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Title:
AN ELASTICITY-ENHANCED COMPOSITE STONE AND ITS PRODUCTION METHOD
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2020/209808
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
This invention is about an elasticity-enhanced composite stone, which is obtained through the use of flexible resin, and its production method in order to increase flexibility on high quartz-containing surfaces. The purpose of the invention is to eliminate the cracking problems in the elasticity-enhanced composite stone structure and to develop a product that can be operated more easily by the at the workshops, and adapt the flexible resin (the resin that had a higher 'elongation at break' value than a standard resin in the flexural strength test) developed to increase flexibility to the composite stone.

Inventors:
ARICI ESRA (TR)
OLMEZ DUYGU (TR)
DENIZ GOKHAN (TR)
ALTINYAY ARMAN (TR)
TOPCU NURCAN (TR)
Application Number:
TR2019/050258
Publication Date:
October 15, 2020
Filing Date:
April 17, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
PEKER YUZEY TASARIMLARI SANAYI VE TICARET ANONIM SIRKETI (TR)
International Classes:
A47B13/08; A47B96/18; C04B14/06; C04B26/00
Foreign References:
CN103739235A2014-04-23
KR101303136B12013-09-09
CN106810110A2017-06-09
CN105884253A2016-08-24
CN107804994A2018-03-16
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ANKARA PATENT BUREAU (TR)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. An elasticity-enhanced composite stone characterized in that it contains 90% of different granule sizes of quartz and 10% of its own and it has a flexible resin with a plasticizer that provides elastic properties.

2. An elasticity enhanced composite stone as in claim 1, characterized in that the flexible polyester resin is formed by adding 10-20% of the flexible resin to the standard resin formula.

3. An elasticity-enhanced composite stone as in Claim 2, characterized in that the orthophthalic based low viscosity acrylic modified unsaturated polyester resin is used.

4. A process of manufacturing an elasticity-enhanced composite stone as in any one of the preceding claims; characterized in that it comprises the steps of

- mixing of quartz in different granular sizes and resin,

- pouring the mixture onto the mold to give a slab shape,

- compression of the mixture in the mold by vacuum, press and vibration process,

- heating at approximately 100 0 C to ensure durability and hardness,

- polishing with hard abrassive equipments and rapidly rotating heads,

- obtaining the final product, elasticity-enhanced composite stone.

5. The process of manufacturing an elasticity-enhanced composite stone as in claim 4, wherein the mixture is poured onto a neoprene rubber mold in order to be able to form the slab shape.

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6. The process of manufacturing an elasticity-enhanced composite stone as in claim 4, wherein the mixture in the mold is compressed under a pressure of 10 tons per square met.

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Description:
AN ELASTICITY-ENHANCED COMPOSITE STONE AND ITS

PRODUCTION METHOD Field of the Invention

The present invention is about an elasticity-enhanced composite stone, which is obtained through the use of flexible resin, and its production method in order to increase flexibility on high quartz-containing surfaces. Background of the Invention

Composite stone production process consists of; Mixing 90% quartz with 10% polyester resin, pouring the mixture into a mold and pressing under vacuum with vibration, and curing of the compressed mixture with an exothermic reaction at 100 0 C. In the production process, orthophthalic based, low viscosity, acrylic modified, unsaturated polyester resin is used. This resin is a binder resin used in the production of quartz-based composite stone. The state of the arts, by means of its resistance to atmospheric conditions, it can be used safely in outdoor applications; its volumetric shrinkage is low, and it is suitable for production with hot-curing system. In addition, providing light colored products are among its most prominent features.

Quartz surface products are available in the form of slaps with dimensions of 310cmxl52cm in the market and mostly used as kitchen counters. Kitchen companies and workshops cut the slab according to the designed kitchen and make the installation. However, due to the working style of the craftsmen in the workshops, the cutting method, machines and cutting blades they use, after the installation, cracks may form on the counters. Although it is caused by workshops, customer complaints may occur due to crack problems. In order to prevent such customer complaints and to prevent cracking problems, it is necessary to develop a more flexible resin than the one currently used. Looking at

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SUBSTITUTE SHEETS (RULE 26) the production statistics, it is seen that about 80% of customer complaints are due to cracks.

Summary of the Invention

The purpose of the invention is to eliminate crack problems in the composite stone structure and to develop a product that is flexible enough to be processed at the workshops more easily. Another purpose of the invention is to adapt the flexible resin developed to increase flexibility (the resin that had a higher 'elongation at break' value than a standard resin in the flexural strength test) to the composite stone.

Detailed Description of the Invention

The "Elasticity-enhanced Composite Stone and Its Production Method" for achieving the purpose of the invention are shown in the attached figures; From these figures:

Figure 1 -This is a graphical representation of the comparison of the flexural strength results of Fairy White, Crystal Ice, Lumiere, and Kristella White samples.

Figure 2 -This is a graphical representation of the comparison of the impact resistance results of the Fairy White, Crystal Ice, Lumiere, and Kristella White samples.

The subject of the invention 90% of different granule sizes of quartz and 10% flexible resin with a plasticizer that provides elastic properties is used for an elasticity-enhanced composite stone. The subject of the invention, the production phase contains the following steps:

- mixing of quartz in different granular sizes and resin,

- pouring the mixture onto the mold to give a slab shape,

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SUBSTITUTE SHEETS (RULE 26) - compression of the mixture in the mold by vacuum, press and vibration process,

- heating at approximately 100 0 C to ensure durability and hardness,

- polishing with hard abrassive equipments and rapidly rotating heads,

- obtaining the final product, elasticity-enhanced composite stone.

The subject of the invention is to solve the crack complaints which constitute a significant part of the customer complaints in the production of the elasticity enhanced composite stone. Accordingly, the aim is to increase the elengotion at break value of the resin. Within the scope of the invention, the elongation at break is increased from 5.36% to 17.68%. Moreover, within the scope of the invention, it is aimed to increase the impact strength of the stones with low resistance due to the quartz size and additives used in the formulation from 3.5 to 5 Joules.

Within the scope of the invention, quartz in different granular sizes, resin and binding agents are mixed and formulated by using Bolomey theorem. In the production process according to the invention, the following steps are applied: Mixing of 10% elasticity-enhanced polyester resin, which is formed by adding a plasticizer between 10%-20%, with 90% quartz in different granular sizes, pouring the mixture on the neoprene rubber mold to give the slap shape, compressing it with a special vacuum, press and vibration process under a pressure of 10 tons per square meter, heating to approx. 100 0 C to ensure durability and hardness and finally polishing by an abrassive equipments having rapidly rotating heads.

The flexible resin according to the invention defines elongation at break in the flexural strength test, which is higher than the standard resin. Thus, in order to prevent cracks in the slabs during the cutting process, it is tried to determine the resin with the most suitable elongation at break value. With the impact resistance test, increasing the impact resistance value and the cracks work as a guide in determining the desired value. The HDT(heat deflection temperature) value of the resin developed with the desired elongation at break should not be low.

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SUBSTITUTE SHEETS (RULE 26) In the production process, orthophthalic based low viscosity acrylic modified unsaturated polyester resin is used as resin (P). This resin is a binder resin used in the production of quartz-based composite stone. Due to its resistance to atmospheric conditions, it can be used safely in outdoor applications. Providing light colored products are among its most prominent features, and its volumetric shrinkage is low. It is also suitable for production with hot-curing system.

Developed within the scope of the invention, this product eliminates the cracking problems caused by the workshops and enables the development of a material that can be worked on more easily in the workshops. By increasing the flexibility, it is armed to have an impact resistance of 5 J and above in products which have an impact resistance of 3.5 J in typical applications. The elongation at break was determined to be higher than the elongation value of the standard resin in the flexural strength test of flexible resin used in stones produced within the scope of the invention. In addition, in the project, the stones were presented to the practitioners who were in the company and the opinions of the craftsmen when forming the slab with cutting blades were also taken. In the workshop, it was tested whether the slabs were easily cut and that cracks occurred when cutting. It was reported by the craftsmen that no cracks were observed during the cutting and it was easy to work with the elasticity-enhanced stone.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES

All control tests of the developed resin were carried out. An exothermic reaction, viscosity, percentage of styrene, volumetric shrinkage, number of cracks, barcol hardness. A sample study was carried out at the prototype plant with the resin suitable for the standard resin. All strength tests of the sample were performed. If the results obtained from the strength tests are the desired results, trial production will be performed. Trial production slabs were also subjected to testing again. If

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SUBSTITUTE SHEETS (RULE 26) they pass the tests successfully, it is thought that they will be sent to the workshops for field test and approved according to the field test results.

For the purpose of supplying the resin material used according to the invention, firstly, the resin formulation of the plasticizer having a plasticizer ratio of 10% (PI) was formed and then a more flexible resin formula with a plasticizer ratio of 15% was formed. After the standard control tests (exotherm test, viscosity, color, barcol hardness) were carried out on the resin sample, which had a 5 kg plasticizer 10% ratio, in the laboratory, the elongation at break of the resin was measured. To measure the elongation at the break of the resin, the resin was cured by pouring it into a mold. Then, it was cut to length 10cm, width 1cm and thickness 0.4cm, so as to comply with the EN 14617-2 flexural strength standards and its elongation at break was measured using the Shimadzu AG-X Plus (50kN) flexural strength device; the standard orthophthalic based unsaturated polyester resin, which is used in production in order to be able to compare, was also measured for the elongation at break. After the standard control tests of the resin were performed in the laboratory and the elongation at break was measured, the adaptation of the resin material was carried out, and the mass production phase started. In the second stage of the experimental studies, standard control tests of the 15% resin with 5 kg plasticizer, which was found to be more flexible, were performed and its elongation at break was measured; similarly, it was then tested at the operational level by ensuring the adaptation.

The standard control tests applied to the resin are as follows:

• With the exotherm test (Exotherm Test Equipment; Thermostatic Liquid Bath + Prop Temperature Meter) to be applied to the resin, < the gel duration, maximum temperature and the time to reach this temperature were determined.

• The viscosity was determined through the Haake type viscometer.

• The color of the resin was determined using the Gardner Color Scale device.

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SUBSTITUTE SHEETS (RULE 26) The Barcol hardness of the resin was determined using the Barcol device.

Orthophthalic based unsaturated polyester resin, orthophthalic based unsaturated polyester resin with a plasticizer ratio of 10% and 15%, was cut to have a length of 10cm, a width of 1cm, and a thickness of 0,4cm by hardening (EN14617-2 flexural strength standard), and the elongation at break was measured using their Shimadzu AG-X Plus (50kN) device.

As quartz materials used in the production process; 38 pm (0,038mm), 63- 200 pm (0,063-0,2 mm), 100-300 pm (0, 1-0,3 mm), 100-400 pm (0, 1-0,4 mm), 300- 700 pm (0,3-0, 7 mm), 500-800 pm (0,5-0, 8 mm), 600-1200 pm (0,6-1, 2 mm), 1200-2500 pm (1,2-2, 5 mm), 2500-4000 pm (2, 5-4,0 mm) 4000-6000 pm (4,0- 6,0 mm) grain sized quartz materials are used.

Performing standard control tests of quartz; the following tests were performed:

• To verify the size of the quartz, the dlO d50 d90 values were measured with the Malvern particle size analyzer.

• Larger size of quartz verification was performed with the sieve vibration machine.

• The moisture of quartz is measured by Denver brand moisture analyzer.

• The color of the quartz was determined using Konica & Minolta spectrophotometer, and its compliance with the criteria was evaluated.

In the context of the invention, quartz in the different granular sizes, resin and binding agents are mixed, and the product in question is obtained. Standard mechanical tests for this product; these tests can be explained as follows:

Impact Resistance;

• This test is to test the accuracy of the production process and the resistance of the end product against impacts coming from high.

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SUBSTITUTE SHEETS (RULE 26) • The tester device consists of a stainless steel ball with a weight of 1 kg ± 0.1 kg, an electric magnet with a steel can and a button for holding a steel ball, and a bar that can be moved from 0 to 120 cm with markings at every 5 m.

• The test was performed by increasing the height of the ball by 5 cm until the sample was broken. The result was evaluated according to the standard.

Abrasion Resistance

• This test shows the mechanical properties of the surface and its resistance during use.

• This test was carried out with the abrasion resistance device.

• White aluminum oxide F80 was used as the abrasion powder.

• By measuring the length of the recess on the surface as a result of the abrasion, the results were evaluated according to the standard.

Flexural Strength;

• This test measures the accuracy of the production process and the resistance of the end product to static, dynamic loading.

• It is measured by flexural strength device.

• The sample was placed so as to be centered on the support blocks of the test device and tests were carried out in this way.

• The result was evaluated according to the standard.

Water Absorption Amount;

• The amount of water absorption is the maximum amount of water absorbed by the material in pure water at room temperature.

• This shows the number of pores in the final product.

• The number of pores is an indication of whether the product formulation and pressing have been successful.

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SUBSTITUTE SHEETS (RULE 26) • The properties such as mechanical resistance, abrasion resistance, and stain resistance are adversely affected if the press is not performed well and there are pores present.

• The Archimedes scale was used to perform the water absorption test.

The test results performed within the scope of experimental studies are shown in the following tables:

Table 1. These are the results of orthophthalic based unsaturated polyester resin (P) quality control tests.

RESIN EQUIVALENT QUALITY CONTROL

Table 2. These are the results of the quality control tests of orthophthalic based unsaturated polyester resin with a plasticizer ratio of 10% (PI).

RESIN EQUIVALENT QUALITY CONTROL

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Table 3 These are the results of polyester resin quality control tests with a plasticizer ratio of 15% (P2).

RESIN EQUIVALENT QUALITY CONTROL

Table 4. These are the flexural strength results of orthophthalic based unsaturated polyester resin (P) and cut into 6 pieces to have a length of 10cm, a width of 1cm, and a thickness of 0,4cm in compliance with the EN14617-2 flexural strength standard.

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Table 5. These are the flexural strength results of orthophthalic based unsaturated polyester resinwith a plasticizer ratio of 10% (PI) and cut into 6 pieces to have a length of 10cm, a width of 1cm, and a thickness of 0,4cm in compliance with the EN14617-2 flexural strength standard.

Table 6. These are the flexural strength results of orthophthalic based unsaturated polyester resinwith a plasticizer ratio of 15% (P2) and cut into 6 pieces to have a length of 10cm, a width of 1cm, and a thickness of 0,4cm in compliance with the EN14617-2 flexural strength standard.

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Table 7. Representation of mechanical testing criteria.

Table 8. It is a demonstration of the mechanical test results of samples produced using polyester resin (P) which cannot be flexible in the production process developed within the scope of this invention.

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Table 9. This is the demonstration of the mechanical test results of the stones produced in the laboratory and the plant with the resin with a ratio of 10% (PI) of the plasticizer used in the production process developed within the scope of the invention.

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Table 10. This is the demonstration of the mechanical test results of the stones produced in the laboratory and the plant with the resin with a ratio of 15% (P2) of the plasticizer used in the production process developed within the scope of the invention.

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Table 11. This is the comparative demonstration of resin quality control tests as a result of experimental studies.

When the results of these tests are evaluated;

• The flexible resin offers a resin structure with higher elongation at break than the standard resin in the flexural strength test.

• In this study, the elongation at break value was found to be 5,36% with unsaturated polyester resin, 12,76% with resin with plasticizer ratio 10% and 17,68% resin with plasticizer ratio of 15%.

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SUBSTITUTE SHEETS (RULE 26) • In this experimental study, impact resistance testing was taken as a guide. All control tests (exothermic reaction, viscosity, styrene percentage, volumetric shrinkage, number of cracks, Barcol hardness) of the developed resin were performed. With increasing flexibility, the impact resistance was increased from 8.63 J to 10 J.

• When the mechanical test results of the stones produced with flexible resins were evaluated, the flexural strength of the Fairy White sample with the standard resin (P) used in the Belenco production process was 69,02 MPa with an average impact strength of 8,33 joules; The flexural strength of the Crystal Ice sample was 49.68 MPa, the impact resistance was 3.50 joules; The flexural strength of the Lumiere sample was 65.9 MPa, and the impact strength was 6.40 joules; The average flexural strength in the Granada sample was 58.43 MPa, and the impact strength was 8.63 joules; The flexural strength of the Kristella White sample was 41.66 MPa, and the impact strength was 3.94 joules.

• The operation test of the Fairy White (2cm) sample produced with the resin with a plasticizer ratio of 10% was found to have an average flexural strength of 77,82 MPa, with an impact strength of 8,57 joules; The flexural strength of the Crystal Ice (3cm) sample was 60.79 MPa with an average impact resistance of 5.47 joules; The flexural strength of the Lumiere (3cm) sample was 89,01 MPa with an average impact resistance of 8,70 joules; The flexural strength of the Lumiere (2cm) sample was 80.59 MPa with an average impact resistance of 7.28 joules; The flexural strength of Granada (3cm) sample was 70.22 MPa with a mean impact resistance of 9.72 joules; The flexural strength of the Kristella White sample was 44.93 MPa, and the impact resistance was measured as 5.89 joules. When compared with the stones produced with Polipol 357 resin, it is seen that the flexural strength and impact resistance results have increased.

• The average plasticity of the Fairy White (3cm) sample produced in the resin with a plasticizer ratio of 15% is 88.22 MPa, and the impact resistance is 12 joules; The average flexural strength of the Crystal Ice

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SUBSTITUTE SHEETS (RULE 26) (3cm) sample was 63,83 MPa, and the impact resistance was 6,46 joules; The flexural strength of the Lumiere (3cm) sample was 90,32 MPa, and the impact resistance was 10,65 joules; The flexural strength of Kristella White (3cm) sample was 70,93 MPa and the impact resistance was 7,24 joules. For comparison, the flexural strength and impact resistance values of the samples of Fairy White, Crystal Ice, Lumiere, and Kristella White performed using the standard resin polystyrene ratio of 10% and 15% increased resins are shown in Figure 1 and 2 in graphs. By means of the invention, due to the quartz size used in the formulation, the impact resistance of the Crystal Ice sample, which is low-resistant, rose from 3.5 joules to 6.46 joules; from the 3.94 joule to 7.24 joules in the Kristella White sample with low impact resistance; to 12 joules from 8,33 joules in the Fairy White sample; and in the Lumiere sample from 6,40 joule to 10,65 joules. In addition, in the project, the stones were presented to the practitioners who were in the company and the opinions of the craftsmen when forming the slab with cutting blades were also taken. It was reported that no cracks were observed during the cutting and it was easy to work with the elasticity-enhanced composite stone

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