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Title:
ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2012/078721
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
An energy storage system comprising at least one energy storage module adapted to supply electrical energy to a hybrid vehicle. The energy storage module comprises a primary enclosure, at least one battery array located within the primary enclosure, and an energy storage controller module located within the primary enclosure and electrically connected to the battery array. The energy storage controller module is further connected to a hybrid control module of the hybrid vehicle by a low voltage connecter. A high voltage junction box is attached to a first end of the primary enclosure and having a plurality of high voltage connection terminals. At least one of the high voltage connection terminals is configured to receive a high voltage conductor connected between the energy storage module and an inverter of the hybrid vehicle. When multiple energy storage modules are used in conjunction, one module functions as a master module and one module functions as a slave module.

Inventors:
YOUNGS, Daniel, J. (9463 North County Road 225 East, Pittsboro, IN, 46167, US)
BIEHL, Kurt (1200 South 500 East, Lebanon, IN, 46052, US)
BASS, Edward (952 Roundtable Court, Indianapolis, IN, 46260, US)
SCHNEIDER, Eric, D. (506 Stonehedge Drive, Carmel, IN, 46032, US)
BAILEY, Felice, E. (6371 Harrison Ridge Blvd, Indianapolis, IN, 46236, US)
REYBURN, Steven, T. (13224 South 100 West, Kokomo, IN, 46901, US)
Application Number:
US2011/063684
Publication Date:
June 14, 2012
Filing Date:
December 07, 2011
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ALLISON TRANSMISSION, INC. (4700 West 10th Street, Indianapolis, IN, 46222, US)
YOUNGS, Daniel, J. (9463 North County Road 225 East, Pittsboro, IN, 46167, US)
BIEHL, Kurt (1200 South 500 East, Lebanon, IN, 46052, US)
BASS, Edward (952 Roundtable Court, Indianapolis, IN, 46260, US)
SCHNEIDER, Eric, D. (506 Stonehedge Drive, Carmel, IN, 46032, US)
BAILEY, Felice, E. (6371 Harrison Ridge Blvd, Indianapolis, IN, 46236, US)
REYBURN, Steven, T. (13224 South 100 West, Kokomo, IN, 46901, US)
International Classes:
B60K6/00; B60L11/18; H01G9/00; H01M10/44; H02J7/00
Foreign References:
US20100116570A12010-05-13
US5882213A1999-03-16
US20070139006A12007-06-21
US20080050645A12008-02-28
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
REEVES, Charles, R. et al. (Woodard, Emhardt Moriarty, McNett & Henry LLP,111 Monument Circle, Suite 370, Indianapolis IN, 46204, US)
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Claims:
Claims:

1. An energy storage system, comprising:

at least one energy storage module adapted to supply electrical energy to a hybrid vehicle, the energy storage module comprising:

a primary enclosure;

at least one battery array located within the primary enclosure;

an energy storage controller module located within the primary enclosure and electrically connected to the battery array, the energy storage controller module further connected to a hybrid control module of the hybrid vehicle by a low voltage connecter;

a high voltage junction box attached to a first end of the primary enclosure and having a plurality of high voltage connection terminals, wherein at least one of the high voltage connection terminals is configured to receive a high voltage conductor connected between the energy storage module and an inverter of the hybrid vehicle; and

a service disconnect connected in a current path between the high voltage connection terminals and the at least one battery array.

2. The energy storage system of claim 1,

wherein the energy storage system includes at least two energy storage modules, a first one of the energy storage modules configured to operate as a master energy storage module and a second one of the energy storage modules configured to operate as a slave energy storage module; and

wherein the master energy storage module is in operative communication with the slave energy storage module and communicates information from the slave energy storage module to the hybrid control module.

3. The energy storage system of claim 2, wherein the energy storage system is configured to periodically verify that the master energy storage module is functional; and

wherein the slave energy module is configured to communicate directly with the hybrid control module if the master energy storage module is not functional.

4. The energy storage module of claims 2 or 3, wherein at least one of the energy storage modules is assigned to be a master or a slave based on the presence of electrical jumpers within the low voltage signal connector.

5. The energy storage system of any previous claim, comprising:

at least two energy storage modules connected in series.

6. The energy storage system of any previous claim, comprising:

at least two energy storage modules connected in parallel.

7. The energy storage system of any previous claim, comprising:

a first pair of energy storage modules comprising a first energy storage module and a second energy storage module connected in parallel; and

a second pair of energy storage modules comprising a third energy storage module and a fourth energy storage module connected in parallel;

wherein the first pair and second pair are collectively connected in series.

8. The energy storage system of any previous claims, wherein the high voltage junction box includes an outer access cover and an inner safety cover, wherein both the outer access cover and the inner safety cover must be removed to gain access to the high voltage connection terminals.

9. The energy storage system of any previous claim, wherein a first energy storage module is configured to be stacked upon a second energy storage module.

10. The energy storage system of claim 8, wherein the first energy storage module includes a plurality of indentations in a top surface of the primary enclosure, the indentations configured to receive a corresponding plurality of downwardly protruding feet in a bottom surface of an upper adjacent energy storage module.

11. The energy storage system of claim 9 or 10, wherein the primary enclosure includes a plurality of indentations in at least one sidewall of the primary enclosure, the indentations providing clearance for a corresponding plurality of fasteners to secure the first energy storage module to the second energy storage module.

12. The energy storage system of any previous claim, further comprising: a fan located within the primary enclosure;

an air inlet located in the primary enclosure;

an air outlet located in the primary enclosure;

an inlet cover external to the primary enclosure and mounted adjacent to the air inlet; and

an outlet cover external to the primary enclosure and mounted adjacent to the air outlet;

wherein the inlet cover allows incoming air to be drawn through the inlet and into the primary enclosure by the fan; and

wherein the outlet cover allows outgoing air to be directed through the outlet and out of the primary enclosure by the fan. 13. The energy storage system of claim 12, wherein the air inlet and air outlet are located on the same end of the primary enclosure.

14. The energy storage system of claim 13,

wherein the energy storage module includes two battery arrays disposed generally parallel lengthwise within the primary enclosure;

wherein the incoming air is directed lengthwise across the first battery array from a first end of the primary enclosure to a second end of the primary enclosure by a dividing plenum disposed lengthwise between the battery arrays; and

wherein the incoming air is further directed back across the second battery array from the second end of the primary enclosure to the first end of the primary enclosure by the dividing plenum.

15. The energy storage system of claim 14, wherein the dividing plenum is tapered from the first end of the primary enclosure to the second end of the primary enclosure.

16. The energy storage system of any of claims 12-15, wherein at least one of the inlet cover and outlet cover include an internal air deflector.

17. The energy storage system of any one of claims 12-16, wherein a filter is disposed within at least one of the inlet cover or outlet cover.

18. The energy storage system of any one of claims 12-19, wherein the energy storage module further comprises an inlet air sensor in communication with the energy storage controller module.

19. The energy storage system of any previous claim, wherein the energy storage module further comprises:

an exhaust vent located in the primary enclosure; and

a battery exhaust manifold which is adapted to collect exhaust gases from a plurality of battery cells located in the at least one battery array, the exhaust manifold further adapted to direct the exhaust gases out of the primary enclosure through the exhaust vent.

20. A method of assembling an energy storage system as in any preceding claim.

21. A method of operating an energy storage system as in any preceding claim.

Description:
ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims the benefit of US Provisional Patent Application No. 61/420,389 filed December 7, 2010, which is hereby incorporated by reference.

BACKGROUND

The present invention generally relates to an energy storage system and, more particularly, to an energy storage module to be incorporated into a hybrid electric motor vehicle to store high voltage energy.

Over the past few years, there has been a growing concern over global climate change due to an increase in carbon dioxide levels as well as oil supply shortages. As a result, some automobile manufactures and consumers are beginning to have a greater interest in motor vehicles having low emissions and greater fuel efficiency. One viable option is a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) which allows the vehicle to be driven by an electric motor, combustion engine, or a combination of the two.

Though various features are important to the overall HEV design, the system which stores the energy available for use by the vehicle is a key component. The energy storage system is provided within the HEV to store the energy created by a generator in order for that energy to be available for use by the hybrid system at some later time. For example, the stored energy may be used to drive an electric motor to independently propel the motor vehicle or assist the combustion engine, thereby reducing gasoline consumption.

However, energy storage systems face a variety of design complications, such as over-heating, weight, complexity, ease of incorporation into the vehicle, ease of service, and cost, just to name a few. Additionally, known energy storage systems utilize only a specific and known number of battery packs or modules designed to meet a particular HEV design specification. For example, a battery pack may be specifically designed to provide a specific amount of energy for a 300V vehicle. However, when a different amount of energy is required, such as a 600V system, a different battery pack must be designed to meet the needs of that application. Known battery packs and storage systems can not be utilized or otherwise implemented into different settings without a considerable amount of re- engineering and re- working.

Some known systems allow for separate battery packs to be electrically connected to a separate and distinct control box. Though the independent battery packs may be added to or removed from the overall system, the separate control box is still required. However, because available space for HEV components is at a premium, the inclusion of a separate and distinct control box should be avoided. Additionally, in the event the separate control box fails, the entire energy storage system is unable to function.

Thus, there is a need for improvement in this field.

SUMMARY

The energy storage system described herein addresses several of the issues mentioned above as well as others. For example, an energy storage system according to one embodiment of the present disclosure has a plurality of energy storage modules. The energy storage modules include, among other things, a plurality secondary battery arrays adapted to store high voltage energy. An energy storage controller module is electrically connected to various components within an energy storage module, such as, but not limited to, the battery arrays, a low voltage harness, a thermistor harness, and/or a vehicle signal connector assembly, to name a few examples.

According to one aspect of the present disclosure, the energy storage modules within the energy storage system are adapted to communicate with one another. In one embodiment, a pack-to-pack CAN bus is provided between each energy storage module. When multiple energy storage modules are used to comprise the energy storage system, one energy storage module functions as a master energy storage module while the others function as slave energy storage modules. The energy storage controller module within the master energy storage module is adapted to receive information from the slave energy storage modules and communicate with a transmission/hybrid control module and the rest of the hybrid system as a single energy storage system. The energy storage system is configured to periodically verify that the master energy storage module is functional and communicate directly with the hybrid control module if the master energy storage module is not functional.

According to another aspect of the disclosure, the energy storage system comprises at least one energy storage module adapted to supply electrical energy to a hybrid vehicle. The energy storage module comprises a primary enclosure, at least one battery array located within the primary enclosure, and an energy storage controller module located within the primary enclosure and electrically connected to the battery array. The energy storage controller module is further connected to a hybrid control module of the hybrid vehicle by a low voltage connecter. A high voltage junction box is attached to a first end of the primary enclosure and having a plurality of high voltage connection terminals. At least one of the high voltage connection terminals is configured to receive a high voltage conductor connected between the energy storage module and an inverter of the hybrid vehicle. A service disconnect connected in a current path between the high voltage connection terminals and the at least one battery array.

According to other aspects of the present disclosure, the energy storage system includes a fan located within the primary enclosure, an air inlet and outlet located in sidewalls of the primary enclosure, and inlet and outlet covers mounted externally adjacent the inlet and outlet respectively. The inlet cover allows incoming air to be drawn through the inlet and into the primary enclosure by the fan. The outlet cover allows outgoing air to the directed through the outlet and out of the primary enclosure. The inlet and outlet may be located at the same end of the primary enclosure with a lengthwise dividing plenum located between two parallel battery arrays. The air is directed through the air inlet into the primary enclosure, across the first battery array, and back along the second battery array to the air outlet.

According to another aspect of the disclosure, the energy storage system includes an exhaust vent located in a sidewall of the primary enclosure and a battery exhaust manifold which is adapted to collect exhaust gases from the battery cells and direct the exhaust gases out of the primary enclosure through the exhaust vent.

According to other aspects of the present disclosure, the controller module optionally includes a memory component. The memory component is adapted to record energy storage module usage and status history, such as achieved power levels and duty cycles, to name a few examples.

Further forms, objects, features, aspects, benefits, advantages, and embodiments of the present invention will become apparent from a detailed description and drawings provided herewith. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 illustrates a diagrammatic view of one example of a hybrid system.

FIG. 2 illustrates a general diagram of an electrical communication system in the FIG. 1 hybrid system.

FIG. 3 is a front perspective view of an energy storage module according to one embodiment of the present disclosure.

FIG. 4 is a rear perspective view of the energy storage module depicted in

FIG. 3.

FIG. 5 is a bottom perspective view of the energy storage module depicted in FIG. 3.

FIG. 6 is an end view of the energy storage module depicted in FIG. 3.

FIG. 7A is an end view of an energy storage module with the access cover attached according to one embodiment of the present disclosure.

FIG. 7B is an end view of an energy storage module with the access cover removed and the safety cover in place according to one embodiment of the present disclosure.

FIG. 8 is an end view of an energy storage module stacking arrangement according to one embodiment of the present disclosure.

FIG. 9 is a top view of an energy storage module with the top cover removed according to one embodiment of the present disclosure.

FIG. 10 is a further perspective view of the energy storage module of FIG. 9 with the top cover removed according to one embodiment of the present disclosure.

FIG. 11 is a further perspective view of the energy storage module depicted in FIG. 10 with the top cover removed according to one embodiment of the present disclosure.

FIG. 12 is a perspective view of a plenum end cap according to one embodiment of the present disclosure.

FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional view of the end cap of FIG. 12 taken along line A-A according to one embodiment of the present disclosure.

FIG. 14 is a bottom perspective view of an energy storage module in which the primary enclosure is transparent and depicting the cooling air flow according to one embodiment of the present disclosure. FIG. 15 is an exploded view of a fan assembly according to one embodiment of the present disclosure.

FIG. 16 is a perspective view of a bussed electrical center assembly according to one embodiment of the present disclosure.

FIG. 17 is an exploded view of a battery array assembly according to one embodiment of the present disclosure.

FIG. 18 is a perspective view of a battery cell.

FIG. 19 is an end, cross-sectional view of a battery array and plenum assembly according to one embodiment of the present disclosure.

FIG. 20 is a further end, cross-sectional view of a battery array and plenum assembly according to one embodiment of the present disclosure.

FIG. 21 is a perspective view of a energy storage controller module according to one embodiment of the present disclosure.

FIG. 22 is a perspective view of an energy storage module stacking arrangement according to one aspect of the present disclosure.

FIG. 23 is a perspective view of an energy storage module vehicle mounting arrangement according to one aspect of the present disclosure.

FIG. 24A is a diagram showing a single energy storage module for use in an energy storage system according to one embodiment.

FIG. 24B is a diagram showing two energy storage modules connected in parallel according to one embodiment.

FIG. 24C is a diagram showing two energy storage modules connected in series according to one embodiment.

FIG. 24D is a diagram showing two pairs of energy storage modules connected in a series/parallel arrangement according to one embodiment. DETAILED DESCRIPTION

For the purpose of promoting an understanding of the principles of the invention, reference will now be made to the embodiments illustrated in the drawings, and specific language will be used to describe the same. It will nevertheless be understood that no limitation of the scope of the invention is thereby intended. Any alterations and further modifications in the described embodiments and any further applications of the principles of the invention as described herein are contemplated as would normally occur to one skilled in the art to which the invention relates. One embodiment of the invention is shown in great detail, although it will be apparent to those skilled in the relevant art that some features not relevant to the present invention may not be shown for the sake of clarity.

The reference numerals in the following description have been organized to aid the reader in quickly identifying the drawings where various components are first shown. In particular, the drawing in which an element first appears is typically indicated by the left-most digit(s) in the corresponding reference number. For example, an element identified by a "100" series reference numeral will first appear in FIG. 1, an element identified by a "200" series reference numeral will first appear in FIG. 2, and so on. With reference to the Specification, Abstract, and Claims sections herein, it should be noted that the singular forms "a", "an", "the", and the like include plural referents unless expressly discussed otherwise. As an illustration, references to "a device" or "the device" include one or more of such devices and equivalents thereof.

FIG. 1 shows a diagrammatic view of a hybrid system 100 according to one embodiment. The hybrid system 100 illustrated in FIG. 1 is adapted for use in commercial-grade trucks as well as other types of vehicles or transportation systems, but it is envisioned that various aspects of the hybrid system 100 can be incorporated into other environments. As shown, the hybrid system 100 includes an engine 102, a hybrid module 104, an automatic transmission 106, and a drive train 108 for transferring power from the transmission 106 to wheels 110. The hybrid

module 104 incorporates an electrical machine, commonly referred to as an eMachine 112, and a clutch 114 that operatively connects and disconnects the engine 102 from the eMachine 112 and the transmission 106.

The hybrid module 104 is designed to operate as a self-sufficient unit, that is, it is generally able to operate independently of the engine 102 and transmission 106. In particular, its hydraulics, cooling and lubrication do not directly rely upon the engine 102 and the transmission 106. The hybrid module 104 includes a sump 116 that stores and supplies fluids, such as oil, lubricants, or other fluids, to the hybrid module 104 for hydraulics, lubrication, and cooling purposes. While the terms oil or lubricant will be used interchangeably herein, these terms are used in a broader sense to include various types of lubricants, such as natural or synthetic oils, as well as lubricants having different properties. To circulate the fluid, the hybrid module 104 includes a mechanical pump 118 and an electrical (or electric) pump 120. With this combination of both the mechanical pump 118 and electrical pump 120, the overall size and, moreover, the overall expense for the pumps is reduced. The electrical pump 120 can supplement mechanical pump 118 to provide extra pumping capacity when required. In addition, it is contemplated that the flow through the electrical pump 120 can be used to detect low fluid conditions for the hybrid module 104. In one example, the electrical pump 120 is manufactured by Magna International Inc. of Aurora, Ontario, Canada (part number 29550817), but it is contemplated that other types of pumps can be used.

The hybrid system 100 further includes a cooling system 122 that is used to cool the fluid supplied to the hybrid module 104 as well as the water-ethylene-glycol (WEG) to various other components of the hybrid system 100 which will be described later in further detail. In one variation, the WEG can also be circulated through an outer jacket of the eMachine 112 in order to cool the eMachine 112. It should be noted that the hybrid system 100 will be described with respect to a WEG coolant, but other types of antifreezes and cooling fluids, such as water, alcohol solutions, etc., can be used. Looking at FIG. 1, the cooling system 122 includes a fluid radiator 124 that cools the fluid for the hybrid module 104. The cooling system 122 further includes a main radiator 126 that is configured to cool the antifreeze for various other components in the hybrid system 100. Usually, the main radiator 126 is the engine radiator in most vehicles, but the main radiator 126 does not need to be the engine radiator. A cooling fan 128 flows air through both fluid radiator 124 and main radiator 126. A circulating or coolant pump 130 circulates the antifreeze to the main radiator 126. It should be recognized that other various components besides the ones illustrated can be cooled using the cooling system 122. For instance, the transmission 106 and/or the engine 102 can be cooled as well via the cooling system 122.

The eMachine 112 in the hybrid module 104, depending on the operational mode, at times acts as a generator and at other times as a motor. When acting as a motor, the eMachine 112 draws alternating current (AC). When acting as a generator, the eMachine 112 creates AC. An inverter 132 converts the AC from the eMachine 112 and supplies it to an energy storage system 134. The eMachine 112 in one example is an HVH410 series electric motor manufactured by Remy

International, Inc. of Pendleton, Indiana, but it is envisioned that other types of eMachines can be used. In the illustrated example, the energy storage system 134 stores the energy and resupplies it as direct current (DC). When the eMachine 112 in the hybrid module 104 acts as a motor, the inverter 132 converts the DC power to AC, which in turn is supplied to the eMachine 112. The energy storage system 134 in the illustrated example includes three energy storage modules 136 that are daisy- chained together to supply high voltage power to the inverter 132. The energy storage modules 136 are, in essence, electrochemical batteries for storing the energy generated by the eMachine 112 and rapidly supplying the energy back to the eMachine 112. The energy storage modules 136, the inverter 132, and the eMachine 112 are operatively coupled together through high voltage wiring as is depicted by the line illustrated in FIG. 1. While the illustrated example shows the energy storage system 134 including three energy storage modules 136, it should be recognized that the energy storage system 134 can include more or less energy storage modules 136 than is shown. Moreover, it is envisioned that the energy storage system 134 can include any system for storing potential energy, such as through chemical means, pneumatic accumulators, hydraulic accumulators, springs, thermal storage systems, flywheels, gravitational devices, and capacitors, to name just a few examples. High voltage wiring connects the energy storage system 134 to a high voltage tap 138. The high voltage tap 138 supplies high voltage to various components attached to the vehicle. A DC-DC converter system 140, which includes one or more DC-DC converter modules 142, converts the high voltage power supplied by the energy storage system 134 to a lower voltage, which in turn is supplied to various systems and accessories 144 that require lower voltages. As illustrated in FIG. 1, low voltage wiring connects the DC-DC converter modules 142 to the low voltage systems and accessories 144.

The hybrid system 100 incorporates a number of control systems for controlling the operations of the various components. For example, the engine 102 has an engine control module 146 that controls various operational characteristics of the engine 102 such as fuel injection and the like. A transmission/hybrid control module (TCM/HCM) 148 substitutes for a traditional transmission control module and is designed to control both the operation of the transmission 106 as well as the hybrid module 104. The transmission/hybrid control module 148 and the engine control module 146 along with the inverter 132, energy storage system 134, and DC- DC converter system 140 communicate along a communication link as is depicted in FIG. 1.

To control and monitor the operation of the hybrid system 100, the hybrid system 100 includes an interface 150. The interface 150 includes a shift selector 152 for selecting whether the vehicle is in drive, neutral, reverse, etc., and an instrument panel 154 that includes various indicators 156 of the operational status of the hybrid system 100, such as check transmission, brake pressure, and air pressure indicators, to name just a few.

As noted before, the hybrid system 100 is configured to be readily retrofitted to existing vehicle designs with minimal impact to the overall design. All of the systems including, but not limited to, mechanical, electrical, cooling, controls, and hydraulic systems, of the hybrid system 100 have been configured to be a generally self-contained unit such that the remaining components of the vehicle do not need significant modifications. The more components that need to be modified, the more vehicle design effort and testing is required, which in turn reduces the chance of vehicle manufacturers adopting newer hybrid designs over less efficient, preexisting vehicle designs. In other words, significant modifications to the layout of a preexisting vehicle design for a hybrid retrofit requires, then, vehicle and product line modifications and expensive testing to ensure the proper operation and safety of the vehicle, and this expenses tends to lessen or slow adoption of hybrid systems. As will be recognized, the hybrid system 100 not only incorporates a mechanical architecture that minimally impacts the mechanical systems of pre-existing vehicle designs, but the hybrid system 100 also incorporates a control/electrical architecture that minimally impacts the control and electrical systems of pre-existing vehicle designs.

FIG. 2 shows a diagram of one example of a communication system 200 that can be used in the hybrid system 100. While one example is shown, it should be recognized that the communication system 200 in other embodiments can be configured differently than is shown. The communication system 200 is configured to minimally impact the control and electrical systems of the vehicle. To facilitate retrofitting to existing vehicle designs, the communication system 200 includes a hybrid data link 202 through which most of the various components of the hybrid system 100 communicate. In particular, the hybrid data link 202 facilitates communication between the transmission/hybrid control module 148 and the shift selector 152, inverter 132, the energy storage system 134, the low voltage systems/accessories 144, and the DC-DC converter modules 142. Within the energy storage system 134, an energy storage module data link 204 facilitates

communication between the various energy storage modules 136. However, it is contemplated that in other embodiments the various energy storage system modules 136 can communicate with one another over the hybrid data link 202. With the hybrid data link 202 and the energy storage module data link 204 being separate from the data links used in the rest of the vehicle, the control/electrical component of the hybrid system 100 can be readily tied into the vehicle with minimum impact. In the illustrated example, the hybrid data link 202 and the energy storage module data link 204 each have a 500 kilobit/second (kbps) transmission rate, but it is envisioned that data can be transferred at other rates in other examples. Other components of the vehicle communicate with the transmission/hybrid control module 148 via a vehicle data link 206. In particular, the shift selector 152, the engine control module 146, the instrument panel 154, an antilock braking system 208, a body controller 210, the low voltage systems/accessories 144, and service tools 212 are connected to the vehicle data link 206. For instance, the vehicle data link 206 can be a 250 k J1939-type data link, a 500 k J1939-type data link, a General Motors LAN, or a PT-CAN type data link, just to name a few examples. All of these types of data links can take any number of forms such as metallic wiring, optical fibers, radio frequency, and/or a combination thereof, just to name a few examples.

In terms of general functionality, the transmission/hybrid control module 148 receives power limits, capacity available current, voltage, temperature, state of charge, status, and fan speed information from the energy storage system 134 and the various energy storage modules 136 within. The transmission/hybrid control module 148 in turn sends commands for connecting the various energy storage modules 136 so as to supply voltage to and from the inverter 132. The

transmission/hybrid control module 148 also receives information about the operation of the electrical pump 120 as well as issues commands to the auxiliary electrical pump 120. From the inverter 132, the transmission/hybrid control module 148 receives a number of inputs such as the motor/generator torque that is available, the torque limits, the inverter's voltage current and actual torque speed. Based on that information, the transmission/hybrid control module 148 controls the torque speed and the pump 130 of the cooling system. From the inverter 132, it also receives a high voltage bus power and consumption information. The

transmission/hybrid control module 148 also monitors the input voltage and current as well as the output voltage and current along with the operating status of the individual DC-DC converter modules 142 of the DC-DC converter system 140. The transmission/hybrid control module 148 also communicates with and receives information from the engine control module 146 and in response controls the torque and speed of the engine 102 via the engine control module 146.

Turning to FIG. 3, certain embodiments of the energy storage module 136 will now be discussed. As depicted, energy storage module 136 comprises a primary enclosure 301 having a lower housing 302 and an upper cover 304. The lower housing 302 and upper cover 304 are constructed and arranged to withstand large vibrations and high shock loads. In order to provide heavy duty strength for operation in certain environments (i.e., heavy duty trucking) while also being mindful of weight, lower housing 302 and upper cover 304 are constructed of aluminum in one embodiment, though other materials, such as steel, may also be used. According to one embodiment, the energy storage module 136 is constructed to withstand 100G shock loads and 25G vibration loads.

A plurality of mounting feet 306 are located on the bottom of lower housing 302 to assist in the mounting of the energy storage module 136 to the HEV body or frame. Additionally, a plurality of indentations 316 are provided around the periphery of lower housing 302 to also assist in the optional stacking of multiple energy storage modules.

Located at one end 307 of the energy storage module 136 is a high voltage junction box 308. As will be described in more detail below, a series of high voltage cables 310 are connected to the high voltage junction box 308 to deliver high voltage power to and from energy storage module 136. The high voltage junction box 308 may be formed integral to the primary enclosure 301 or as a separate unit.

Also provided on the end 307 of the energy storage module 136 are a service disconnect 312 and a low-voltage vehicle signal connector 314. The service disconnect 312 is provided to break the current path between the high voltage energy sources within the primary enclosure 301 and the electronics within the high voltage junction box 308. The service disconnect 312 ensures user safety during service operations of the energy storage module 136. The vehicle signal connector 314 allows for the energy storage module 136 to be in electrical and communicative connection with other components of the hybrid system, such as, but not limited to, the transmission/hybrid control module 148. In one embodiment, the vehicle signal connector 314 is a forty seven (47) way connector which includes gold terminals.

According to one aspect of the present disclosure, the vehicle signal connector 314 is also designed and validated for heavy duty applications. Though the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 3 includes a single vehicle signal connector 314, other

embodiments may include two or more signal connectors.

FIG. 4 depicts a perspective view of the other end 315 of the energy storage module 136. As shown, a plenum inlet cover 402 and a plenum outlet cover 404 are provided at the same end 315 of the energy storage module 136. The covers 402, 404 are constructed and arranged to guide the air entering and exiting the energy storage module 136. In some embodiments, covers 402, 404 may be connected and have a unitary design. An exhaust vent 406 is provided to allow for the safe exhaustion of potentially harmful gases and fumes in the event of a failure of a battery cell, as will be discussed in greater detail below. A plurality of recesses 408 is provided on the upper cover 304 to assist in the optional stacking and mating of multiple energy storage modules.

In some embodiments, the energy storage module 136 has a physical dimension of 1100mm x 470mm x 235mm, though larger and smaller dimensions may be warranted depending upon a particular HEV design and are within the scope of the present disclosure. In some embodiments, the energy storage module has a weight between 50 and 100 kilograms, though lighter and heavier weights are within the scope of the present disclosure.

FIG. 5 provides a perspective view of the underside of the lower housing 302 of energy storage module 136. As depicted, lower housing 302 includes a plurality of protrusions 502 on its bottom surface. In the illustrated embodiment, recesses 408 correspond to the configuration of the protrusions 502 in order to provide a stable arrangement when an additional energy storage module is stacked on top of the upper cover 304.

FIG. 6 provides a more detailed view of the end 307 of the energy storage module 136 including the high voltage junction box 308. In the illustrated embodiment, all electrical connections are made available on the same end 307 of the energy storage module 136. The high voltage junction box 308 includes two auxiliary direct current (DC) connections 602 and corresponding auxiliary fuses 604. These components provide additional sources of high voltage DC power to be used by the hybrid system and/or vehicle accessories. In one embodiment, one DC connection 602 allows the energy storage module 136 to be connected to the DC-DC converter system 140. The high voltage junction box 308 also includes a high voltage interlock (HVIL) 606 which safely isolates the high voltage components from the rest of the vehicle when triggered.

As noted above, a series of high voltage cables 310 connect a series of peripheral components to the high voltage junction box 308 via high voltage connectors 616. More specifically, a positive inverter cable 608 provides the positive connection to inverter 132, whereas a negative inverter cable 610 provides the negative connection to inverter 132. A positive mating cable 612 provides the positive connection to an additional, stacked energy storage module or other high voltage device and a negative mating cable 614 provides the negative connection to an additional, stacked energy storage module or other high voltage device. Positive cables 608, 612 are electrically connected to positive terminal 618 and negative cables 610, 614 are electrically connected to negative terminal 620.

In one embodiment, the ends of cables 310 and connectors 616 are keyed in order to prevent connection error. In one arrangement, each cable is provided with an individual key. In another embodiment, the positive cables 608, 612 are keyed the same, while the negative cables 610, 614 are keyed the same but different from positive cables 608, 612.

FIGS. 7 A, 7B depict the high voltage junction box 308 safety access features according to one embodiment of the present disclosure. As shown in FIG. 7A, the high voltage junction box 308 is a sealed unit protected by an access cover 702. In order to gain access to inside the junction box 308, fasteners 704 must be removed and the access cover 702 may be lifted away.

FIG. 7B depicts the high voltage junction box 308 with the access cover 702 removed. For precautionary purposes, a safety cover 706 is provided to act as a further barrier to the high voltage terminals behind it. In order to access the electronics depicted in FIG. 5, an HVIL resistor 708 must be removed in order to disconnect the HV power to the positive terminal 618 and the negative terminal 620. Additionally, the fasteners 710 must be taken out before the safety cover 706 can be removed. Once those actions are completed, the electronics within the high voltage junction box 308 as illustrated in FIG. 5 can then be safely accessed.

FIG. 8 illustrates the HV power connections between stacked energy storage modules. As shown, one energy storage module 802 functions as the master module. Master module 802 is connected to the hybrid system inverter 132 via cables 608, 610. A second energy storage module 804 functions as a slave module.

In the illustrated embodiment, slave module 804 is not connected to the inverter 132 but is only connected to the master module 802 via cables 612, 614. Therefore, master module 802 essentially contains two sets of main power connections: one to the hybrid system, one to the slave module 804.

FIG. 9 depicts a top view of the energy storage module 136 in which the upper cover 304 has been removed in order to show various components. In the illustrated embodiment, energy storage module 136 includes a first battery array 902 and a second battery array 904. The battery arrays 902, 904 allow for both (a) the high voltage energy received from the inverter 132 to be stored and (b) to provide high voltage energy to the inverter 132 in order to power an appropriate hybrid system component, as well as other system components via auxiliary DC

connections 602. Each battery array 902, 904 is connected to a high voltage harness

906 which is electrically connected to a controller module 908. The battery arrays 902, 904 are also electrically connected to a bussed electrical center (BEC) 918, which is constructed and arranged to, among other things, properly distribute the high voltage energy to the high voltage junction box 308 and cables 310.

In addition to the high voltage harness 906, the controller module 908 is also electrically connected to a low voltage harness 910. The low voltage harness 910 provides a communicative connection between the controller 908 and various components within the energy storage module 136, such as, but not limited to, fan assembly 912, vehicle signal connector assembly 914, and BEC 918. A high voltage interlock switch 916 is also provided inside the energy storage module 136 as a further safety precaution. The high voltage interlock switch 916 is in electrical and communicative connection with BEC 918. BEC 918 is adapted to trigger switch 916 and disconnect the high voltage power from the high voltage junction box 308 if the high voltage electrical conditions become unsafe.

In other, non-illustrated embodiments, the various components may be rearranged and relocated, such as, but not limited to, BEC 918 and portions of fan assembly 912. In one embodiment, the fan assembly 912 may be positioned outside of primary enclosure 301. In other embodiments, BEC 918 may be located inside high voltage junction box 308. As appreciated by those of ordinary skill in the art, these modifications and others may be implemented to reduce high voltage exposure under service conditions. FIGS. 10 and 11 provide a more detailed overview of the components within the energy storage module 136. As illustrated, the high voltage junction box 308 includes both a positive header assembly 1002 and negative header assembly 1004. Disposed underneath the access cover 702 is access cover seal 1006 which ensures that particles and moisture are kept out of the high voltage junction box 308. Also provided is high voltage interlock conductor 1008. In certain embodiments, the back of the high voltage junction box 308 may be open with respect to the lower housing 302 to allow the various electrical connections between the high voltage junction box 308 and the BEC 918 or controller 908. In other embodiments, the back of the high voltage junction box may be sealed with respect to the lower housing 302, with the wiring connections between the high voltage junction box 308 and the BEC 918 being individually sealed to prevent contaminants from entering the primary enclosure 301 via the high voltage junction box 308.

The service disconnect 312 comprises service disconnect plug 1010 and base 1012. The service disconnect plug 1010 of service disconnect 312 is provided to break the current path between the high voltage energy sources within the energy storage module 136 and the electronics within the high voltage junction box 308.

A seal 1014 is disposed underneath the upper cover 304 to ensure that particles and moisture are kept out of the energy storage module 136. A series of bolts 1016 are utilized to fix the upper cover 304 to the lower housing 302, though other known techniques may be utilized. Around the outer periphery of both the upper cover 304 and the lower housing 302 are a plurality of holes 1024 adapted to facility both the lifting of the energy storage module 136 as well as the stacking of multiple energy storage modules 136.

A safety cover 1018 is positioned on top of the battery array 902. The safety cover 1018 protects the battery cells comprising the battery array 902 from damage and contact with the other components within the energy storage module 136. A battery end plate seal 1032 is provided at each end of the battery arrays 902, 904 to further protect the arrays from contamination and damage.

Positioned between the plenum inlet cover 402 and the fan assembly 912 is a plenum/fan interface 1020. An inlet air sensor 1022 is located downstream of the plenum/fan interface 1020 and is adapted to monitor the air flow into the energy storage module 136. A fan housing seal 1030 is also provided adjacent to the fan assembly 912.

As discussed with respect to FIG. 9, the controller module 908 is electrically and communicatively connected to low voltage harness 910, as well as a thermistor high harness 1026 and a thermistor low harness 1028. As appreciated by those of skill in the art, a thermistor is a resistor whose resistance varies with changes in temperature. Accordingly, the thermistor harnesses 1026, 1028 may communicate temperature data related to the BEC 918, inlet air, outlet air, the battery arrays 902, 904, the fan assembly 912, etc.

Looking now at FIG. 11, BEC 918 includes a positive high voltage conductor 1102 electrically connected to the positive header assembly 1002 and a negative high voltage conductor 1104 electrically connected to the negative header assembly 1004. BEC 918 further includes a negative conductor 1106.

A high voltage interlock header pass through 1108 is provided adjacent to high voltage junction box 308. Referring now also to FIGS. 9 and 10, the HVIL pass through 1108 electrically connects the HVIL conductor 1008 with the HVIL switch 916. Accordingly, when the HVIL resistor 708 is removed from the HVIL 606, the HVIL pass through 1108 indicates an open circuit and the HVIL switch 916 is tripped to disconnect the high voltage power from the electronics within the high voltage junction box 308.

During operation, various components within energy storage module 136 generate a considerable amount of heat, particularly the battery arrays 902, 904. In order for the components to properly function, the heat must be adequately dissipated. Pursuant to the illustrated embodiment, the battery arrays 902, 904 and other components within the energy storage module 136 are air cooled. In order to guide and provide a separate air flow along the battery arrays 902, 904, a plenum cover 1110 is provided between the battery arrays 902, 904. The plenum cover 1110 has a fan end 1112, which is positioned adjacent to the fan assembly 912, and a BEC end 1114, which is located near the BEC 918. In the illustrated embodiment, the fan end 1112 is taller than the BEC end 1114. The tapering of plenum cover 1110 ensures that the air flow through the plenum maintains an adequate velocity as it flows away from the fan assembly 912. A plenum air seal 1116 is disposed beneath the plenum cover 1110.

A mid pack conductor 1118 electrically connects the first battery array 902 with the second battery array 904. The mid pack conductor 1118 allows the controller module 908 to monitor the battery arrays 902, 904 as if they were a single array.

As previously discussed, the plenum inlet cover 402 and the plenum outlet cover 404 are provided at one end 315 of the primary enclosure 301. In order to ensure no debris or moisture is introduced into the energy storage module 136, an inlet cover seal 1120 is provided between the outer periphery of the plenum inlet cover 402 and the lower housing 302. Similarly, an outlet cover seal 1122 is provided between the outer periphery of the plenum outlet cover 404 and the lower housing 302.

In one embodiment, potentially harmful and noxious gases which may vent when under abuse or failure from the battery cells within the battery arrays 902, 904, exhaust vent manifold 1124 is provided along the length of the battery arrays 902, 904. The vent tubes comprising manifold 1124 are connected at a vent tee 1126, with the exhaust gases then being delivered to the exhaust vent 406. Known techniques can then be implemented to treat or otherwise dispose of the exhaust gases.

FIG. 12 provides a perspective view of a plenum end cap 1200. The plenum end cap 1200 may be used as plenum inlet cover 402 and/or plenum outlet cover 404. The end cap 1200 comprises a body 1202 and a plurality of mounting flanges 1204. The mounting flanges 1204 are constructed and arranged to lay flat against and provide a surface to be affixed to the lower housing 302. In the illustrated embodiment, the end cap 1200 is affixed to the lower housing 302 by a plurality of fasteners placed through the holes 1206. In other embodiments, the end cap 1200 may be held to the lower housing 302 through other known techniques, such as, but not limited to, nails, welding, glue, etc. A filter 1208 is provided to limit the amount of debris that enters the air plenum.

FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional view of end cap 1200 taken along line 13-13 of FIG. 12. As illustrated, the bottom end of the cap body 1202 is open to provide an external air flow opening 1302, which assists in limiting the amount of debris entering the air plenum. However, in order to further ensure that debris does not enter the air plenum, a particle screen 1304 is optionally provided within the opening 1302. Within end cap 1200 is an air deflector 1306. The area within the mounting flanges 1204 defines an air inlet opening 1308, which is optionally filled with the filter 1208. The air inlet opening 1308 is positioned adjacent to the plenum/fan interface 1020. In one embodiment, the air inlet opening 1308 has a dimension of 100mm x 75mm, though other dimensions may be appropriate depending on design specifications.

According to one embodiment of the present disclosure, a heating and/or cooling unit is positioned adjacent to plenum/fan interface 1020. In such an embodiment, the controller module 908 works in conjunction with the thermistor harnesses 1026, 1028 to determine if the introduction of hot or cold air into the energy storage system is warranted. In yet other embodiments, the inlet cover 402 and the outlet cover 404 are in fluid connection, which allows the air to be recirculated throughout the energy storage module 136 in cold weather conditions. In further embodiments, the plenum inlet cover 402 and plenum outlet cover 404 are connected to a snorkel-type device. The snorkel device provides a means to keep the energy storage module 136 free of water in the event it becomes submerged. The snorkel device may also be used to transport cool air to the plenum inlet cover

402 of the energy storage module 136.

FIG. 14 generally depicts the cooling air flow through the energy storage module 136. As previously discussed, the plenum inlet cover 402 and the plenum outlet cover 404 are provided on the same end 315 of the energy storage module 136. When fan assembly 912 is powered on, external air is drawn into the energy storage module 136, as indicated by arrow 1402. The air is forced along the battery array 902, around the BEC 918, and back up along the battery array 904. The exhaust air is generally indicated by arrow 1404. The cooling air flow is guided along by the plenum cover 1110 in a U-shape pattern as indicated by arrow 1403. As appreciated by those of skill in the art, the battery arrays 902, 904 generate a considerable amount of heat during operation. If the heat is not dissipated, the arrays may overheat and malfunction. Accordingly, the air flow provided by the present disclosure adequately dissipates that heat.

FIG. 15 is an exploded view of the fan assembly 912 according to one embodiment. As illustrated, the fan assembly 912 comprises a first fan housing 1502, inlet air sensor 1022, second fan housing 1504 and brushless fan 1506. The first fan housing 1502 is positioned adjacent to the plenum/fan interface 1020 and mounted directly to the lower housing 302. The inlet air sensor 1022 is constructed and arranged to monitor the inlet air flow coming into the cooling plenum. The information is communicated to the controller module 908.

The first fan housing 1502 is constructed and arranged to receive the second fan housing 1504. The fan 1506 is mounted to the second fan housing 1504 by a plurality of screws 1508. The fan 1506 includes a communication connector 1510 which allows the controller module 908 to monitor and control the operation of the fan 1506. In one embodiment, the fan 1506 is brushless and operates at 12V, although other types of fans and voltage levels may be used.

FIG. 16 provides a more detailed view of the BEC 918. According to the illustrated embodiment, the BEC 918 is a single serviceable unit which can be replaced as a whole. The BEC 918 comprises a positive contact 1602, a negative contact 1604, and a pre-charge contactor 1606. The contacts 1602, 1604, 1606 connect the battery arrays 902, 904 to the appropriate electrical connections within the high voltage junction box 308. Accordingly, the contacts 1602, 1604, 1606 work in conjunction with the HVIL 606 to disconnect the high voltage from the rest of the vehicle. A pre-charge resistor 1608 is provided to slowly charge the inverter 132 when energy is delivered from the energy storage module 136 during vehicle start-up. A Y-cap 1610 is provided to reduce high frequency noise from the DC wires. A current sensor 1612 monitors the amount of high voltage current flowing in or out of the energy storage module 136. That information is optionally provided to the controller module 908. If the current exceeds a certain threshold, the high voltage interlock 606 is triggered and the high voltage power is disconnected from the electronics within the high voltage junction box 308. In one embodiment, current sensor 1612 is a dual range sensor. FIG. 17 is an exploded view of a battery array 1700. The battery array 1700 comprises a plurality of battery cells 1702 separated from one another by a cell retainer 1704. The battery cells 1702 are secondary batteries capable of being repeatedly charged and discharged, such as, but not limited to, nicad (Ni-Cd), nickel-hydride, and/or lithium-ion types. Battery cells manufactured by Samsung,

Sanyo and GS Yuasa Corporation have been found to be acceptable depending upon design and size considerations.

At each end of the battery array 1700 is an end plate 1706, which works in conjunction with two side rails 1708 to hold the battery cells 1702 and the cell retainers 1704 in place. Once the battery cells 1702, cell retainers 1704, end plates

1706, and side rails 1708 are properly aligned, the structure is held together by a series of screws 1710, though other known means may be used. In one embodiment, the battery array 1700 is made up of forty six individual battery cells 1702.

A series of seals 1712 is sandwiched between vent manifold sections 1714. The ends of the vent manifold sections 1714 are constructed and arranged to connect with the exhaust vent manifold 1124. Above the vent manifold sections 1714 are positioned a voltage sense board 1716, followed then by a safety cover 1720. The voltage sense board 1716 includes a harness connection 1718 which is constructed and arranged to connect with the high voltage harness 906.

FIG. 18 is a perspective view of an individual battery cell 1702. The battery cell 1702 includes two terminals 1802 and a vent 1804. The terminals 1802 provide a contact point upon which high voltage energy can be passed in order to be stored within the cell 1702. The terminals 1802 also provide a contact point upon which high voltage energy can be extracted from the battery cell 1702 in order to provide power to the hybrid vehicle system. The vent 1804 provides a specific location in which exhaust gases may be expelled in the event the battery cell 1702 is abused, overheats, or malfunctions.

FIGS. 19 and 20 illustrate an end view of the battery array 1700 when installed within the energy storage module. Buss bars 1902 provide an electrical connection between the voltage sense board 1716 and the cell terminals 1802.

Additionally, it is noted that cell vent 1804 is positioned directly beneath the vent manifold section 1714, which is in turn connected to the vent manifold 1124. Such an arrangement ensures that any harmful or noxious gases expelled from the battery cell 1702 are properly exhausted from the energy storage module 136.

FIG. 21 is a perspective view of the controller module 908. Disposed along one edge of the controller module 908 is a plurality of high voltage connections 2102. As discussed hereinabove, the high voltage connections 2102 are principally used to receive the high voltage harness 906 which is connected to the battery arrays 902, 904. Through the high voltage harness 906, the controller module 908 can individually monitor the state of charge of each individual battery cell 1702 within the battery arrays 902, 904. The controller module 908 can also control the charge and discharge of the battery arrays 902, 904.

Disposed along a different edge of the controller module 908 is a plurality of low voltage connections 2104. The low voltage connections 2104 are connected to various components within the energy storage module 136, such as, but not limited to, low voltage harness 910, thermistor high harness 1026 and a thermistor low harness 1028. The low voltage harness 910 is communicatively connected to the vehicle signal connector assembly 814. Additional components within the energy storage module may also be communicatively connected to the controller module 908 via high voltage harness 906, low voltage harness 910, or through other harnesses or connections.

According to one aspect of the present disclosure, the energy storage modules 136 within the energy storage system 134 are adapted to communicate with one another. In order to provide the communicative connection, the energy storage module data link 204 is provided between each energy storage module 136. In one embodiment and generally referring also to FIG. 8, one energy storage module 136 functions as the master energy storage module 802 while the others function as the slave energy storage modules 804. The controller module 908 within the master energy storage module 802 then receives information from the slave energy storage modules 804 and communicates with the transmission/hybrid control module 148 and the rest of the hybrid system as a single energy storage system 134. As discussed herein, the transmission/hybrid control module 148 receives power limits, capacity available current, voltage, temperature, state of charge, status, and fan speed information from the energy storage system 134 and the various energy storage modules 136 within. The transmission/hybrid control module 148 in turn sends commands for connecting the various energy storage modules 136 so as to supply voltage to and from the inverter 132.

Because the controller modules 908 within the energy storage modules 136 are identical, it does not matter which energy storage module is in the "master" position. According to one embodiment of the present disclosure, the controller modules 908 are adapted to periodically verify that the master energy storage module 802 is still functional. If not, a slave energy storage module 804 then begins to function as the master energy storage module and communicates with the transmission/hybrid control module 148, thereby providing system redundancy. According to the principles of the present disclosure, a separate controller box or structure is not necessary and energy storage modules 136 can be easily

interchanged. Additionally, the principles of the present disclosure further provide an energy storage system 134 in which the entire system remains functional even in the event that the master module 802 becomes inoperable. In one embodiment, the energy storage modules 136 are instructed to be a master or slave module based upon a received address which is programmed by the jumpers within low-voltage signal connector 314.

Though not illustrated, controller module 908 optionally includes a memory component. The memory component may be any known memory device, such as, but not limited to, non- volatile memory, a hard disk drive, magnetic storage device, optical storage device, RAM, or ROM, just to name a few examples. Non-volatile memory is adapted to record energy storage module usage and status history, such as achieved power levels and duty cycles, to name a few examples. The memory provides an effective serviceability tool in which energy storage module component performance can be quickly obtained and evaluated. The controller 908 may include additional components, such as a microprocessor capable of performing the various control, communication, and switching functions.

In order to stack multiple energy storage modules 136 on top of one another, various embodiments are contemplated. FIG. 22 illustrates one such embodiment. While FIG. 8 and the associated discussion primary dealt with the electrical connections between the master energy storage module 802 and the slave energy storage module 804, FIG. 22 concerns the physical arrangement and connection of the two. As shown, the slave energy storage module 804 is stacked upon the master storage module 802. A plurality of bolts 2202 are provided through mounting holes 1024 of both storage modules 802, 804. The indentations 316 are located near holes 1024 and run along the height of the energy storage modules 136 to provide sufficient clearance for the torque wrench or other device used to tighten the bolts 2202 during the stacking of the storage modules 802, 804. With four bolts 2202 in place, the stacked arrangement is strong enough to withstand considerable vibration and shock loads. As can be appreciated by those of skill in the art, more or less bolts 2202 and mounting holes 1024 may be provided.

According to one aspect of the present disclosure, the energy storage modules 136 are constructed such that they may be mounted in any arrangement, direction, or orientation. For example, the master energy storage module 802 may be stacked upon the secondary energy storage module 804. In other embodiments, the energy storage modules are not stacked upon each other but are positioned in various locations within the HEV.

FIG. 23 depicts a frame mounting concept. An energy storage module 2302 comprises a lid 2304 having a receiving element 2306 and a raised element 2308. The receiving element 2306 and the raised element 2308 allow for additional energy storage modules 2302 to be securely stacked upon one another. The energy storage module 2302 further comprises a housing 2310 constructed and arranged to sit upon and be mounted to the mounting plate 2312. The mounting plate 2312 includes a plurality of feet 2314 which are fixed to vehicular frame 2316. In one embodiment, the energy storage module 2302 is dimensioned to fit within the area typically reserved for a heavy duty truck fuel tank.

As can be appreciated by those of skill in the art, a single energy storage module 136 may be used or a plurality of energy storage modules 136 can be connected to one another in a series, parallel, or series/parallel fashion. In one embodiment, multiple energy storage modules 136 may be connected in parallel to provide a 300V system, while two or more pairs of energy storage modules may be connected in series or series/parallel to provide a 600V system. Because the energy storage modules 136 can easily be incorporated into a 300V or 600V HEV application, the electronics are designed to meet the specifications of the higher voltage systems, such as creepage and clearance issues. Accordingly, arcing is of no concern when the energy storage module is used in a 600V setting. FIG. 24A shows an embodiment where a single energy storage module 136 is used. FIG. 24B shows an embodiment where two energy storage modules 136 are connected in parallel. FIG. 24C shows an embodiment where two energy storage modules are connected in series. FIG. 24D shows an embodiment where two pairs of energy storage modules 136 are connected in a series/parallel arrangement.

While the invention has been illustrated and described in detail in the drawings and foregoing description, the same is to be considered as illustrative and not restrictive in character, it being understood that only the preferred embodiment has been shown and described and that all changes, equivalents, and modifications that come within the spirit of the inventions defined by following claims are desired to be protected. All publications, patents, and patent applications cited in this specification are herein incorporated by reference as if each individual publication, patent, or patent application were specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference and set forth in its entirety herein.