)methyl]-lH-l,2,3-triazol-4-yl}butyl)cyclohexaneca rboxamide Following general procedure III, alkyne 23 (10.6 mg, 13.4 μηιοΐ), azide

31 (4.4 mg, 20.3 μηιοΐ), Na-L-ascorbate (67 μί, 6.70 μηιοΐ) and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (34 μί, 3.40 μηιοΐ) were dissolved in 'BuOH/F^O/THF 1 : 1 : 1 (1 mL; no prior degassing). After 2 h, 11.3 mg (81%) of triazole 68 was isolated by preparative HPLC-MS.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.47-0.70 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.83-0.94 (m, 1H, Cy), 1.08 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.11-1.24 (m, 3H, Cy, H-6 a , H-2 a ), 1.25-1.32 (m, 4H, Cy), 1.34 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H, Fuc H-6), 1.37-1.68 (m, 9H, Lac H-3 a , Lac H-3 b , H-2', H-6, H-3 * , H-5, Cy), 2.06-2.13 (m, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.16-2.24 (m, 1H, H-l), 2.66 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 2H, H-4'), 3.06 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H, Η-Γ), 3.13 (t, J= 9.6 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.58 (t, J = 5.9 Hz, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.63-3.70 (m, 2H, Gal H-3, H-3), 3.75 (s, 4H, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, 2Gal H-6), 3.86 (dd, J= 3.2, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.96 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 1H, Gal H-4), 4.02 (dd, J= 2.5, 9.7 Hz, 1H, Lac H-2), 4.69 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.95-5.02 (m, 3H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.43 (t, J= 8.9 Hz, 1H, Gal H-2), 6.78-6.81 (m, 1H, Ind H- 3), 6.83 (s, 2H, H-l"), 7.36-7.41 (m, 2H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.51-7.56 (m, 1Η, CeHs), 7.70-7.74 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-2), 7.86-7.90 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-7), 7.95 (s, 1Η, Η-6 * ), 7.99-8.03 (m, 2Η, C 6 H 5 ), 8.12-8.17 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-6), 8.54-8.57 (m, 1Η, Ind H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.74 (Fuc C-6), 19.24 (Me), 25.67 (C-4'), 26.51, 26.67, 27.24 (3C, Cy), 27.43 (C-3 * ), 29.67 (C-2'), 33.08 (Cy), 34.13 (Cy), 35.03 (Cy), 35.38 (C-2), 37.46 (C-6), 39.32 (C-5), 39.75 (C-Γ), 42.75 (Lac C-3), 43.31 (C-l), 59.65 (C-Γ), 62.73 (Gal C-6), 67.70, 67.75 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.30 (Fuc C-2), 71.41 (Fuc C-3), 73.00 (Gal C-2), 73.96 (Fuc C-4), 75.95 (Gal C-5), 77.96 (Lac C-2), 79.82 (C-3), 83.02 (C-4), 83.63 (Gal C-3),

100.45 (Fuc C-l), 100.50 (Gal C-l), 106.78 (Ind C-3), 111.43 (Ind C-7), 118.77 (Ind C- 6), 118.82 (Ind C-4), 122.98 (C-6 * ), 129.65 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.07 (Ind C-9), 130.84 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.52 (C 6 H 5 ), 132.59 (Ind C-2), 134.34 (C 6 H 5 ), 140.07 (Ind C-8), 143.83 (Ind C-5), 149.56 (C-5 * ), 166.79 (0(C=0)Ph), 176.95 (CONH), 178.88 (COOH); [a] D 20 = -53.2 (c = 1.13, MeOH); HPLC (λ = 350 nm): purity = 96%, t R = 14.367 min; IR (KBr): v = 3436 (vs, OH), 2927 (s), 2852 (w), 1725 (m, C=0), 1647 (m, C=0), 1616 (w), 1583 (vw), 1520 (m), 1476 (vw), 1450 (m), 1402 (w), 1384 (w), 1336 (s, N0 2 ), 1315 (m), 1271 (m), 1223 (w), 1167 (w), 1114 (m), 1072 (s), 1040 (s), 999 (w), 966 (vw), 763 (vw), 746 (w), 712 (w) cm "1 . Synthesis of product 69

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy]-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy]-5-methyl-N- (4-{l-[2-(6-nitro-lH- indol-3-yl)ethyl]- 1H- 1 ,2,3-triazol-4-yl}butyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide

Following general procedure III, alkyne 23 (10.2 mg, 12.9 μηιοΐ), azide 27 (4.5 mg, 19.5 μιηοΐ), Na-L-ascorbate (64 μΐ, 6.40 μιηοΐ) and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (32 μί, 3.20 μιηοΐ) were dissolved in 'BuOH^O/THF 1 : 1 : 1 (1 mL; no prior degassing). After 2.5 h, 11.5 mg (85%) of triazole 69 was isolated by preparative HPLC-MS.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.49-0.59 (m, 1H, Cy), 0.59-0.71 (m, 3H, Cy), 0.85-0.95 (m, 1H, Cy), 1.10 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.14-1.24 (m, 3H, Cy, H- 6 a , H-2 a ), 1.24-1.36 (m, 9H, Fuc H-6, 4Cy, H-2'), 1.36-1.61 (m, 6H, H-3 * , Lac H-3 b , H- 6b, Cy), 1.61-1.71 (m, 1H, H-5), 2.10-2.16 (m, 1H, H-2), 2.20-2.28 (m, 1H, H-l), 2.50 (t, J= 7.3 Hz, 2H, H-4'), 2.96-3.07 (m, 2H, Η-Γ), 3.14 (t, J= 9.6 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.57 (t, J= 5.7 Hz, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.64 (dd, J= 2.5, 9.7 Hz, 1H, Gal H-3), 3.66-3.82 (m, 5H, H- 3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, Gal H-6), 3.87 (dd, J= 3.2, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.94-3.97 (m, 1H, Gal H-4), 4.00-4.05 (m, 1H, Lac H-2), 4.71 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.74-4.78 (m, 2H, H-2"), 4.79-4.83 (m, 2H, H-l"), 4.95-5.01 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.40- 5.46 (m, 1H, Gal H-2), 6.69-6.72 (m, 1H, Ind H-3), 7.19-7.22 (m, 1H, Ind H-7), 7.22 (s, 1H, H-6 * ), 7.27-7.30 (m, 1H, Ind H-2), 7.41-7.46 (m, 2H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.55-7.60 (m, 1Η, C 6 H 5 ), 7.95-7.99 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-6), 8.01-8.04 (m, 2Η, C 6 H 5 ), 8.52 (s, 1Η, Ind H-4); 13 C- NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.72 (Fuc C-6), 19.24 (Me), 25.46 (C-4'), 26.49 (Cy), 26.66 (Cy), 27.24 (Cy), 27.59 (C-3 * ), 29.51 (C-2'), 33.08 (Cy), 34.13 (Cy), 35.02 (Cy), 35.32 (C-2), 37.52 (C-6), 39.34 (C-5), 39.79 (C-Γ), 42.76 (Lac C-3), 43.27 (C-1), 47.49 (C-2"), 51.34 (C-1"), 62.72 (Gal C-6), 67.68 (Gal C-4), 67.73 (Fuc C-5), 70.29 (Fuc C- 2), 71.39 (Fuc C-3), 72.95 (Gal C-2), 73.94 (Fuc C-4), 75.94 (Gal C-5), 77.98 (Lac C- 2), 79.81 (C-3), 83.03 (C-4), 83.65 (Gal C-3), 100.44 (Fuc C-l), 100.47 (Gal C-l), 105.76 (Ind C-3), 110.21 (Ind C-7), 117.97 (Ind C-6), 118.69 82 (Ind C-4), 123.96 (C- 6 * ), 129.12 (Ind C-9), 129.68 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.84 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.51 (C 6 H 5 ), 132.46 (Ind C-2), 134.34 (C 6 H 5 ), 140.49 (Ind C-8), 142.87 (Ind C-5), 148.89 (C-5 * ), 166.79 (0(C=0)Ph), 176.92 (CONH), 178.93 (COOH); [a] D 20 = -47.8 (c = 1.10, MeOH); HPLC (λ =

350 nm): purity = 97%, t R = 14.000 min; IR (KBr): v = 3436 (vs, OH), 2927 (m), 2852 (w), 1725 (m, C=0), 1638 (m, C=0), 1584 (vw), 1516 (w), 1479 (vw), 1450 (w), 1383 (vw), 1335 (s, N0 2 ), 1269 (s), 1218 (w), 1166 (w), 1114 (m), 1071 (s), 1032 (m), 998 (w), 966 (vw), 746 (vw), 712 (w) cm "1 . Synthesis of product 70

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-0-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy] -4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy] -5 -methyl-N-( { 1 - [2-(6-nitro- 1 H- indol-3-yl)ethyl]- 1H- 1 ,2,3-triazol-4-yl}methyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide

Following general procedure III, alkyne 20 (9.2 mg, 11.8 μιηοΐ), azide 53 (3.6 mg, 15.6 μιηοΐ), Na-L-ascorbate (118 μΐ,, 11.8 μιηοΐ), and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (59 μΐ,, 5.90 μmol) were dissolved in i BuOH/H 2 0/THF 1 : 1 : 1 (1 mL). After 1 h, the solvent was removed and the residue was purified by three preparative HPLC-MS runs (H 2 0/MeCN + 0.1% HCOOH). After the first purification, 5.7 mg (48%; purity < 90%) of triazole 70 were obtained, after the third purification, 2.5 mg (21 >; purity = 99%>) were isolated.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.48-0.71 (m, 4H, 4 Cy), 0.84-0.95 (m,

1H, Cy), 1.10 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.13-1.24 (m, 3H, H-2 a , H-6 a , Cy), 1.24-1.36 (m, 7H, 4Cy, Fuc H-6), 1.36-1.45 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 a ), 1.45-1.53 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 b ), 1.53- 1.61 (m, 2H, Cy, H-6 b ), 1.60-1.70 (m, 1H, H-5), 2.11-2.18 (m, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.20-2.29 (m, 1H, H-l), 3.14 (t, J= 9.6 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.41 (t, J= 6.7 Hz, 2H, H-2"), 3.57 (t, J= 5.9 Hz, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.61 (dd, J= 2.9, 9.7 Hz, 1H, Gal H-3), 3.65-3.82 (m, 5H, H-3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, Gal H-6), 3.87 (dd, J= 3.3, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.93-3.98 (m, 2H, Gal H-4, Lac H-2), 4.27 (s, 2H, Η-Γ), 4.66-4.71 (m, 3H, H-l", Gal H-l), 4.94-5.00 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.42 (dd, J= 8.2, 9.6 Hz, 1H, Gal H-2), 7.21 (s, 1H, Ind H-2), 7.41-7.46 (m, 3H, C 6 H 5 , Ind Η-7), 7.55-7.59 (m, 1Η, C 6 H 5 ), 7.66 (s, 1Η, Η-3 * ), 8.01- 8.05 (m, 3H, Ind H-6, C 6 H 5 ), 8.29-8.31 (m, 1Η, Ind H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.72 (Fuc C-6), 19.26 (Me), 26.54, 26.72, 27.09 (3C, Cy), 27.30 (C-2"), 33.12 (Cy), 34.24 (Cy), 35.12, 35.16 (2C, Cy, C-2), 35.54 (C-Γ), 37.39 (C-6), 39.32 (C- 5), 42.95, 42.98 (2C, C-l , Lac C-3), 52.36 (C-Γ), 62.85 (Gal C-6), 67.74, 67.75 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.33 (Fuc C-2), 71.41 (Fuc C-3), 73.02 (Gal C-2), 73.96 (Fuc C-4), 76.03 (Gal C-5), 79.1 1 (Lac 79.79 (C-3), 83.03 (C-4), 83.75 (Gal C-3), 100.44 (Fuc C-l), 100.54 (Gal C-l), 1 12.57 (Ind C-7), 1 14.78 (Ind C-3), 1 16.40 (Ind C-4), 1 17.99 (Ind C-6), 124.51 (C-3*), 127.90, 127.98 (2C, Ind C-2, Ind C-9), 129.69 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.89 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.60 (C 6 H 5 ), 134.30 (C 6 H 5 ), 141.03 (Ind C-8), 142.51 (Ind C-5), 146.17 166.86 (0(C=0)Ph), 176.85 (CONH); HR-MS: m/z calcd for

C 4 9H 6 4N 6 Oi7 [M+Na] + : 1031.4220; found: 1031.4223; [a] D 20 = -62.7 (c = 0.26, MeOH); HPLC (λ = 350 nm): purity = 99%, t R = 13.517 min; IR (KBr): v = 3435 (vs, OH), 2925 (w), 2852 (vw), 1720 (w, C=0), 1632 (m, C=0), 1517 (vw), 1451 (vw), 1383 (w), 1333 (m), 1268 (w), 1 163 (w), 1076 (m), 1032 (m, N0 2 ), 966 (vw), 71 1 (vw), 675 (vw), 587 (vw) cm "1 .

Synthesis of product 71

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy] -4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy] -5 -methyl-N-( { 1 - [3 -(6-nitro- 1 H- indol-3-yl)propyl]-lH-l ,2,3-triazol-4-yl}methyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide Following general procedure III, alkyne 20 (14.4 mg, 18.5 μηιοΐ), azide

54 (6.8 mg, 27.7 μιηοΐ), Na-L-ascorbate (186 μί, 18.6 μιηοΐ) and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (92 μί, 9.20 μιηοΐ) were dissolved in 'BuOH^O/THF 1 : 1 : 1 (1 mL). After 1.5 h, triazole 71 (12.9 mg, 68%) was isolated by preparative HPLC-MS.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.47-0.71 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.82-0.94 (m, 1H, Cy), 1.09 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.12-1.44 (m, 1 1H, H-2 a , H-6 a , 5Cy, Lac H-3 a ), 1.49 (ddd, J= 3.6, 10.3, 13.6 Hz, 1H, Lac H-3 b ), 1.52-1.70 (m, 4H, (Cy, H-6 b , H-5), 2.12-2.20 (m, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.26-2.36 (m, 3H, H-l , H-2"), 2.82 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H, H-3"), 3.13 (t, J = 9.5 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.53-3.58 (m, 2H, Gal H-5, Gal H-3), 3.65-3.81 (m, 5H, H-3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, Gal H-6), 3.84-3.90 (m, 2H, Fuc H-3, Gal H-4), 3.94 (s, 1H, Lac H-2), 4.31-4.41 (m, 2H, Η-Γ), 4.46 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 2H, H-l"), 4.65 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.93-4.98 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.41 (dd, J= 8.5, 9.3 Hz, 1H, Gal H-2), 7.30 (s, 1H, Ind H-2), 7.38-7.44 (m, 2H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.44-7.48 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-7), 7.55 (t, 1Η, C 6 H 5 ), 7.82 (s, 1Η, Η-3 * ), 7.98-8.02 (m, 2Η, C 6 H 5 ), 8.02-8.07 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-6), 8.45-8.48 (m, 1Η, Ind H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.72 (Fuc C-6), 19.24 (Me), 22.56 (C3"), 26.53, 26.74, 27.33 (3C, Cy), 31.89 (C-2"), 33.10, 34.29 (2C, Cy), 35.14, 35.20 (Cy, C-2), 35.63 (C-Γ), 37.49 (C-6), 39.33 (C-5), 43.04 (Lac C-3), 43.14 (C-l), 50.86 (C-Γ), 62.92 (Gal C-6), 67.71, 67.74 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.33 (Fuc C-2), 71.40 (Fuc C-3), 72.99 (Gal C-2), 73.96 (Fuc C-4), 76.01 (Gal C-5), 79.76 (C-3), 83.02 (C-4), 83.76 (Gal C-3), 100.41 (Fuc C-l), 100.55 (Gal C-l), 112.53 (Ind C-7), 116.55 (Ind C-4), 117.68 (Ind C-3), 117.93 (Ind C-6), 124.35 (C-3 * ), 127.11 (Ind C-2), 127.95 (Ind C-9), 129.66 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.87 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.65 (C 6 H 5 ), 134.24 (C 6 H 5 ), 141.25 (Ind C-8), 142.29 (Ind C-5), 166.84 (0(C=0)Ph), 176.98 (CONH); HR-MS: m/z calcd for C 5 oH 66 N 6 Oi7 [M+Na] + : 1045.4377; found: 1045.4381; [a] D 20 = -54.1 (c = 0.3, MeOH); HPLC (λ = 350 nm): purity = 95%, t R = 13.883 min; IR (KBr): v = 3433 (vs, OH), 2925 (m), 2852 (w), 1722 (m, C=0), 1631 (m, C=0), 1520 (w), 1468 (w), 1451 (w), 1383 (w), 1333 (m, N0 2 ), 1270 (m), 1210 (w), 1163 (w), 1108 (m), 1074 (m), 1029 (m), 966 (vw), 892 (vw), 807 (vw), 776 (vw), 738 (vw), 712 (w), 672 (vw) cm "1 .

Synthesis of product 72

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cyc lohexyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy]-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy]-5-methyl-N- (2-{l-[2-(6-nitro-lH- indol-3-yl)ethyl]- 1H- 1 ,2,3-triazol-4-yl} ethyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide

Following general procedure III, alkyne 21 (15.2 mg, 19.2 μιηοΐ), azide 53 (5.9 mg, 25.5 μιηοΐ), Na-L-ascorbate (96 μΐ, 9.60 μιηοΐ), and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (48 μί, 4.80 μιηοΐ) were dissolved in 'BuOH^O/THF 1 : 1 : 1 (1 mL). After 3 h, triazole 72 (13.7 mg, 70%) was isolated by preparative HPLC-MS.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.50-0.73 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.84-0.96 (m, 1H, Cy), 1.08 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.10-1.26 (m, 3H, H-6 a , H-2 a , Cy), 1.26-1.37 (m, 8H, 5Cy, Fuc H-6), 1.37-1.44 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 a ), 1.46-1.58 (m, 3H, Lac H-3 b , Cy, H- 6 b ), 1.59-1.68 (m, 1H, H-5), 2.08-2.14 (m, 1H, H-2), 2.16-2.24 (m, 1H, H-l), 2.72 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H, H-2'), 3.12 (t, J= 9.6 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.24-3.29 (m, 2H, Η-Γ), 3.41 (t, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H, H-2"), 3.54 (t, J= 5.9 Hz, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.61 (dd, J= 3.0, 9.7 Hz, 1H, Gal H-3), 3.67 (ddd, J= 4.7, 9.3, 11.6 Hz, 1H, H-3), 3.70-3.81 (m, 4H, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, 2Gal H-6), 3.86 (dd, J= 3.3, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.94 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H, Gal H-4), 4.01 (dd, J= 3.1, 9.7 Hz, 1H, Lac H-2), 4.64-4.69 (m, 3H, Gal H-l, H-l"), 4.93-4.99 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.42 (dd, J= 8.2, 9.6 Hz, 1H, Gal H-2), 7.22 (s, 1H, Ind H-

2) , 7.41-7.48 (m, 3H, Ind H-7, QJJs), 7.51-7.57 (m, 1H, QJJs), 7.60 (s, 1H, H-4'), 7.99- 8.05 (m, 3H, Ind H-6, C 6 H 5 ), 8.09 (s, 1Η, NH), 8.28-8.32 (m, 1Η, Ind H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.71 (Fuc C-6), 19.24 (Me), 26.47, 26.53, 26.70 (3C, 2Cy, C- 2'), 27.12, 27.26 (2C, Cy, C-2"), 33.14 (Cy), 34.18 (Cy), 35.04 (Cy), 35.29 (C-2), 37.43 (C-6), 39.31 (C-5), 39.96 (C-Γ, 42.77 (Lac C-3), 43.22 (C-l), 52.34 (C-l"), 62.76 (Gal C-6), 67.71, 67.77 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.32 (Fuc C-2), 71.42 (Fuc C-3), 73.02 (Gal C-2), 73.96 (Fuc C-4), 75.97 (Gal C-5), 78.06 (Lac C-2), 79.83 (C-3), 83.01 (C-4), 83.67 (Gal C-3), 100.42 (Fuc C-l), 100.53 (Gal C-l), 112.58 (Ind C-7), 114.82 (Ind C-

3) , 116.36 (Ind C-4), 117.99 (Ind C-6), 124.01 (C-4'), 127.93, 127.95 (2C, Ind C-2, Ind C-9), 129.73 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.88 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.55 (C 6 H 5 ), 134.37 (C 6 H 5 ), 140.99 (Ind C-8), 142.53 (Ind C-5), 146.19 (C-3 * ), 166.83 (0(C=0)Ph), 176.99 (CONH), 178.96

(COOH); HR-MS: m/z calcd for C 5 oH 66 N 6 Oi7 [M+Na] + : 1045.4377; found: 1045.4375; [a] D 20 = -53.9 (c = 1.04, MeOH); HPLC (λ = 350 nm): purity = 100%, t R = 13.550min; IR (KBr): v = 3431 (vs, OH), 2927 (m), 2852 (w), 1721 (m, C=0), 1647 (m, C=0), 1545 (w), 1522 (w), 1471 (w), 1450 (w), 1380 (w), 1334 (s, N0 2 ), 1272 (m), 1221 (w), 1163 (w), 1097 (s), 1079 (s), 1029 (m), 999 (w), 963 (vw), 809 (vw), 785 (vw), 741 (vw), 712 (w), 678 (w) cm "1 . Synthesis of product 73

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy]-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy]-5-methyl-N- (2-{l-[3-(6-nitro-lH- indol-3-yl)propyl]-lH-l,2,3-triazol-4-yl}ethyl)cyclohexaneca rboxamide Following general procedure III, alkyne 21 (15.8 mg, 20.0 μηιοΐ), azide

54 (6.9 mg, 28.1 μηιοΐ), Na-L-ascorbate (100 μί, 10.0 μηιοΐ), and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (50 μΐ., 5.00 μηιοΐ) were dissolved in 'BuOH/F^O/THF 1 : 1 : 1 (1 mL). After 3 h, triazole 73 (14.1 mg, 68%) was isolated by preparative HPLC-MS.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.50-0.72 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.83-0.95 (m, 1H, Cy), 1.00 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.04-1.25 (m, 3H, H-2 a , H-6 a , Cy), 1.26-1.36 (m, 7H, 4Cy, Fuc H-6), 1.36-1.44 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 a ), 1.45-1.62 (m, 4H, Lac H-3 b , Cy, H-6 b , H-5), 2.08-2.15 (m, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.20 (tt, J= 3.2, 12.7 Hz, 1H, H-l), 2.24-2.34 (m, 2H, H-2"), 2.77-2.85 (m, 4H, H-2', H-3"), 3.06 (t, J= 9.6 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.39 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H, Η-Γ), 3.52 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.59 (dd, J= 2.8, 9.7 Hz, 1H, Gal H-3), 3.64 (ddd, J= 4.6, 9.1, 11.6 Hz, 1H, H-3), 3.69-3.81 (m, 4H, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, Gal H- 6), 3.85 (dd, J= 3.3, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.93 (d, J= 2.1 Hz, 1H, Gal H-4), 3.98 (dd, J= 2.5, 9.6 Hz, 1H, Lac H-2), 4.36-4.47 (m, 2H, H-l"), 4.64 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.90-4.93 (m, 1H, Fuc H-l), 4.96 (q, J= 6.4 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-5), 5.42 (dd, J = 8.2, 9.6 Hz, 1H, Gal H-2), 7.30 (s, 1H, Ind H-2), 7.43-7.50 (m, 3H, Ind H-7, C 6 H 6 ), 7.55-7.61 (m, 1Η, C 6 H 6 ), 7.70 (s, 1Η, Η-4'), 8.01-8.09 (m, 3Η, C 6 H 6 , Ind Η-6), 8.47- 8.51 (m, 1Η, Ind H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.73 (Fuc C-6), 19.17 (Me), 22.58 (C-3"), 26.53, 26.55, 26.71 (3C, 2Cy, C-2'), 27.29 (Cy), 31.85 (C-2"), 33.12 (Cy), 34.24 (Cy), 35.12 (Cy), 35.30 (C-2), 37.43 (C-6), 39.25 (C-5), 39.87 (C-Γ), 42.95 (Lac C-3), 43.17 (C-l), 50.75 (C-l"), 62.84 (Gal C-6), 67.72, 67.73 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.31 (Fuc C-2), 71.41 (Fuc C-3), 73.03 (Gal C-2), 73.95 (Fuc C-4), 75.97 (Gal C-5), 78.36 (Lac 79.77 (C-3), 83.01 (C-4), 83.72 (Gal C-3), 100.39 (Fuc C-l), 100.54 (Gal C-l), 112.53 (Ind C-7), 116.59 (Ind C-4), 117.69 (Ind C-3), 117.93 (Ind C-6), 123.79 (C-4'), 127.12 (Ind C-2), 127.94 (Ind C-9), 129.74 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.91 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.63 (C 6 H 5 ), 134.36 (C 6 H 5 ), 141.23 (Ind C-8), 142.30 (Ind C-5), 146.29 (C-3 * ) § , 166.84 (0(C=0)Ph), 177.00 (CONH); HR-MS: m/z calcd for C 5 iH 6 8N 6 0i7 [M+H] + : 1037.4714; found: 1037.4714; [a]o = -59.7 (c = 1.22, MeOH); HPLC (λ = 350 ηηι): purity = 100%, t R = 13.717 min; IR (KBr): v = 3430 (vs, OH), 2927 (m), 2852 (w), 1720 (m, C=0), 1647 (m, C=0), 1547 (w), 1520 (w), 1471 (w), 1450 (w), 1333 (s, N0 2 ), 1272 (m), 1221 (w), 1163 (w), 1097 (s), 1078 (s), 1029 (m), 999 (w), 966 (vw), 809 (vw), 778 (vw), 738 (vw), 712 (w), 678 (vw) cm "1 .

Synthesis of product 74

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-O-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy]-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy]-5-methyl-N- (3-{l-[2-(6-nitro-lH- indol-3-yl)ethyl]- 1H- 1 ,2,3-triazol-4-yl}propyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide Following general procedure III, alkyne 22 (14.5 mg, 18.0 μηιοΐ), azide

53 (6.3 mg, 27.2 μιηοΐ), Na-L-ascorbate (90 μί, 9.00 μιηοΐ), and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (45 μί, 4.50 μιηοΐ) were dissolved in 'BuOH^O/MeCN 1 : 1 : 1 (1 mL). After 15 h, triazole 74 (10.3 mg, 55%) was isolated by preparative HPLC-MS.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.46-0.71 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.81-0.94 (m, 1H, Cy), 1.11 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.14-1.37 (m, 10H, H-2 a , H-6 a , 5Cy, Fuc H-6), 1.36-1.45 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 a ), 1.45-1.56 (m, 2H, Lac H-3 b , Cy), 1.56-1.63 (m, 1H, H-6 b ), 1.62-1.74 (m, 3H, H-5, H-2'), 2.11-2.19 (m, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.20-2.30 (m, 1H, H-1), 2.53- 2.64 (m, 2H, H-3 * ), 2.95-3.11 (m, 2H, Η-Γ), 3.15 (t, J= 9.4 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.41 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H, H-2"), 3.55-3.65 (m, 2H, Gal H-3, Gal H-5), 3.66-3.83 (m, 5H, H-3, Fuc H- 2, Fuc H-4, Gal H-6), 3.87 (dd, J= 2.8, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.90-4.04 (m, 2H, Gal H-4 Lac H-2)), 4.61-4.74 (m, 3H, Gal H-1, H-1"), 4.95-5.01 (m, 2H, Fuc H-1, Fuc H-5), 5.38-5.48 (m, 1H, Gal H-2), 7.23 (s, 1H Ind H-2,), 7.35-7.45 (m, 3H, Ind H-7, CeHs), 7.48-7.53 (m, 1Η, C 6 H 5 ), 7.58 (s, 1Η, Η-5 * ), 7.99-8.05 (m, 3Η, Ind H-6, C 6 H 5 ), 8.21- 8.25 (m, 1Η, Ind H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.72 (Fuc C-6), 19.28 (Me), 23.50 (C-3 * ), 26.50, 26.71 (2C, Cy), 27.09 (C-2"), 27.28 (Cy), 30.12 (C-2'), 33.12, 34.38, 35.13 (3C, Cy), 35.41 (C-2), 37.45 (C-6), 39.34, 39.40 (2C, C-Γ, C-5), 43.33 (2C, Lac C-3, C-l), 52.54 (C-l"), 62.88 (Gal C-5)), 67.73 (2C, Fuc C-5, Gal C-4), 70.33 (Fuc C-2), 71.41 (Fuc C-3), 73.08 (Gal C-2), 73.97 (Fuc C-4), 76.26 (Lac C-2), 79.84 (C-3), 83.03 (C-4), 83.70 (Gal C-3), 100.43 (Fuc C-l), 100.59 (Gal C-l), 112.55 (Ind C-7), 114.91 (Ind C-3), 116.35 (Ind C-4), 117.93 (Ind C-6), 123.98 (C-5f, 127.99 (2C, Ind C-2, Ind C-9), 129.66 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.85 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.59 (C 6 H 5 ), 134.27 (C 6 H 5 ), 140.96 (Ind C-8), 142.49 (Ind C-5), 148.09 (C-4') § , 166.82 (0(C=0)Ph), 177.03 (CONH); HR- MS: m/z calcd for C 5 iH 6 8N 6 0i7 [M+Na] + : 1059.4533; found: 1059.4528; [a] D 20 = -32.3 (c = 0.31, MeOH); HPLC (λ = 350 nm): purity = 95%, t R = 13.617min; IR (KBr): v = 3434 (vs, OH), 2926 (m), 282 (w), 1720 (w, C=0), 1631 (m, C=0), 1547 (w), 1520 (w), 1468 (w), 1449 (w), 1380 (w), 1333 (m, N0 2 ), 1268 (m), 1169 (w), 1161 (w), 1097 (m), 1074 (m), 1032 (m), 999 (w), 712 (w) cm "1 .

Synthesis of product 75

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-0-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cyc lohexyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy] -4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy] -5 -methyl-N-(3 - { 1 -[3 -(6-nitro- 1H- indol-3 -yl)propyl] - 1 H- 1 ,2,3 -triazol-4-yl} propyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide

Following general procedure III, alkyne 22 (11.6 mg, 14.4 μηιοΐ), azide 54 (5.3 mg, 21.6), Na-L-ascorbate (72 μΐ, 7.20 μιηοΐ), and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (36 μί, 3.60 μιηοΐ) were dissolved in 1 : 1 : 1 (1 mL). After 2 h, triazole 75 (9.5 mg, 63%) was isolated by preparative HPLC-MS.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.46-0.67 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.85 (d, J= 11.4 Hz, 1H, Cy), 1.10 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.13-1.44 (m, 11H, H-2 a , H-6 a , 5Cy, Fuc H- 6, Lac H-3 a ), 1.44-1.55 (m, 2H, Lac H-3 b ), 1.53-1.62 (m, 1H, H-6 b ), 1.63 (d, J= 16.3 Hz, lH, H-5), 1.75-1.84 (m, 2H, H-2'), 2.11-2.19 (m, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.25 (tt, J= 3.5, 13.0 Hz, 1H, H-l), 2.29-2.39 (m, 2H, H-2"), 2.66-2.72 (m, 2H, H-3 * ), 2.82 (t, J= 7.4 Hz, 2H, H-3"), 3.06-3.23 (m, 3H, Η-Γ, H-4), 3.60 (dt, J= 8.4, 11.3 Hz, 2H, Gal H-5, Gal H-3), 3.65-3.84 (m, 5H, H-3, Fuc H-3, Fuc H-4, Gal H-6), 3.87 (dd, J= 3.2, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.96 (s, 2H, Lac H-2, Gal H-4), 4.45 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 2H, H-l"), 4.69 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.97 (ddd, J= 4.9, 14.3, 19.5 Hz, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.38-5.45 (m, 1H, Gal H-2), 7.30 (s, 1H, Ind H-2), 7.34-7.38 (m, 2H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.44-7.46 (m, 1Η, Ind Η- 7), 7.48-7.52 (m, 1Η, C 6 H 5 ), 7.74 (s, 1Η, Η-5 * ), 7.98-8.02 (m, 2Η, CeHs), 8.02-8.05 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-6), 8.45-8.48 (m, 1Η, Ind H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.72 (Fuc C-6), 19.25 (Me), 22.55 (C-3"), 23.63 (C-3 * ), 26.46, 26.67, 27.25 (3C, Cy), 30.31 (C-2'), 31.86 (C-2"), 33.08, 34.19, 35.07 (3C, Cy), 35.47 (C-2), 37.41 (C-6), 39.32 (C-5), 39.54 (C-Γ), 42.88 (Lac C-3), 43.36 (C-l), 50.80 (C-Γ), 62.82 (Gal C-6), 67.71 , 67.73 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.34 (Fuc C-2), 71.42 (Fuc C-3), 72.99 (Gal C-2), 73.97 (Fuc C-4), 75.99 (Gal C-5), 78, 69 (Lac 79.89 (C-3), 83.03 (C-4), 83.70 (Gal C-3), 100.44 (Fuc C-l), 100.58 (Gal C-l), 1 12.51 (Ind C-7), 1 16.55 (Ind C-4), 1 17.69 (Ind C-3), 1 17.89 (Ind C-6), 123.54 (C-5*), 127.1 1 (Ind C-2), 127.96 (Ind C-9), 129.64 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.83 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.55 (C 6 H 5 ), 134.27 (C 6 H 5 ), 141.22 (Ind C-8), 142.25 (Ind C-5), 148.53 (C-4') § , 166.79 (0(C=0)Ph), 177.05 (CONH); HR-MS: m/z calcd for [M+H] + : 1051.4870; found: 1051.4870; [a] D 20 = -47.6 (c = 0.87, MeOH); HPLC (λ = 350 nm): purity = 98%, t R = 13.767 min; IR (KBr): v = 3431 (vs, OH), 2927 (m), 2852 (w), 1720 (s, C=0), 1631 (m, C=0), 1547 (w), 1517 (w), 1471 (w), 1450 (w), 1383 (w), 1332 (s, N0 2 ), 1270 (m), 1213 (w), 1 166 (w), 1 106 (s), 1073 (s), 1032 (m), 996 (w), 963 (vw), 807 (vw), 774 (vw), 741 (vw), 712 (w), 669 (vw) cm "1 .

Synthesis of product 76

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-N-(3-{ l-[3-(5-Amino-lH-indol-l-yl)propyl]-lH-l ,2,3-triazol-4- yl}propyl)-3-[2-0-benzoyl-3-0-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cyclohexyl-e thyl)-( -D- galactopyranosyl)oxy]-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy]-5-methylcyc lohexanecarboxamide

A mixture of nitroindole 66 (8.5 mg, 8.09 μιηοΐ), Pt0 2 (2 mg, cat.), morpholine (5 μί) in MeOH was stirred at r.t. under an H 2 atmosphere (atm. pressure). Completion of the reaction was indicated by discoloration of the solution and confirmed by MS after 30 min. The catalyst was removed via filtration through a PTFE membrane filter, and the solution was concentrated in vacuo. Purification by preparative HPLC- MS (H 2 0/MeCN + 0.1% HCOOH) gave the amine 76 as a colorless solid (4.5 mg, 54%).

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.39-0.65 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.77-0.87 (m,

1H, Cy), 1.04 (d, J= 5.8 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.09-1.36 (m, 1 1H, H-2 a , H-6 a , 5Cy, Fuc H-6, Lac H-3), 1.43 (t, J= 1 1.9 Hz, 1H, Lac H-3), 1.47-1.55 (m, 2H, H-6, Cy), 1.55-1.64 (m, 1H, H-5), 1.70-1.78 (m, 2H, H-2')), 2.05-2.12 (m, 1H, H-2), 2.19 (t, J= 1 1.8 Hz, 1H, H- 1), 2.39 (p, J= 6.6 Hz, 2H, H-2"), 2.62 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H, H-3*), 3.02-3.16 (m, 3H, Η-Γ, H-4), 3.47-3.54 (m, 2H, Gal H-3, Gal H-3, Gal H-5), 3.60-3.80 (m, 6H, H-3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, Gal H-6, Lac H-2), 3.80-3.86 (m, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.89 (s, 1H, Gal H-4), 4.20 (t, J= 6.5 Hz, 2H, H-3"), 4.30 (t, J= 6.3 Hz, 2H, Η-Γ), 4.62 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H, Gal H-1), 4.89-4.97 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.37 (t, J= 8.7 Hz, 1H, Gal H-2), 6.41 (s, 1H, Ind H-3), 6.92-6.98 (m, 1H, Ind H-6), 7.27 (s, 1H, Ind H-2), 7.29-7.37 (m, 4H, CeHs, Ind Η- 4, Ind H-7), 7.42-7.48 (m, 1H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.60 (s, 1Η, Η-5'), 7.94-8.00 (m, 2Η, C 6 H 5 ); 13 C- NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.75 (Fuc C-6), 19.26 (Me), 23.54 (C-3 * ), 26.53, 26.77, 27.34 (3C, Cy), 30.15 (C-2'), 31.60 (C-2"), 33.05, 34.33, 35.26 (3C, Cy), 35.50 (C-2), 37.39 (C-6), 39.26 (C-5), 39.41 (C-Γ), 43.27 (2C, Lac C-3, C-1), 44.28 (C-3"), [48.66 (C-1")], 63.02 (Gal C-6), 67.70, 67.78 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.28 (Fuc C-2), 71.36 (Fuc C-3), 73.07 (Gal C-2), 73.94 (Fuc C-4), 76.10 (Gal C-5), 79.74 (C-3), 79.89 (Lac C-2), 83.02 (C-4), 83.66 (Gal C-3), 100.46 (Fuc C-1), 100.62 (Gal C-1), 102.22 (Ind C- 3), 111.54 (Ind C-4), 112.92 (Ind C-6), 115.87 (Ind C-7), 123.58 (C-5 * ), 129.63 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.84, 130.87 (2C, C 6 H 5 , Ind H-2), 131.68 (Ind C-8), 134.19 (C 6 H 5 ), 135.30 (Ind C-5), 148.45 (C-4'), 166.78 (0(C=0)Ph), 177.05 (CONH), 181.91 (COOH); [a] D 20 = -59.1 (c = 0.45, MeOH); HPLC (λ = 350 nm): purity = 97%, t R = 11.167 min; IR (KBr): v = 3431 (vs, OH), 2926 (m), 2853 (w), 1722 (w), 1643 (m), 1603 (m), 1584 (m), 1555 (w), 1492 (w), 1451 (w), 1406 (w), 1384 (w), 1365 (w), 1348 (w), 1316 (w), 1273 (m), 1222 (vw), 1167 (w), 1118 (m), 1096 (m), 1079 (s), 1031 (m), 1000 (w), 967 (vw), 804 (vw), 768 (vw), 713 (m) cm "1 .

Synthesis of product 77

(lR,3RAR,5S)-N-(3- { 1 -[3-(5-Acetamido- lH-indol- 1 -yl)propyl]-lH- 1 ,2,3-triazol-4- yl}propyl)-3-[2-0-benzoyl-3-0-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cyclohexyl-e thyl)-( -D- galactopyranosyl)oxy]-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy]-5-methylcyc lohexanecarboxamide Following general procedure III, alkyne 22 (11.6 mg, 14.4 μηιοΐ), azide

38 (13 mg, 22.3 μιηοΐ), Na-L-ascorbate (72 μί, 7.20 μιηοΐ) and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (36 μΐ,, 3.60 μιηοΐ) were stirred in i BuOH/H 2 0/THF 1 :1 : 1 (1 mL; no prior degassing). After removal of the solvent under reduced pressure, the crude product was redissolved in MeOH, and centrifuged. The supernatant was subjected to preparative HPLC-MS to afford 77 as a colorless solid (11.0 mg, 73%).

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.47-0.57 (m, 1H, Cy), 0.57-0.70 (m, 3H, Cy), 0.82-0.94 (m, 1H, Cy), 1.10 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.13-1.36 (m, 8H, H-2 a , H-6 a , 5Cy, Fuc H-6), 1.35-1.44 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 a ), 1.44-1.51 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 b ), 1.51- 1.61 (m, 2H, H-6 b , Cy), 1.61-1.70 (m, 1H, H-5), 1.73-1.80 (m, 2H, H-2'), 2.10-2.15 (m, 4H, H-2 b , NH Ac-Me), 2.21-2.29 (m, 1H, H-l), 2.42 (p, J= 6.7 Hz, 2H, H-2"), 2.65 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H, H-3 * ), 3.06-3.18 (m, 3H, Η-Γ, H-4), 3.53-3.57 (m, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.60 (dd, J= 2.8, 9.7 Hz, 1H, Gal H-3), 3.65-3.81 (m, 5H, H-3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, Gal H-6), 3.86 (dd, J= 3.2, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.94 (d, J= 2.1 Hz, 1H, Gal H-4), 4.00 (dd, J = 2.3, 9.6 Hz, 1H, Lac H-2), 4.20 (t, J= 6.7 Hz, 2H, H-3"), 4.32 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 2H, H- 1"), 4.67 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.94-5.01 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.40-5.44 (m, 1H, Gal H-2), 6.40-6.43 (m, 1H, Ind H-3), 7.18-7.28 (m, 3H, Ind H-2, Ind H-6, Ind H-7), 7.33-7.41 (m, 2H, CeHs), 7.47-7.52 (m, 1Η, C 6 H 5 ), 7.60 (s, 1Η, Η-5'), 7.75-7.79 (m, 1Η, Ind Η-4), 7.99-8.03 (m, 2Η, C 6 H 5 ); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.74 (Fuc C-6), 19.25 (Me), 23.54 (Ac-Me), 23.67 (C-3'), 26.50, 26.68, 27.25 (3C, Cy), 30.23 (C- 2'), 31.61 (C-2"), 33.07, 34.14, 35.05 (3C, Cy), 35.43 (C-2), 37.43 (C-6), 39.33, 39.47 (2C, C-5, C-Γ), 42.81 (Lac C-3), 43.30 (C-l), 44.14 (C-3"), 48.66 (C-l")*, 62.76 (Gal C-6), 67.70 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.28 (Fuc C-2), 71.39 (Fuc C-3), 72.95 (Gal C-2), 73.96 (Fuc C-4), 75.95 (Gal C-5), 78.15 (Lac C-2), 79.80 (C-3), 83.03 (C-4), 83.65 (Gal C-3), 100.47 (Fuc C-l), 100.50 (Gal C-l), 102.48 (Ind C-3), 110.34 (Ind C-7), 114.12 (Ind C-4), 117.20 (Ind C-6), 123.59 (C-5 * ), 129.68 (C 6 H 5 ), 129.97 (Ind C-9), 130.11 (Ind C-2), 130.83 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.52, 131.94 (2C, Ind C-5, C 6 H 5 ), 134.32 (C 6 H 5 ), 134.78 (Ind C-8), 147.95 (C-4'), 166.76 (0(C=0)Ph), 171.50 (MeCONH), 177.04 (CONH), 178.70 (COOH). [a] D 20 = -49.4 (c = 0.83, MeOH); HPLC (λ = 350 nm): purity = 95%, t R = 12.483 min; IR (KBr): v = 3422 (vs, OH), 2927 (s), 2853 (m), 1725 (s, C=0), 1651 (s, C=0), 1603 (m), 1587 (m), 1548 (m), 1488 (m), 1450 (m), 1401 (w), 1373 (m), 1337 (m), 1316 (m), 1271 (vs), 1113 (vs), 1076 (vs), 1033 (s), 1000 (w), 874 (vw), 804 (w), 762 (w), 762 (w), 713 (m), 675 (w) cm "1 . Synthesis of product 78

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-N-(3-{l-[3-(5-{2-[2-(2-Aminoethoxy)ethoxy]a cetamido}-lH-indol-l- yl)propyl]-lH-l,2,3-triazol-4-yl}propyl)-3-[2-0-benzoyl-3-0- ((15)-l-carboxy-2- cyclohexyl-ethyl)-( -D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy]-5- methylcyclohexanecarboxamide

Following general procedure III, alkyne 22 (12.0 mg, 14.9 μηιοΐ), azide 40 (13 mg, 22.3 μηιοΐ), Na-L-ascorbate (75 μΐ,, 7.50 μιηοΐ) and CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 (38 μΐ,, 3.80 μηιοΐ) were stirred in i BuOH/H 2 0/THF 1 :1 : 1 (1 mL; no prior degassing) for 2 h, followed by the addition of piperidine (4.4 μί). After another hour, further 10 μί of piperidine was added, and stirring was continued for 2 h. Following removal of the solvent in vacuo, the residue was dissolved in MeOH, filtrated through a PTFE membrane filter, and the solution was centrifuged. The supernatant was subjected to preparative HPLC-MS to afford 78 as a colorless solid (11.4 mg, 66%).

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.39-0.69 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.79-0.93 (m, 1H, Cy), 1.09 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.12-1.41 (m, 11H, H-2 a , H-6 a , 4Cy, Fuc H-6, Lac H-3 a ), 1.41-1.51 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 b ), 1.51-1.61 (m, 2H, H-6 b , Cy), 1.61-1.73 (m, 1H, H-5), 1.73-1.84 (m, 2H, H-2'), 2.10-2.15 (m, 1H, H-2 b ), 2.21-2.29 (m, 1H, H-l), 2.44 (p, J= 6.6 Hz, 2H, H-2"), 2.62-2.69 (m, 2H, H-3 * ), 3.05-3.20 (m, 5H, Η-Γ, H-4, H-6*), 3.49 (d, J= 9.2 Hz, 1H, Gal H-3), 3.52-3.57 (m, 1H, Gal H-5), 3.65-3.83 (m, 12H, H-3, Fuc H-2, Fuc H-4, Gal H-6, H-3*, H-4*, H-5*, Lac H-2), 3.86 (dd, J= 3.2, 10.3 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.89-3.94 (m, 1H, Gal H-4, 4.18-4.25 (m, 4H, H-2*, H-3"), 4.34 (t, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H, H-l "), 4.64 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.94-5.00 (m, 3H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.39 (t, J= 8.8 Hz, 1H, Gal H-2), 6.43-6.46 (m, 1H, Ind H-3), 7.24-7.27 (m, 1H, Ind H-2), 7.28 (s, 2H, Ind H-6, Ind H-7), 7.31-7.36 (m, 2H, C 6 H 5 ), 7.43-7.49 (m, 1Η, C 6 H 5 ), 7.61 (s, 1Η, Η-5'), 7.83 (s, 1Η, Ind Η-4), 7.95-8.01 (m, 2Η, C 6 H 5 ); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.79 (Fuc C-6), 19.29 (Me), 23.54 (C-3 * ), 26.52, 26.77, 27.36 (3C, Cy), 30.19 (C-2'), 31.60 (C-2"), 33.03, 34.37, 35.33 (3C, Cy), 35.53 (C-2), 37.40 (C-6), 39.25, 39.42 (2C, C-5, C-Γ), 40.57 (C-6*), 43.23 (C-1), 43.43 (Lac C-3), 44.20 (C-3"), 48.69 (C-1 ")*, 63.06 (Gal C-6), 67.59, 67.74 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 68.00 (C- 5*), 70.27 (Fuc C-2) 70.33, 71.36 (2C, Fuc C-3, C-2*), 71.48 (2C, C-3*, C-4*), 73.00 (Gal C-2), 73.94 (Fuc C-4), 76.06 (Gal C-5), 79.75 (C-3), 83.02 (C-4), 83.69 (Gal C-3), 100.39 (Fuc C-1), 100.62 (Gal C-1), 102.57 (Ind C-3), 110.52 (Ind C-7), 114.43 (Ind C- ), 117.31 (Ind C-6), 123.66 (C-5'), 129.62 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.13, 130.18 (2C, Ind C-2, Ind C- 9), 130.82 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.96, 131.66 (2C, Ind C-5, C 6 H 5 ), 134.16 (C 6 H 5 ), 135.01 (Ind C- 8), 148.82 (C-4'), 166.78 (0(C=0)Ph), 170.59 (C-1 *), 177.03 (CONH); HPLC (λ = 350 nm): purity = 95%, t R = 12.483 min; [a] D 20 = -44.4 (c = 0.67, MeOH); IR (KBr): v = 3430 (vs, OH), 3137 (m, NH 2 ), 2925 (vs), 2855 (m), 1724 (m), 1720 (m), 1654 (s), 1649 (s), 1586 (s), 1542 (m), 1489 (m), 1450 (m), 1401 (w), 1385 (w), 1340 (w), 1293 (w), 1272 (s), 1219 (vw), 1163 (w), 1117 (vs), 1098 (vs), 1079 (vs), 1032 (s), 997 (w), 967 (vw), 802 (vw), 763 (vw), 714 (w) cm "1 .

EXAMPLE 4

SYNTHESIS OF THE SELECTIN ANTAGONIST WITH PIPERAZINE LINKER (FIGURE 7) Synthesis of intermediate 79

3-{4-[3-(5 -Nitro- 1 H-indol- 1 -yl)propyl]piperazin- 1 -yl} propan- 1 -ol Bromide 25 (176 mg, 0.622 mmol), 3-(piperazin-l-yl)propan-l-ol

(278 mg, 1.93 mmol), and Et 3 N (259 μΐ,, 1.87 mmol) were dissolved in anhydrous DMF and stirred at r.t. for 2 h. After removal of the solvent in vacuo, the crude product was subjected to silica gel chromatography (MeOH in CH 2 C1 2 , gradient 0 to 20 to 80%) to afford alcohol 79 (215 mg, quant.) as yellow crystals.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 1.70-1.76 (m, 2H, H-2"), 1.99 (p, J = 6.7

Hz, 2H, H-2'), 2.04-3.07 (bs, 8H, Pip-H), 2.23 (t, J= 6.7 Hz, 2H, H-3 * ), 2.61-2.66 (m, 2H, Η-Γ), 3.77-3.81 (m, 2H, H-3"), 4.25 (t, J= 6.6 Hz, 2H, Η-Γ), 6.64-6.68 (m, 1H, H- 3), 7.26-7.28 (m, 1H, H-2), 7.39-7.44 (m, 1H, H-7), 8.06-8.10 (m, 1H, H-6), 8.54-8.57 (m, 1H, H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 27.06 (C-2"), 27.12 (C-2'), 44.10 (C-Γ), 52.92 (2C, C-a, C-a'), 53.28 (2C, C-b, C-b * ), 54.24 (C-3 * ), 58.61 (C-1"), 64.38 (C-3"), 103.99 (C-3), 109.44 (C-7), 117.01 (C-6), 118.18 (C-4), 127.58 (C-9), 131.23 (C-2), 138.98 (C-8), 141.39 (C-5); IR (KBr): v = 3435 (s, OH), 2947 (m), 2922 (m), 2826 (m), 1634 (vw), 1610 (w), 1578 (vw), 1513 (s), 1479 (m), 1464 (m), 1404 (w), 1369 (w), 1328 (vs, N0 2 ), 1306 (s), 1274 (m), 1186 (w), 1157 (m), 1130 (m), 1067 (s), 1006 (m) 899 (vw), 779 (w), 751 (m), 718 (w) cm "1 .

Synthesis of intermediate 80

l-{3-[4-(3-Azidopropyl)piperazin-l-yl]propyl}-5-nitro-lH- indole Alcohol 79 (181 mg, 0.522 mmol) and diphenyl phosphoryl azide

(DPPA; 134 μΐ,, 0.626 mmol) were dissolved in anhydrous THF (2 mL). The solution was cooled to -15 °C in a salt-ice bath, and diazobicyclo undecene (DBU; 93.6 μΐ,, 0.626 mmol) was added dropwise, and the solution was allowed to warm to r.t.. After 2 h, NaN 3 (71 mg, 1.09 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture as there was no reaction progress according to TLC (CH 2 C1 2 , MeOH 10: 1). After 12 h of stirring, additional 0.5 eq. of DPPA (56 μί, 0.261 mmol) and DBU (39 μί, 0.261 mmol) were added, and stirring was continued for 2 h. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure, the crude mixture was dissolved in EtOAc (30 mL), washed with satd. aq. NaHC0 3 (20 mL) and brine (20 mL). The aqueous layers were extracted with EtOAc (2 x 30 mL), and the organic phase was dried over Na 2 S0 4 . After removal of the solvent in vacuo, the mixture was purified using silica gel chromatography (MeOH in CH 2 C1 2 , gradient 0 to 15 to 70%) to afford a mixture of azide 80 and its diphenyl phosphoryl ester (note: in TLC, azide and ester were not separable using CH 2 C1 2 , MeOH 10: 1). The mixture of azide and ester was dissolved in anhydrous DMF, and NaN 3 (171 mg, 2.63 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at 60 °C for 25 h until TLC (on deactivated TLC plates; petroleum ether, EtOAc 1 : 1 + Et 3 N) and MS indicated full conversion of the phosphoryl ester. H 2 0 (20 mL) was added, and the aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The organic layers were washed with NaHC0 3 (20 mL) and brine (20 mL) and subsequently dried over Na 2 S0 4 . After removing the solvent in vacuo, the crude product was purified using silica gel chromatography (MeOH in CH 2 C1 2 , gradient 0 to 10 to 70%) to give azide 80 (154 mg, 79%) as a viscous yellow oil.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 1.74-1.81 (p, J= 6.7 Hz, 2H, H-2"), 2.00 (p, J= 6.7 Hz, 2H, H-2'), 2.23 (t, J= 6.7 Hz, 2H, Η-Γ), 2.28-2.70 (m, 11H, Pip-H, H- 1"), 3.34 (t, J= 6.7 Hz, 2H, H-3"), 4.26 (t, J= 6.6 Hz, 2H, Η-Γ), 6.65-6.68 (m, 1H, H- 3), 7.25-7.29 (m, 1H, H-2), 7.41-7.45 (m, 1H, H-7), 8.07-8.11 (m, 1H, H-6), 8.56-8.59 (m, 1H, H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 26.35 (C-2"), 27.27 (C-2'), 44.21 (C-Γ), 49.65 (C-3"), 53.07, 53.28 (4C, a/a', b/b * ), 54.40 (C-Γ), 55.34 (C-l"), 104.05 (C-3), 109.53 (C-7), 117.13 (C-6), 118.28 (C-4), 127.66 (C-9), 131.30 (C-2), 139.08 (C-8), 141.52 (C5).

Synthesis of intermediate 81

3- {4-[3-(5-Nitro-lH-indol- 1 -yl)propyl]piperazin- 1 -yl}propan- 1 -amine

Azide 80 (149 mg, 0.401 mmol) and triphenyl phosphine (129 mg, 0.492 mmol) were dissolved in THF (4 mL) and H 2 0 (1 mL). The solution was stirred at 60 °C for 3 h, and the solvent was removed under reduced pressure. The mixture was redissolved in MeOH and subjected to preparative HPLC-MS (H 2 0/MeCN + 0.2% HCOOH) to afford amine 81 (108 mg, 78%) as a viscous yellow oil.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 1.89 (p, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H, H-2"), 2.14-2.21 (m, 2H, H-2'), 2.65-2.72 (m, 4H, H-l", H-3 * ), 2.83 (d, J= 50.9 Hz, 8H, Pip H-b/b * , Pip H-a-/a'), 3.01 (t, J= 7.2 Hz, 2H, H-3"), 4.36 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 2H, Η-Γ), 6.72-6.74 (m, 1H, H-3), 7.48-7.50 (m, 1H, H-2), 7.58-7.62 (m, 1H, H-7), 8.06-8.09 (m, 1H, H-6), 8.53- 8.55 (m, 1H, H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 24.46 (C-2"), 27.05 (C-2'), 39.21 (C-3 * ), 44.84 (C-l * , 52.20 (C-b/b * ), 52.70 (C-a/a'), 55.28 (C-3 * ), 55.67 (C-l"), 105.10 (C- 3), 110.80 (C-7), 117.81 (C-6), 118.79 (C-4), 129.29 (C-9), 132.83 (C-2), 140.36 (C-8), 142.76 (C-5).

Synthesis of product 82

(li?,3i?,4i?,55)-3-[2-0-Benzoyl-3-0-((15)-l-carboxy-2-cycloh exyl-ethyl)-(P-D- galactopyranosyl)oxy] -4-[(a-L-fucopyranosyl)oxy] -5 -methyl-N-(3 - { 1 -[3 -(5 -nitro- 1H- indol- 1 -yl)propyl]piperazin- 1 -yl}propyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide

Diacid 15 (30 mg, 40.5 μιηοΐ) and HOBt (17.0 mg, 126 μιηοΐ) were dissolved in anhydrous DMF under argon. At r.t, HBTU (18.4 mg, 48.5 μιηοΐ) was added. After 5 min of stirring, the solution was transferred via a syringe to a flask containing amine 81 (89 mg, 258 μηιοΐ) and DIPEA (0.3 mL). The solvent was removed in vacuo after another 2.5 h of stirring, and the crude product was purified using preparative HPLC-MS (H 2 0/MeCN + 0.2% HCOOH). Product 82 (14.6 mg, 34%) was obtained as a yellow solid.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, MeOD): δ 0.41-0.72 (m, 4H, Cy), 0.80-0.94 (m,

1H, Cy), 1.10 (d, J= 6.3 Hz, 3H, Me), 1.14-1.42 (m, 11H, H-6 a , H-2 a , 5Cy, Fuc H-6, Lac H-3 a ), 1.45-1.53 (m, 1H, Lac H-3 b ), 1.55-1.72 (m, 5H, Cy, H-6, H-2', H-5), 2.00- 2.09 (m, 2H, H-2"), 2.11-2.20 (m, 1H, H-2), 2.20-2.70 (m, 12H, H-l, Η-Γ, H-3 * , Pip- H), 3.13 (t, J= 6.7 Hz, 2H, Η-Γ), 3.17 (t, J= 9.6 Hz, 1H, H-4), 3.51-3.61 (m, 2H, Gal H-3, Gal H-5), 3.67-3.83 (m, 6H, H-3, Lac H-2, Gal H-6, Fuc H-4, Fuc H-2), 3.89 (dd, J= 3.1, 10.2 Hz, 1H, Fuc H-3), 3.91-3.96 (m, 1H, Gal H-4), 4.33 (t, J= 6.6 Hz, 2H, H- 3"), 4.69 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H, Gal H-l), 4.94-5.04 (m, 2H, Fuc H-l, Fuc H-5), 5.42 (t, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H, Gal H-2), 6.66-6.77 (m, 1H, Ind H-3), 7.43-7.54 (m, 3H, C 6 H 5 , Ind Η-2), 7.55-7.66 (m, 2Η, C 6 H 5 , Ind Η-7), 8.00-8.13 (m, 3Η, C 6 H 5 , Ind Η-6), 8.52-8.59 (m, 1Η, Ind H-4); 13 C-NMR (125 MHz, MeOD): δ 16.77 (Fuc C-6), 19.31 (Me), 26.55, 26.80, 26.92 (4C, Cy, C-2'), 27.39 (C-1"), 28.17 (C-2"), 33.03, 34.42, 35.38 (3C, Cy), 35.48 (C-2), 37.67 (C-6), 39.06, 39.31 (2C, C-5, C-Γ), 43.45 (C-1), 43.54 (Lac C-3), 45.30 (C-3"), 53.83, 53.92 (4C, Pip-C), 56.06 (C-1"), 57.37 (C-3 * ), 63.15 (Gal C-6), 67.63, 67.75 (2C, Gal C-4, Fuc C-5), 70.28 (Fuc C-2), 71.34 (Fuc C-3), 73.03 (Gal C-2), 73.93 (Fuc C-4), 76.04 (Gal C-5), 79.69 (C-3), 80.65 (Lac C-2), 82.94 C-4), 83.79 (Gal C-3), 100.36 (Fuc C-1), 100.64 (Gal C-1), 104.83 (Ind C-3), 110.94 (Ind C-7), 117.64 (Ind C- 6), 118.74 (Ind C-4), 129.20 (Ind C-9), 129.68 (C 6 H 5 ), 130.89 (C 6 H 5 ), 131.81 (C 6 H 5 ), 132.97 (Ind C-2), 134.21 (C 6 H 5 ), 140.47 (Ind C-8), 142.63 (Ind C-5), 166.81

(0(C=0)Ph), 176.97 (CONH), 183.25 (COOH). EXAMPLE 5

BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION

BIAcore assay

The biological evaluation of the E-selectin antagonists was performed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). For this purpose, an E-selectin/IgG construct was captured onto a BIAcore chip surface bearing covalently linked goat anti-human Fc specific antibody (Biacore Life Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden).

Ranking procedure

The ranking of the antagonists was performed in order to obtain qualitative information on the binding strength of twenty indole antagonists. For the ranking, SPR signals were recorded at a single concentration (0.05 μΜ) and divided by the molecular weight of the compounds. The result obtained was normalized to the response obtained with an internal standard (63) in order to avoid problems related to the measurement on different chips with different surfaces. DMSO calibration and double referencing were applied to correct bulk effects and other systematic artifacts (subtraction of reference surface and blank injection).

Evaluation of E-selectin antagonists with surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based assay

Ten twofold serial dilutions of the ligand were non-randomly injected. The E-selectin antagonists were diluted in running buffer (HBS-P supplemented with 20 mM calcium and DMSO 5% v/v). Antagonist dilutions were injected with a 600 s association time and 600 s dissociation time at a flow rate of 20 μί/ηιίη over the reference and the active flow cell. Saturation was reached at a concentration of 1 μΜ and a total of eleven twofold dilutions were injected. In addition, to prevent the presence of residual traces of compound, a blank injection was performed between each injection of ligand dilution. DMSO calibration and double referencing were applied to correct bulk effects and other systematic artifacts (subtraction of reference surface and blank injection).

The results are summarized in Table 1. Table 1. Absolute and relative* binding affinities

n ty eterm ne n t e ran ng proce ure escr e a ove, i.e., t e K ∑> values are larger than for reference compound 64, however below 135 nM.

All of the above U.S. patents, U.S. patent application publications, U.S. patent applications, foreign patents, foreign patent applications and non-patent publications referred to in this specification and/or listed in the Application Data Sheet, are incorporated herein by reference, in their entirety.

From the foregoing it will be appreciated that, although specific embodiments of the invention have been described herein for purposes of illustration, various modifications may be made without deviating from the spirit and scope of the invention.