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Title:
ELECTRIC DISK MOTOR/GENERATOR HAVING A CAST ARMATURE WINDING
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2005/050815
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
The subject of the present invention is armature for both DC and AC rotating electric machines working in elevated temperature environment. The armature is built of metal core having isolating and conductive layers. The armature having new structure built of ferromagnetic material as core which is coated with electrically isolating material as layer isolation and this insolating layer is covered conductive layer formed as armature's winding. These layered structures are repeatable more times. On base of the structure the armature has more robustness against both mechanically and heat effects related to the former armature's windings. The conductive layer is forming by casting.

Inventors:
Dutkay, György (Sziget u. 47, Székesfehérvár, H-8000, HU)
Application Number:
PCT/HU2004/000108
Publication Date:
June 02, 2005
Filing Date:
November 22, 2004
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
Dutkay, György (Sziget u. 47, Székesfehérvár, H-8000, HU)
International Classes:
H02K1/26; H02K3/12; H02K3/26; H02K15/02; H02K23/54; (IPC1-7): H02K1/00
Foreign References:
EP0429729A11991-06-05
US4268772A1981-05-19
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Danubia (Bajcsy-Zsilinszky út 16, Budapest, H-1051, HU)
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Claims:
Claims
1. Armature of electric disk motor/generator characterized in that the armature (7) is made of metal material and on one face of armature the current run from the shaft toward the circumference and back (from the circumference toward the shaft) on the other face of the same armature and this kind of currant path is obtained by having radial holes (75) separated from each other on both face of the disk armature and on the holeend close to the shaft has a trough hole (76) to the hole being on the other face of the disk armature and has an other through holes (78) from this hole to the third hole next to the previous one being on the other face of the disk armature forming a 3D pattern which is repeated until each hole is connected to the situated on the other face one and connected to the next one being on the previous side and this serial pattern produces a surface network that is covered with electrically isolating and heat resistive material for instance ceramic or enamel layer and filled it with conductive material (72) and the resulting electric network is the armature winding.
2. Electric disk motor/generator for law performance at most 500 Watts its armature as claimed in claim 1 is made of metal core having connective holes from one face to the other and coated with isolating material for practicing ceramic or enamel characterized in that the coating layer supports conductive material pattern forming electric circuit and this pattern is made of ceramic soldering/brazing material for example titan copper alloys which material is fix on the ceramic surface by heat treatment forming this pattern a tree dimensional printed circuit on the isolating coated metallic armature's core.
3. The armature's winding as claimed in claim 1 characterizing in that the armature channels (74,75) and holes (76,78) filled in with aluminum, copper, or tin, or their alloys, or other conductive material by casting or spraying.
4. The metallic armature core claimed in claims 1,2 and 3 characterized in that its isolating material's melting point is higher then the melting point of the filling material, or the brazing/soldering material's melting point.
5. Electric motor/generator armature as claimed in claims 1 and 2 characterized in that the armature's coil is multi layered and the conductive layers are separated from the core and from each other by the ceramic or enamel layers and the conductive layers are fix on the isolating layers by heat treatment.
6. Electric motor/generator's armature as claimed in claims 1 and 2.. characterized in that its electric circuit including the slipping rings (77) consisting of one monolithic, cast or formed in one solid.
7. The armature of the electric motor or generator as clamed in claim 1 characterized in that it is integrated part replacing the flywheel of the internal combustion engine working as starter motor armature during the cranking period and working as flywheel and armature of the generator later on.
8. Electric motor's armature as claimed in claims 1 or 2 characterizing in that the circumferential part of the armature is formed to wheel blade for fluid or gas transport.
Description:
Electric disk motor/generator having multipurpose cast or printed armature's winding and process it's producing The main property of the general structure's rotating electric machines is that both the stator and the armature contain electric coils or in case of the permanent magnet machine at least one of them has. The electric coil is generally isolated wire made of copper and the coating is made of polyamide, polyester or other law heat resisting material related to the copper. Consequently the failure cause in most cases is the burning down winding after overcharging by power or the working temperature pass over the allowed limit relating to the isolation of the coil.

This limit is much less then the allowed temperature for any other part of the electric machine. In short mainly the coil failures limit the electric machine's chargeability and draw out more mechanical power. The other weakest point of the electric machines having commutator is itself the commutator and the brush connecting to him because its mechanical, electrical and heat chargeability is even less then the coils have.

The heat chargeability for the electric machine can be very narrow limit if the environmental temperature is high, for instance the electric machines like starter, generator, ventilators working is the engine's room of the automotive, or generally speaking are the hot working machines.

The applying field of the electric machines having commutator is limited because of the losses coming from the magnetizing and remagnetizing of the core continuously depending on RPM. These losses are not simply diminish the performance but heat the whole machine among it the coil.

Partly to avoid this disadvantages, partly to obtain a more adventurous form aiming the specific requirement there is known numerous solutions. The US. Pat. 4,072, 874 for instance uses multi pole permanent magnet positioned in ring shape coaxial to the main shaft for-direct drive turn-table. This solution has a. disk shaped armature containing glued wiring embedded into isolating material. The winding is concentric with the shaft, so the currant in the winding is perpendicular to the magnetic field producing torque. This construction is can be decided traditional, but the disk shaped armature having larger inertia diminish the fluctuation of the angular velocity, so it is more adventurous for turn table driving then the previous ones.

Similarly the US. Pat. 5,789, 841 shows on ring shaped form arranged permanent magnet motor having disk armature with 3 phases winding, but the phase windings are not made of isolating wire. Instead the coil is made of copper sheet welded by the needed current path. This solution is hopelessly difficult regarding on the manufacturing, but it is a valuable example for demonstrating that is not absolutely needed to make the coils of isolated conductors, that is to say no absolutely limit is the heat chargeability of isolating.

Very similar armature is used at the ServoDisk of Kollmorgen Co. (Kollmorgen Motion Technologies Group, Commack, NY., 1-800-77 servo folder). The armature of this product does not contain any iron, so no iron loss, but the armature disk cut of copper sheet as segments and welded on the circumference. The width of the welded disk increases the magnetic flux path length on the air and becomes too large the magnetic resistively. Consequently this kind of electric motor is not available for large power range, but on base of the very low inertia of the armature is very useful for quick respond driving.

To avoid the iron losses not only the ironless armature is suitable, but other kind of machines which however contains iron, but the armature does not need magnetize and demagnetize permanently. This type of machine are the homopolar machines for both motor or alternator (generator) usage. Its common essence can derivate from the Faraday-disk motor in which the interaction of the axial magnetic flux related to the disk shaft and the radial currant produces torque on the shaft. The most part of the traditional electric machine work inversely to this principle using radial magnetic flux and axial direction currant. The homopolar machine can be excited by permanent or electric magnet supplied with DC, even more it can be AC supplied if the temporarily current direction is permanent related to the magnetic flux direction. Obviously for the axial air gap machine is mostly appropriate the radial current's direction for instance from the centerline toward the circumference or inversely, but only one direction of them depending on the needed rotation's direction. It is practical to lead in and out the current through the shaft. This is solved by the US. Pat. 5,241, 232 with two disk armatures rotating in same direction so that the currant path is from the shaft to the one disk circumference, from the circumference to the other disk's circumference led the currant by conductive belt and from the circumference to the shaft. The common magnetic flux is perpendicular to the disk face but opposite direction on the disks. For the better conductivity the disks core of iron have copper coating. Likewise the US. Pat. 5,844, 345 uses two disks but rotating opposite direction driving each other by gears in order to duplicate the power or the voltage using as alternator. The direction of the magnetic flux is same on both disks.

The US. Pat. 5,977, 684 is opposed to the previously detailed. It use only one disk armature incorporated a toroidal winding for low performance generator, which is usable as DC motor excited with permanent magnet. The limited performance is comes from the fact that the toroidal winding made of wire needs large air gap on the magnetic flux path which drastically diminishes the performance and same time the parallel branches with the magnetic flux of the winding are only parasitic sources.

Producing of the toroidal coil is costly and hard to mechanize so using in mass production is exceptional.

Both the permanent and electric excited homopolar machines are very various regarding on its magnetic flux and electric current path however it is very common that. its armature's or stator's winding is made of isolated copper wire. Hence on one hand its working temperature is limited ; on the other hand the coil branches parallel with magnetic flux are unutilized like baskets, indeed vesting of energy and material.

Making and assembly of electric coils by traditional way is less productive, skill needed and costly working process.

The present invention aims to implement surprisingly new design and process way of the electric motor so that the armature's winding can be produce by cheap metal molding and isolation of this winding be similarly heat resistive as the other parts of the electric machine.

The above aimed electric machine design is carried out in totally different form the traditional construction. The main points of our design idea is that the disk shaped armature made of ferromagnetic material that is situated into disk shaped permanent magnet's flux field. The orientation of the magnets is the same on both half faces of the armature and on one face of armature the currant run from the shaft toward the circumference and back (from the circumference toward the shaft) on the other face of the same armature : This kind of armature path is obtained by having radial holes separated from each other on both face of disk armature and on the hole-end close to the shaft has a trough hole to the radial hole being on the other face of the disk armature and has an other through hole, from this radial hole to the third radial hole next to the previous one being on the other face of the disk armature. This pattern is repeated until each channel is connected to the situated on the other face one and connected to the next one on same side. This serial pattern produces such network that is covered with electrically isolating and heat resistive material for instance ceramic layer and filled it with conductive material the resulting electric network is the armature winding. This winding forms a ring, after interrupting wherever the winding has connect in and out, so the armature winding is ready both mechanically and electrically as well.

In order that the invention can be fully understood alternative designs will be described, wherein reference will be made to the accompanying drawings. In the drawing: Figure 1 shows the general construction of motor/alternator Figure 2 shows the iron core of the ferromagnetic armature's prefabrication Figure 3 shows the inner structure of the armature Figure 4 shows the alternative construction of the ferromagnetic armature's prefabrication.

The examples refer to DC motor/alternator excited by permanent magnet.

The present invention can be characterized in execution form as slipping ring DC motor by that the ferromagnetic disk shaped armature 7 is equipped with slipping rings 6 and positioned between permanent magnet disks 2 and 4 so that the armature's faces are in face of the same polarity of magnets. The other polarity of the magnets are in face of the ferromagnetic half-housings 1 and 5 and fix on them.

These half-housings support the not drawn shaft, bearings, brush-holders, brushes, cables, ventilating parts and the mechanically necessary fixing elements.

The magnetic path goes starting from the Nordic pole of the right side magnet disk trough the air gap between the magnet disk 4 and the right side face of he disk armature 7, further inside of the armature's core, further radial from the armature through the air gap between the armature and ferromagnetic ring 3 and to the half- housing 5 and ending on the South pole of the magnet disk 4. The magnetic path starting from Nordic pole of the magnet disk 2 is symmetric to the previously detailed path.

The path of the electric currant on the armature is dictated by the patterns on the disk armature face. The pattern characterized by the radial holes 74 and 75 further the axial holes 76 and 78 covered their walls with electric isolating and heat resistive material like ceramic or enamel. After coating the walls of holes the pattern is filled with electrically conductive material. The holes form continuous chain on base the following range : one of the radial hole 74 situated on one face of the disk armature continues to the axial hole 78 situated close to the circumference of the disk, this hole continues to the radial hole 75 situated on the other face of the disk and this one goes to the axial hole 76 and to the next radial hole situated next to the previous radial hole 74. This pattern is repeated continuously. It is obvious that after filling this pattern with conductive material this conductor forms a coil this coil conducts the electric currant from the slipping ring 6 to the one side radial hole 74, to the axial hole 78, to the other face radial hole 75 and to the axial hole 76 repeatedly to the other side slipping ring 6.

The main property of the armature's currant path is that all of the conductor's currant situated on one face of armature have the same radial direction for instance from the center toward the circumference and situated conductors on the other face of the disk have inversely direction. The direction of the magnetic flux on the half faces of the disk is inversely as well, so the torques coming from their interaction is same directional so it can let out by the shaft put in central hole 79.

Obviously the disk shape armature can be made of non-ferromagnetic material for instance austenitic steel. In this case the armature itself is ironless, but the austenitic steel disk armature in same way supports mechanically the isolating material and the winding elements.

Aiming the better understanding of the essence of the invented motor/generator's armature we present an alternative execution form on 4. figure related to the 2. figure shown. This figure shows that the radial holes next to each other are in connection by the oblique hole guided under the rib 71 that is separates the radial holes from each other.

Important item of the present invention is the revolutionary new armature design and its manufacturing process way which is the following : after forming the core of disk armature by machining, casting or forging the next step is taking up the isolating coating at least to the holes surfaces or to the whole disk surface. This coating can be plasma sprayed ceramic, hard oxidized aluminum, or simply heat resistive paint.

For instance SE20-M9529-M Silicon One-Coat Paint. After coating the armature's core we fix on it the slipping rings and fill in the holes with melted conductive material like copper, tin, aluminum or its alloys getting the conductive layer 72. The layer 5 thickness is limited to the rib's 71 high. The slipping ring can be sprayed or cast of copper in same time together with the hole's filling.

Just the same armature connected in short circuit by the two slipping rings can work as ordinary short circuited armature in tree phase AC motor.

For law performance motor/generator at most 500 Watts can be apply as conductive material ceramic soldering/brazing for example titan-copper alloys. After brazing this alloy to the ferromagnetic armature covered isolating like ceramic surface and holes we get a tree dimensional printed circuit that is the armature's coil on the isolating coated ferromagnetic armature's core. This conductive layer covered by a second isolating layer can support the second conductive layer forming a second coil fix to each other.

The second or third layer coils can be totally different for different purpose related to the premier one but they work in same magnetic flux field.

The electric machine by the present invention is not limited only to permanent magnet and AC currant circumstances. Replacing the permanent magnets to the AC or DC electric ones and supplying the armature winding with same type of currant the electric machine works The present invention does not do only the fundament for a cheaper and more simply electric motor producing, but open a new way for such application field on which the traditional electric motors failed. Such field is for instance the automotive electric subassemblies like starters, generators, and others. These parts could not integrate into the engine so far because of partly heat, partly oil contamination problems. The newly designed electric machine and its armature can bear these effects because its ceramic or enamel isolating withstands some hundreds centigrade hot even in oil.

The armature based on the present invention is significantly more firm mechanically related to the traditional one so it can replace on other occasions needed parts working in same time as armature and takes the possibility working as integrated parts in other role. Characteristically such part is the flywheel of the internal combustion machines. Using this new type of armature it works as cranking machine during the starting period, after this as flywheel and generator. Similarly it can integrate as impeller for fluids transportation having turbine blades on its circumference supplied with sealing surfaces, and more others. The greatest advantage of the rotating electric machine designed on base of the present invention is that its electric circuit including also the slipping rings forms one monolithic solid, cast in one solid does not contains any joint that can loose, so this kind of electric motor is more reliable related to the previous ones mechanically assembled with welding, brazed or soldered.