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Title:
ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKING SYSTEM
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2007/000776
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention relates to an electromagnetic based braking system for the vehicle. The objects are achieved by 3 sets of plats (3,4,8) and plurality of pegs mounted on the plate (4). In order to reduce the speed of the automobile, frictional braking is applied with the help of plate (3) and one set of pegs which are on the inner side of plate (4). When the brake lever is pressed further the current through the circuit increases and second set of pegs which are on the outer side of the plate (4) are energized and the automobile is stopped completely. The actuating mechanism is provided with two sets of resistance connected with batteries for the proper magnetization of the pegs. Upon releasing the brake lever the pegs attached with spring assembly is returned to the original position. The invention further discloses the method in which the brake is applied in the system.

Inventors:
IYER, A., Prashanth (# 1668, Ganesha Temple Road 2nd Stag, Srirampura Mysore 3, 570 02, IN)
Naveen, K. (#370, 13th Cross B-bloc, J.P. Nagar Mysore 0, 570 00, IN)
Application Number:
IN2006/000221
Publication Date:
January 04, 2007
Filing Date:
June 28, 2006
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
IYER, A., Prashanth (# 1668, Ganesha Temple Road 2nd Stag, Srirampura Mysore 3, 570 02, IN)
Naveen, K. (#370, 13th Cross B-bloc, J.P. Nagar Mysore 0, 570 00, IN)
International Classes:
F16D65/14; B60T1/06; B61H13/00; F16D55/00
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BHOLA, Ravi (K & S PARTNERS, 4121/B 6th Cross, 19A Mai, Hal Ii Stage Bangalore 8, 560 03, IN)
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Claims:

Claims:

1. An electromagnetic based braking system for vehicles, said system comprising: (a) a first plate (3) having a first side and a second faces and plurality of holes with its first face attached to wheels (1) of the vehicle; (b) a second plate (4) having a first side and a second side, and an outer and an inner set of holes, said second plate located with its first face facing the second face of the first plate;

(c) plurality of pegs (5), preferably T shaped, partially located in the holes of the second plate and capable of lateral movement provided by springs (6) and coils (7) for conducting electricity;

(d) a third plate (8) having a first side and a second side, and comprising hollow cylinders having coils for receiving electricity on the second side, said first side facing the second side of the second plate; and

(e) an actuating means for actuating brake of the vehicle. 2. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the first, second and third plates are circular in shape.

3. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the first plate is attached on the wheels using rivets, nut-bolts, screws.

4. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the first plate is an integral part of the wheels, said first plate rotates with the wheels.

5. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the second plate is a circular plate, which is not connected to the wheels and is stationary with respect to the wheels.

6. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein one set of holes in the second plate is congruent and inline with the holes of the first plate, preferably the inner set of holes in the second plate is congruent and inline with the holes of the first plate.

7. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the said pegs are T shaped.

8. The system as claimed in claim 6, wherein the holes having pegs, which does not have congruent and inline holes in the first plate has the end opposite to the head of the pegs counter sinked to restrict the motion of the pegs during the lateral movement.

9. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the coils are wound around the length of the pegs and hollow cylinder.

10. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein coils and spring is used either as two different units or in combination as a single unit. 11. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the coils and springs are used in combination as a single unit.

12. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the holes are equally distributed and congruent holes allow passage of T shaped pegs through them.

13. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the pegs are made of a magnetic material and the peg heads made of tungsten carbide.

14. The system as claimed in claim 11, wherein the magnetic material used are selected from the group consisting of invar, alloy steel and mild steel.

15. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the length of the pegs is such that to allow passage of the pegs through the holes in the second and first plate. 16. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the pegs, third plate and disc are electrically coupled with the actuating means and are magnetized on receiving the electric current from the said actuating means.

17. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the third circular plate which is stationary with respect to the wheels, preferably comprises of electrically coupled concentric disc (9) and mounted as a single plate, said plate and disc comprising hollow cylinders for receiving electricity.

18. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the hollow cylinder and the first, second and third plates are housed on a wheel shaft using bearings.

19. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the actuating means comprises of two resistances connected with batteries to the brake pedal and a moving contact placed on the chassis and connected with batteries.

20. The system as claimed in claim 21, wherein the current passing to the actuating means depends on the amount of pressure applied on brake pedal.

21. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein brakes in the vehicle are selected from the group consisting of disc brake or drum brake either for HVT or ordinary vehicle.

22. The system as claimed in claim 1 and 23, wherein the electromagnetic actuating means for (hum brake comprises two electromagnets connected to chassis of the vehicle and another electromagnet connected to brake lever.

23. The system as claimed in claim 1 and 23, wherein the electromagnetic actuating means for disc brake comprises U shaped holdings mounted on the wheels with pads/bushes and a chamber.

24. The system as claimed in claim 25, wherein the said chamber comprises two electromagnets and cylinders attached to the chamber by means of springs towards wheel. 25. The system as claimed in claims 1 and 23, wherein the electromagnetic actuating means for drum brakes comprises two brake shoes attached to the case by means of riverts and held together by means of springs and two electromagnets wound by copper coils attached to the free ends of the brake shoes. 26. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the first and the second plates are separated by a distance that is in the range of 2 to 4mm.

27. The system as claimed in claim 16, wherein the length 0 f the pegs is in the range of 22 to 35mm.

28. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the thickness of the plates is in the range of 2 to 5mm and is made of any lightweight non-magnetic material.

29. The system as claimed in claim 29, wherein the lightweight non-magnetic material is selected from a group consisting of aluminum and stainless steel.

30. The system as claimed in claim \, wherein the holes on plate 3 is congruent with the holes on the inner periphery of plate 4.

Description:

ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAIONG SYSTEM Field of Invention:

The present invention relates to an electromagnetic based braking system for vehicles.

The invention is applicable to braking of all types of rotary wheels. The field may range from automobile braking including heavy vehicles, braking in rail locomotives to braking of motors.

Background of Invention:

The operation perfonned in braking is the reverse of that carried out in acceleration. In the latter, the heat energy of the fuel is converted into the kinetic energy of the car, whereas in the fonner, the kinetic energy of the car is converted into heat. Again, just as when driving the car the torque of the engine produces a tractive effort at the periphery of the driving wheels, so, when the brakes are applied the braking torque introduced at the brake drums produce a negative tractive effort or retarding effort at the periphery of the braking wheels. The two distinct demands are made upon the brakes of motor vehicles. First, in emergencies they must bring the vehicle to rest in the shortest possible distance, and secondly, they must enable control of the vehicle to be retained when descending long hills.

The types of brakes that are used at present may be classified into 3 groups as follows: 1. Friction brakes

2. Fluid brakes and

3. Electric brakes. 1. Friction Brakes:

The vast majority of the brakes are friction brakes and they may be sub-divided into a) drum brakes and b) disc brakes, according to whether the braked member is a drum or a disc.

Drum brakes are still widely used and are invariably expanding brakes in which the brake shoes are brought into contact with the inside of the brake drum by means of an expanding mechanism. External contracting brakes are now used only in epicyclic gearboxes. A conventional drum brake is explained in US patent US6,622,833. This discloses a drum braking device provided as a wheel brake for motor vehicles and the

actuating mechanism used Ln drum brakes. This invention has an advantage of applying a factional brake on the brake belt which results in a speedy braking of the vehicles. Disadvantages of drum brakes include expansion due to rise of temperature and lowering of efficiency due to the occurrence of wear. Also, braking is less effective at high speeds and in moist or wet conditions.

A disc brake consists of a cast iron disc bolted to the wheel hub and a stationary housing called caliper. The caliper is connected to some stationary part of the vehicle, like the stub axle and is cast into 2 parts, each part containing a piston. In between each piston and the disc, there is a friction pad held in position by retaining pins, spring plates etc., passages are drilled in calipers for the fluid to enter or leave each housing. These passages are also connected to another one for bleeding. Each cylinder contains a rubber sealing between the cylinder and the piston. When the brakes are applied, hydraulically actuated pistons move the friction pads into contact with the disc applying equal and opposite forces on the latter. On releasing the brakes, the rubber sealing rings and the friction pads away from the disc.

The major limitations of frictional braking systems are the linkages consisting of levers rods and wires which may fail in the course of time due to wear and also climatic conditions working conditions do influence the performance.

2. Fluid brakes: The principle of the fluid brake is that a chamber has an impeller inside it that is rotated by the motion of the wheels so that if the chamber is filled with fluid, a churning action occurs and kinetic energy is converted into heat thereby providing a braking effort. The US patent US 6,375,278 refers to a hydraulic parking brake for a rail car vehicle. The parking brake of this invention includes an electric motor controlling a hydraulic pump fluidly connected to and controlling a bidirectional hydraulic actuator for the wheel brakes.

3. The electric braking:

The electric brake is in effect, an electric generator which being driven by the wheels converts kinetic energy into an electric current and hence by the passing the current through a resistance into heat. The eddy current braking is an example.

The eddy current brake employs the same principle as the eddy current clutch the rotor is coupled to the road wheels being often mounted on a shaft that is interposed between

the gear box and the propeller shaft and the stator is mounted on the frame of the vehicle. The heat generated is dissipated chiefly by the convection but this may be augmented by some kind of fan which may be incorporated into the rotor.

This type of brake suffers from the same draw back as the fluid brake namely that it cannot provide any effort at zero speed and can be used only to supplement a friction brake. A fairly large number of such brakes are in use at present as retarders.

The major limitations of frictional braking systems are the linkages consisting of levers rods and wires which may fail in the course of time due to wear and also climatic conditions working conditions do influence the performance. Thus the existing actuating systems has its own disadvantages and none of the prior art reveals the use of electromagnetic technique in braking system of the vehicle. .

Object of the invention:

The objective of the invention is to provide efficient and fail proof reliable braking.

Another objective of the present invention is to provide an electromagnetic based braking system for vehicles.

Yet another object of the present invention is the use of the electromagnetic braking mechanism in heavy traffic vehicle (HVT).

Further the invention provides replacement of the existing actuating mechanisms like fluid, disc and drum brakes by electromagnetic actuating mechanism. Another objective of the present invention, circular plates is used in operative coupling with the wheel.

Yet another objective of the present invention, the circular plates used have holes selectively arranged for the operation of braking system.

Yet another objective of the present invention includes use of T -shaped pegs, having coils, in the holes.

Yet another objective of the present invention, bearings are used to house the hollow cylinder and plate on wheel shaft.

Yet another objective of the present invention, the holes are equally distributed and congruent holes allow passage of T shaped pegs through them. In another embodiment of the present invention, the lengths of the T-shaped pegs are such to allow passage of the pegs through the holes in the second and third plate.

Yet another objective of the present invention, brakes in the vehicle are selected from the group consisting of disc brake or drum brake.

Yet another objective of the present invention, the magnetization depends upon the amount of pressure applied on brake pedal. Yet another objective of the present invention, the pegs are made of a magnetic material and the peg heads are made of tungsten carbide.

Yet another objective of the present invention, the distance between the first and second plate is in the range of 2 to 4mm.

Yet another objective of the present invention, the length of the pegs is in the range of 25 to 35mm.

Yet another objective of the present invention, the thickness of the plate is in the range of 2 to 5mm and is made of a lightweight non-magnetic material.

Summary of the invention:

The most reliable braking system available today are the disc braking system. As stated in background of the invention the limitations of these braking systems are the linkages consisting of levers rods and wires which may fail in the course of time due to wear and also climatic conditions working conditions do influence the performance.

The present invention therefore, relates to a new concept of the electromagnetism which eliminates the linkage problem as mentioned earlier. Statement of invention:

Accordingly, the present invention relates to an electromagnetic based braking system for vehicles, said system comprising:(a) a first plate (3) having plurality of holes with its first face attached to wheels (1); (b) a second plate (4) having two sets of holes, an outer and an inner set of holes, and located with its first face facing the second face of the first plate; (c) plurality of pegs (5) mounted in the holes of the second plate via springs (6) and comprising coils (7) for 6 receiving electricity; (d) a third plate (8) and a concentric disc (9) coupled together and mounted as a single plate, said plate and disc comprising hollow cylinders having coils for receiving electricity; and (e) an actuating means for actuating brake of the vehicle. Brief description of the accompanying figures:

The present invention shall now be fully described with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which

Figure 1 is the front view of a drum brake wherein the mechanical couplings of the drum brakes are replaced by the electromagnetic actuating mechanism.

Figure 2 is the top view of the drum brake shown in figurel .

Figure 3 is the front view of a disc brake wherein the hydraulic actuating mechanism is replaced by the electromagnetic actuating mechanism.

Figure 4 is the top view of the disc brake shown in figure 3.

Figure 5 is an initial mechanical arrangement of the electro magnetic braking system.

Figure 6 is the mechanical arrangement of the electro magnetic braking system with frictional braking Figure 7 is the three dimensional view of the pegs used in the invention.

Figure 8 is the brake actuating mechanism for disc and drum brakes.

Figure 9 is the brake actuating mechanism for electromagnetic braking.

Figure 10 is a further embodiment of the invention shown in fig 6 with frictional braking on the outer periphery. Figure 11 is another embodiment of the drum brakes incorporating electromagnetic actuating mechanism.

Figure 12 is mechanical arrangement electromagnetic actuating mechanism used in heavy traffic vehicle.

Detailed Description of the Invention Accordingly, the present invention relates to an electromagnetic based braking system for vehicles, said system comprising a first plate (3) having a first side and a second faces and plurality of holes with its first face attached to wheels (1) of the vehicle; a second plate (4) having a first side and a second side, and an outer and an inner set of holes, said second plate located with its first face facing the second face of the first plate; plurality of pegs (5) partially located in the holes of the second plate and capable of lateral movement provided by springs (6) and coils (7) for conducting electricity; a third plate (8) having a first side and a second side, and comprising hollow cylinders having coils for receiving electricity on the second side, said first side facing the second side of the second plate; and an actuating means for actuating brake of the vehicle. In another embodiment of the present invention, the first, second and third plates are circular in shape.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the first plate is attached on the wheels using rivets, nut-bolts, screws said first plate rotates with the wheels.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the first plate is an integral part of the wheels, said first plate rotates with the wheels. In another embodiment of the present invention, the second plate is a circular plate, which is not connected to the wheels and is stationary with respect to the wheels.

In another embodiment of the present invention, one set of holes in the second plate is congruent and inline with the holes of the first plate.

In another embodiment of the present invention, preferably the inner set of holes in the second plate is congruent and inline with the holes of the first plate.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the said pegs ave T shaped.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the holes having pegs, which does not have congruent and inline holes in the first plate has countersink in pegs on end opposite the T shape to restrict the motion of the pegs during the lateral movement. In another embodiment of the present invention, the coils are wound around the length of the pegs and hollow cylinder.

In another embodiment of the present invention, coils and spring is used as two different units.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the coils and springs are used in combination as a single unit.

In another embodiment of the present invention,, the holes are equally distributed and congruent holes allow passage of T shaped pegs through them. In another embodiment of the present invention, the pegs are made of a magnetic material and the peg heads made of tungsten carbide. In another embodiment of the present invention, the magnetic material used are selected from the group consisting of invar, alloy steel and mild steel.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the length of the pegs are such to allow passage of the pegs through the holes in the second and first plate.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the pegs, third plate and disc are electrically coupled with the actuating means and are magnetized on receiving the electric current from the said actuating means.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the third plate preferably comprises of electrically coupled concentric disc (9) and mounted as a single plate, said plate and disc comprising hollow cylinders for receiving electricity.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the third circular plate is stationary with respect to wheels.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the hollow cylinder and the first, second and third plates are housed on a wheel shaft using bearings.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the actuating means comprises of two resistances connected with batteries to the brake pedal and a moving contact placed on the chassis and connected with batteries.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the current passing to the actuating means depends on the amount of pressure applied on brake pedal. In another embodiment of the present invention, brakes in the vehicle are selected from the group consisting of disc brake or drum brake. In another embodiment of the present invention, the actuating means for drum brake comprises two electromagnets connected to chassis of the vehicle and another electromagnet connected to brake lever.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the actuating means for disc brake comprises U shaped holdings mounted on the wheels with pads/bushes and a chamber. In another embodiment of the present invention, the said chamber comprises two electromagnets and cylinders attached to the chamber by means of springs towards wheel.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the first and the second plates are separated by a distance that is in the range of 2 to 4mm. In another embodiment of the present invention, the length of the pegs is in the range of

22 to 35mm.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the thickness of the plates is in the range of 2 to 5mm and is made of any lightweight non-magnetic material.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the lightweight non-magnetic material is selected from a group consisting of Aluminum, stainless steel etc

Application of electromagnetic braking system in drum brakes

The actuating mechanism of drum brakes can be replaced by an electromagnetic actuating system instead of mechanical coupling as shown in Figures 1 and 2. As in normal Drum brakes, the brake (1), mounted on the chassis (2) is actuated by a lever (3) coming out of the drum brake (1) surface. To implement electromagnetic braking, two electromagnets (4) and (6) are mounted on a projection on the chassis as shown in Figures 1 and 2. The electromagnet (5) is mounted on the brake lever. The alignment of these electromagnets is clearly shown in Figure 2. The polarity of these electromagnets, are as shown in Figures 1 and 2. When the brakes are actuated (to be discussed later) electromagnet (6) expresses a repulsive force on the electromagnet (5) and electromagnet (4) expresses an attractive force on electromagnet (5). Since the electromagnet (5) is mounted on the brake lever (the lever can move in one direction), the electromagnet moves thereby applying the brakes Application of electromagnetic braking system in Disc Brakes The actuating mechanism of disc brakes can be replaced by electro magnetic actuating system instead of hydraulic actuating mechanism as shown in Figures 3 and 4. As in normal Disc brakes, the U shaped holdings (6) mounted on the wheels of an automobile (1) contain bushes/pad (2) which when actuated apply friction braking on the wheels to stop the same. The actuating mechanism consists of a chamber containing hydraulic fluid. When brakes are applied, hydraulic liquid is forced into the chamber. At the other end of the chamber are cylinders, which due to hydraulic force push the bushes/pads towards the wheel.

The applicant here intends to replace the hydraulic system by electromagnetic system. Here inside the chamber instead of the hydraulic fluid, electromagnets (4) and (5) are housed. The polarities of the electromagnets are as shown in Figure 3. When the disc brakes are actuated (to be discussed later), electromagnet (5) expresses a repulsive force on the electromagnet (4), which can move. This in turn pushes cylinders (3), which are attached to the chamber by means of springs towards the wheel. The bush/pad (2), which are attached to the cylinders (3) are driven towards the wheels thereby braking the motion. The proposed setup for electromagnetic braking system is shown in detail, in figures 5 and 6. Electromagnetic braking system

Figure 5 explains the working of the proposed set up for electromagnetic braking system. In this when the supply is passed to the coil (5) and coil (8) with the polarity as indicated in figure 5, the plate (8) and the pegs (5) are magnetized. The plate (8) and the peg (5) heads have the same polarity because of which a repulsive force is created between plate (8) and peg (5) heads. Since the T shaped pegs (5) are attached via springs (6) to plate (4), the magnetic repulsion drives the T shaped pegs (5) into the holes on the plate (4). the length of the pegs (5) are such that they go via plate (4) and into the holes on plate (3), thereby braking the motion of the wheels (1). But this has a disadvantage that the vehicle is moving in a high speed and the chances of skidding the vehicle is high and the wear and tare of the parts of the vehicles is also significant.

In order to avoid these disadvantages a frictional braking is incorporated in the system. When a brake is applied first the frictional braking will come into effect and this will effectively reduce the speed of the vehicle and in order to stop the vehicle completely, the magnetic braking will come into action. This is explained in reference to figure 6. Actuating Mechanism for Electromagnetic braking:

The Actuating mechanism/setup for the electromagnetic braking is based on human reflexes. Due to reflex action the amount of pressure applied on the brake pedal is directly proportional to the intensity of the situation or emergency based on the proximity of the obstacle. If we need to slow down, we apply gentle pressure on the brake pedal whereas if an emergency arises, due to reflex action, we apply full pressure on the brake pedals.

Hence, we intend to make use of the above to vary the amount of current flowing into the actuating mechanism thereby varying the amount of magnetization of the electromagnets. The proposed setup for the same is as shown in Figure 8. This consists of resistance (3) on the brake pedal (1). From this resistance, a permanent connection (4) from the battery is provided. A moving contact (5) is resting on the chassis (2). The connections coming out marked + and - are connected to the brake actuating mechanism of either Disc or Drum brakes. Initially a small amount of pressure is required to bring this circuit to life. As the brake pedal is pressed further, the pedal (1) is driven into the chassis (2) thereby varying the amount of resistance induced into the circuit. These changes the amount of current to the electromagnets thereby varying the amount of brake applied. Thus shown and explained through Figure 8, the actuating

mechanism for disc and drum brakes is designed keeping the fact that the locomotive may skid due to the application of brake at a high speed. This is designed such as to gradually increase the current flowing through the circuit thereby increase the magnetic flux gradually so as to apply the brake gently in the beginning (to slow the automobile) and then to hit hard so as to bring the automobile to a stand still. The timing for the same can be manipulated by suitably having varying resistance in the circuit. This mechanism ensures safe braking without skidding in the case of disc and drum brakes. The proposed system consists of Plate (3) with holes on the surface. This plate is attached to the wheel (1) and hence is rotating. On the Shaft is mounted another plate (4) which is stationary with respect to the wheel. On the plate (4) are holes, which are congruent to the holes on the plate (3). Into this holes are mounted pegs (5) as shown in Figure 6 via springs (6). Also, insulated copper wires (7) are wound on these pegs so as to magnetize them when current is passed. Also on the same plate (4), are another set of holes, which are not congruent to the holes on plate (3). On these holes also, pegs are mounted with springs and layers of copper wire are wound. In both the above cases, the pegs are driven so much into the holes that they are on the verge of coming out on the other side. Also is present another plate which is a circular plate (8) and a concentric disc (9) separated by a magnetic insulator (10) and mounted as a single plate. This plate again is stationary with respect to the wheels and this is provided as a stationary reference for the magnetic field produced. On the circular plate (8) as well as the outer disc (9) are cylindrical projections on which insulated copper wires (11) are wound so as to magnetize the inner plate (8) or the outer disc (9) separately. When the plate (8) or (9) is energized, the relevant set of pegs (which are perpendicular to the surface of the plate) on plate (4) are driven into the holes in plate (4) and hit the surface of plate (3) or into the holes on plate (3) depending on whether plate (8) or (9) was energized. Thus, the present setup causes the pegs to move perpendicular to the plane of the plate thereby generating desired results.

The actuating mechanism for this brake (Figure' 9) consists of two circuits. This consists of two resistance (3) and (4) on the brake pedal. Permanent connections (5) and (6) are taken out from these as shown in Figure 8. A moving contact (7) is placed on the chassis, which is connected to the automobile batteries.

For smaller pressures on the brake pedal, the first circuit becomes active. With this the cylinders on plate (10) and the pegs (5) get magnetized. Due to repulsive force, the corresponding pegs are driven into the holes in plate (4). Since, these pegs hit flat surface on the plate (3), due to friction, braking action takes place. After traversing the full length of resistance in the first circuit, the pegs would have generated friction to slow down the automobile. If the pedals are further pressed the second circuit is activated wherein the cylinders on plate (9) are magnetized. This will in turn drive the pegs (5) on the plate (4) into the holes in plate (3) thereby bringing the automobile to stop immediately. As clearly shown and explained through Figure 8, the actuating mechanism for the braking the proposed setup is such that the pegs on the inner side of plate (4) are energized before the outer ones are energized. The pegs on the inner side of plate (4) do not have corresponding holes on plate (3). This causes the pegs to rub the inner surface of plate (3) instead of hitting holes on the same. The resultant friction causes the automobile to slow down. The above situation arises when the brake lever is initially pressed so as to introduce circuit 1 which energizes the pegs on the inner side of plate (4). The pressure exerted by the pegs on the inner side of plate (3) increases as the brake lever is further depressed as the resistance introduced into the circuit is cutout. After the lever is depressed by a certain amount, the circuit 1 is disengaged and circuit 2 is engaged. This is the circuit to energize outside pegs on plate (4) that end up in the holes in plate (3), which causes the automobile to stop instantaneously. The above setup can be manipulated by varying the lengths and values of resistance on circuits 1 and 2. To avoid skidding, the resistance for circuit 2 could be say l/5 th of size of the brake lever. Application of Electromagnetic braking system in Heavy traffic vehicles. Figure 12 shows the front view setup of the drum brake which can be used either with the heavy vehicle or with the ordinary vehicle. In the setup shown in Figure 1, the braking is actuated from outside the drum brakes making this setup inefficient for use in vehicles with heavy load/capacity. (The setup in Figurel was proposed as an electromagnetic replacement for the existing actuating setup). Hence, for use of a drum brake in Heavy Traffic Vehicles, a setup as proposed in Figure 12 can be adopted. Here, the whole actuating mechanism is built inside the drum brake casing.

Figure 12 shows the cross sectional view of a electromagnetic drum brake which comprises of two brake shoes (24), attached to the case (25) by means of rivets (26) and held together. Two electromagnets (22 and 23) are attached to the free ends of the brake shoe and these electromagnets are wound by copper coils (21) in a manner so as to produce a repulsion force between the two electromagnets (22 and 23). When the brakes are applied, the electromagnets (22 and 23) are magnetized and a repulsion force is produced between the two electromagnets thereby driving the free ends of the brake shoe in the opposite direction so that the brakes are applied. When the brake lever is released, the spring (27) takes care of bringing the two brake shoes together.

Figure 12 shows another embodiment of the invention which can be used in heavy vehicles. The figure shows a cross sectional view of the electro magnetic system. The braking system described in earlier embodiments is not applicable for heavy traffic vehicles as the force exerted by the pegs to generate frictional braking might note be enough to slow down the vehicle effectively. Hence a further embodiment of the invention is incorporated as in Figure 12.

Figure 12 shows an optional setup for heavy vehicles for effective braking. This is a modification of the setup proposed in fig 6. Here the plate 3, which was attached to the wheels in fig 6 is now attached to the shaft. The plate and pegs are arranged similar to the fig 6 .The plate and peg set up is provided on both sides of the wheel. The same mechanism used in fig 6 is applied except the fact that it is applied from both the sides of the wheel for effective braking for heavy vehicles. The material used for making the pegs and the plate are described in tabular form below.

Space alloys are very tough to wear and tear and has less weight.

Advanced methods like Ultrasonic welding, etc could be used to attach the spring to the plate and the peg thereby introducing required strength to the joints to withstand the wear and tear.

> Preferred ranges of values for components/Parts to be used in the proposed : braking setup:

Applications;

1. Emergency braking in motor vehicles to stop the vehicle in the shortest possible distance. 2. Since the braking system is electrically actuated, the brakes can be individually applied to the desired wheels of a motor vehicle to perform stunts like wheel spinning, etc. 3. This braking system can be an alternative to the present air brake system in a railway locomotive. Since the brake is electrically actuated, the actuating signal can be easily transmitted to all bogies so that brakes can be simultaneously applied which facilitates halting the railway locomotive in the shortest possible distance.

The Electromagnetic Force of attraction or repulsion is used to brake the motion of a automobile. The proposed braking system can be implemented in two ways. Firstly, the actuating setup of any braking system (drum brakes, disc brakes, etc.) can be replaced by this electromagnetic braking setup. Secondly, a new system is proposed which provides an effective braking system. Advantages:

1. The proposed system incorporates the advantages of disc brakes while eliminating the disadvantages in the disc brakes.

2. The transmission of the actuator signal from the driver end to the brake end is fail proof.

3. The overall system is highly efficient as compared to the presently existing braking systems.

Further it should be understood that the foregoing description is only illustrative of the present invention. Various alternatives and modifications can be devised by those skilled in the art without departing from the invention. Accordingly, the present invention is intended to embrace all such alternatives, modifications and variance which fall within the scope of the appended claims.