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Title:
EFFICIENT SYNTHESIS OF NICOTINAMIDE MONONUCLEOTIDE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2016/160524
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention provides a process for the preparation of nicotinamide mononucleotide having formula (I): The method involves the protection of nicotinamide riboside by ketalization, followed by phosphorylation and then deprotection to provide nicotinamide mononucleotide.

Inventors:
SAUVE, Anthony (181 Harding Drive, New Rochelle, New York, 10801, US)
MOHAMMED, Farheen Sultana (88-10, Apt. 2D 35th Avenu, Jackson Heights New York, 11372, US)
Application Number:
US2016/024054
Publication Date:
October 06, 2016
Filing Date:
March 24, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
CORNELL UNIVERSITY (Center for Technology Licensing at Cornell University, 395 Pine Tree Road Suite 31, Ithaca New York, 14850, US)
International Classes:
A61K31/7028; A61K31/7032; C07H19/048
Foreign References:
US3451997A1969-06-24
US5879700A1999-03-09
US4894388A1990-01-16
Other References:
See also references of EP 3274357A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
KOSZYK, Francis et al. (Two Prudential Plaza, Suite 4900180 N. Stetson Ave, Chicago IL, 60601-6731, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIM(S):

A process for the preparation of nicotinamide mononucleotide having formula

salt thereof, wherein the process comprises the steps of:

reacting nicotinamide riboside having formula (II):

with a ketalization reagent that is R^QOR^OR4) or R1R2C=0,

wherein R1 and R2 are independently Ci-C6 alkyl or, taken together along with the carbon atom to which they are attached, form a 5-7 membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring, and wherein R3 and R4 are independently Ci-C6 alkyl, in a solvent in the presence of an acid catalyst, to form a compound of formula (III):

(III)

(ii) isolating the compound of formula (III), (iii) reacting the compound of formula (III) with a mixture of POCI3 and

PO(OR l55))33,, wwhheerrein R5 is Ci-C6 alkyl, followed by treatment with water to form a compound of formula (IV):

(IV)

or a salt thereof,

(iv) isolating the compound of formula (IV),

(v) reacting the compound of formula (IV) with an acid catalyst in a solvent or mixture of solvents to provide nicotinamide mononucleotide, and

(vi) isolating nicotinamide mononucleotide.

2. The process of claim 1, wherein the ketalization reagent R1R2C(OR3)(OR4).

3. The process of claim 1 or 2, wherein the ketalization reagent is

(CH3)2C(OCH3)2.

4. The process of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the solvent in step (i) is CH3CN.

5. The process of claim 4, wherein the acid catalyst in step (i) is H2S04.

6. The process of any one of claims 1-5, wherein the solvent in step (v) is a mixture of dichloromethane and water.

7. The process of any one of claims 1-5, wherein the solvent in step (v) is methanol.

8. The process of any one of claims 1-7, wherein the acid catalyst in step (v) is trifluoroacetic acid.

9 The process of any one of claims 1-7, wherein the acid catalyst in step (v) is hydrochloric acid. A process for the preparation of a compound of formula (III):

(III)

wherein R1 and R2 are independently Ci-C6 alkyl or, taken together along with the carbon atom to which they are attached, form a 5-7 membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring,

wherein the process comprises the step of reacting nicotinamide riboside of formula

(II):

with a ketalization reagent that is R^QOR^OR4) or R1R2C=0,

wherein R1 and R2 are independently Ci-C6 alkyl or, taken together along with the carbon atom to which they are attached, form a 5-7 membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring, and wherein R3 and R4 are independently Ci-C6 alkyl, in a solvent in the presence of an acid catalyst, to form the compound of formula (III).

11. The process of claim 10, wherein the ketalization reagent R1R2C(OR3)(OR4).

12. The process of claim 10 or 11, wherein ketalization reagent is

13. The process of any one of claims 10-12, wherein the solvent is CH3CN.

14. The process of any one of claims 10-13, wherein the acid catalyst is H2S04.

15. A process for the pre aration of a compound of formula (IV):

(IV)

or a salt thereof,

wherein R1 and R2 are independently Ci-C6 alkyl or, taken together along with the carbon atom to which they are attached, form a 5-7 membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring,

wherein the process comprises the step of reacting a compound of formula (III):

(III)

with a mixture of POCl3 and PO(OR5)3, wherein R5 is Ci-C6 alkyl, followed by treatment with water to form a compound of formula (IV).

16. A process for the preparation of nicotinamide mononucleotide having formula

(I):

or a salt thereof, wherein the process comprises the step of reacting a compound of formula (IV):

wherein R1 and R2 are independently Ci-C6 alkyl or, taken together along with the carbon atom to which they are attached, form a 5-7 membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring,

with an acid catalyst in a solvent or mixture of solvents to provide nicotinamide mononucleotide.

17. The process of claim 16, wherein the solvent in step (v) is a mixture of dichloromethane and water.

18. The process of claim 16, wherein the solvent in step (v) is methanol.

19. The process of any one of claims 16-18, wherein the acid catalyst is trifluoroacetic acid.

20. The process of any one of claims 16-18, wherein the acid catalyst is hydrochloric acid.

Description:
EFFICIENT SYNTHESIS OF NICOTINAMIDE MONONUCLEOTIDE

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This patent application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Nos. 62/139,235, filed March 27, 2015, and 62/115,920, filed May 1, 2015, which are incorporated by reference.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The cellular redox reactions of coenzymes NAD + , NADH and NADP + , NADPH are well known (Pollak, N. et al, Biochem. J, 402: 205-218 (2007)). It is known that NAD + plays an important role in apoptosis (Gendron, M. C. et al., Biochem. J, 353: 357 (2001)), calcium mobilization (Guse, A. H. et al., J. Biol. Chem., 280: 15952 (2005)), cell

proliferation (Bruzzone, S. et al., Biochem. J, 375: 395 (2003)), aging (Blasco, M. A., Nat. Rev. Genet., 6: 611 (2005)), gene expression (Girolamo, M. D. et al., J. Biol. Chem., 282: 16441 (2007); Sauve, A. A.; Schramm, V. L., Biochemistry, 42: 9249 (2003); Michan, S. et al., Biochem. J, 404: 1 (2007); Nakano, T. et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 103: 13652 (2006); Culver, G. M. et al., J. Biol. Chem., 272: 13203 (1997); Berger, F. et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 104: 3765 (2007)), immune system modulation (Song, E. K. et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 367: 156 (2008); Seman, M. et al., Immunity, 19: 571 (2003)), energy metabolism and metabolic regulation. Mono and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases use NAD + as substrate for protein covalent modifications (Ziegler, M., Eur. J. Biochem., 267: 1550 (2000); Guarente, L. et al., Cell, 120: 473 (2005); Marmorstein, R., Biochem. Soc. Trans., 32: 904 (2004); Magni, G. et al., Cell. Mol. Life Sci., 61: 19 (2004); Araki, T. et al., Science, 305: 1010 (2004)). NAD + can be synthesized enzymatically (Suhadolnik, R. J. et al., Biol. Chem., 252: 4125 (1977)) and chemically (Jeck, R. et al., Eds., Academic: New York, 66: 62 (1979)) from various precursors of vitamin B 3 (nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide (Nam), nicotinamide riboside (NR), nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN)) and from tryptophan. NAD + -utilizing reactions liberate nicotinamide, which is recycled to form NMN from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate using the enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase. The synthesized NMN reacts with ATP and is converted to NAD + by nicotinamide mononucleotide adenyltransferase (NMNAT).

[0003] Increasing interest in precursors that can be administrated to increase

physiological NAD + provides impetus to develop efficient and practical syntheses of precursors such as R and MN. A highly efficient chemical synthesis of R has been developed (Yang, T. et al., J. Med. Chem., 50: 6458 (2007)). Literature indicates that aside from enzymatic reactions there are few different chemical methods for the synthesis of nicotinamide mononucleotide and derivatives (Burgos, E. S. et al., Biochemistry, 47: 11086 (2008); Rozenberg, A. et al., J. Org. Chem., 73 : 9314 (2008)). Existing synthetic strategies involve complicated intermediates, and isolation of NMN is difficult in good yields.

Moreover, enzymatic reactions are typically limited to small scale chemical synthesis and are expensive, and thus are less immediately scalable to multigram or kilogram scale.

[0004] Thus, there is an unmet need for an improved process for the preparation of nicotinamide mononucleotide.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0005] The invention provides a process for the preparation of nicotinamide

mononucleotide having formula I):

or a salt thereof, wherein the process comprises the steps of:

(i) reacting nicotinamide riboside having formula (II):

(Π)

with a ketalization reagent that is R^QOR^OR 4 ) or R 1 R 2 C=0,

wherein R 1 and R 2 are independently Ci-C 6 alkyl or, taken together along with the carbon atom to which they are attached, form a 5-7 membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring, and wherein R 3 and R 4 are independently Ci-C 6 alkyl, in a solvent in the presence of catalyst, to form a compound of formula (III):

(III)

isolating the compound of formula (III),

(IV)

(iv) isolating the compound of formula (IV),

(v) reacting the compound of formula (IV) with an acid catalyst in a solvent or mixture of solvents to provide nicotinamide mononucleotide, and

(vi) isolating nicotinamide mononucleotide.

[0006] The invention also provides a process for the preparation of a compound of formula (III):

(III)

wherein R 1 and R 2 are independently Ci-C 6 alkyl or, taken together along with the carbon atom to which they are attached, form a 5-7 membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring, wherein the process comprises the step of reacting nicotinamide riboside of formula (II):

(Π)

with a ketalization reagent that is R^QOR^OR 4 ) or R 1 R 2 C=0,

wherein R 1 and R 2 are independently Ci-C 6 alkyl or, taken together along with the carbon atom to which they are attached, form a 5-7 membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring, and wherein R 3 and R 4 are independently Ci-C 6 alkyl, in a solvent in the presence of an acid catalyst, to form the compound of formula (III).

[0007] The invention further provides a process for the preparation of a compound of formula (IV):

(IV) or a salt thereof, wherein R 1 and R 2 are independently Ci-C 6 alkyl or, taken together along with the carbon atom to which they are attached, form a 5-7 membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring,

wherein the process comprises the step of reacting a compound of formula (III):

(III)

with a mixture of POCl 3 and PO(OR 5 ) 3 , wherein R 5 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, followed by treatment with water to form a compound of formula (IV).

[0008] The invention additionally provides a process for the preparation of nicotinamide mononucleotide having formula (I):

or a salt thereof, wherein the process comprises the step of reacting a compound of formula (IV):

(IV) wherein R 1 and R 2 are independently Ci-C 6 alkyl or, taken together along with the carbon atom to which they are attached, form a 5-7 membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring, with an acid catalyst in a solvent or mixture of solvents to provide nicotinamide

mononucleotide.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWING(S)

[0009] Figure 1 shows a titration curve for nicotinamide mononucleotide chloride.

[0010] Figure 2 shows the 500 MHz 1H NMR (500 MHz, D 2 0) spectra of zwitterion 4 and chloride salt 7 in D 2 0 superimposed. The peaks labeled "S" for the zwitterions are due to ethanol impurity.

[0011] Figure 3 shows the 31 P NMR (500 MHz, D 2 0) spectrum of zwitterion 4.

[0012] Figure 4 shows the 31 P NMR (500 MHz, D 2 0) spectrum of chloride salt 7.

[0013] Figure 5 shows the overlaid 31 P NMR spectra of zwitterion 4 and chloride salt 7.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0014] The invention provides a process for the preparation of nicotinamide

mononucleotide having formula (I):

(Π)

with a ketalization reagent that is R 1 R 2 C(OR 3 )(OR 4 ) or R 1 R 2 C=0, wherein R 1 and R 2 are independently Ci-C 6 alkyl or, taken together along with the carbon atom to which they are attached, form a 5-7 membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring, and wherein R 3 and R 4 are independently Ci-C 6 alkyl, in a solvent in the presence of an acid catalyst, to form a compound of formula (III):

(III)

(ii) isolating the compound of formula (III),

(iii) reacting the compound of formula (III) with a mixture of POCl 3 and PO(OR 5 ) 3 , wherein R 5 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, followed by treatment with water to form a compound of formula (IV):

(IV)

(iv) isolating the compound of formula (IV),

(v) reacting the compound of formula (IV) with an acid catalyst in a solvent or mixture of solvents to provide nicotinamide mononucleotide, and

(vi) isolating nicotinamide mononucleotide.

[0015] In an embodiment, nicotinamide mononucleotide is synthesized as shown in Scheme 1. Scheme 1

[0016] Nicotinamide riboside 1, wherein X " is an anion, is reacted with a ketalization reagent that is RVQOR^OR 4 ) or R 1 R 2 C=0, wherein R 1 and R 2 are independently Ci-C 6 alkyl or, taken together along with the carbon atom to which they are attached, form a 5-7 membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring, and wherein R 3 and R 4 are independently Ci-C 6 alkyl, in a solvent in the presence of an acid catalyst, to form compound 5. In a preferred embodiment, the ketalization reagent is R 1 R 2 C(OR 3 )(OR 4 ) and more preferably is

2,2-dimethoxypropane.

[0017] It will be understood that, when a compound is shown as a cation without having an anion, the positive charge on the cation can be countered by any suitable anion or anionic component having a negative charge. The anion can be any suitable organic, inorganic, or polymeric anion without limitation. In an embodiment, the anion is

trifluoromethanesulfonate.

[0018] The acid catalyst can be any suitable acid catalyst, for example, the acid catalyst can be an inorganic acid catalyst such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, and the like. The acid catalyst can be an organic acid catalyst, for example, p-toluenesulfonic acid, methylsulfonic acid, trifluoromethylsulfonic acid, and the like. In a preferred embodiment, the acid catalyst is sulfuric acid, more preferably concentrated sulfuric acid. [0019] The solvent can be any suitable solvent and can be, for example, acetonitrile, dichloromethane, acetone, dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide, and the like. Preferably, the solvent is acetonitrile.

[0020] The ketalization can be conducted at any temperature. For example, the ketalization can be conducted at about 0° C to about 50° C. Preferably, the ketalization is conducted starting at about 0° C followed by warming to room temperature.

[0021] Compound 5 can be optionally isolated by quenching the reaction mixture with a base such as sodium carbonate, followed by filtration and then evaporation of solvents. In other embodiments, the reaction mixture can be partitioned between water and an organic solvent such as dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and the like. The acid catalyst can be neutralized before partitioning or can be quenched in an aqueous solution of a base followed by extraction with a solvent. Compound 5 can be isolated by silica gel chromatography or by crystallization.

[0022] Compound 5 can be phosphorylated using any suitable conditions, for example, compound 5 can be phosphorylated in a mixture of phosphorus oxychloride and PO(OR 5 )3, wherein R 5 is Ci-C 6 alkyl. Preferably, compound 5 is phosphorylated in a mixture of phosphorus oxychloride and triethylphosphate to provide compound 6. The phosphorylation can be conducted at any suitable temperature. For example, the phosphorylation can be conducted at about 0° C to about 50° C and is preferably conducted at 0° C.

[0023] Compound 6 can be optionally isolated by quenching the reaction mixture with a base such as sodium carbonate, followed by extraction of excess unreacted triethylphosphate with a solvent such as ethyl acetate and then recovery of compound 6 from the aqueous layer by evaporation. Compound 6 can be isolated by silica gel chromatography or by

crystallization.

[0024] Nicotinamide mononucleotide 4 is obtained by deprotection of compound 6 via acid catalyzed deketalization. The deprotection can be conducted in an aqueous solvent mixture, for example, in a mixture of dichloromethane and water. The deprotection can be conducted in a nonaqueous solvent. For example, the deprotection can be conducted in a hydroxylic solvent such as methanol or ethanol, preferably in methanol. The acid catalyst can be any suitable acid catalyst as described herein in connection with the preparation of compound 5, and is preferably trifluoromethanesulfonic acid or concentrated hydrochloric acid. [0025] Nicotinamide mononucleotide can be isolated using any suitable isolation procedure. For example, the reaction mixture can be at least partially evaporated to remove volatile organic solvent, and the residue can be treated with water and then neutralized to pH 5-6 with a base such as sodium carbonate. The crude product can be purified in any suitable manner to provide purified nicotinamide mononucleotide. For example, the crude product can be purified using reverse phase chromatography on a CI 8 column with water as eluent to provide purified nicotinamide mononucleotide.

[0026] Nicotinamide mononucleotide of formula (I) and the compound of formula (IV) can be in the form of a zwitterion or any suitable salt thereof. For example, nicotinamide mononucleotide of formula (I) and the compound of formula (IV) can be in the form of a protonated salt or a monobasic salt thereof. As used herein, the term protonated salt refers to the compounds of formulas (I) and (IV) wherein the phosphate (-0-P(=0)(OH) 2 group is not ionized. As used herein, the term monobasic salt refers to the compounds of formulas (I) and (IV) wherein the phosphate (-0-P(=0)(0 " ) 2 group is fully ionized. Illustrative embodiments of zwitterions of nicotinamide mononucleotide and the compound of formula (IV) are:

[0027] Examples of protonated salts of nicotinamide mononucleotide of formula (I) and the compound of formula (IV) include:

wherein X " can be any suitable monovalent anion.

[0028] Examples of a monobasic salt of nicotinamide mononucleotide of formula (I) and the compound of formula (IV) include:

wherein M can be any suitable monovalent cation. In other embodiments, the monobasic salt can be associated with any suitable divalent cation M 2+ , as illustrated for nicotinamide mononucleotide:

[0029] The salts can be prepared by reacting the zwitterionic forms of these compounds with a stoichiometric amount of the appropriate base or acid in water or in an organic solvent, or in a mixture of the two. Generally, nonaqueous media such as ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, isopropanol, or acetonitrile are preferred. Lists of suitable salts are found in Remington 's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18th ed., Mack Publishing Company, Easton, PA, 1990, p. 1445, and Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 66, 2-19 (1977).

[0030] Suitable bases include inorganic bases such as alkali and alkaline earth metal bases, e.g., those containing metallic cations such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and the like. Non-limiting examples of suitable bases include sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, and potassium carbonate. Suitable acids include inorganic acids such as hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, hydroiodic acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, and the like, and organic acids such as p-toluenesulfonic, methanesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, oxalic acid, p-bromophenylsulfonic acid, carbonic acid, succinic acid, citric acid, benzoic acid, acetic acid, maleic acid, tartaric acid, fatty acids, long chain fatty acids, and the like. In embodiments, the protonated and monobasic salts comprise

pharmaceutically acceptable salts. Preferred monobasic salts include sodium and potassium salts. Preferred protonated salts include hydrochloride and hydrobromide salts. [0031] In embodiments, the protonated salt is produced during the conversion of compound 6 to compound 4. The protonated salt 7 and zwittenon 4 can be produced as shown in Scheme 2 :

Scheme 2

Reagents and conditions: (a) HCl/MeOH, pH = 1-2; (b) aq. Na 2 CC" 3 , pH

[0032] The following example further illustrates the invention but, of course,

be construed as in any way limiting its scope.

EXAMPLE 1

[0033] This example demonstrates a process for the synthesis of nicotinamide mononucleotide riboside, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

[0034] Step 1 : Preparation of 3-Carbamoyl-l-((3aR,4R,6R,6aR)-6-(hydroxymethyl)-2,2- dimethyltetrahydrofuro[3,4-d][l,3]dioxol-4-yl)pyridin-l-ium) (2).

[0035] In a flame dried flask under an argon atmosphere, concentrated sulfuric acid (22 μί, 0.40 mmol) was slowly added to dry acetonitrile (2.0 mL) at 0° C. After 5 minutes, 2,2- dimethoxypropane (0.6 mL, excess) was added to the stirred acetonitrile solution at the same temperature. Nicotinamide riboside solid (1) (250 mg, 0.61 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture at 0 C, and the reaction was immediately warmed to 25 C over 10 min. The progress of the reaction was monitored by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC showed 95% of starting material was consumed after 10 min. The reaction mixture was cooled again to 0 C in an ice bath, and was quenched by addition of powdered solid Na 2 C0 3 (50 mg 0.47 mmol) and stirred for 5 min. 0.1 mL water was added slowly to improve neutralization of the acid. Residual solids were filtered, and the filtrate (acetonitrile) was evaporated under high vacuum to obtain the crude product. The crude product was dissolved in a minimum volume of DCM and was purified by silica gel column (60 A 0 ) using DCM/MeOH (9: 1) to obtain 2 as a white solid. Yield 96%.

[0036] 1H NMR (CD 3 OD, 500 MHz): δ 9.56 ( s, 1H, H-2), 9.31 (d, 1H, J = 6.3 Hz, H-6), 9.02 (d, 1H, J = 7.8 Hz, H-4), 8.25 (t, 1H, J = 7.6 Hz, H-5), 6.41 (s, 1H, H-4'), 5.22-5.19 ( m, 1H, H-l '), 4.99 (d, lH, J= 5.7 Hz, H-2'), 3.99-3.94 (dd, 1H, j = 1.8 and 12.3, H-3'), 3.82- 3.77 (dd, 1H, j = 2.3 and 11.6 Hz, H-5 'a), 3.70-3.68 (m, 1H, H-5'b), 1.66 (s, 3H, -CH 3 ), 1.45 (s, 3 H, -CH 3 ). 13 C NMR (CD 3 OD ; 125 MHz): 142.7, 142.4, 140.5, 133.8, 127.4, 114.0, 103.9, 90.4, 87.7, 82.3, 61.3, 34.0, 25.9, 23.9.

[0037] Step 2: Preparation of 3-Carbamoyl-l-((3aR,4R,6R,6aR)-2,2-dimethyl-6- ((phos honooxy)methyl)tetrahydrofuro[3,4-d][l,3]dioxol-4-yl)pyridin -l-ium) (3).

[0038] Compound 2 (880 mg, 2 mmol) was added to 8 mL of dry triethyl phosphate at 0 C under an argon atmosphere in a flame-dried flask. After 10 minutes, 470 μL phosphorous oxy chloride (2.5 eq, 5 mmol ) was slowly added portion-wise (176 μL + 176 μL + 118 μL) to the stirred and chilled triethyl phosphate solution. The mixture was stirred at 0 C for 48 hours. Progress of the reaction was monitored by HPLC, which showed that 75% of starting material was consumed after 48 h, with concomitant increase in product 3 which eluted at a shorter retention time. The reaction mixture was cooled to 0 C and was quenched with 3 consecutive 1 mL portions of cold saturated Na 2 C0 3 solution until the acid was neutralized and bubbling ceased. Triethyl phosphate was removed by extraction with ethyl acetate (3 x 10 mL). The combined ethyl acetate layers were then extracted with water (3 x 5 mL) to remove the crude product. The combined water layers and initial water layer containing product 3 were dried under high vacuum to obtain the crude product. The crude product was dissolved in a minimum volume of 9: 1 DCM:methanol as needed to solubilize, and the crude product was purified by column chromatography on silica gel using DCM/MeOH (6:4) to provide (3) as a white solid. Yield 80%.

[0039] 1H NMR (D 2 0, 500 MHz): δ 9.31 (s, 1H, H-2), 9.11 (d, 1H, J = 6.4 Hz, H-6), 8.86 (d, 1H, J = 8.2 Hz, H-4), 8.22-8.18 (m, 1H, H-5), 6.37 (d, 1H, J = 2.5 Hz, H-4'), 5.30 ( dd, 1H, J = 2.6 and 5.8 Hz, H-l '), 5.07 (d, 1H, J= 5.7 Hz, H-2'), 4.99-4.97 (m, 1H, H-3'), 4.18 (t, 1H, J = 2.1 Hz, H-5 'a), 4.16 (t, 1H, J = 2.1 Hz, H-5'b), 1.60 (s, 3H, -CH 3 ), 1.41 (s, 3 H, - CH 3 ). 13 C NMR (D 2 0 ; 125 MHz): 150.8, 145.7, 139.5, 128.2, 103.2, 88.2, 86.8, 82.4, 65.2, 30.0, 25.9, 24.2.

[0040] Step 3 : Preparation of 3-Carbamoyl-l-((2R,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5- ((phos honooxy)methyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)pyridin- 1 -ium) (4).

[0041] (A) Deprotection in dichloromethane/water:

[0042] TFA (0.6 mL, 7.8. mmol) was slowly added to a solution of compound 3 (1000 mg, 2.67 mmol) in 30 mL dichloromethane and water (1 : 1) at 0 C. The reaction mixture was stirred vigorously and allowed to warm to room temperature. After 16 hours (reaction progress was monitored by HPLC, which showed that 95% of starting material was consumed after 16 h), the reaction mixture was evaporated. Residual water was neutralized with minimal Na 2 C0 3 to pH 6, and the water layer was evaporated to obtain the crude product. The crude product was dissolved in minimum water and was purified by a CI 8 column using water to provide NMN (4) as a white solid. Yield 90%.

[0043] 1H NMR (D 2 0, 500 MHz): δ 9.39 (s, 1H, H-2), 9.21 (d, 1H, J = 6.2 Hz, H-6), 8.90 (d, 1H, J = 8.1 Hz, H-4), 8.22 (t, 1H, J = 6.9 Hz, H-5), 6.14 (d, 1H, J = 5.6 Hz, H-4'), 4.56 (t, 1H, J= 2.4 Hz, H-l '), 4.48 (t, 1H, J = 5.3 Hz, H-2'), 4.38-4.35 (m, 1H, H-3'), 4.25-4.20 (m, 1H, H-5'a); 4.01-4.05 (m, 1 H, H-5'b). 13 C NMR (D 2 0 ; 125 MHz): 165.9, 146.0, 142.5, 139.9, 134.0, 128.5, 100.0, 87.5, 77.8, 75.1, 64.2.

[0044] (B) Deprotection in methanolic HC1:

[0045] Concentrated hydrochloric acid (672 μΐ., 8.06 mmol) was slowly added to a solution of compound 3 (1000 mg, 2.67 mmol) in 30 mL of methanol under an argon atmosphere in a flame dried flask. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature. After 40 hours HPLC showed no starting material remained. The reaction mixture was then evaporated to dryness, and 5 mL water was added to dissolve solids. Solid Na 2 C0 3 was added to adjust pH to 5. NMN was purified on a CI 8 column using water as eluent to provide NMN (4) as a white solid. Yield 67%.

[0046] 1H NMR (D 2 0, 500 MHz): δ 9.39 (s, 1H, H-2), 9.21 (d, 1H, J = 6.2 Hz, H-6), 8.90 (d, 1H, J = 8.1 Hz, H-4), 8.22 (t, 1H, J = 6.9 Hz, H-5), 6.14 (d, 1H, J = 5.6 Hz, H-4'), 4.56 (t, 1H, J= 2.4 Hz, H-l '), 4.48 (t, 1H, J = 5.3 Hz, H-2'), 4.38-4.35 (m, 1H, H-3'), 4.25-4.20 (m, 1H, H-5'a); 4.01-4.05 (m, 1 H, H-5'b). 13 C NMR (D 2 0 ; 125 MHz): 165.9, 146.0, 142.5, 139.9, 134.0, 128.5, 100.0, 87.5, 77.8, 75.1, 64.2.

EXAMPLE 2

[0047] This example demonstrates the titration of nicotinamide mononucleotide chloride salt with sodium hydroxide.

[0048] Nicotinamide mononucleotide-chloride salt (110 mg, 0.29 mmol) was dissolved in 2 ml water (approximate concentration 150 mM). To the resulting solution 200 μΕ of 150 mM NaOH solution (0.1 eq) was added and pH was measured by pH meter. Addition of 200 μΕ of 150 mM NaOH solution was continued and the pH measured and plotted. 2 pKa values were determined by this titration, namely the first pK ai = 2.1 for the conversion of [NMNHJCl to the neutral zwitterion form and then pK^ = 6.7 to form the mono anion

[NMN] " (Scheme 3). The titration of both protons indicates the successful stabilization and characterization of the cation [NMNH]C1 form of NMN. Scheme 3

[0049] The titration curve is shown in Fig

EXAMPLE 3

[0050] This example shows the 1H NMR and 31 P NMR spectra of zwitterion 4 and chloride salt 7.

[0051] Figure 2 shows the 500 MHz 1H NMR (500 MHz, D 2 0) spectra of zwitterion 4 and chloride salt 7 in D 2 0 superimposed.

[0052] Figure 3 shows the 31 P NMR 500 MHz, D 2 0) spectrum of zwitterion 4.

[0053] Figure 4 shows shows the 31 P NMR 500 MHz, D 2 0) spectrum of chloride salt 7.

[0054] Figure 5 shows the overlaid 31 P NMR spectra of zwitterion 4 and chloride salt 7.

[0055] All references, including publications, patent applications, and patents, cited herein are hereby incorporated by reference to the same extent as if each reference were individually and specifically indicated to be incorporated by reference and were set forth in its entirety herein.

[0056] The use of the terms "a" and "an" and "the" and "at least one" and similar referents in the context of describing the invention (especially in the context of the following claims) are to be construed to cover both the singular and the plural, unless otherwise indicated herein or clearly contradicted by context. The use of the term "at least one" followed by a list of one or more items (for example, "at least one of A and B") is to be construed to mean one item selected from the listed items (A or B) or any combination of two or more of the listed items (A and B), unless otherwise indicated herein or clearly

contradicted by context. The terms "comprising," "having," "including," and "containing" are to be construed as open-ended terms (i.e., meaning "including, but not limited to,") unless otherwise noted. Recitation of ranges of values herein are merely intended to serve as a shorthand method of referring individually to each separate value falling within the range, unless otherwise indicated herein, and each separate value is incorporated into the specification as if it were individually recited herein. All methods described herein can be performed in any suitable order unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context. The use of any and all examples, or exemplary language (e.g., "such as") provided herein, is intended merely to better illuminate the invention and does not pose a limitation on the scope of the invention unless otherwise claimed. No language in the specification should be construed as indicating any non-claimed element as essential to the practice of the invention.

[0057] Preferred embodiments of this invention are described herein, including the best mode known to the inventors for carrying out the invention. Variations of those preferred embodiments may become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art upon reading the foregoing description. The inventors expect skilled artisans to employ such variations as appropriate, and the inventors intend for the invention to be practiced otherwise than as specifically described herein. Accordingly, this invention includes all modifications and equivalents of the subject matter recited in the claims appended hereto as permitted by applicable law. Moreover, any combination of the above-described elements in all possible variations thereof is encompassed by the invention unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context.