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Title:
ELECTROLYTIC CELL AND UNIVERSAL OXYHYDROGEN GENERATOR
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/154781
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a generator of oxyhydrogen capable of reducing the harmful emissions of combustion gases in common heat generators for boilers and/or production of domestic hot water, increasing the thermal yield and reducing fuel consumption.

Inventors:
SORIANO, Diego (Calle Achagua, n. 4/b, Puerto del Carmen, 35510, ES)
Application Number:
EP2019/052716
Publication Date:
August 15, 2019
Filing Date:
February 05, 2019
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
SORIANO, Diego (Calle Achagua, n. 4/b, Puerto del Carmen, 35510, ES)
International Classes:
C25B1/06; C25B9/18; C25B11/02
Domestic Patent References:
WO2015080684A12015-06-04
WO2013097423A12013-07-04
WO2015080684A12015-06-04
WO2013097423A12013-07-04
Foreign References:
US20100276279A12010-11-04
US20150068889A12015-03-12
US20100276279A12010-11-04
US20150068889A12015-03-12
IT1402836B12013-09-27
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
TAGLIAFICO, Giulia (LITAPAT Via Simone Martini, 125, Rome RM, 00142, IT)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. An electrolytic cell (23), comprising:

- at least one grip plate (29);

- at least one gasket (30);

- at least one cathode (31) and one anode (31);

- at least one full neutral plate (32);

- at least one perforated neutral plate (33);

- at least one gas outlet connector (34);

- at least one inlet (35) for the electrolyte;

- at least one outlet (36) for the electrolyte for the cooling system;

- at least one supply rod (37); wherein said cell (23) is characterized by the fact that the elements (29), (30), (31), 32) and (33) have triangular shape, optionally a shape of equilateral or isosceles triangle.

2. The electrolytic cell of claim 1, characterised by the fact of having the "unbalanced" configuration, as described below:

- an anode;

nl full neutral plates;

- at least one additional anode;

nl full neutral plates;

- a cathode;

(nl + n2) perforated neutral plates;

- at least one additional cathode;

(nl + n2) full neutral plates;

- at least one additional cathode; wherein nl and n2, the same as or different from each other, are each an integer from 1 to 60, preferably from 3 to 20, more preferably from 2 to 10.

3. The electrolytic cell of claim 1, wherein the cathode (31) and the anode (31) show a U- shaped cut (38), useful to facilitate the assembly and/or disassembly of the supply rod (37).

4. The electrolytic cell of any claims from 1 to 3, wherein the grip plate (29) reports a U- shaped cut (38), in case said grip plate (29) follows the perimeter of the cathode-anode (31), and is characterised by the fact that said U-shaped cut (38) is closed by a stud (39), black or red depending on the polarity of the supply rod (37).

5. An apparatus for generating oxyhydrogen comprising:

- at least one tank for the electrolyte (1);

- at least one bubbler (2), optionally having square section, having a lamellar system to prevent leakage of electrolyte into the oxyhydrogen flow tube in case of strong gurgling;

- at least one drying filter (3);

- at least one solenoid valve (4) to adjust the internal pressure;

- at least one mechanical safety valve (5);

- at least one pressure gauge (6);

- at least one connector (7) useful to the gas outlet;

- at least one thermometer (8);

- at least one warning light (9);

- at least one voltmeter and/or ammeter (10);

- at least one on-off switch (11);

- at least one potentiometer (12) to increase or decrease gas production;

- at least a timer switch (13);

- at least one positive electric cable (14) and at least one negative electric cable (15), useful to power the electrolytic cell;

- at least one cooling fan (16);

- at least one power supply-inverter (17) to power the electrolytic cell (23);

- at least one positive electric cable (18) and at least one negative electric cable (19), useful to power the electrical panel;

- optionally at least one booster (20) of pure hydrogen and at least one power supply- inverter (17c), useful to feed the hydrogen booster (20);

- at least one radiator (21);

- at least one electric pump (22) for a cooling system;

- at least one triangular electrolytic cell (23) useful for oxyhydrogen production;

- at least one mushroom-type emergency switch (24);

- at least one socket (25) at 220 Volt;

- at least one pressure switch (26) for automatic shutdown when the predetermined pressure threshold is exceeded; - at least a level switch (27) when the electrolyte reserve level is exceeded;

- optionally at least an outlet for discharging the oxygen (28);

- an oxygen exhaust tube (17a);

- at least one flow tube (18a) electrolyte-radiator;

- optionally at least one flow tube (19a) hydrogen-bubbler;

- at least one flow tube (20a) oxyhydrogen-bubbler;

- at least one flow tube (21a) electrolyte-pump-electrolytic cell;

- optionally at least one flow tube (22a) electrolyte-booster-radiator.

6. The apparatus of claim 5 wherein the booster of pure hydrogen (20) includes:

- at least one initial grip plate (62);

- at least one gasket (63);

- at least one membrane (61) for the separation of gases;

- at least one further gasket (63);

- at least one cathode (64);

- at least one further gasket (63);

- at least one membrane (61) for the separation of gases;

- at least one further gasket (63);

- at least one anode (64);

- at least one final grip plate (62).

7. The apparatus of claim 5, for use to optimize combustion processes in a combustion engine, comprising:

- at least one tank for the electrolyte (1);

- at least one bubbler (2), optionally with a square section;

- at least one drying filter (3);

- at least one modulator PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation) (40);

- at least one mechanical safety valve (5);

- at least one connector (7) useful for the gas outlet;

- at least one cooling fan (16);

- at least one electrolytic cell (23);

- at least one grip plate (29);

- at least one ionizing filter (41); - at least one fuse (42);

- at least one control unit (43) for oxyhydrogen management;

- at least one 12 Volt battery (44);

- at least one relay under lock and key (45);

wherein the ionizing filter (41), comprises:

- an outer shell composed of two bodies made of plastic (51a and 51b), where:

- the plastic body 51a has an inlet tube (52);

- the plastic body 51b has an outlet tube (53);

- said bodies made of plastic (51a and 51b) are coupled/connected to each other through a classic screw closure system, through a classic pressure closure system or welded;

- an inlet hole (52a), located at the end of the inlet tube (52);

- an outlet hole (52a), located at the end of the outlet tube (52);

- at least one magnet (54) in neodymium;

- copper beads (55);

- zinc beads (56);

- aluminium beads (57);

- at least one spring (58);

- at least two filtering membrane (59).

8. The apparatus of claim 5, wherein the amount of pure hydrogen produced by the booster (20) can be adjusted by:

- direct mixing in the air intake tube;

or:

- with ionizing filters (41) for liquid and gaseous fuels, wherein:

- the ionizing filters (41) are external to the oxyhydrogen generator and are installed on the fuel inlet tube;

- the mixed oxyhydrogen gas and pure hydrogen are inserted into the intake system of the user means or directly into the combustion chambers through a fuel injection system.

9. The apparatus of claim 5, for use for cleaning of the combustion chambers of an engine.

10. The apparatus of claim 5, for use to improve the performance and energy efficiency of a boiler, including:

- at least one tank for electrolyte (1);

- at least one bubbler (2), optionally with a square section;

- at least one drying filter (3);

- at least one mechanical safety valve (5);

- at least one connector (7) useful for the gas outlet;

- at least two cooling fans (16);

- at least one power supply-inverter (17) 220 Volt -12 Volt;

- at least one electrolytic cell (23);

- at least one grip plate (29);

- at least one gas outlet connector (34);

- at least one inlet (35) for the electrolyte;

- at least one communicating hole (60) for the gas passage of both cells up to the connector (34).

Description:
ELECTROLYTIC CELL AND UNIVERSAL OXYHYDROGEN GENERATOR

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a generator of oxyhydrogen with multiple electrolytic cells and with multiple power supplies, which uses, optionally, a hydrogen booster producing an adjustable amount of hydrogen gas, and ionizing systems for liquid and gaseous fuels; it also relates to an electrolytic cell of triangular shape.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

In electrochemistry, the term electrolytic cell indicates a particular electrochemical cell that allows converting electrical energy into chemical energy. This process is called electrolysis.

The electrical energy required to carry out the process is provided by an external electric circuit connected to the cell poles, so that the electrolysis process does not occur spontaneously, that means the difference in Gibbs free energy associated with the process is greater than zero.

As said, an electrolytic cell is a device that is capable of converting electric energy into chemical energy or chemical energy into electrical energy. The electrolytic cell is composed of two half-elements, also called half-cells.

These half-elements are kept separated by a semipermeable membrane or are placed in separate containers connected by a salt bridge. When they are suitably connected by means of an external electrical circuit, the electrons produced by the oxidation reaction, which takes place in one-half element, are transferred to the other to give rise to the reduction reaction.

A half-element is generally composed of a metal electrode immersed in an electrolytic solution, sometimes constituted by the ions of the same metal and other times from the ions of another metal; there are also half elements in which the solution contains oxidized and reduced forms of ions different from the material which constitutes the electrode.

The electrode where the half-reaction of oxidation takes place is called "anode", the one where reduction occurs "cathode".

From the circuit point of view, an electrolytic cell can be assimilated to a dipole.

More generally, the electrochemical cells are classified in:

• galvanic cells (or voltaic cells): transform the chemical energy into electrical energy; from the circuit point of view they are comparable to electrical generators and are in turn classified as follows: o primary galvanic cells : in which electric current is generated by an irreversible chemical reaction, for which they are of the disposable type and cannot be recharged; the stacks zinc-carbon and the alkaline batteries belong to this category;

o secondary galvanic cells : in which the chemical reactions are reversible, so once the chemical energy is converted into electrical energy (i.e. the battery is discharged") it is possible to reverse the process by supplying electric energy, thanks to which the inverse chemical reaction develops which accumulates the electric energy in the form of chemical energy; therefore we are talking about in this case of accumulators of electric charge.

• electrolytic cells (or electrolysers or electrochemical reactors ): electric power is supplied in order to develop a chemical reaction (this process is called electrolysis), as already explained before.

The electrolytic cells may be wet or dry. A dry cell uses a fluid electrolyte, with only enough moisture to allow current to flow. Unlike a wet cell, a dry cell can work in any orientation without spilling, as it contains no free liquid, making it suitable for portable equipment.

WO 2015/080684 mentions an energy system based on pure oxyhydrogen, characterized in that it contains a series of elements comprising a main water reservoir, a hydrolysis unit of water for hydrogen and oxygen production, having a membrane between plates placed inside to separate hydrogen and oxygen, a cooling fan that cools gas and chemical water, a chiller / condenser / heat exchanger that cools water, a pump for transferring the liquid, a valve control that guarantees the unidirectional flow, an electronic system control unit and an electric power supply unit that supplies the energy required by the system. The electrodes in the electrolysis system presented in such document have a circular shape (see elements 31 and 32 (plates) in Figure 2).

US 2010/276279 reports a hydrogen generator system comprising: a housing which composes an inner chamber, an electrolytic solution contained in the inner chamber of the housing, a set of electrode plates arranged in the inner chamber of the housing and at least partially immersed in the electrolyte solution, such a set comprising: a cathode plate, an anode plate separated from the cathode plate and spaced apart therefrom and at least one neutral plate separated from the anode plate and the cathode plate and disposed there between with the anode plate and the cathode plate and a power source in electrical communication with the electrode plate assembly. US 2015/068889 names a system for the generation of oxygen and hydrogen by electrolysis, comprising: a container, a positive electrode frame, a negative electrode frame, a plurality of non-conductive plastic frames, a plurality of non-conductive rings, an electrolytic solution, wherein the electrolyte solution is pure water with addition of biosolids, and a plurality of disks, wherein said plurality of disks comprises a plurality of positive electrode disks, a plurality of negative electrode disks and a plurality of neutral disks, and in wherein the plurality of disks are arranged in a preset sequence such that a sequence with a positive electrode disc and ends with a negative electrode disc, and wherein such plurality of disks is made of metals or non-metals.

WO 2013/097423 refers to a group of electrodes of an oxygen -hydrogen generator. In particular, a "multi-hole" (multi-slot) electrode sheet and a flat electrode sheet are arranged in parallel and the positive electrode or negative electrode can respectively be electrically connected to achieve an optimal electrolysis effect. This electrode group efficiently and rapidly electrolytes the aqueous liquid and the electrolyte to generate a large quantity of hydrogen -oxygen gas and increases the specific gravity and the hydrogen purity. This is a system of immersion cells.

None of the above-mentioned documents provides a specific teaching about the importance of the shape of the electrolytic cells, in order to improve the efficiency or any other performance of an oxyhydrogen generator.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to an oxyhydrogen generator comprising a new electrolytic cell and which uses, optionally, a booster of hydrogen producing an adjustable amount of hydrogen gas with ionizing systems for liquid and gaseous fuels.

The oxyhydrogen generator of the present invention is aimed at:

• lowering harmful emissions of combustion gases (NO x , CO, DCC);

• increasing real energy saving thanks to efficiency improvement of an existing generator, to which it applies;

• eliminating carbon deposits in internal combustion engines;

• reducing the amount of fuel used under the same conditions.

This improvement occurs using electric energy (also provided by renewable sources), which is supplied/received by primary heat-carrying fluid inside the electrolytic cells (dry cells) in the form of thermal energy and consumption of the water, which is transformed into oxyhydrogen gas. The cell and the oxyhydrogen generator in accordance with the present invention are an improvement of the generator/apparatus described in the patent n. IT0001402836 entitled "Electrolytic cell and device for the generation of oxyhydrogen under pressure". The oxyhydrogen generator of the present invention can have different fields of application:

• coupled with a booster of hydrogen (booster of hydrogen or "hydrogen booster" in accordance with the present invention means an additional electrolytic cell, which has the sole task of producing pure hydrogen; said supplementary electrolytic cell being coupled to an additional oxyhydrogen electrolytic cell, with the purpose of increasing the amount of hydrogen obtained from the native mixture, which usually is of 12% per litre of produced gas) for gaseous or liquid generators or combustion burners also through the intake system or dedicated injection system (coupling to a boiler of any size for heating in both household and industrial application );

• coupled with an internal combustion engine of any vehicle in the civil sector, tertiary naval or industrial and commercial vehicles also (for example for automotive use);

• to hybridize/feed work stations for cutting and welding of metals and glass furnaces, incinerators etc. (without having to store the gas).

The present invention therefore relates also to a generator with electrolytic cells (dry oxyhydrogen multiple cells) and with multiple feeders, which uses a hydrogen booster producing an adjustable amount of hydrogen gas and, in the case of a kit for the automotive industry, with ionizing systems for liquid and gaseous fuels.

Therefore, the object of the present invention is a generator of oxyhydrogen comprising:

- at least one tank for the electrolyte (1) ;

- at least a bubbler (2) , optionally with a square cross section having a lamellar system specifically designed to prevent leakage of electrolyte into the oxyhydrogen flow tube in case of strong gurgling;

- at least a drying filter (3) ;

- at least one solenoid valve (4) for adjusting the internal pressure;

- at least one mechanical safety valve (5) ;

- at least a manometer (6) ;

- at least one connector (7) useful for the gas outlet;

- at least a thermometer (8) ;

- at least a warning light (9);

- at least a voltmeter and/or an ammeter (10) ;

- at least an on-off switch (11) ; - at least one potentiometer (12) to increase or decrease the production of gas;

- at least a timer switch (13);

- at least one positive electric cable (14) and at least one negative electric cable (15), useful to feed the electrolytic cell;

- at least a cooling fan (16);

- at least a feeder-inverter (17), useful to supply the electrolytic cell (23);

- optionally at least a further feeder-inverter (17c), useful for supplying a hydrogen booster (20);

- at least one positive electric cable (18) and at least one negative electric cable (19), useful to supply the electrical switchboard;

- optionally at least a booster (20) of pure hydrogen;

- at least a radiator (21) ;

- at least one electric pump (22) for a cooling system;

- at least a triangular electrolytic cell (dry cell) (23) useful for the production of oxyhydrogen;

- at least a mushroom-type emergency switch (24) ;

- at least a power socket (25) at 220 Volt;

- at least one pressure switch (26) for automatic shut-off when the pre-set pressure threshold is exceeded;

- at least one level switch (27) when the electrolyte reserve level is exceeded;

- optionally at least an outlet for discharging the oxygen (28);

- optionally an oxygen exhaust tube (17a);

- at least one flow tube (18a) electrolyte-radiator;

- optionally at least a flow tube (19a) hydrogen-bubbler;

- at least a flow tube (20a) oxyhydrogen-bubbler;

- at least a flow tube (21a) electrolyte-pump-electrolytic cell;

- optionally at least a flow tube (22a) electrolyte-booster-radiator.

a further object of the present invention an electrolytic cell (23) comprising:

- at least one triangular shaped grip plate (29);

- at least one triangular shaped gasket (30);

- at least one triangular shaped cathode (31) and one triangular shaped anode (31);

- at least a triangular shaped full neutral plate (32);

- at least a triangular shaped perforated neutral plate (33);

- at least one gas outlet connector (34);

- at least one inlet (35) for the electrolyte; - at least an outlet (36) for the electrolyte for the cooling system;

- at least one supply rod (37);

wherein, the constituent materials and the thickness of the elements (29, 30, 31, 32 and 33) are well known to the person skilled in the sector.

Further object of the present invention are a cathode (31) and an anode (31) of triangular shape, in which said cathode and said anode (31) report a U-cutting (38), useful to speed up/facilitate mounting and/or removing the supply rod (37).

It is a further object of the present invention to provide a grip plate (29), wherein:

- said grip plate (29) shows a U-shaped cut (38), in the case in which the grip plate (29) retraces the perimeter of the cathode (31) and of the anode (31);

- said U-cutting (38) is closed by a stud (39), black or red depending on the polarity of the supply rod (37).

It is a further object of the present invention a triangular electrolytic cell (23), for the production of oxyhydrogen, having an "unbalanced configuration", as described below:

- an anode;

nl full neutral plates;

- at least a further anode;

nl full neutral plates;

- a cathode;

(nl + n2) perforated neutral plates;

- at least a further cathode;

(nl + n2) full neutral plates;

- at least a further cathode;

wherein the nl and n2, equal to or different from each other, are each an integer number from 1 to 60, preferably from 3 to 20, more preferably from 2 to 10.

The term "unbalanced configuration", therefore, is intended to refer to the fact that, according to such configuration, the number of elements for each category (cathodes, anodes, full neutral plates and perforated neutral plates) is not the same. For example, as reported in the following Example 1, the electrolytic cells is composed of a total of 2 anodes, 3 cathodes, 32 full neutral plates and 16 perforated neutral plates placed in the following sequence: anode - 8 full neutral plates - anode - 8 full neutral plates - cathode - 16 perforated neutral plates - cathode - 16 full neutral plates. Different types of configuration of the triangular electrolytic cell (23) having an unbalanced or different configuration, are also possible, by arranging and/or by changing the number of the elements (29, 30, 31, 32 and 33) according to a different order; wherein said triangular electrolytic cell (23) is characterised in that:

- the elements (29, 30, 31, 32 and 33) preferably have:

- an equilateral triangular shape of any minimum or maximum size, useful for miniaturization (laboratory scale) or for industrial scale objects; as a not limitative example, a triangular electrolytic cell in accordance with the present invention has all three sides measuring from 100 to 600 mm; preferably from 200 to 400 mm; more preferably 300 mm; or

- an isosceles triangle shape of any minimum or maximum size, useful for miniaturization (laboratory scale) or for industrial scale purposes; as a non limiting example of a triangular electrolytic cell in accordance with the present invention has a base measuring from 50 to 800 mm; preferably from 200 to 600 mm; more preferably 396 mm; and a height measuring of 25 to 400 mm; preferably from 100 to 300 mm; more preferably 198 mm;

perimeter holes with a diameter from 5 to 10 mm;

inner holes with a diameter of 3 to 5 mm;

in which the number and/or the size of the holes can vary, as the dimensions of the elements (29, 30, 31, 32 and 33).

According to the present invention the expression "full" plate (which is for example referred to element (32) of Figures 3a and 3b) is intended to refer to a plate, which does not have holes over the whole surface (or it is not perforated over the whole su rface), but that presents holes only along its perimeter and/or angles and in the centre. This expression is used in contrast with the expression "perforated" plate (which is for example referred to element (33) of Figures 3a and 3b), which according to the present invention is intended to refer to a plate, which has holes over the whole surface (or it is perforated over the whole surface). Therefore, a perforated plate according to the invention is intended to refer to a plate, which presents holes not only along its perimeter and/or angles and its centre, but also in its entire surface.

A further object of the present invention is a hydrogen booster (20) comprising:

- at least one initial grip plate (62);

- at least one gasket (63);

- at least one membrane (61) for the separation of gases; - at least a further gasket (63) ;

- at least one cathode (64) ;

- at least a further gasket (63);

- at least one membrane (61) for the separation of gases;

- at least a further gasket (63);

- at least one anode (64);

- at least one final grip plate (62).

It is a further object of the present invention a hydrogen booster (20) coupled to the oxyhydrogen generator described above and producing an adjustable amount of hydrogen gas:

- with direct mixing of the gases;

- with ionizing filters (41) for liquid and gaseous fuels, wherein:

o the ionizing filters (41) are external to the oxyhydrogen generator and are installed on the fuel inlet tube;

o the mixed oxyhydrogen and pure hydrogen gases are inserted in the intake system of users means or directly in the combustion chambers by means of an injection system.

It is a further object of the present invention a bubbler (2), preferably of square section having lamellar system useful to prevent leakage of electrolyte into the oxyhydrogen flow tube in case of strong gurgling.

It is a further object of the present invention a kit useful in the automotive field to optimize the combustion processes of the engine, comprising :

- at least one tank for electrolyte (1) ;

- at least one bubbler (2), optionally with a square cross-section, having a lamellar system specially designed to prevent leakage of electrolyte into the oxyhydrogen flow tube in the event of a strong gurgling;

- at least a drying filter (3);

- at least one modulator PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation) (40);

- at least one mechanical safety valve (5) ;

- at least one connector (7) useful to the gas outlet;

- at least a cooling fan (16) ;

- at least an electrolytic cell (23) ;

- at least one grip plate (29)

- at least one ionizing filter (41); - at least one fuse (42) ;

- at least one control unit (43) for oxyhydrogen management;

- at least a 12 Volt battery (44);

- at least one relay under lock and key (45).

A further object of the present invention is an ionizing filter (41), comprising:

- a shell composed of two outer plastic bodies (51a and 51b), wherein:

- the plastic body 51a has an inlet tube (52);

- the plastic body 51b has an outlet tube (53);

- the two bodies made of plastic material (51a and 51b) are coupled/connected to each other through a classic screw closure system, or through a classical pressure closing system or welded;

- an inlet hole (52a), located at the end of the inlet tube (52);

- an outlet hole (52a), located at the end of the outlet tube (53);

- at least a magnet (54) in neodymium;

- copper beads (55);

- zinc beads (56) ;

- aluminium beads (57) ;

- at least one spring (58) ;

- at least two filtering membranes (59) .

It is a further object of the present invention to provide a system for the energy saving of the boilers, comprising:

- at least one tank for electrolyte (1) ;

- at least a bubbler (2) , optionally with a square cross section having a lamellar system specifically designed to prevent leakage of electrolyte into the oxyhydrogen flow tube in case of strong gurgling;

- at least a drying filter (3) ;

- at least one mechanical safety valve (5) ;

- at least one connector (7) useful to the gas outlet;

- at least a cooling fan (16);

- at least one power supply-inverter (17) 220 Volt -12 Volt;

- at least an electrolytic cell (23) ;

- at least one grip plate (29);

- at least one gas outlet connector (34);

- at least one inlet (35) for the electrolyte; - at least one communicating hole (60) for the gas passage of both cells up to the connector (34).

It is a further object of the present invention the oxyhydrogen generator for use in the cleaning of the combustion chambers of an engine as described in Example 3.

Cell and qenerator operation

The hydrogen and the oxygen are obtained/produced by the triangular electrolytic cells according to the invention in gaseous form. These two gases (hydrogen and oxygen) are generated/produced on-demand (and not stored) in stoichiometric gaseous form with the 88% of oxygen and 12% of hydrogen, at a pressure of 1.5 bar. Moreover, said hydrogen and oxygen gases both pass inside the bubbler, which also acts as a mixing chamber when the electrolytic hydrogen cell is activated, which enriches the mixture of oxyhydrogen, by increasing the amount of hydrogen of at least 12 %. The maximum operating pressures of the gases do not exceed 5 bar, maintaining the generator in safety. The cell and the oxyhydrogen generator of the present invention will now be described by way of illustration and not by way of limitation, according to a preferred embodiment, with particular reference to the figures of the accompanying drawings.

DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

Figure 1 shows a block diagram of the oxyhydrogen generator, comprising:

- a tank for electrolyte (1) ;

- a bubbler (2) with a square section, having a lamellar system to prevent leakage of electrolyte in the oxyhydrogen flow tube in case of strong gurgling;

- a drying filter (3) ;

- a solenoid valve (4) to adjust the inner pressure;

- a mechanical safety valve (5) ;

- a pressure gauge (6) ;

- a connector (7) useful for the gas outlet;

- a thermometer (8) ;

- warning lights (9);

- a voltmeter/ammeter (10);

- an on-off switch (11) ;

- a potentiometer (12) to increase or decrease the production of gas;

- a timer switch (13) ;

- a positive electric cable (14) and a negative electric cable (15), useful to power the electrolytic cell; - two cooling fans (16) ;

- a power supply-inverter (17) 220 Volt -12 Volt, 0 to 200 Ampere;

- a positive electric cable (18) and a negative electric cable (19), useful to power the electrical switchboard;

- a booster (20) of pure hydrogen;

- a radiator (21) ;

- an electric pump (22) for cooling system;

- two electrolytic cells (triangular dry cells) (23) useful for the production of oxyhydrogen;

mushroom-type emergency switch (24) ;

- one socket (25) at 220 Volt;

- a switch/pressure switch (26) for the automatic shutdown when the predetermined pressure threshold is exceeded;

- a level switch (27) when the reserve level of the electrolyte is exceeded;

- an outlet for discharging the oxygen (28);

- a flow tube (18a) electrolyte-radiator;

- a flow tube (19a) hydrogen-bubbler;

- a flow tube (20a) oxyhydrogen-bubbler;

- a flow tube (21a) electrolyte-pump-electrolytic cell;

- a flow tube (22a) electrolyte-booster-radiator.

In Figure 2 (Side A) it is represented the oxyhydrogen generator assembled and viewed from the lateral side, comprising:

- a tank for the electrolyte (1) ;

- a bubbler (2) with a square section, having a lamellar system expressly designed to prevent leakage of electrolyte into the oxyhydrogen flow tube in case of strong gurgling;

- a drying filter (3) ;

- a solenoid valve (4) to adjust the inner pressure;

- a mechanical safety valve (5) ;

- a pressure gauge (6) ;

- a connector (7) useful for the gas outlet;

- a positive electric cable (14) and a negative electric cable (15), useful to feed the electrolytic cell;

- two cooling fans (16);

- a power supply-inverter (17) 220 Volt -12 Volt, 0 to 200 Ampere; - an oxygen exhaust tube (17a);

- a flow tube (18a) electrolyte-radiator;

- a flow tube (19a) hydrogen-bubbler;

- a flow tube (20a) oxyhydrogen-bubbler;

- a flow tube (21a) electrolyte-pump-electrolytic cell;

- a flow tube (22a) electrolyte-booster-radiator;

- a booster (20) of pure hydrogen;

- a radiator (21) ;

- an electric pump (22) for the cooling system;

- two electrolytic cells (23) useful in the production of oxyhydrogen.

In Figure 2 (side B) the oxyhydrogen generator assembled and viewed laterally is represented, comprising:

- an on-off switch (11) ;

- a potentiometer (12) to increase or decrease gas production;

- a positive electric cable ( 14) and a negative electric cable (15), useful to power the electrolytic cell;

- two cooling fans (16) ;

- two power supply-inverter (17 and 17b), useful to supply the electrolytic cells (23);

- a power supply-inverter (17c), useful to supply the hydrogen booster (20);

- an oxygen exhaust tube (17a);

- a radiator (21) ;

- an electric pump (22) for cooling system;

- a mushroom-type emergency switch (24).

Figure 3a are shown individually and disassembled, the elements that make up the triangular electrolytic cell (23) according to the invention:

- a triangular-shaped grip plate (29);

- a triangular-shaped gasket (30);

- one cathode (31) and one anode (31) having triangular shape;

- a full neutral plate (32) having triangular shape;

- a perforated neutral plate (33) having triangular shape.

In Figure 3b it is shown the triangular electrolytic cell (23), exploded and in assembly configuration, comprising in the order:

an initial triangular-shaped grip plate (29);

a triangular-shaped gasket (30); - a cathode (31) and an anode (31) having triangular shape;

- a further triangular-shaped gasket (30);

- a full neutral plate (32) having triangular shape;

- a further triangular-shaped gasket (30);

- a perforated neutral plate (33) having triangular shape;

- a further triangular-shaped gasket (30);

- a final triangular-shaped grip plate (29).

The electrolytic cell (23) can have different types of configurations, by arranging one or more elements (29, 30, 31, 32 and 33) according to a different order. An example of a possible configuration is described in Example 1.

Figure 3c shows the triangular electrolytic cell (23), assembled in front view, comprising:

- an triangular-shaped grip plate (29);

- a gas outlet connector (34);

- an inlet (35) for the electrolyte;

- two outlets (36) for the electrolyte for the cooling system;

- supply rods (37);

- a cathode (31) and an anode (31) having triangular shape.

Figure 3d shows a further version/variant of the cathode/anode (31) having triangular shape. Said cathode/anode (31) has a U-shaped cutting (38), useful to speed up/facilitate the setting up/extraction of the supply rod (37). Moreover, in the case where the grip plate (29) retraces the perimeter of the cathode/anode (31 an identical U-shaped cut (38) is made on said grip plate (29). Said U-cutting (38) is closed by a stud (39), black or red depending on the polarity of the supply rod (37).

In Figure 4 is shown the booster (20) of pure hydrogen, disassembled, comprising in the order:

- an initial grip plate (62);

- a gasket initial (63) ;

- a membrane (61) for gas separation;

- a further gasket (63) ;

- a cathode/anode (64);

- a further gasket (63);

- a final grip plate. The membrane (61) for the separation of gases with electrolyte is in single-filament polyester mesh "Mesh T165", indicated for the electrolyte NaOH, which forms a thin wall, which allows the water to pass through, but not the gas bubbles. The ions H + and 0 2 pass through the water, pass through the membrane and form the gas on the plate of the electrode from which they are attracted (positive or negative). The hydrogen remains on the negative side of the wall of the membrane and the oxygen remains on the positive side. The network functions as a "dividing wall" which separates the two chambers. The gases rise to the top of their respective side of the chamber, collect at the top and exit through the hole in the electrode plate.

In Figure 5, a block diagram of the kit for the automobile industry is shown, comprising:

- a tank for electrolyte (1);

- a bubbler (2) with a square cross-section, having a lamellar system specially designed to prevent leakage of electrolyte into the oxyhydrogen flow tube in case of strong gurgling;

- a drying filter (3) ;

- a modulator PWM ( Pulse-Width Modulation) (40);

- a mechanical safety valve (5) ;

- a connector (7) useful to the gas outlet;

- two cooling fans (16) ;

- two electrolytic cells (23) ;

- three grip plates (29);

- a ionizing filters (41);

- a fuse (42) ;

- a control unit (43) for oxyhydrogen management;

- a 12 Volt battery (44);

- a relay under lock and key (45)

- one ignition engine (46) for the automobile;

- an engine control unit (47);

- a suction engine (48) for the automobile;

- a fuel supply tube (49);

- an engine (50).

In Figure 6 the ionizing filter (41) is shown - viewed from above (a), viewed laterally (b) and viewed from below (c)- comprising: - an outer shell composed of two bodies made of plastic (51a and 51b). The plastic body (51a) has an inlet tube (52) and the plastic body (51b) has an outlet tube (53). The two bodies made of plastic material (51a and 51b) are coupled/connected to each other through a classic screw closure system or through a classic pressure closing system or a bayonet coupling or welded;

- an inlet hole (52a), located at the end of the inlet tube (52);

- an outlet hole (53a), located at the end of the outlet tube (53);

- a neodymium (rare earth) magnet (54);

- copper beads (55) ;

- zinc beads (56) ;

- aluminium beads (57) ;

- a spring (58) ;

- two filtering membranes (59).

Figure 7 shows a block diagram of the boiler energy saving system, comprising:

- a tank for electrolyte (1) ;

bubbler (2), optionally having square section, having a lamellar system to prevent leakage of electrolyte into the oxyhydrogen flow tube in case of strong gurgling;

- a drying filter (3);

- a mechanical safety valve (5);

- connector (7) useful to the gas outlet;

- two cooling fans (16) ;

- a supply-inverter (17) 220 Volt -12 Volt;

- two electrolytic cells (23);

- three grip plates (29);

- a gas outlet connector (34) ;

- an inlet (35) for the electrolyte;

- a communicating hole (60) for the gas passage of both cells up to the connector (34).

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

1

New trianqular cells fed with unbalanced (and not) electrical system.

The triangular electrolytic cell (dry cells) object of the present invention has a new unbalanced configuration system of the type: Anode - 8 full neutral plates - Anode - 8 full neutral plates - Cathode - 16 perforated neutral plates - Cathode - 16 full neutral plates - Cathode

for a total of 2 anodes, 3 cathodes, 32 full neutral plates (with 5 mm diameter holes along their perimeter) and 16 perforated neutral plates (with 5 mm diameter holes along their perimeter and over their whole surface) placed in a central position, with the sequence described above.

The oxyhydrogen generator, obtained with the new triangular cells object of the invention, yielded, with the same weight, more than twice the amount of oxyhydrogen (up to 17 litres / minute of oxyhydrogen gas) with respect to the generator described in patent n. IT0001402836 (up to 7 litres/minute of gas oxyhydrogen), thus bringing the production of oxyhydrogen from 480 litres / hour to 1,000 litres / hour.

Moreover, the new triangular cells object of the present invention, being less bulky thanks to their triangular shape, allowed the application of multiple cooling systems by means of extractor fans placed on the sides.

These extraction fans did not create a conflict between them (which occurred on the dry cells having a square or rectangular shape described in patent No. IT0001402836).

The new triangular cells object of the present invention created a forced air flow, which also allowed the simultaneous cooling of the two sides of the same and of the electric tie rods/connectors, which fed the triangular cells from the base, thus avoiding electric dispersions.

Moreover, the triangular space that was formed between the two triangular cells, could accommodate a tank or bubbler with an inverted triangular section, optimizing the installation spaces.

On all the solid triangular plates (not perforated) of the triangular cells was carried out a slight incision on both sides of said triangular plates which covered the entire perimeter to increase the airtight seal of the seals; said triangular cells were fed from below (thanks to the triangular shape, the electrolyte converges more strongly towards the two external sides of the base), thus allowing to install a small pump connected to the triangular cells and to the radiator.

The inverted funnel shape increased the velocity of the outgoing gas upwards.

The plates composing the triangular cells were sanded at 45° in both directions with large grain to increase the formation of bubbles of oxyhydrogen. Example 2

Oxyhydrogen generators compared

Comparative tests between the oxyhydrogen generator of the present invention with respect to two OWELD™ oxyhydrogen generators, the 2500EP model and the 4600EP 3F model, respectively, provided the results reported in Table 1.

TABLE 1

The results obtained showed that with the same production (2,000 l/h) the generator according to the invention had a maximum electrical consumption of 12% lower than the generator described in patent no. IT0001402836; 30% with respect to the generator 2500EP; and 80% with respect to the generator 4600 EP 3F, respectively.

These reductions of the management costs were not the only benefits, which were obtained by means of the use of the generator according to the invention; further benefits are found in lower weight that directly impacts on reduces the cost of production of said generator. Last but not least, the generator according to the invention, thanks to the multi cell and multi-feed system, avoided technical problems caused by work stress, extending the "productive" life and reducing the maintenance of the generator itself, with respect to generators known in the art cited above.

EXAMPLE 3

Use of the generator according to the invention for the cleaning of the combustion chambers.

Through the use of a switch / timer it was possible to schedule cleaning of the combustion chambers of the engine. The cleaning of the engine combustion chambers took place through an inlet tube of the oxyhydrogen produced by the generator inside the intake duct of the ignited engine . In this way the combustion inside the internal combustion chambers was optimized by 90%, increasing the heat, thus favouring the melting of all the incrustations normally generated by combustion of the endothermic engines. The carbonaceous residues dissolved were eliminated from the discharge in a protected environment. This treatment brought the engine to its original performing capacity, extending its life span and lowering the maintenance requirements.

The use of the generator according to the invention, for cleaning of the engines, avoided the use of chemical foams and chemical additives known for their harmful effect on the engines and highly polluting and harmful to human health once introduced in the air after the combustion.

EXAMPLE 4

Use of the qenerator accordinq to the invention for decreasinq the manaqement costs, pollutinq effects and to increase the yield of a qas boiler for industrial or domestic use.

A small generator capable of producing up to 4 l/min of oxyhydrogen was connected to a 30 kW LPG boiler (normal wall boiler in residential buildings and also applicable to condensing boilers).

The connection of the oxyhydrogen generator was carried out by means of a tube connected to the main gas supply pipe (LPG) with a hydraulic coupling Y-shaped.

The regulation of the quantity of the gas mixture to be introduced into the boiler burner was carried out by a technician skilled in the sector (for example a technician who tests the new boilers at the first ignition).

The results obtained showed that for the production of the same quantity of hot water at the same temperature, the use of a generator according to the invention determined the use of 50 % lower amount of LPG; 80 % lower pollutants emission, and a yield of the boiler 12.5 % higher.

EXAMPLE 5

(modular kit for the automotive industry).

Modular kits were made for the automotive industry using two electrolytic triangular cells for the production of oxyhydrogen.

The production of hydrogen was made adjustable and was managed through one or more PWM modulators ( ulse-width modulation ). The feeding of the dry cells occurred through a buffer battery or the alternator of the medium (if oversized). The results reported in Tables 2 and 3 show a saving of fuel (and therefore also a cost saving, as well as a lower environmental pollution due to a lower emission of C0 2 ), both for vans up to 3,000 cm 3 and for heavy vehicles up to 12,000 cm 3 .

TABLE 2

TABLE 3

EXAMPLE 6

Use of the generator according to the invention to optimize the combustion processes of the engine (modular kit for the automotive industry with ionizing filter).

A generator of oxyhydrogen was used according to the present invention to optimize the combustion processes of an engine. A modular kit of oxyhydrogen composed of: two electrolytic cells, a tank, a bubbler, a PWM modulator, a control unit connected to the CPU (central processing unit) of the car, a protection fuse, a relay under key, an external ionizing filter (optimized for liquid fuels) which was placed on the fuel flow tube. The ionizing filter that was used consisted of a cylindrical body with two connectors placed at the ends to allow installation on the fuel flow tube of the engine.

Inside the ionizing filter were inserted metal beads of the same size in the following quantities: copper: aluminium: zinc or stainless steel in ratio 1:1: 1; a small neodymium magnet with an approximate diameter of 1 cm; and two filtering synthetic membranes (10 micron, made of nylon or stainless steel) to prevent the exit of metal beads from about 0.4 mm.

The tests performed by an expert in the field, on the engine including the kit with the ionizing filter, compared to an engine without a kit, showed that there was a significant reduction of the soot produced by the diesel engine (fine dust).

Comparing the electrostatic ionization produced by this filter resulted in the reduction of soot/fine dust, better vaporization and better evaporation of fuel.

For the person skilled in the sector the improvement of these parameters is an index of optimization of the processes of combustion of the engine, that is to say, a lower air pollution caused by the engine itself.