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Title:
ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY-FLUX REACTOR
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2021/001748
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A system to provide power to a load. The system includes a first reactor and a second reactor. The first reactor is configured to provide power to a load and includes a first set of coils configured to receive an input power source and generate a first set of magnetic fields, and a second set of coils configured to generate a second set of magnetic fields, the second set of magnetic fields varying an intensity of the first set of magnetic fields with time. The second reactor is configured to vary the power of the first reactor by tuning the first reactor to the load. The second reactor includes a third set of coils and a fourth set of coils to vary one or more magnetic fields.

Inventors:
EYALES BONIFACIO J (PH)
Application Number:
IB2020/056145
Publication Date:
January 07, 2021
Filing Date:
June 29, 2020
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
EYALES BONIFACIO J (PH)
International Classes:
H01F27/42; H01F38/14; H02M7/48
Domestic Patent References:
WO2015001378A12015-01-08
Foreign References:
US20120105190A12012-05-03
KR100980484B12010-09-07
US20140133204A12014-05-15
US20170011842A12017-01-12
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Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A system to provide power to a load, the system comprising:

a first reactor configured to provide power to a load, the reactor comprising:

a first set of coils configured to receive an input power source and generate a first set of magnetic fields; and

a second set of coils configured to generate a second set of magnetic fields, the second set of magnetic fields varying an intensity of the first set of magnetic fields with time; and

a second reactor configured to vary the power of the first reactor by tuning the first reactor to the load, the second reactor comprising:

a third set of coils shunted to the load and the second set of coils, the third set of coils tuning the first reactor by coupling the load to the second set of coils to reduce harmonic distortion of the first set of magnetic fields; and

a fourth set of coils magnetically coupled to the third set of coils and shunted to the second set of coils, the fourth set of coils configured to vary an intensity of the second set of magnetic fields.

2. The system of Claim 1, the first reactor further comprising a fifth set of coils configured to tune the first reactor to the load and the second reactor further comprising a sixth set of coils.

3. The system of Claim 2, the system further comprising a third reactor comprising a seventh set of coils connected in series with the sixth set of coils and magnetically coupled to the load by an eighth set of coils, the eighth set of coils magnetically coupled to the first set of coils to tune the first reactor by shunting to the fifth set of coils.

4. The system of Claim 3, wherein the second set of coils is magnetically coupled to the seventh set of coils and shunted to the load to reduce harmonic distortion of the first reactor.

5. The system of Claim L the system further comprising an active feedback rectifier configured to receive a portion of the power provided to the load and feed the portion back into the first reactor to excite the first set of coils.

6. The system of Claim 5, the system further comprising an input inverter configured to receive power from a DC power source and convert the power into AC power for use as an excitation energy for at least one of the first set of coils or the second set of coils.

7. The system of Claim 5, the system further comprising a rectifier configured to receive AC output power at an output of at least one of the fi rst set of coils or the second set of coils, and convert the AC output power into DC output power.

8. The system of Claim 7, the system further comprising an output inverter configured to synchronize the system with the load, wiierein the output inverter is further configured to receive the DC output power, convert the DC output power into AC load power, and provide the AC load power to the load.

9. The system of Claim 8, wherein the output inverter is further configured to transmit a portion of the AC load power into an input of the active feedback rectifier.

10. The system of Claim 9, the system further comprising a feedback inverter configured to receive power from the active feedback rectifier and feed the power back into an input of the first set of coils.

1 1. The system of Claim 1, wherein the load comprises a power grid.

12. A power generation system, the system comprising: a plurality of induction coils comprising: a first set of coils configured to receive an input power source, generate a first set of magnetic fields, and provide pow¾r to a load; a second set of coils configured to generate a second set of magnetic fi elds, the second set of magnetic fields varying an intensity of the first set of magnetic fields with time; a third set of coils shunted to the load and the second set of coils, the third set of coils tuning the first set of coils by coupling the load to the second set of coils to reduce harmonic distortion of the first set of magnetic fields: and

a fourth set of coils magnetically coupled to the third set of coils and shunted to the second set of coils, the fourth set of coils configured to vary an intensity of the second set of magnetic fields; and

an active feedback rectifi er configured to receive a portion of the power provided to the load and feed the portion back into the first set of coils to excite the first set of coils.

13. The system of Claim 12, the plurality of induction coils further comprising a fifth and sixth set of coils, wherein the fifth set of coils are configured to tune the first set of coils to the load.

14. The sy stem of Claim 13, the plurality of induction coils further comprising a seventh set of coils connected in series with the sixth set of coils and magnetically coupled to the load by an eighth set of coils, the eighth set of coils magnetically coupled to the first set of coils to tune the first set of coils by shunting to the fifth set of coils.

15. The system of Claim 14, wherein the second set of coils is magnetically coupled to the seventh set of coils and shunted to the load to reduce harmonic distortion of the first set of coils.

16. The system of Claim 12, the system further comprising an input inverter configured to receive power from a DC power source and convert the power into AC power for use as an excitation energy for at least one of the first set of coils or the second set of coils.

17. The system of Claim 16, the system further comprising a rectifier configured to receive AC output power at an output of at least one of the first set of coils or the second set of coils, and convert the AC output power into DC output power.

18. The system of Claim 17, the sy stem further comprising an output inverter configured to synchronize the system with the load, wherein the output inverter is further configured to receive the DC output power, convert the DC output power into AC load power, and provide the AC load power to the load, wherein the load comprises a power grid.

19. The system of Claim 18, wherein the output inverter is further configured to transmit a portion of the AC load power into an input of the active feedback rectifier.

20. The system of Claim 19, the system further comprising a feedback inverter configured to receive power from the active feedback rectifier and feed the power back into an input of the first set of coils.

Description:
ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY-FLUX REACTOR

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims priority to Provisional Patent Application No. 62/869274, filed on July 1, 2019, the entirety of which is incorporated by reference herein.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Power supply and/or conversion systems are generally configured to supply power to one or more types of loads, such as a power grid or one or more electrical devices (e.g., motors). Such systems may receive power from one or more power sources, such as batteries. The systems may convert the power into a form that can be used by the load, and transmit the converted power to the load for use by the load. There is a need for power systems to supply power to loads in an efficient manner.

SUMMARY

[0003] One embodiment of the disclosure relates to a system to provide power to a load. The system includes a first reactor and a second reactor. The first reactor is configured to provide power to a load and includes a first set of coils configured to receive an input power source and generate a first set of magnetic fields, and a second set of coils configured to generate a second set of magnetic fields, the second set of magneti c fi elds varying an intensity of the first set of magnetic fields with time. The second reactor is configured to vary the power of the first reactor by tuning the first reactor to the load. The second reactor includes a third set of coils shunted to the load and the second set of coils, the third set of coils tuning the first reactor by coupling the load to the second set of coils to reduce harmonic distortion of the first set of magnetic fiel ds, and a fourth set of coils magnetically coupled to the third set of coils and shunted to the second set of coils, the fourth set of coils confi gured to vary an intensity of the second set of magnetic fields.

[0004] In some embodiments, the first reactor further includes a fifth set of coils configured to tune the first reactor to the load and the second reactor further includes a sixth set of coils. In some embodiments, the system further includes a third reactor including a seventh set of coils connected in series with the sixth set of coils and magnetically coupled to the load by an eighth set of coils, the eighth set of coils magnetically coupled to the first set of coils to tune the first reactor by shunting to the fifth set of coils. In some

embodiments, the second set of coils is magnetically coupled to the seventh set of coils and shunted to the load to reduce harmonic distortion of the first reactor. In some embodiments, the system further includes an active feedback rectifier. In some embodiments, the active feedback rectifier is configured to receive a portion of the power provided to the load and feed the portion back into the first reactor to excite the first set of coils. In some

embodiments, the system further includes an input inverter configured to receive power from a DC power source and convert the power into AC power for use as an excitation energy for at least one of the first set of coils or the second set of coils. In some

embodiments, the system further includes a rectifier configured to receive AC output power at an output of at least one of the first set of coils or the second set of coils, and convert the AC output power into DC output power. In some embodiments, the system further includes an output inverter configured to synchronize the system with the load, wherein the output inverter is further configured to receive the DC output power, convert the DC output power into AC load power, and provide the AC load power to the load. In some embodiments, the output inverter is further configured to transmit a portion of the AC load power into an input of the active feedback rectifier. In some embodiments, the system further includes a feedback inverter configured to receive power from the active feedback rectifier and feed the power back into an input of the first set of coils. In some embodiments, the load includes at least one of a power grid or a power distribution and transmission network.

[0005] Another embodiment of the disclosure relates to a power generation system including a number of induction coils including a first set of coils configured to receive an input power source, generate a fi rst set of magnetic fields, and provide power to a load, a second set of coils configured to generate a second set of magnetic fields, the second set of magnetic fields varying an intensity of the first set of magnetic fields with time, a third set of coils shunted to the load and the second set of coils, the third set of coils tuning the first set of coils by coupling the load to the second set of coils to reduce harmonic distortion of the first set of magnetic fields, and a fourth set of coils magnetically coupled to the third set of coils and shunted to the second set of coils, the fourth set of coils configured to vary an intensity of the second set of magnetic fields, and an active feedback rectifi er configured to receive a portion of the power provided to the load and feed the portion back into the first set of coils to excite the first set of coils

[0006] In some embodiments, the number of induction coils further include a fifth and sixth set of coils, wherein the fifth set of coils are configured to tune the first set of coils to the load. In some embodiments, the number of induction coils further include a seventh set of coils connected in series with the sixth set of coils and magnetically coupled to the load by an eighth set of coils, the eighth set of coils magnetically coupled to the first set of coils to tune the first set of coils by shunting to the fifth set of coils. In some embodiments, the second set of coils is magnetically coupled to the seventh set of coils and shunted to the load to reduce harmonic distortion of the first set of coils. In some embodiments, the system further includes an input inverter configured to receive power from a DC power source and convert the power into AC power for use as an excitation energy for at least one of the first set of coils or the second set of coils. In some embodiments, the system further includes a rectifier configured to receive AC output power at an output of at least one of the first set of coils or the second set of coils, and convert the AC output power into DC output power. In some embodiments, the system further includes an output inverter configured to synchronize the system with the load, wherein the output inverter is further configured to receive the DC output power, convert the DC output power into AC load power, and provide the AC load power to the load, wherein the load comprises a power grid. In some embodiments, the output inverter is further configured to transmit a portion of the AC load power into an input of the active feedback rectifier. In some embodiments, the system further includes a feedback inverter configured to receive power from the active feedback rectifier and feed the power back into an input of the first set of coils.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0007] FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a system for supplying power to a load using a direct current (DC) power source, according to an exemplary embodiment.

[0008] FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a system for supplying power to a load using an alternating current (AC) power source, according to an exemplary embodiment.

[0009] FIG. 3 is a circuit diagram of a reactor system for supplying power to a load, according to an exemplary embodiment. [0010] FIG. 4A is a front view of a reactor assembly with a two-legged configuration, according to an exemplary embodiment.

[0011] FIG. 4B is a side view of the reactor assembly of FIG. 4A, according to an exemplar} ' embodiment.

[0012] FIG. 4C is a side section view of the reactor assembly of FIG 4B, according to an exemplar} embodiment.

[0013] FIG. 4D is a top section view' of the reactor assembly of FIG. 4C, according to an exemplary embodiment.

[0014] FIG. 5 is a flow diagram of a method of supplying power to a load using a reactor system, according to an exemplar }' embodiment.

[0015] FIG. 6 is a block diagram of a control system for controlling a reactor system, according to an exemplar }' embodiment.

[0016] FIG. 7 is a flow' diagram of a method of connecting a power supply to a load, according to an exemplary embodiment.

DETAILED DE SCRIPTION

[0017] The present disclosure relates to systems and methods that may be used to provide pow'er to a load using electromagnetic induction. A system according to some embodiments of the present disclosure may include at least two reactors. A main reactor may be configured to receive excitation power from an excitation source, such as a wind or solar source or one or more batteries, and to provide power to drive a load (e.g., a power grid, a motor, etc.) A resonating reactor may be connected to the main reactor and to the load and may be configured to resonate the main reactor with the load. The main reactor may include a regenerative coil configured to receive excitation current and to generate a magnetic field. The main reactor may also include a reactive coil configured to generate a magnetic field that varies the intensity (e.g., causes expansion and contraction) of the magnetic field generated by the regenerative coil. The main reactor may also include a collector coil that is magnetically coupled to the regenerative coil and configured to generate an opposing magnetic field. The resonating reactor may use the collector coil to automatically tune the main reactor (e.g., the regenerative coil) to the load. The resonating reactor may include two coils magnetically coupled to one another, one of which may be connected to one of the reactive coils of the main reactor and to the load, and the other of which may be shunted to the collector coil of the main reactor.

[0018] In some embodiments, the system includes an output inverter configured to synchronize the system with the load and/or grid and connect the output power to the load or grid (e.g., distribution and transmission network). The grid may include generating stations, transmission lines, distribution lines, power stations, and/or other electrical components to facilitate the transmission and distribution of electrical power. The grid may be any residential, industrial, and/or commercial grid system providing AC power. The regulation of the system may be controlled by a controller. The output inverter power may be determined based on a maximum design capacity and/or parameters of the reactors. In some embodiments, the output inverter limits the power being transmitted to the grid in accordance with the program parameters. In some embodiments, the smart inverter is programmed to operate at a frequency of 50 Hz and/or 60 Hz, or another frequency, and/or may adapt to the specific load requirement of the grid. In some embodiments, the output inverter power is limited by a maximum output capacity

[0019] Some components of the two reactors may be physically wired to one another, and the system may be configured to operate with loads of any voltage and/or frequency (e.g., high or low voltage/frequency loads). In some embodiments, parameters of the system, such as maximum temperature of particular components, may be regulated by the system.

[0020] Referring now to FIG. I, a block diagram of system 100 for providing power to load 150 is shown, according to an exemplary embodiment. System 100 is configured to receive power from direct current (DC) input source 102 (e.g., one or more batteries, a solar panel, etc.), and to utilize the power as excitation power for reactor system 115. DC input terminal 102 may be transformed into alternating current (AC) input power using input inverter 105 In some embodiments, input inverter 105 produces a pure sine wave output power and is grid compliant (e.g., operates at the same frequency with a power grid to which it is connected). In some embodiments, input inverter 105 is a smart type inverter and generates/regulates voltage, frequency, and/or current with capability to synchronize with the grid. While system 100 is described as receiving power from DC input terminal 102, it should be understood that, in some embodiments, input power can additionally, or alternatively, be received from an AC input terminal. In some such embodiments, system 100 may not include input inverter 105. Such an embodiment is described with respect to system 200 of FIG. 2. Unless otherwise indicated, features described with respect to DC- fed systems such as system 100 may be used in conjunction with AC-fed systems such as system 200, and vice-versa, unless otherwise indicated. Additionally, in some

embodiments, a system may receive input power from both DC and AC sources (e.g., by rectifying the DC input power before combination with the AC input power).

[0021] The AC input power may be received by load break switch (LBS) 110 configured to allow the AC input power to be selectively connected and/or disconnected from reactor system 115. In some embodiments (e.g., when solar panels are used to provide excitation energy), LBS 110 senses that output inverter 125 has already synchronized its power to the gri d and automatically sinks the power of the excitation source to the output power of output inverter 125.

[0022] The AC input power is then provided to reactor system 115 and used as excitation current for a plurality of coils of reactor system 115. Reactor system 115 may be configured to harness electrical energy from electromagnetic fields generated by load 150 and/or other sources of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., ambient sources, such as other devices in proximity to system 100 that generate electromagnetic radiation). Reactor system 115 may include a main reactor configured to receive the AC input power and generate one or more magnetic fields using a first one or more coils (e.g., regenerative coils). One or more other coils (e.g., reactive coils) of the main reactor may be configured to vary an intensity of the one or more magnetic fields generated by the first one or more coils. Reactor system 115 may also include a resonating reactor that is configured to resonate the main reactor with load 150 (e.g , tune the main reactor to a resonant frequency that is approximately the same as a frequency of an electromagnetic field generated by load 150) The resonating reactor may also cause magnetic fields generated by the reactive coils to increase in intensity, causing the intensity of the varying magnetic field generated by the regenerative coil to increase in intensity. The variation in the magnetic fields may be related to a magnitude of the connected load 150. Reactor system 115 is described in further detail below, in one detailed embodiment, with respect to FIG. 3.

[0023] The AC output of reactor system 115 may be provided to a rectifi er 120, which may convert the AC output of reactor system 115 into a DC output. In some embodiments, rectifier 120 balances the voltage output of each reactor system connected in parallel, in the event of multiple parallel reactor systems, to be able to balance the load current drawn by each reactor system. Additionally or alternatively, rectifier 120 may filter harmonics present in the AC output of reactor system 115.

[0024] The DC output may be received by output inverter 125. Output inverter 125 may transform the DC output into an AC output for use by load 150, and may transmit the AC output to load 150. Output inverter 125 is configured to synchronize reactor system 115 to load 150. In some embodiments, output inverter 125 is configured to feed a portion of the AC output back into reactor system 115 (e.g., to compensate for system losses and/or to ensure that magnetism in reactor system 115 can be maintained). In some embodiments, output inverter 125 is a smart grid type of inverter that is configured to synchronize with a power grid. It may be composed of several modules connected in parallel (e.g., five modules). In some embodiments, one module may operate as a master module, and the other modules may operate as slave modules whose operating parameters are controlled by the master module. The master module may include a programmable load management software system that may automatically adjust the parameters of each individual slave module according to the demand of the load or transmission/distribution network. In some embodiments, output inverter 125 is configured to generate its own voltage, current, and/or frequency source. Output inverter 125 may be capable of powering up a connected load on a stand-alone system or operate in synchronization with the grid. In some embodiments, output inverter 125 operates in an off-grid mode and/or synchronizes with other output inverters connected within the same network. In some embodiments, output inverter 125 seamlessly switches between an on-grid mode and an off-grid mode without interruption.

In some embodiments, output inverter 125 maintains synchronization with other inverters in the system (e.g., during off-grid mode) and/or is a source reference (e.g., of voltage and/or frequency) when the grid or network fails when in on-grid mode.

[0025] The AC output of output inverter 125 may be received by isolation transformer 130. Isolation transformer 130 may electrically isolate loopback rectifier 135 from the AC output of output inverter 125 and/or load 150. For example, isolation transformer 130 may receive the AC output of output inverter 125 and produce an isolated AC output. In some embodiments, isolation transformer 130 suppresses electrical noise present in the AC output of output inverter 125. Loopback rectifier 135 may receive the isolated AC output and produce a DC loopback. Loopback rectifier 135 may function similarly to rectifier 120. Loopback inverter 140 may receive the DC loopback and produce an AC loopback.

Loopback inverter 140 may function similarly to output inverter 125.

[0026] The AC loopback may be received by LBS 110 to at least partially facilitate excitation of reactor system 115. In some embodiments, the AC loopback compensates for system losses and/or ensures that magnetism in reactor system 115 is maintained. In some embodiments, LBS 110 selectively connects the AC loopback when reactor system 115 is fully energized (e.g., producing a sufficient AC output, fully magnetized, etc.). In some embodiments, LBS 110 selectively disconnects AC input terminal 202 and/or connects the AC loopback to at least partially energize reactor system 115.

[0027] In some embodiments, an external power supply device (e.g., a battery, a photovoltaic array, a diesel generator, etc.) connects to and/or augments the loopback power. For example, a battery system may be connected in parallel with loopback rectifier 135 to supply loopback inverter 140. Reactor system 115 may charge the external power supply device to facilitate initial excitation if disconnected from the grid. In some embodiments, a power storage system facilitates initial and/or loopback excitation of reactor system 1 15 to ensure reactor system 1 15 is fully magnetized. A battery ' system may be charged from the excess power generated by reactor system 115 and may facilitate excitation of reactor system 115. In some embodiments, energy stored in the batten, ' system is used at a later time to excite reactor system 115.

[0028] Referring notv to FIG. 2, a block diagram of system 200 for providing power to load 150 is shown, according to an exemplary ' embodiment. System 200 includes the same components as system 100. Like components in the tw ? o systems may function in a similar way. System 200 is configured to receive excitation energy from AC input terminal 202, rather than a DC input terminal. Accordingly, AC input terminal 202 does not need to be inverted in order for it to be utilized by reactor system 115 in system 200.

[0029] Referring now to FIG. 3, a circuit diagram of power supply system 300 for supplying power to a load is shown, according to an exemplary embodiment. In some embodiments, power supply system 300 is or includes an implementation of reactor system 115, shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. AC input terminal 202 may receive excitation current. In some embodiments, the excitation current is three-phase AC power. Power supply system 300 may produce an output current at output terminals 398. In some embodiments, the output current is three-phase AC power. While power supply system 300 is shown to include six reactor modules, for purposes of simplicity, the function of a single reactor modules will be described below.

[0030] In some embodiments, each reactor module includes a number of parallel legs, shown as legs 302. Legs 302 may include main reactor 320, resonating reactor 340, isolation reactor 360, and rectifier 120. In some embodiments, legs 302 include a different number, type, combination, and/or configuration of components. In some embodiments, a programmable load management system built within power supply system 300 manages operation of parameters associated with each individual module of power supply system 300 (e.g., in the event of multiple modules). In some embodiments, a protection system is programmed (e.g., fault protection, over and/or under voltage protection, over and/or under frequency protection, maximum voltage and/or current output, etc.).

[0031] Before energizing the components of power supply system 300, various setup and programming of parameters of power supply system 300 may be performed. For example, parameters used to facilitate synchronization of an output inverter to a power grid or other load may be set up. Components of power supply system 300 may be programmed according to parameters associated with the grid or other load (e.g., frequency range, voltage range, correct phase sequence of the grid with which power supply system 300 is to be synchronized, etc.). In some embodiments, once the initial programming and setup is completed, LBS 110 is activated and the components of power supply system 300 are energized.

[0032] AC input terminal 202 may provide the excitation current to main reactor 320. In some embodiments, main reactor 320 includes power controller 322, regenerative coils 324, collector coils 326, primary' reactive coils 328, and secondary reactive coils 330. In some embodiments, main reactor 320 includes a different number, type, and/or combination of components thereof. Power controller 322 may receive the excitation current and may energize regenerative coils 324. Collector coils 326 may be energized by the excitation current (e.g., via regenerative coils 324). In some embodiments, collector coils 326 are connected to secondary resonating coils 344. Secondary resonating coils 344 may be coupled to primary resonating coils 342. Primary resonating coils 342 may be connected to primary reactive coils 328. Primary reactive coils 328 may be connected to power controller 322. In some embodiments, primary reactive coils 328 and secondary reactive coils 330 are energized by regenerative coils 324. For example, regenerative coils 324 may be magnetically coupled to primary reactive coils 328 and secondary reactive coils 330.

[0033] Output inverter 125 may synchronize with, and feed power to, the power grid or other load. After output inverter 125 is activated to synchronize with the grid, a current flow of a specific magnitude may flow through the components of power supply system 300 The magnitude of the current may be proportional to the magnitude of the connected load. Current flow through regenerative coils 324 may cause regenerative coils 324 to generate a first magnetic field. Current flow through primary reactive coils 328 may cause primary 7 reactive coils 328 to generate a second magnetic field that varies the intensity of the first magnetic field generated by regenerative coils 324 based on the output load of output inverter 125 in a manner that expands (e.g , increases the intensity of) the first magnetic field generated by regenerative coils 324. Current flow through secondary reactive coils 330 may cause secondary reactive coils 330 to generate a third magnetic field that varies the intensity of the first magnetic field generated by regenerative coils 324 based on the output load of output inverter 125 in a manner that collapses (e.g., reduces the intensity of) the first magnetic field generated by regenerative coils 324.

[0034] The current flowing in primary reactive coils 328 with configured polarity and coil winding direction with reference to regenerative coils 324 produces a boosting magnetic field to the magnetic field generated by regenerative coils 324. The current flowing in secondary reactive coils 330 with configured polarity and coil winding direction with reference to regenerative coils 324 produces a bucking magnetic field to the magnetic field generated by regenerative coils 324. The effect of the boosting and bucking magnetic fields in regenerative coils 324 simulates the expansion and contraction of the magnetic field in the stator winding of a generator when the rotor is being rotated with a DC excitation (producing north and south magnetic poles on the rotor). As the output load of output inverter 125 increases, the current and voltage produced by primary resonating coils 342 (e.g., on a one to one ratio with the current drawn by the load or slightly higher) may be induced in resonance with collector coils 326 magnetically coupled to regenerative coils 324. The energy induced by primary resonating coils 342 may maintain and tune the magnetic field intensity of regenerative coils 324 to any given specific load. [0035] In some embodiments, a current flow on primary resonating coils 342 produces a fourth magnetic field that induces a current in secondary' resonating coils 344, which are magnetically coupled to primary resonating coils 342. In some embodiments, primary' resonating coils 342 and secondary resonating coils 344 are designed to be substantially the same (e.g., same materials, same number of turns, etc.). In some embodiments, the voltage drop across secondary resonating coils 344 is slightly higher than the initial voltage drop across regenerative coils 324 due to the initial excitation from the excitation source.

Further, a current flow' substantially equivalent in magnitude with a current flowing through primary' reactive coils 328 and secondary' reactive coils 330 may flow' through collector coils 326, which may generate another magnetic field and induce a current in primary reactive coils 328, which is magnetically coupled to collector coils 326 As a result, resonating reactor 340 may take over as the source of excitation, or supplement the excitation source, and may resonate main reactor 320 with the load connected to the system.

[0036] In some embodiments, regenerative coils 324 collect more current (e.g., via induction from resonating reactor 340) than can be collected by rectifier 120 for delivery' to the load. Rectifier 120 may transmit excess energy back to AC input terminal 202 (e.g., in a feedback loop), preventing the energy from being lost as w'aste energy. In some

embodiments, excess current on regenerative coils 324 flows through loopback rectifier 135 and/or loopback inverter 140. Loopback rectifier 135 may be a smart rectifier that reduces harmonic distortion at AC input terminal 202. In some embodiments, output inverter 125 facilitates magnetism of main reactor 320 and/or resonating reactor 340 and/or compensates for system losses by supplying a portion of the output power back into AC input terminal 202 (e.g. via loopback inverter 140).

[0037] In some embodiments, isolation reactor 360 isolates resonating reactor 340 and/or main reactor 320 from output terminals 398. Primary isolation coils 362 may be

magnetically coupled to secondary' isolation coils 364 and may transfer energy to rectifier 120. In some embodiments, primary resonating coils 342 are connected to primary isolation coils 362. Primary' isolation coils 362 may connect to secondary' reactive coils 330. In some embodiments, secondary' reactive coils 330 connect to power controller 322. Power controller 322 may connect to primary resonating coils 342 through primary' reactive coils 328 In some embodiments, primary' resonating coils 342 connect to secondary' reactive coils 330 through primary isolation coils 362. Secondary reactive coils 330 may be in communication with power controller 322.

[0038] Referring now to FIGS. 4A-4D, a number of views of main reactor 320 are shown, according to an exemplary embodiment. In some embodiments, main reactor 320 includes cores 310. Cores 310 may be a ferromagnetic material configured to facilitate the capture and containment of magnetic fields. In some embodiments, cores 310 are permeable grain oriented silicon cores that increase the magnetic saturation of main reactor 320. Cores 310 may reduce induced eddy currents and increase magnetic coupling between windings of main reactor 320 to produce higher output current. Main reactor 320 may include cooling conduit 308 to facilitate cooling of main reactor 320. In some embodiments, cooling conduit 308 carries a heat absorbing fluid (e.g., water, etc.) for conduction to a different part of reactor system 115 and/or power supply system 300 (e.g., a heat exchanger, etc.).

Cooling conduit 308 may be constructed of a metal (e.g., copper, etc.), an alloy (e.g., steel, etc.), or any amalgam thereof

[0039] In some embodiments, as shown in FIG. 4C, main reactor 320 includes heat conductors 306 to facilitate cooling of main reactor 320. Heat conductors 306 may be in contact with cooling conduit 308 and may transfer thermal energy to the heat absorbing fluid therein. In some embodiments, heat conductors 306 are a non-magnetic material (e.g., aluminum, etc.). In some embodiments, heat conductors 306 facilitate cooling of output inverter 125 to increase an efficiency of output inverter 125 and/or a lifetime of one or more components thereof (e.g., IGBT switches, etc.).

[0040] Main reactor 320 may include magnetic shielding 304 to facilitate isolation of windings of main reactor 320. In some embodiments, magnetic shielding 304 includes layered magnetic materials configured to absorb one or more magnetic fields produced by windings of main reactor 320 and/or prevent transmission thereof. Additionally or alternatively, magnetic shielding 304 may magnetically insulate cores 310 to facilitate magnetic saturation of the magnetic fi elds produced by at least regenerative coils 324 to increase a current delivered to output inverter 125.

[0041] In some embodiments, regenerative coils 324, after being induced by an AC exciting power source, provide power to the load via output inverter 125 and generate a magnetic field intensity in relation to the current drawn by the load and directly proportional to the area of the magnetic core in which regenerative coils 324 is wound and the effective number of turns of regenerative coils 324. Primary reactive coils 328 and secondary reactive coils 330 may induce a magnetic field intensity twice the value of the magnetic field intensity produced by regenerative coils 324 in relation to the current drawn by the load directly proportional to the number of turns of primary reactive coils 328 and secondary reactive coils 330 and the magnetic core in which primary reactive coils 328 and secondary reactive coils 330 are wound. The magnetic field intensity produced by primary reactive coils 328 and secondary reactive coils 330 may directly oppose the magnetic fields produced by regenerative coils 324 and reduce the current drain from the excitation source. In some embodiments, the excess magnetic field intensity of primary reactive coils 328 and secondary reactive coils 330 induce an electromotive force that directly powers up the load (e.g., load 150) Resonating reactor 340 coils may use the collector coils 326 to

automatically tune main reactor 320 to load 150. In some embodiments, loopback rectifier 135 supplies power to loopback inverter 140 to supply continuous AC excitation voltage of desired magnitude and frequency to facilitate electromagnetism and prevent loss of excitation in main reactor 320.

[0042] Referring now to FIG. 5, a flow diagram of a process 500 of providing power to a load (e.g., using a system such as systems 100, 200, and/or power supply system 300) is shown, according to an exemplary embodiment. At step 505, a reactor system may receive excitation energy from a power source. In some embodiments, the power source is the grid. In some embodiments, as discussed with reference to FIG. 1, the power source may be a DC source (e.g., a photovoltaic power cell, etc.) that is inverted to supply the reactor system. Additionally or alternatively, as discussed with reference to FIG. 1, a power storage system (e.g., a battery system, etc.) may supply excitation energy as part of a feedback loop. At step 510, the excitation energy may energize one or more coils of a first reactor to generate a first magnetic field. In some embodiments, the first reactor may include coils configured to vary (e.g., expand and/or collapse) the magnetic field.

[0043] At step 515, a second reactor may be energized and may be configured to resonate coils of the first reactor with a load connected to the output of the second reactor. At step 520, the second reactor may be configured to vary (e.g , increase the intensity of) the magnetic field generated by the first reactor. For example, the second reactor may change the intensity of the fields generated by the coils of the first reactor such that the magnetic field generator by the first reactor is expanded and/or collapsed. At step 525, the output current of the second reactor may loop back to energize the first reactor. In some embodiments, the output current of the second reactor is transformed by a reactor and/or an inverter to increase the power factor of the loop-back power and/or reduce harmonics before being fed into the first reactor. The loop-back power may at least partially take over excitation of the first reactor and/or the second reactor.

[0044] In some embodiments, reactor system 115 described herein relates to a

regenerative electromagnetic energy-flux reactor (EER) of high energy efficiency output. Such embodiments may utilize an alternating current source as excitation to create electromagnetic interaction in the reactor assembly. The electromagnetic interaction may- regenerate electromagnetic energy induced by a reactive coil in one or more regenerative coils and may be tuned by an electrical load directly connected to the output of one or more collector coils. Maximum loading of the collector coils may be determined with reference to the ratio of reactive to regenerative coils. The collector coils can be automatically tuned by a separate and distinct reactive reactor coil assembly (e.g., a resonating reactor). In some embodiments, the reactive coil assembly is connected to an output of the main assembly for stable performance and maximum energy regeneration at the regenerative coils.

[0045] In some embodiments, the EER includes one or more microprocessor-based power modules, a single stage, two stage, or more than two stage reactor system comprising three or more coils, a microprocessor-based control board (MCB), and one or more Hall Effect current sensors (HECS). For example, the system may be arranged into a cascading system where the output of the first EER serves as an excitation source of the second larger EER.

As further example, a 100 kW EER may serve as an excitation source for a 1 MW EER. Once both EERs are running, they can be synchronized to the grid to produce an aggregate sum of 1.1 MW output. The increased efficiency of the output may be governed by the electrical load that is connected to the reactive coil assembly (e.g., coupled directly or via a compensating reactor) which regulates the voltage output of the EER. The EMF and current that flows on the reactive coils induces electromagnetic energy on the regenerative coil that produces magnetic fields on the reactor core opposite to the magnetic fields developed by the regenerative coil itself (when excited by an excitation source). The opposing magnetic fields in the regenerative circuits exert pressure on the atoms in the system to be in coherent state with one another. The coherent state of the atoms results in a continuous exchange of electron flow between atoms by way of magnetic induction in the reactor system. Since electrons can hardly flow in the atmosphere due to high resistance of different kind of gases, they will be attracted to flow on the surface of conductors of less resistance. In some embodiments, the conductors of least resistance are the regenerative and reactive coils, causing electrons to be attracted to these conductors.

[0046] In some embodiments, as the electrical loads on the reactive circuits (e.g., reactive coils) are increased, the magnitude of the electromagnetic energy in the regenerative circuits (e.g., regenerative coils) increases proportionally and the efficiency of the output delivered to electrical loads also increases. A resultant increase in the electrical load capacity of the collector coil is also attained. The collector coils may be loaded separately but may be tuned according to a transformation ratio of reactive and regenerative coils. The collector coils can be also excited by a distinct reactive (e.g., resonating) reactor independent of the main reactor and connected to one of the output reactive coils of the main reactor assembly for auto tuning. The HECS monitors the operating parameters of the resonating reactor and activates and deactivates the system when it is within or beyond preset operating

parameters. During the deactivation process, the system may shift automatically to a bypass mode. In bypass mode, the reactor may be shut down due to overloading and a bypass circuit may be connected to connect the load directly to an alternative source. When the HECS identifies that the load is within normal parameters of the reactor, bypass mode may be cancelled A maximum loading capacity of the reactive, regenerative and collector circuit may be limited by a design ratio and current rating of the conductor coils. To maximize design output ratio efficiency, a second stage reactor may be integrated to regulate the desired voltage output for the electrical load. In some embodiments, a minimum of two reactive coils may be used to provide high intensity electromagnetic energy induction to the regenerative coils.

[0047] In some embodiments, the magnetic core of the EER may be made of thin film materials. The reactor system magnetic core may be made of high grade silicon steel sheets in a grain oriented configuration. The thickness of the plate of the grain oriented silicon steel sheets may be of the thinnest available production size for better performance and efficiency. The stacking depth of the core area may be of the maximum depth, based on design calculation, to maximize the Casimir effect on the silicon laminated thin sheets. A copper conductor may be 99.99% oxygen free and wound on a core to create the reactive, regenerative, and collector coils. The reactive, regenerative, and collector coils may be wound separately from each other or together on same legs of each reactor core. The reactive, regenerative, and collector coils may be constructed of rectangular or round cross section copper magnet wire, which may be 99.9% oxygen free.

[0048] Referring now to FIG. 6, a control system 600 is shown, according to an exemplary embodiment. In some embodiments, control system 600 is coupled to or at least partially integrated with power supply system 300. Control system 600 may be integrated into a single controller, shown as controller 605, and/or may include a number of controllers spread throughout power supply system 300. Control system 600 may facilitate excitation of reactor system 1 15. In some embodiments, control system 600 operates one or more components of the reactor system (e.g., systems 100, 200, and/or power supply system 300). For example, control system 600 may switch the reactor system to be connected or disconnected from one or more loads (e.g., via LBS 145) and/or may regulate loop-back excitation (e.g., via loopback rectifier 135). In some embodiments, control system 600 operates one or more sub-systems of power supply system 300. For example, control system 600 may control a cooling system to facilitate cooling of power supply system 300. In some embodiments, a user programs and/or modifies operation of control system 600 via one or more control signals 602. For example, a user may set a participation factor for each rectifier 120 to determine how much power each rectifier 120 provides to output inverter 125.

[0049] In some embodiments, control system 600 includes controller 605. In some embodiments, control system 600 includes one or more sensors 610 and processing circuit 615. Sensors 610 may measure one or more electrical characteristics associated with power supply system 300. For example, sensors 610 may measure a phase angle of the connected grid. Sensors 610 may measure a magnitude of the magnetic fields produced by reactor system 115 to facilitate coupling the magnetic fields to a connected load. [0050] Processing circuit 615 may include processor 620 and memory 625. Processor 620 can be a general purpose processor, an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), one or more field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), a group of processing components, or other suitable electronic processing components.

[0051] Memory 625 (e.g., memory, memory unit, storage device, etc.) can include one or more devices (e.g., RAM, ROM, Flash memory, hard disk storage, etc.) for storing data and/or computer code for completing or facilitating the various processes, layers and modules described in the present application. Memory 625 can be or include volatile memory or non-volatile memory. Memory 625 can include database components, object code components, script components, or any other type of information structure for supporting the various activities and information structures described in the present application. According to an example embodiment, memory' 625 is communicably connected to processor 620 via processing circuit 615 and includes computer code for executing one or more processes described herein. While various components are illustrated as being implemented as instructions within memory, it should be understood that any of the various controllers and/or functions described herein may be implemented using hardware, software, or a combination thereof unless otherwise indicated.

[0052] In some embodiments, memory 625 includes mode controller 630, pow'er controller 635, feedback controller, shown as PID controller 640, synchronizing controller 645, and/or switching controller 650. Mode controller 630 may connect to power controller 635 and may automatically switch between manual, synchronous, and/or isochronous control modes. In manual control, mode controller 630 may measure the real and reactive power produced at output inverter 125 and control power controller 635 to vary' output inverter 125 output current to accommodate changes in voltage to fix real and reactive power. In synchronous control, mode controller 630 may measure voltage and frequency at output inverter 125 and control power controller 635 to vary output inverter 125 real and reactive power output based on voltage and frequency variations. In some embodiments, real output power increases as grid frequency decreases. Reactive power may increase as voltage decreases. In some embodiments, mode controller 630 utilizes speed-droop to control power controller 635 to vary a frequency at the output of output inverter 125. In isochronous control, mode controller 630 may control power controller 635 to vary real and reactive power based on the connected load, independently of a measured voltage and frequency.

[0053] In some embodiments, power controller 635 connects to PID controller 640. PID controller 640 may regulate operation of power supply system 300 to facilitate maximum output power and ensure magnetization of reactor system 115. In some embodiments, PID controller 640 controls rectifier 120 to automatically balance the current flow at the output of power supply system 300 by regulating a current flow from each individual isolation transformer 130. Additionally or alternatively, PID controller 640 may facilitate power controller 635 to control each rectifier 120 of power supply system 300 to filter out harmonics generated at the output of rectifier 120 to prevent harmonics from transferring to output inverter 125. In some embodiments, PID controller 640 facilitates similar control in regards to loopback rectifier 135 to prevent harmonics from transferring to loopback inverter 140. In some embodiments, PID controller 640 includes harmonic compensation control software in combination with one or more LC filters to filter out the harmonics.

[0054] In some embodiments, PID controller 640 facilitates group control of each individual inverter. Group control may include programming real and reactive power participation factors based on reliability and efficiency of operation of power supply system 300. In some embodiments, a user may input participation factors using a human machine interface (IIMI). Group control of real and reactive power may be used for inverters with different or the same point of connection to the grid or local loads (e.g., loads 150). In some embodiments, inverters (e.g., output inverter 125, loopback inverter 140, etc.) with different capacities participate in group control. In some embodiments, PID controller 640 facilitates remote controls for supervisory control and data acquisition (SCAD A) used with group control. Additionally or alternatively, PID controller 640 may control loopback inverter 140 to automatically power up and initiate synchronization with the input initial excitation of reactor system 115 in response to measuring the required voltage and frequency build up at the output of output inverter 125. Once synchronization parameters are met, PID controller 640 may control loopback inverter 140 to initiate a connection to the input of reactor system 115 to supply excitation current in parallel with the initial excitation source.

[0055] In some embodiments, synchronizing controller 645 connects to switching controller 650 to facilitate seamless switching of power supply system 300. Seamless switching of power supply system 300 is described in more detail with reference to FIG 6. Synchronizing controller 645 may facilitate operating power supply system 300 in parallel to the grid, in an on-grid configuration, or serving an isolated load, in an off-grid

configuration as the only source of supply. In some embodiments, synchronizing controller 645 receives feedback from the grid (e.g., load 150) and one or more control signals from mode controller 630.

[0056] Synchronizing controller 645 may measure the incoming grid voltage and control output inverter 125 to minimize a difference in voltage and phase angle and ensure a stable output of output inverter 125. In some embodiments, synchronizing controller 645 includes a sinusoidal pulse width modulator (SPWM) to drive one or more insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) in output inverter 125. The SPWM may be controlled based on a DC voltage and current set-point produced by synchronizing controller 645 based on a phase transformation to interpret the desired AC power set-point as a DC set-point command (e.g., from mode controller 630). Once synchronizing controller 645 determines the difference in voltage and phase angle are at a minimum between the grid and output inverter 125, synchronizing controller 645 may control switching controller 650 to operate one or more switches (e.g., LBS 110, LBS 145, etc.) to connect power supply system 300 to the grid (e.g., load 150). In some embodiments, a similar process is followed for disconnecting from the grid.

[0057] In some embodiments, the EER utilizes electromagnetic induction to regenerate sizable energy at regenerative coils 324 from induced EMF and current in primary reactive coils 328 and secondary' reactive coils 330 resulting from the increased intensity of the magnetic fields at regenerative coils 324 from the tuned load of collector coils 326. The magnitude of regenerated energy at regenerative coils 324 may be based on a turns ratio between primary reactive coils 328 and secondary reactive coils 330 and regenerative coils 324

[0058] In some embodiments, the EER utilizes electromagnetic induction theory to regenerate sizeable energy at regenerative coils 324 from induced EMF and current in primary reactive coils 328 and secondary reactive coils 330 and the excitation of collector coils 326 by a separate and distinct resonating reactor 340 The excitation energy of the separate and distinct resonating reactor 340 may increase the intensity of the opposing magnetic fields induced by primary reactive coils 328 and secondary reactive coils 330 of main reactor 320 at regenerative coils 324. In some embodiments, resonating reactor 340 is configured to automatically tune main reactor 320 to a load (e.g., load 150) connected to resonating reactor 340 The magnitude of regenerated energy at regenerative coils 324 may be based on a turns ratio of primary reactive coils 328 and secondary reactive coils 330 to regenerative coils 324.

[0059] In some embodiments, the EER regenerates energy according to a ratio of primary reactive coils 328 and secondary reactive coils 330 to regenerative coils 324 and/or regenerative coils 324 to collector coils 326 when an alternating current source is installed and excites the EER with energy. In some embodiments, the energy is delivered to AC load banks (e.g., resistive or inductive AC load and/or a rectifier assembly to convert to DC).

[0060] In some embodiments, the EER receives excitation energy from a DC source through an inverter. The DC source may include renewable energy sources like wind, solar, fuel ceil, and/or other forms of DC sources (e.g., batteries/battery ' banks). In some embodiments, the EER is configured to output energy in an AC waveform to AC load banks (e.g., resistive or inductive AC load and/or a rectifier assembly to convert to DC).

[0061] Referring now to FIG. 7, a flow diagram of a process 700 of connecting to a load (e.g., load 150) is shown, according to an exemplary embodiment. In some embodiments, synchronizing controller 645 and switching controller 650 perform process 700 after power supply system 300 regenerates sizable energy in the loop-back. For example, power supply- system 300 may be connected to the grid after main reactor 320 is sufficiently magnetized.

[0062] At step 705, one or more electrical characteristics of load 150 may be measured.

In some embodiments, sensors 610 measure a voltage, current, and phase of the grid to be output to. In some embodiments, synchronizing controller 645 receives a baseline from the grid. At step 710, one or more electrical characteristics of output inverter 125 may be measured. In some embodiments, synchronizing controller 645 measures an output voltage and phase angle. In some embodiments, step 710 includes determining a voltage and phase offset of the output power to the grid power

[0063] At step 715, output inverter 125 matches the output to the load. In some embodiments, matching the output to the load includes adjusting an output voltage and phase angle to match the voltage and phase angle of the grid. In some embodiments, PED controller 640 uses space vector modulation (SVM) to control output inverter 125 to achieve the desired output. PUD controller 640 may also reduce the presence of harmonics in preparation for connection with the grid.

[0064] At step 720, the output is connected to the load (e.g., the grid, a three-phase motor, etc.). In various embodiments, steps 705-715 continue to repeat after step 720 to ensure the output follows the load. If load 150 is a varying load (e.g., a three-phase motor, etc.) the output of output inverter 125 may have to adjust to follow the varying current demands of the varying load.

[0065] In some embodiments, aspects of the EER operate according to the following exemplary formulas:

where P in is power input to the EER, P out is power output dissipated to the electrical loads, P reg is power regenerated to the regenerative circuits, P rea is power induced by the reactive circuits to the regenerative circuits, P rea -sr power dissipated by the separate and distinct reactor as excitation of the collector coils of the main assembly, P sys is power dissipated by system losses, N rea is the number of turns of the reacti ve coil, N reg is the number of turns of the regenerative coils, N coi is the number of turns of the collector coils, N rea-sr is the number of turns of separate reactive reactor, I L is the load current of the connected load of the EER, 0 is the power factor of the connected load of the EER, V rea is the voltage drop of the reactive coil, and V rea-sr is the voltage drop at separate reactive reactor reactive coils. Note: the volts per turn of main reactor 320 and resonating reactor 340 may be the same.

[0066] The disclosure is described above with reference to drawings. These drawings illustrate certain details of specific embodiments that implement the systems and methods and programs of the present disclosure. However, describing the disclosure with drawings should not be construed as imposing on the disclosure any limitations that may be present in the drawings. The present disclosure contemplates methods, systems and/or program products on any machine-readable media for accomplishing its operations. The

embodiments of the present disclosure may be implemented using an existing computer processor, or by a special purpose computer processor incorporated for this or another purpose or by a hardwired system. Any type of processor may be used (e.g., FPGA, ASIC, ASIP, CPLD, SDS, etc.). No claim element herein is to be construed under the provisions of 35 U.S.C. § 1 12, sixth paragraph, unless the element is expressly recited using the phrase "means for." Furthermore, no element, component or method step in the present disclosure is intended to be dedicated to the public, regardless of whether the element, component or method step is explicitly recited in the claims.

[0067] As noted above, embodiments within the scope of the present disclosure may include program products including machine-readable storage media for carrying or having machine-executable instructions or data structures stored thereon. Such machine-readable storage media can be any available media which can be accessed by a general purpose or special purpose computer or other machine with a processor. By way of example, such machine-readable storage media can comprise RAM, ROM, EPROM, EEPROM, CD ROM or other optical disk storage, magnetic disk storage or other magnetic storage devices, or any other medium which can be used to carry or store desired program code in the form of machine-executable instructions or data structures and which can be accessed by a general purpose or special purpose computer or other machine with a processor. Combinations of the above are also included within the scope of machine-readable storage media. Machine- readable storage media include non-transitory media do not include purely transitory media (i.e., signals in space). Machine-executable instructions comprise, for example, instructions and data which cause a general purpose computer, special purpose computer, or special puipose processing machine to perform a certain function or group of functions. [0068] It should be noted that although the flowcharts provided herein show a specific order of method steps, it is understood that the order of these steps may differ from what is depicted. Also, two or more steps may be performed concurrently or with partial concurrence. Such variation will depend on the software and hardware systems chosen and on designer choice. It is understood that all such variations are within the scope of the disclosure. Likewi se, software and web implementations of the present disclosure could be accomplished with standard programming techniques with rule based logic and other logic to accomplish the various database searching steps, correlation steps, comparison steps and decision steps. It should also be noted that the word“component” as used herein and in the claims is intended to encompass implementations using one or more lines of software code, and/or hardware implementations, and/or equipment for receiving manual inputs

[0069] The foregoing description of embodiments of the disclosure have been presented for purposes of illustration and description. It is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the disclosure to the precise form disclosed, and modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teachings or may be acquired from practice of the disclosure. The embodiments were chosen and described in order to explain the principals of the disclosure and its practical application to enable one skilled in the art to utilize the disclosure in various embodiments and with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated.