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Title:
ENHANCED HEAT TRANSFER SURFACE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/100170
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A heat transfer surface for use in conjunction with a heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat transfer surface a corrugated member where rows of corrugations that are offset relative to each other forming at least an alternating series of first and second rows or first, second and third rows. In some embodiments the heat transfer surface includes a heat transfer enhancement feature disposed within individual corrugations of the corrugated member to provide a more turbulent or tortuous fluid flow path through the heat transfer surface. In some example embodiments the heat transfer enhancement feature is a ridge disposed in the planar portions of at least some of the rows of corrugations. In other example embodiments the planar fin portions are porous fin surfaces. In other embodiments, the corrugated member cooperates with heat transfer enhancement features in the form of triangular protuberances disposed on their inner surfaces of spaced apart plates.

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Inventors:
FUKADA, Takayuki (Oakville, Ontario L6K 3E4, L6K 3E4, CA)
BARDELEBEN, Michael J.R. (Oakville, Ontario L6K 3E4, L6K 3E4, CA)
KENNEY, Benjamin A. (Oakville, Ontario L6K 3E4, L6K 3E4, CA)
Application Number:
CA2018/051505
Publication Date:
May 31, 2019
Filing Date:
November 27, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
DANA CANADA CORPORATION (656 Kerr Street, Oakville, Ontario L6K 3E4, L6K 3E4, CA)
International Classes:
F28F13/00; F28F1/10; F28F3/06
Domestic Patent References:
WO2011158329A12011-12-22
WO2017059959A12017-04-13
Foreign References:
US10107553B22018-10-23
US7059397B22006-06-13
US9689628B22017-06-27
US20060016582A12006-01-26
US20060243431A12006-11-02
US6415855B22002-07-09
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
RIDOUT & MAYBEE LLP et al. (250 University Avenue, 5th FloorToronto, Ontario M5H 3E5, M5H 3E5, CA)
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Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A heat transfer surface, comprising:

a plurality of transverse rows of corrugations disposed adjacent to one another and extending in an axial direction; wherein each row includes:

a plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions; and

a plurality of fin surface portions extending between and interconnecting the spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions;

wherein the plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions and the plurality of fin surface portions are co-operatively configured such that an alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions interconnected by fin surface portions is formed;

the plurality of rows of corrugations includes a plurality of first rows and a plurality of second rows disposed in alternating series such that at least one of the plurality of first rows and an adjacent second row of the plurality of second rows together define a set of adjacent rows of corrugations;

for each set of adjacent rows of corrugations, the first row is offset relative to the second row such that the corrugations in the first row partially overlap the corrugations in the adjacent second row;

wherein the heat transfer surface further comprises: a heat transfer enhancement feature disposed in the fin surface portions such that the heat transfer enhancement feature is disposed intermediate adjacent upper and lower bridge portions in the alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions; wherein at least one of the rows in each set of adjacent rows includes the heat transfer enhancement feature.

2. The heat transfer surface as claimed in claim 1, wherein the corrugations in each first row overlap the corrugations in the second row by about 50%.

3. The heat transfer surface as claimed in claim 1, wherein the upper bridge portions in each first row are offset relative to the upper bridge portions in each second row by a predetermined distance along an axis disposed transverse relative to the axial direction of the heat transfer surface.

4. The heat transfer surface as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the heat transfer enhancement feature comprises:

a ridge portion extending from the fin surface portion.

5. The heat transfer surface as claimed in claim 4, wherein the fin surface portions are non-planar.

6. The heat transfer surface as claimed in claim 4, wherein the ridge portion is disposed at an angle relative to the attached upper bridge portion.

7. The heat transfer surface as claimed in any one of claims 4 to 6, wherein only the plurality of second rows of corrugations includes the ridge portions.

8. The heat transfer surface as claimed in any one of claims 4 to 6, wherein the plurality of first and the plurality of second rows of corrugations each include the ridge portions.

9. The heat transfer surface as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the heat transfer enhancement feature comprises:

a plurality of apertures defined in each of the first surface portions of each corrugation in the plurality of first rows of corrugations and the plurality of second rows of corrugations.

10. The heat transfer surface as claimed in claim 9, wherein each row of corrugations in the plurality of rows of corrugations have a pitch between about 2.5mm to about 8mm and a width between about 1.016mm to about 20mm; and

wherein the plurality of apertures are generally circular having a diameter of about 0.25mm to 2mm.

11. The heat transfer surface as claimed in claim 1, wherein the plurality of rows of corrugations further comprise a plurality of third rows of corrugations wherein the each third row is disposed in conjunction with the plurality of first rows and the plurality of second rows such that an alternating series of first, second and third rows are disposed in a repeating pattern extending in the axial direction, wherein each set comprises a first row, an adjacent second row, and an adjacent third row; wherein the third row of corrugations is offset relative to both the first row and the second row such that the corrugations in the second row partially overlap the corrugations in the adjacent third row.

12. A heat transfer surface, comprising:

a plurality of transverse rows of corrugations disposed adjacent to one another and extending in an axial direction;

wherein each row includes:

a plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions; and

a plurality of fin surface portions extending between and interconnecting the spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions;

wherein the plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions and the plurality of fin surface portions are co-operatively configured such that an alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions interconnected by fin surface portions is formed;

the plurality of rows of corrugations includes at least a first row, at least a second row and at least a third row together defining at least one set of adjacent rows of corrugations;

wherein for each set of adjacent rows of corrugations, the first row is offset relative to the second row and the second row is offset relative to the third row such that the corrugations in the first row partially overlap the corrugations in the adjacent second row and the corrugations in the second row partially overlap the corrugations in the third row.

13. The heat transfer surface as claimed in claim 12, wherein a

plurality of sets of first, second and third rows are disposed in series defining a repeating pattern of offset first, second and third rows extending in the axial direction.

14. The heat transfer surface as claimed in claim 12 or claim 13, wherein the corrugations in the first row overlap the

corrugations in the second row by about 23% to about 33%, and the corrugations in second row overlap the corrugations in the third row by about 23% to about 33%.

15. The heat transfer surface as claimed in claim 13, wherein:

the upper bridge portions in the first row are offset relative to the upper bridge portions in the second row by a predetermined distance disposed along a transverse axis relative to the axial direction of the heat transfer surface; and

the upper bridge portions in the second row are offset relative to the upper bridge portions in the third row by a predetermined distance disposed along a transverse axis relative to the axial direction of the heat transfer surface.

16. The heat transfer surface as claimed in claim 15, further

comprising a heat transfer enhancement feature disposed in the fin surface portions of the corrugations such that the heat transfer enhancement feature is disposed intermediate adjacent upper and lower bridge portions in the alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions.

17. The heat transfer enhancement feature as claimed in claim 16, wherein the heat transfer enhancement feature comprises: a ridge portion extending from the fin surface portion.

18. The heat transfer surface as claimed in claim 16, wherein the heat transfer enhancement feature comprises:

a plurality of apertures defined in each of the first surface portions of each corrugation in the plurality of first rows of corrugations and the plurality of second rows of corrugations.

19. A heat exchanger comprising:

a plurality of tubular members disposed in spaced apart, parallel, or substantially parallel, relationship to one another; a plurality of first fluid channels defined by the plurality of tubular members, each tubular member having spaced apart first and second walls such that first fluid channel extends through each of the tubular members between the space apart first and second walls;

a plurality of second fluid channels defined between adjacent tubular members;

wherein the plurality of tubular members are co- operatively configured such that the first fluid channels are fluidly interconnected defining an inlet manifold for inletting a heat exchange fluid into the plurality of first fluid channels and defining an outlet manifold for discharging the heat exchange fluid from the plurality of first fluid channels;

a heat transfer surface disposed within each of the plurality of first fluid channels, wherein the heat transfer surface is a heat transfer surface as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 18.

20. The heat exchanger as claimed in claim 19, wherein :

the inlet and outlet manifold together define a flow direction through the first fluid channels; and

each row of corrugations has an end edge defined by the alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions

interconnected by fin surface portions;

wherein the heat transfer surface is disposed within the first fluid channels such that the axial direction of the rows of corrugations extends in the flow direction such that incoming fluid impinges the end edges of the rows of corrugations.

21. The heat exchanger as claimed in claim 19, wherein:

the inlet and outlet manifold together define a flow direction through the first fluid channels;

wherein the heat transfer surface is disposed within the first fluid channels such that the axial direction of the rows of corrugations extends transverse to the flow direction such that incoming fluid impinges the fin surface portions of the rows of corrugations.

22. A heat transfer surface, comprising:

a pair of first and second spaced apart plates each defining an inner surface;

a corrugated member disposed between the spaced apart first and second plates, the corrugated member including a plurality of transverse rows of corrugations disposed adjacent to one another and extending in an axial direction;

wherein each row includes:

a plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions; and

a plurality of fin surface portions extending between and interconnecting the spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions;

wherein the plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions and the plurality of fin surface portions are co-operatively configured such that an alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions interconnected by fin surface portions is formed defining a plurality of heat transfer enhancement-receiving spaces;

the plurality of rows of corrugations includes at least a first row and at least a second row together defining at least one pair of adjacent rows of corrugations;

for each one of the at least one pair of adjacent rows of corrugations, the first row is offset relative to the second row such that the corrugations in the first row partially overlap the corrugations in the adjacent second row; a plurality of heat transfer enhancement features disposed on the inner surfaces of the first and second spaced apart plates such that one of the plurality of heat transfer enhancement features is disposed in each heat transfer enhancement receiving spaced defined by the alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions interconnected by fin surface portions of each row of corrugations.

23. The heat transfer surface as claimed in claim 22, wherein a plurality of pairs of first and second rows are disposed in series defining an alternating series of first rows and second rows extending in the axial direction.

24. The heat transfer surface as claimed in claim 22 or claim 23, wherein the corrugations in the first row overlap the

corrugations in the second row by about 50%.

25. The heat transfer surface as claimed in claim 22 or claim 23, wherein the upper bridge portions in the first row are offset relative to the upper bridge portions in the second row by a predetermined distance.

26. The heat transfer surface as claimed in any one of claims 22 to 25, wherein the heat transfer enhancement features each comprise:

a triangular-shaped protuberance having a tip and a base, wherein the tip protrudes from the inner surface of the first or second plate.

27. The heat transfer surface as claimed in claim 26, wherein the tips of the triangular-shaped protuberances disposed on the inner surface of the first plate are oriented towards the tips of the triangular-shaped protuberances disposed on the inner surface of the second plate.

28. A heat exchanger, comprising:

a plurality of tubular members disposed in spaced apart, parallel, or substantially parallel, relationship to one another; a plurality of first fluid channels defined by the plurality of tubular members, each tubular member having spaced apart first and second walls such that first fluid channel extends through each of the tubular members between the space apart first and second walls; a plurality of second fluid channels defined between adjacent tubular members;

wherein the plurality of tubular members are co- operatively configured such that the first fluid channels are fluidly interconnected defining an inlet manifold for inletting a heat exchange fluid into the plurality of first fluid channels and defining an outlet manifold for discharging the heat exchange fluid from the plurality of first fluid channels;

a heat transfer surface disposed within each of the plurality of first fluid channels, wherein the heat transfer surface is a heat transfer surface as claimed in any one claims 22 to 27.

29. A heat exchanger, comprising:

a plurality of tubular members disposed in spaced apart, parallel, or substantially parallel, relationship to one another; a plurality of first fluid channels defined by the plurality of tubular members, each tubular member having spaced apart first and second walls such that first fluid channel extends through each of the tubular members between the space apart first and second walls;

a plurality of second fluid channels defined between adjacent tubular members;

wherein the plurality of tubular members are co operatively configured such that the first fluid channels are fluidly interconnected defining an inlet manifold for inletting a heat exchange fluid into the plurality of first fluid channels and defining an outlet manifold for discharging the heat exchange fluid from the plurality of first fluid channels;

a plurality of heat transfer enhancement features disposed on an inner surface of said first wall and on an inner surface of said second wall of each of said tubular members;

a corrugated member disposed between the spaced apart first and second walls of each of the tubular members, the

corrugated member including a plurality of transverse rows of corrugations disposed adjacent to one another and extending in an axial direction;

wherein each row includes:

a plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions; and

a plurality of fin surface portions extending between and interconnecting the spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions;

wherein the plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions and the plurality of fin surface portions are co-operatively configured such that an alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions interconnected by fin surface portions is formed defining a plurality of heat transfer enhancement-receiving spaces;

wherein the plurality of rows of corrugations includes at least a first row and at least a second row together defining at least one pair of adjacent rows of

corrugations;

for each one of the at least one pair of adjacent rows of corrugations, the first row is offset relative to the second row such that the corrugations in the first row partially overlap the corrugations in the adjacent second row; and wherein the corrugated member is disposed between the spaced apart first and second walls of each of the tubular members such that one of the plurality of heat transfer enhancement features is disposed in each of the heat transfer enhancement-receiving spaces.

Description:
ENHANCED HEAT TRANSFER SURFACE

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims priority to and the benefit of United States Provisional Patent Application No. 62/590,963 filed November 27, 2017 and United States Provisional Patent Application No. 62/590,997 filed November 27, 2017, the contents of which applications are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety

FIELD

[0002] The invention relates to heat exchangers, and in particular, to heat transfer surfaces in the form of turbulizers used to increase or enhance heat transfer performance in heat exchangers.

BACKGROUND

[0003] In heat exchangers, particularly of the type used to heat or cool fluids, it is common to use heat transfer surfaces, often referred to as turbulizers, that are positioned either inside or outside the fluid flow passages of the heat exchanger to increase and/or enhance overall heat transfer performance of the heat

exchanger. Various types of heat transfer surfaces, or turbulizers, are known. One common type of heat transfer surface is a corrugated member consisting of sinusoidal or rectangular corrugations extending in rows along the length or width of the heat exchanger plates or tubes. The corrugated member may also be provided with a series of "slits" or "louvers" formed in the planar surfaces of the corrugated member with the slits or louvers serving to disrupt boundary layer growth along the length of the planar surfaces and increase mixing in the fluid flowing over/through the heat transfer surface in an effort to increase overall heat transfer performance of the heat exchanger. [0004] While positioning a heat transfer surface within the fluid flow channels of a heat exchanger increases or enhances overall heat transfer performance by providing additional surface area for heat transfer, heat transfer surfaces are also known to increase pressure drop through the fluid channel in which the heat transfer surface is located. Therefore, there is a continual need to provide improved or enhanced heat transfer surfaces that provide the benefit of increased or improved heat transfer performance without having an undue negative impact on the overall pressure drop across the heat transfer surface which, in turn, can negatively impact heat transfer performance of the heat exchanger.

SUMMARY

[0005] In accordance with an example embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a heat transfer surface, comprising a plurality of transverse rows of corrugations disposed adjacent to one another and extending in an axial direction; wherein each row includes a plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions; and a plurality of fin surface portions extending between and interconnecting the spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions; wherein the plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions and the plurality of fin surface portions are co-operatively configured such that an alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions interconnected by fin surface portions is formed; the plurality of rows of corrugations includes at least a first row and at least a second row together defining at least one pair of adjacent rows of corrugations; for each one of the at least one pair of adjacent rows of corrugations, the first row is offset relative to the second row such that the corrugations in the first row partially overlap the corrugations in the adjacent second row; wherein the heat transfer surface further comprises: a heat transfer enhancement feature disposed in the fin surface portions such that the heat transfer enhancement feature is disposed intermediate adjacent upper and lower bridge portions in the alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions; wherein at least one of the rows of the at least one pair of rows includes the heat transfer enhancement feature. [0006] According to another example embodiment of the present disclosure there is provided a heat transfer surface, comprising: a plurality of transverse rows of corrugations disposed adjacent to one another and extending in an axial direction; wherein each row includes: a plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions; and a plurality of fin surface portions extending between and interconnecting the spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions; wherein the plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions and the plurality of fin surface portions are co-operatively configured such that an alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions interconnected by fin surface portions is formed; the plurality of rows of corrugations includes at least a first row, at least a second row and at least a third row together defining at least one set of adjacent rows of corrugations; wherein for each set of adjacent rows of corrugations, the first row is offset relative to the second row and the second row is offset relative to the third row such that the corrugations in the first row partially overlap the corrugations in the adjacent second row and the corrugations in the second row partially overlap the corrugations in the third row.

[0007] According to another example embodiment of the present disclosure there is provided heat exchanger comprising: a plurality of tubular members disposed in spaced apart, parallel, or substantially parallel, relationship to one another; a plurality of first fluid channels defined by the plurality of tubular members, each tubular member having spaced apart first and second walls such that first fluid channel extends through each of the tubular members between the space apart first and second walls; a plurality of second fluid channels defined between adjacent tubular members; wherein the plurality of tubular members are co-operatively configured such that the first fluid channels are fluidly interconnected defining an inlet manifold for inletting a heat exchange fluid into the plurality of first fluid channels and defining an outlet manifold for discharging the heat exchange fluid from the plurality of first fluid channels; a heat transfer surface disposed within each of the plurality of first fluid channels, wherein the heat transfer surface comprises: a plurality of transverse rows of corrugations disposed adjacent to one another and extending in an axial direction; wherein each row includes: a plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions; and a plurality of fin surface portions extending between and interconnecting the spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions; wherein the plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions and the plurality of fin surface portions are co-operatively configured such that an alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions interconnected by fin surface portions is formed; the plurality of rows of corrugations includes at least a first row and at least a second row together defining at least one pair of adjacent rows of corrugations; for each one of the at least one pair of adjacent rows of corrugations, the first row is offset relative to the second row such that the corrugations in the first row partially overlap the corrugations in the adjacent second row; wherein the heat transfer surface further comprises: a heat transfer enhancement feature disposed in the fin surface portions such that the heat transfer enhancement feature is disposed intermediate adjacent upper and lower bridge portions in the alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions; wherein at least one of the rows of the at least one pair of rows includes the heat transfer enhancement feature.

[0008] According to yet another example embodiment of the present disclosure there is provided a heat exchanger comprising : a plurality of tubular members disposed in spaced apart, parallel, or substantially parallel, relationship to one another; a plurality of first fluid channels defined by the plurality of tubular members, each tubular member having spaced apart first and second walls such that first fluid channel extends through each of the tubular members between the space apart first and second walls; a plurality of second fluid channels defined between adjacent tubular members; wherein the plurality of tubular members are co-operatively configured such that the first fluid channels are fluidly interconnected defining an inlet manifold for inletting a heat exchange fluid into the plurality of first fluid channels and defining an outlet manifold for discharging the heat exchange fluid from the plurality of first fluid channels; a heat transfer surface disposed within each of the plurality of first fluid channels, wherein the heat transfer surface comprises: a plurality of transverse rows of corrugations disposed adjacent to one another and extending in an axial direction; wherein each row includes: a plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions; and a plurality of fin surface portions extending between and interconnecting the spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions; wherein the plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions and the plurality of fin surface portions are co-operatively configured such that an alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions interconnected by fin surface portions is formed; the plurality of rows of corrugations includes at least a first row, at least a second row and at least a third row together defining at least one set of adjacent rows of corrugations; wherein for each set of adjacent rows of corrugations, the first row is offset relative to the second row and the second row is offset relative to the third row such that the corrugations in the first row partially overlap the corrugations in the adjacent second row and the corrugations in the second row partially overlap the corrugations in the third row.

[0009] In accordance with another example embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided heat transfer surface, comprising a pair of first and second spaced apart plates each defining an inner surface; a corrugated member disposed between the spaced apart first and second plates, the corrugated member including a plurality of transverse rows of corrugations disposed adjacent to one another and extending in an axial direction; wherein each row includes: a plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions; and a plurality of fin surface portions extending between and interconnecting the spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions; wherein the plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions and the plurality of fin surface portions are co-operatively configured such that an alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions interconnected by fin surface portions is formed defining a plurality of heat transfer enhancement- receiving spaces; the plurality of rows of corrugations includes at least a first row and at least a second row together defining at least one pair of adjacent rows of corrugations; for each one of the at least one pair of adjacent rows of corrugations, the first row is offset relative to the second row such that the corrugations in the first row partially overlap the corrugations in the adjacent second row; a plurality of heat transfer enhancement features disposed on the inner surfaces of the first and second spaced apart plates such that one of the plurality of heat transfer

enhancement features is disposed in each heat transfer enhancement-receiving spaced defined by the alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions interconnected by fin surface portions of each row of corrugations.

[OOIO] In accordance with another example embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided heat exchanger, comprising: a plurality of tubular members disposed in spaced apart, parallel, or substantially parallel, relationship to one another; a plurality of first fluid channels defined by the plurality of tubular members, each tubular member having spaced apart first and second walls such that first fluid channel extends through each of the tubular members between the space apart first and second walls; a plurality of second fluid channels defined between adjacent tubular members; wherein the plurality of tubular members are co-operatively configured such that the first fluid channels are fluidly interconnected defining an inlet manifold for inletting a heat exchange fluid into the plurality of first fluid channels and defining an outlet manifold for discharging the heat exchange fluid from the plurality of first fluid channels; a heat transfer surface disposed within each of the plurality of first fluid channels, wherein the heat transfer surface comprises: a pair of first and second spaced apart plates each defining an inner surface; a corrugated member disposed between the spaced apart first and second plates, the corrugated member including a plurality of transverse rows of

corrugations disposed adjacent to one another and extending in an axial direction; wherein each row includes: a plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions; and a plurality of fin surface portions extending between and

interconnecting the spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions; wherein the plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions and the plurality of fin surface portions are co-operatively configured such that an alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions interconnected by fin surface portions is formed defining a plurality of heat transfer enhancement-receiving spaces; the plurality of rows of corrugations includes at least a first row and at least a second row together defining at least one pair of adjacent rows of corrugations; for each one of the at least one pair of adjacent rows of corrugations, the first row is offset relative to the second row such that the corrugations in the first row partially overlap the corrugations in the adjacent second row; a plurality of heat transfer enhancement features disposed on the inner surfaces of the first and second spaced apart plates such that one of the plurality of heat transfer enhancement features is disposed in each heat transfer enhancement-receiving spaced defined by the alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions interconnected by fin surface portions of each row of corrugations.

[OOll] In accordance with another example embodiment of the present disclosure there is provided a heat exchanger, comprising: a plurality of tubular members disposed in spaced apart, parallel, or substantially parallel, relationship to one another; a plurality of first fluid channels defined by the plurality of tubular members, each tubular member having spaced apart first and second walls such that first fluid channel extends through each of the tubular members between the space apart first and second walls; a plurality of second fluid channels defined between adjacent tubular members; wherein the plurality of tubular members are co-operatively configured such that the first fluid channels are fluidly interconnected defining an inlet manifold for inletting a heat exchange fluid into the plurality of first fluid channels and defining an outlet manifold for discharging the heat exchange fluid from the plurality of first fluid channels; a plurality of heat transfer

enhancement features disposed on an inner surface of said first wall and on an inner surface of said second wall of each of said tubular members; a corrugated member disposed between the spaced apart first and second walls of each of the tubular members, the corrugated member including a plurality of transverse rows of corrugations disposed adjacent to one another and extending in an axial direction; wherein each row includes: a plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions; and a plurality of fin surface portions extending between and interconnecting the spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions; wherein the plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions and the plurality of fin surface portions are co-operatively configured such that an alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions interconnected by fin surface portions is formed defining a plurality of heat transfer enhancement-receiving spaces; wherein the plurality of rows of corrugations includes at least a first row and at least a second row together defining at least one pair of adjacent rows of corrugations; for each one of the at least one pair of adjacent rows of corrugations, the first row is offset relative to the second row such that the corrugations in the first row partially overlap the corrugations in the adjacent second row; and wherein the corrugated member is disposed between the spaced apart first and second walls of each of the tubular members such that one of the plurality of heat transfer enhancement features is disposed in each of the heat transfer enhancement-receiving spaces.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0012] Reference will now be made, by way of example, to the accompanying drawings which show example embodiments of the present application, and in which :

[0013] Figure 1 is a perspective view of a portion of a heat transfer surface according to an example embodiment of the present disclosure;

[0014] Figure 2 is a front elevation view of the heat transfer surface of Figure 1;

[0015] Figure 3A is a detail front view of the encircled area 3 of Figure 2 showing the offset corrugations;

[0016] Figure 3B is a detail rear view of the encircled area 3 of Figure 2 showing the offset corrugations;

[0017] Figure 4 is a top view of the heat transfer surface of Figure 1;

[0018] Figure 5 is a perspective view of a portion of a heat transfer surface according to another example embodiment of the present disclosure; [0019] Figure 6 is a front elevation view of the heat transfer surface of Figure

5;

[0020] Figure 7 is a detail view of the encircled area 7 of Figure 6 showing the offset corrugations;

[0021] Figure 8 is a top view of the heat transfer surface of Figure 5;

[0022] Figure 9 is a perspective view of a portion of a heat transfer surface according to another example embodiment of the present disclosure;

[0023] Figure 10 is a perspective view of a portion of a heat transfer surface according to another example embodiment of the present disclosure;

[0024] Figure 11 is a front elevation view of the heat transfer surface of

Figure 10;

[0025] Figure 12 is a top view of the heat transfer surface of Figure 10;

[0026] Figure 13 is front elevation view of a heat transfer surface according to the prior art;

[0027] Figure 14 illustrates results of heat transfer performance and friction factor test data for various heat transfer surfaces;

[0028] Figure 15 illustrates results of heat exchanger performance testing for heat exchangers incorporating various heat transfer surfaces;

[0029] Figure 16 is a perspective view of a portion of a heat transfer surface according to an example embodiment of the present disclosure;

[0030] Figure 17 is a perspective view of a portion of a heat transfer surface according to an example embodiment of the present disclosure;

[0031] Figure 18 is a perspective view of a portion of a heat transfer surface or heat exchanger channel according to another example embodiment of the present disclosure;

[0032] Figure 19 is a front elevation view of the heat transfer surface or heat exchanger channel of Figure 18; [0033] Figure 20 is a front elevation view of a portion of the heat transfer surface or heat exchanger channel of Figure 18; and

[0034] Figure 21 is a perspective view of an example heat exchanger incorporating a heat transfer surface according to the example embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0035] Similar reference numerals may have been used in different figures to denote similar components.

DESCRIPTION OF EXAMPLE EMBODIMENTS [0036] Referring to Figure 1 there is shown a heat transfer surface 10 for use with a heat exchanger according to an example embodiment of the present disclosure. In some embodiments, for example, the heat transfer surface 10 may be disposed within an enclosed fluid flow channel of a heat exchanger (not shown). In some embodiments, for example, the heat transfer surface 10 may also be attached to the outside surfaces of the enclosed fluid flow channels or tubular members that make up the heat exchanger or may be located between stacked, spaced apart fluid flow channels or tubular members that make up the heat exchanger. When heat transfer surfaces 10 are disposed inside enclosed fluid flow channels or heat exchanger tubes they are often referred to as turbulizers. When heat transfer surfaces 10 are disposed outside enclosed fluid flow channels or between stacked heat exchanger tubes they are often referred to as fins. For the purpose of this disclosure, the term "heat transfer surface" is used and is not intended to necessarily be limited to either a turbulizer or a fin, per se.

[0037] Referring in particular to Figures 1-3 there is shown a heat transfer surface according to a first example embodiment of the present disclosure. The heat transfer surface 10 includes a plurality of rows 14 of corrugations 16. The rows 14 are disposed adjacent to one another, in series, extending in a longitudinal or axial direction X-X of the heat transfer surface 10, the rows of corrugations extending transversely along axis Y-Y relative to the longitudinal or axial direction X-X.

[0038] Each row 14 includes a plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions 20, 22 interconnected by fin surface portions 24. The spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions 20, 22 and the fin surface portions 24 are co- operatively configured such than an alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions 20, 22 interconnected by fin surface portions 24 is formed. In some embodiments, for example, each corrugation 16 includes an upper bridge portion 20 and two fin surface portions 24 extending therefrom with each corrugation 16 being connected to the adjacent corrugation or corrugations 16 by a lower bridge portion 22. Alternatively, in some embodiments, for example, each corrugation 16 may include a lower bridge portion 22 and two fin surface portions 24 extending therefrom, with each corrugation 16 being connected to the adjacent corrugation or corrugations 16 by an upper bridge portion 20.

[0039] In some embodiments, for example, the plurality of rows of

corrugations 14 include at least a first row 14(1) and at least a second row 14(2) which together define an set 25 of adjacent rows 14(1), 14(2) of corrugations 16. For each row 14 in the set 25 of adjacent rows 14, the second row 14(2) is offset relative to the first row 14(1) such that the corrugations in the first row 14(1) partially overlap the corrugations in the second row 14(2). As shown for instance in Figure 2, the upper bridge portions 20 of the corrugations 16 in the first row 14(1) are offset or staggered relative to the upper bridge portions 20 of the corrugations 16 in the second row 14(2) by a predetermined distance d which, in some example embodiments, is about 50% of the overall width of an individual corrugation 16.

[0040] In some embodiments, for example, the heat transfer surface 10 is defined by a plurality of sets 25 of adjacent rows 14(1), 14(2) that are disposed in series thereby defining an alternating series of first rows 14(1) and second rows 14(2) extending in the axial direction X-X wherein the plurality of first rows 14(1) are offset relative to the plurality of second rows 14(2) in an alternating pattern. In some embodiments, for example, the plurality of sets 25 and the plurality of rows 14 of corrugations are connected in series with the plurality of sets 25 and the plurality of rows 14 being of unitary, one-piece construction. In some example embodiments, the heat transfer surface 10 is formed from a thin sheet of metal, such as aluminum, that is engaged between a set of dies that cuts or lances the sheet and displaces portions of the sheet of metal to form the alternating series of rows of corrugations of the corrugated heat transfer surface 10.

[0041] When heat transfer surface 10 is disposed within an enclosed fluid flow channel or heat exchanger tube, the upper and lower bridge portions 20, 22 generally are in contact, or substantially in contact, with the corresponding inside surfaces of the spaced apart first and second or upper and lower walls of the channel or tube.

[0042] Referring to Figures 2-4, the corrugations 16 define apertures or fluid passageways 30 opening in the longitudinal or axial direction X-X. When the heat transfer surface 10 is arranged such that the apertures or fluid passageways 30 extend along the longitudinal or axial direction X-X of the heat transfer surface 10 in the direction of incoming fluid flow, the heat transfer surface 10 is disposed in what is commonly referred to as the low pressure drop direction (LPD) with each row of corrugations 14 defining an end edge 32 that serves as a leading edge. The low pressure drop (LPD) direction is illustrated schematically in Figure 4 by flow directional arrow 31. When a fluid, for example oil, flows through the heat transfer surface 10, it will periodically encounter the end edge or leading edge 32 associated with the corrugations 16 in each row 14, creating turbulence within the fluid stream.

[0043] In some embodiments, for example, the heat transfer surface 10 may be arranged such that the apertures or fluid passageways 30 are oriented perpendicular, or substantially perpendicular, relative to the direction of incoming flow, the heat transfer surface 10, therefore, being disposed in what is commonly referred to as the high pressure drop direction (HPD). In this arrangement, the incoming fluid may impinge the fin surface portions 24 before being diverted through the apertures of fluid passageways 30 which also creates turbulence within the fluid stream and a more tortuous fluid flow. The high pressure drop (HPD) direction is illustrated schematically in Figure 4 by flow directional arrow 33.

[0044] In order to enhance the heat transfer performance of the heat transfer surface 10, while in use with a heat exchanger, in some embodiments, the heat transfer surface 10 includes a heat transfer enhancement feature 35 disposed within the fin surface portion 24 between the upper and lower bridge portions 20,

22 of the corrugations 16 of at least some of the rows 14 of corrugations. In some embodiments, for example, the heat transfer enhancement feature 35 increases the surface area associated with the heat transfer surface 10 and/or increases the amount of turbulence introduced into the incoming fluid stream.

[0045] In some embodiments for example, the heat transfer enhancement feature 35 includes an additional or further corrugation or ridge 36 that is disposed intermediate the upper and lower bridge portions 20, 22 of the corrugations 16.

The additional or further corrugation or ridge 36 is disposed within the fin surface portions 24, the fin surface portions 24 therefore defining a wavy or undulated surface or transition zone 40 between adjacent upper and lower bridge portions 20, 22. Each corrugation 16, therefore, is defined by an upper or lower bridge portion 20, 22 and fin surface portions 24 incorporating ridges 36 extending therefrom as shown for instance in Figures 2, 3A and 3B.

[0046] In some embodiments, for example, only some rows 14 of

corrugations 16 of the heat transfer surface 10 include ridges 36. For instance, in the example embodiment shown in Figures 1-4, only the second rows 14(2) or even numbered rows in the series of alternating first rows 14(1) and second rows 14(2) include ridges 36 while the first rows 14(1) have corrugations 16 with fin surface portions 24 that are free of the additional ridge 36.

[0047] In other embodiments, for example, each row 14 of corrugations 16 within the heat transfer surface 10 includes ridges 36 formed in each of the fin surface portions 24 that extend between and interconnect the upper and lower bridge portions 20, 22 as shown, for example, in Figures 5-8. In the subject example embodiment, the apex 40 of ridge 36 is disposed at an angle, a, relative to a vertical axis through the midpoint or apex of the upper bridge portions 20 corrugations 16 and is disposed at a level or height, h, that is about the midway or halfway point of the overall height, H, of the corrugations 16. However, it will be understood that the specific location of the ridges 36 relative the upper and lower bridge portions 20, 22 of corrugations 16 may depend on the particular application for the heat transfer surface 10 and/or the desired fluid flow properties for fluid flowing through the heat transfer surface 10. [0048] The addition of ridge 36 to the fin surface portions 24 that extend between and interconnect the upper and lower bridge portions 20, 22 results in a heat transfer surface 10 having a more undulated profile as compared to more traditional heat transfer surfaces such as the type of heat transfer surface shown in Figure 13 which is commonly referred to as an offset strip fin. [0049] When only some of the rows 14(2) of corrugations 16 include ridges

36, such as in the example embodiment of Figures 1-4, the apertures 30(2) defined by the corrugations 16 with ridges 36 have a more convoluted shape as compared to the apertures 30(1) defined by the corrugations 16 that are free from ridges 36. By having the alternating rows 14(1), 14(2) of corrugations 16 offset relative to one another, apertures 30(1) in the first rows 14(1) partially overlap the apertures 30(2) formed by the corrugations 16 in the second rows 14(2) which alternating pattern of apertures 30(1), 30(2) defines a more tortuous or turbulent flow path through the heat transfer surface 10. [0050] When all of the rows 14(1), 14(2) of corrugations 16 include ridges 36, such as in the example embodiment of Figures 5-8, the apertures 30 defined by the corrugations 16 all have the same shape or profile. When the corrugations 16 in the first rows 14(1) overlap the corrugations 16 in the second rows 14(2), the

overlapping apertures 30 together define an even more tortuous and/or turbulent flow path through the heat transfer surface 10. The addition of ridges 36 within corrugations 16 has been found to increase turbulence within the incoming fluid stream which, in turn, has been found to increase the overall heat transfer performance associated with the heat transfer surface 10 when in use within a heat exchanger.

[0051] Referring now to Figures 14-15 there is shown performance data for heat exchanger channels incorporating different heat transfer surfaces. The illustrated performance data provides a comparison between a traditional offset strip fin, as shown for example in Figure 13, wherein the heat transfer surface is comprised of a plurality of rows of corrugations wherein each row is offset with respect to the previous row in an alternating pattern identified as the "epsilon" heat transfer surface in Figures 14 and 15 and the more wavy, or undulated, heat transfer surface 10 shown in Figures 5-8 wherein a heat transfer enhancement features 35 in the form of a protrusion or corrugation disposed within the fin surface portion 24 between the upper and lower bridge portions or each row 14 of corrugations 16 identified as the "wavy epsilon" heat transfer surface 10 in Figures 14-15. As shown in Figure 14, the average heat transfer performance for the "wavy epsilon" heat transfer surface 10 as shown in Figures 5-8 is greater than the heat transfer performance exhibited by the traditional or "epsilon" turbulizer, as shown in Figure 13, for fluid flow with Reynolds Number less than 100 (e.g.

l<Re<100) as well as for fluid flow with a Reynolds Number greater than 100 (e.g. Re>100). As well, the "wavy epsilon" heat transfer surface 10 (as shown in Figures 5-8) was found to exhibit reduced friction losses as compared to the "epsilon" or traditional turbulizer. The overall performance data for a heat exchanger

incorporating various heat transfer surfaces, namely a traditional "epsilon" turbulizer as shown in Figure 13 and a "way epsilon" heat transfer surface 10 as shown in Figures 5-8 is shown in Figure 15 which illustrates that the wavy epsilon heat exchanger of Figures 5-8 demonstrates improved pressure drop characteristics as well as improved overall heat transfer as compared to a heat exchanger incorporating a traditional turbulizer.

[0052] Referring now to Figure 9, there is shown another example

embodiment of the present disclosure. More specifically, in some embodiments, for example, rather than providing a heat transfer enhancement feature 35 in the form of a protrusion 30 disposed within the fin surface portion 24 intermediate the upper bridge portion and lower bridge portion 20, 22 of the corrugations 16, the heat transfer surface 10 includes a heat transfer enhancement feature 35 in the form of a plurality of openings 42 defined within the fin surface portions 24 that extend between and interconnect the upper and lower ridges 20, 22. In the subject example embodiment, therefore, the fin surface portions 24 define a porous surface portion. In some embodiments, for example, the openings 42 are generally circular and have a predetermined diameter and are spaced apart from each other by a predetermined distance so as to define a fin surface portion 24 having a porosity within a predetermined range. In some embodiments, for example, the diameter of the apertures 42 is in the range of about 0.25mm to 2mm. In other embodiments, for example, the openings or apertures 42 may have a shape other than generally circular, such as, for instance oval or rectangular. In some embodiments, for example, the plurality of openings or apertures 42 may have different shapes. In some embodiments, for example, the plurality of openings 42 are arranged in a staggered pattern over the fin surface portions 24. By incorporating a plurality of openings 42 in the fin surface portions 24 of corrugations 16, a more tortuous fluid path through the heat transfer surface 10 is defined which, in turn, may help to increase turbulence within the incoming fluid stream which may also serve to increase overall heat transfer performance. [0053] In some embodiments, for example, in order to accommodate the plurality of openings or apertures 42 disposed in the fin surface portions 24 with width, W, of each row 14 of corrugations 16, as shown for instance in Figures 4 and 8 may be larger than the width, W, of the rows 14 of corrugations 16 that include heat transfer enhancement features 35 in the form of a plurality of apertures 42. In some embodiments, for example, the width, W> may be in the range of about 1.016mm to about 20mm.

[0054] In some embodiments, for example, the fin surface portions 24 of the heat transfer surface 10 may include ridge portions 36 as well as the plurality of openings 42.

[0055] Referring now to Figures 10-12, there is shown a heat transfer surface 100 according to another example embodiment of the present disclosure. In the subject example embodiment, the heat transfer surface 100 has generally the same structure as discussed above in connection with Figures 1-9, however, rather than being formed by a plurality of sets 25 of two rows of corrugations 14(1), 14(2), the heat transfer surface 100 is comprised of a plurality of sets of three rows of corrugations disposed in a repeating pattern. Accordingly, in some embodiments, for example, rather than having a heat transfer enhancement feature 35 disposed within the fin surface portions 24 of the corrugations 16, the heat transfer enhancement feature 35 includes a third row 14(3) of corrugations 16 added to the repeating group or sets 25 of rows 14 that make up the heat transfer surface 100, with the third row of corrugations 14(3) being positioned such that it is offset or staggered with respect to both the first and second rows of corrugations 14(1), 14(2).

[0056] Accordingly, in the subject example embodiment, the heat transfer surface 100 comprises at least a first row 14(1) of corrugations 16, at least a second row 14(2) of corrugations 16, and at least a third row 14(3) of corrugations 16 wherein the second row 14(2) of corrugations 16 is offset relative to the first row 14(1) of corrugations 16 and wherein the third row 14(3) is offset relative to both the first and second rows 14(1), 14(2) as shown, for example, in Figure 10. Depending on the overall size of the heat transfer surface 100, which will likely depend on the overall size of the heat exchanger into which the heat transfer surface 100 will be incorporated, whether it be within enclosed fluid channels or external to the enclosed fluid channels, the first, second and third rows 14(1),

14(2), 14(3) of corrugations 16 together form the set 25 of adjacent rows 14, which set 25 may be repeated or disposed adjacent to one another in the

longitudinal or axial direction X-X so as to form a repeating series of offset rows 14(1), 14(2), 14(3) of corrugations 16.

[0057] In order to accommodate the third row 14(3) of corrugations 16 in the repeating set 25 of rows or corrugations 16 that makes up the heat transfer surface 100, the overall pitch, P, associated with the corrugations 16 in each row 14 may be larger than the pitch associated with the corrugations 16 in each row in the example embodiments of Figures 1-9 where the set 25 included only adjacent first and second rows 14(1), 14(2) of corrugations 16. It will be understood that reference to the pitch associated with the corrugations is in reference to the distance between the apex of one corrugation 16 to the apex of the adjacent corrugation 16 in the same row 14 of corrugations. In some embodiments, for example, the pitch, P, associated with the corrugations 16 in the rows 14(1), 14(2), 14(3) or corrugations that form the set 25 is about between about 2.5mm to about 8mm. In some embodiments, for example, the pitch, P, is about 3.83mm.

[0058] As well, rather than having the corrugations 16 in adjacent rows 14 offset by about 50% relative to each other along the transverse axis Y-Y (or high pressure drop direction) as described in connection with the example embodiments of Figures 1-9, in embodiments where the set 25 includes three rows 14(1), 14(2), 14(3) of corrugations 16, as shown for instance in Figure 11, the corrugations 16 in one row may instead be offset relative to the corrugations 16 in the adjacent row or rows 14 by between about 23% to about 33% relative to each other along the transverse axis Y-Y (or high pressure drop direction). In some embodiments, for example, the first row of corrugations 14(1) is offset with respect to the adjacent second row of corrugations 14(2) by a distance, d, of about 0.38mm to about 0.728mm along an axis that extends parallel to the row of corrugations. In some embodiments, for example, the distance, d, is about 0.440mm to about 0.638mm along an axis that extends parallel to the row of corrugations. The decrease in the amount of offset between adjacent rows 14(1), 14(2), 14(3) of corrugations is with effect that the portion of the apertures 30 or fluid passageways defined by each of the corrugations 16 that is exposed to the incoming fluid stream between the adjacent rows 14(1), 14(2), 14(3) of corrugations 16, when the heat transfer surface is disposed in the low pressure drop direction or orientation, is also decreased. This decrease in the size of the apertures of fluid passageways 30 that is uninterrupted when exposed to an incoming fluid stream serves to create a more tortuous and/or turbulent flow path through the heat transfer surface 100, which increase in turbulence may result in improved overall performance of the heat exchanger incorporating the heat transfer surface 100.

[0059] In some embodiments, for example, the heat transfer surface 100 may also include a heat transfer enhancement feature 35 disposed within the fin surface portions 24 of the corrugations 16 of at least some of the rows 14 of corrugations.

In some embodiments, for example, the heat transfer surface 100 may include heat transfer enhancement features 35 in the form of ridges or protrusions 36 that project out of the surface of the fin surface portions 24 as described above in connection with the example embodiments of Figures 1-8. In some embodiments, for example, the ridges 36 may be included in every other row, as shown for instance in Figure 16 while in other embodiments the ridges 36 may be included in each row as shown for instance in Figure 17. In some embodiments, for example, the heat transfer surface 100 may include a heat enhancement feature 35 in the form of the plurality of openings 42 disposed within the fin surface portions 24 to form porous fin surface portions extending between the upper and lower ridges 20, 22 of the rows 14 of corrugations 16 as described above in connection with the example embodiment of Figure 9 and as shown for instance in Figure 18.

[0060] Referring now to Figures 18-21, another example embodiment of the present disclosure will be described.

[0061] Referring to Figures 18 and 19 there is shown a portion of a heat transfer surface or portion of a heat exchanger channel 210 according to an example embodiment of the present disclosure. The heat transfer surface or heat exchanger channel 210 includes a corrugated member 212 disposed between first and second spaced apart plates 213, 215, the first and second plates 213, 215 including a plurality of spaced apart heat transfer enhancement features 235 disposed in relation to the positioning or placement of the corrugated member 212 between or relative to plates 213, 215 as will be described in further detail below.

[0062] Referring now to Figure 20, the corrugated member 212 of the heat transfer surface or portion of heat exchanger channel 210 is described in further detail. The corrugated member 212 includes a plurality of rows 214 of corrugations 216. The rows 214 are disposed adjacent to one another, in series, and extend in a longitudinal or axial direction X-X of the corrugated member 212, the rows 214 of corrugations 216 extending transversely along axis Y-Y relative to the longitudinal or axial direction X-X.

[0063] As described above in relation to the previously described example embodiments, each row 214 includes a plurality of spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions 220, 222 interconnected by fin surface portions 224. The spaced apart upper and lower bridge portions 220, 222 and the fin surface portions 224 are co-operatively configured such than an alternating series of upper and lower bridge portions 220, 222 interconnected by fin surface portions 224 is formed. In some embodiments, for example, each corrugation 216 includes an upper bridge portion 20 and two, fin surface portions 224 extending therefrom with each corrugation 216 being connected to the adjacent corrugation or corrugations 16 by a lower bridge portion 222. Alternatively, in some embodiments, for example, each corrugation 16 may include a lower bridge portion 222 and two fin surface portions 224 extending therefrom, with each corrugation 216 being connected to the adjacent corrugation or corrugations 216 by an upper bridge portion 220.

[0064] In some embodiments, for example, the plurality of rows of

corrugations 214 include at least a first row 214(1) and at least a second row 214(2) which together define an set 225 of adjacent rows 214(1), 214(2) of corrugations 216. For each row 214 in the set 225 of adjacent rows 214, the second row 214(2) is offset relative to the first row 214(1) such that the

corrugations in the first row 214(1) partially overlap the corrugations in the second row 214(2). As shown for instance in Figure 21, the upper bridge portions 220 of the corrugations 216 in the first row 214(1) are offset relative to the upper bridge portions 220 of the corrugations 216 in the second row 214(2) by a predetermined distance, d, which, in some example embodiments, is about 50% of the overall width of an individual corrugation 216.

[0065] In some embodiments, for example, the heat transfer surface 210 is defined by a plurality of sets 225 of adjacent rows 214(1), 214(2) that are disposed in series thereby defining an alternating series of first rows 214(1) and second rows 214(2) extending in the axial direction X-X wherein the plurality of first rows 214(1) are offset relative to the plurality of second rows 214(2) in an alternating pattern.

[0066] The corrugated member 212 is disposed between upper and lower or first and second plates 213, 215. In some embodiments, for example, the corrugated member 212 and the first and second plates 213, 215 are formed using additive manufacturing techniques and are a unitary, one piece construction. In other embodiments, the corrugated member 212 is separate to the first and second plates 213, 215, the corrugated member 212 and the first and second plates 213, 215 being joined together for instance, via brazing, forming a unit. Regardless of the manufacturing technique(s) used, the corrugated member 212 and the first and second plates 213, 215 together may be disposed within the enclosed fluid flow channels of a separate heat exchanger (not shown), or may be attached to the outside surfaces of the enclosed fluid flow channels or tubular members that make up the heat exchanger. [0067] In other embodiments, for example, the corrugated member 212 and the first and second plates 213, 215 together may be located between stacked, spaced apart fluid flow channels or tubular members that make up the heat exchanger. When the corrugated member 212 and the first and second plates 213, 215, together, are disposed inside or outside enclosed fluid flow channels or heat exchanger tubes they, together, serve as a heat transfer surface commonly referred to as either a turbulizer or fin.

[0068] In other embodiments, for example, the corrugated member 212 is separate to the first and second plates 213, 215, the first and second plates 213, 215 being the spaced apart walls of an enclosed fluid flow channel 250 of a heat exchanger 300. Accordingly, it will be understood that in some embodiments, the first and second plates 213, 215 are separate to the spaced apart walls that form the enclosed fluid flow channels of a heat exchanger while in other embodiments, the first and second plates 213, 215 referred to in the drawings may be separate and in addition to the spaced apart walls that form the enclosed fluid flow channels of a heat exchanger. Therefore, whether the first and second plates 213, 215 are separate to the spaced apart walls that form the enclosed fluid flow channels of a heat exchanger or whether they themselves are the spaced apart walls of the enclosed fluid flow channels of a heat exchanger, it will be understood that together with corrugated member 212 they define a flow passage 219 through which a fluid is intended to flow.

[0069] When corrugated member 212 is disposed between the first and second plates 213, 215, the upper and lower bridge portions 220, 222 generally are in contact, or substantially in contact, with the corresponding inside surfaces of the spaced apart first and second plates 213, 215. The corrugations 216 define apertures or fluid passageways or heat transfer enhancement-receiving spaces 230 opening in the longitudinal or axial direction X-X.

[0070] In order to enhance the heat transfer performance of the heat transfer surface or channel 210, the first and second plates 213, 215 include heat transfer enhancement features 235 disposed on the inner surfaces 221, 223 of the first and second plates 213, 215. The heat transfer enhancement features 235 are in the form of triangular tabs, projections or protuberances that are raised or protrude out of the surface of the first and second plates 213, 215. The heat transfer

enhancement features or triangular projections/protuberances 235 each have a tip 237 that protrudes or extends out of the inner surface of the plates 213, 215, the heat transfer enhancement features or triangular projections/protuberances 235 being disposed such that one heat transfer enhancement feature or triangular projections/protuberance 235 is positioned within each aperture or fluid

passageway or heat transfer enhancement-receiving space 230 formed by each of the corrugations 216 in the corrugated member 212 when disposed between plates 213, 215.

[0071] Accordingly, as shown most clearly in Figures 18 and 19, the heat transfer enhancement features or triangular projections/protuberances 235 formed on the inner surface of the first plate 213 are disposed underneath the upper bridge portion 220 in between the two fin surface portions 224 extending therefrom. The heat transfer enhancement features or triangular projections/protuberances 235 formed on the inner surface of the second plate 215 are disposed in the aperture or fluid passageway 230 formed by the lower bridge portion 222 and two adjacent fin surface portions 224 that extend therefrom and connect to the adjacent upper bridge portion(s) 220.

[0072] In some embodiments, for example, the heat transfer enhancement features or triangular projections/protuberances 235 that extend from the first plate 213 and the heat transfer enhancement features or triangular

projections/protuberances 235 that extend from the second plate 215 are disposed such that the tips 237 of the heat transfer enhancement features or triangular projections/protuberances 235 that extend from the first plate 213, independently, are oriented towards the tips 237 of the heat transfer enhancement features or triangular projections/protuberances 235 that extend from the second plate 215 of the adjacent corrugation 216 or aperture 230 defined by the adjacent corrugation 216.

[0073] Since the corrugated member 212 includes a plurality of alternating first and second rows 214(1), 214(2) of corrugations 216 that are arranged such that the second rows 214(2) are offset relative to the adjacent first row or rows 214(1) along the transverse axis Y-Y, the heat transfer enhancement features or triangular projections/protuberances 235 in one row 214 are also offset relative to heat transfer enhancement features or triangular projections/protuberances 235 in the adjacent row or rows of heat transfer enhancement features or triangular projections/protuberances 235.

[0074] When the heat transfer surface or channel 210 is arranged such that the apertures or fluid passageways 230 of the corrugated member 12 extend along the longitudinal or axial direction X-X of the heat transfer surface 210 in the direction of incoming fluid flow, the heat transfer surface 210 is disposed in what is commonly referred to as the low pressure drop direction (LPD) with each row of corrugations 214 defining an end edge 232 that serves as a leading edge. The low pressure drop (LPD) direction is illustrated schematically in Figure 18 by directional arrow or longitudinal axis 231. When a fluid, for example oil, flows through the heat transfer surface or channel 210, it will periodically encounter the end or leading edges 232 associated with the corrugations 16 of each row 214 and will also encounter the edges of the heat transfer enhancement features or triangular projections/protuberances 235 disposed within each corrugation 216 creating turbulence within the fluid stream. [0075] In other embodiments, for example, the heat transfer surface or channel 210 may be arranged such that the apertures or fluid passageways 230 are oriented perpendicular, or substantially perpendicular, relative to the direction of incoming flow, the heat transfer surface 210, therefore, being disposed in what is commonly referred to as the high pressure drop direction (HPD). In this

arrangement, the incoming fluid may impinge the fin surface portions 224 before being diverted through the apertures of fluid passageways 230 where it will encounter the heat transfer enhancement features or triangular

projections/protuberances 235 which also creates turbulence within the fluid stream and a more tortuous fluid flow path through the heat transfer surface 210. The high pressure drop (HPD) direction is illustrated schematically in Figure 18 by directional arrow and/or transverse axis 233.

[0076] When a fluid (i.e. gas or liquid) flows through the heat transfer surface 210, the sharp edges of the triangular-shaped heat transfer enhancement features 235 may introduce vortices into the fluid contacting or impinging of each heat transfer enhancement features of triangular projection/protuberance 235, which vortices are formed along the inner surface of the plates 213, 215 and help to prevent the flow from separating from the inner surface as the fluid travels through the heat transfer surface or channel 210. In addition to the vortices introduced by the heat transfer enhancement features or triangular projections/protuberances 235, turbulence is also created within the fluid flowing through the heat transfer surface 210 as the fluid impinges on the leading edges 232 of each offset row 214 of corrugations 216 which causes the fluid to divert through the offset apertures or fluid passageways 230 creating a more circuitous or tortuous path through the heat transfer surface 210.

[0077] In some embodiments, for example, the heat transfer enhancement features or triangular projections/protuberances 235 are formed directly on the inner surfaces of the spaced apart walls of the enclosed fluid flow channels that make up the heat exchanger. In other example embodiments, they are formed on separate insert plates that are disposed within and brazed to the inner surfaces of the spaced apart walls of the enclosed fluid flow channels.

[0078] Heat transfer enhancement features or triangular

projections/protuberances 235 in combination with the offset rows 214(1), 214(2) of corrugations 216 of the corrugated member 212 have been found to increase overall heat transfer performance of the heat transfer surface 210 when disposed within an enclosed fluid flow channel of a heat exchanger, as illustrated in the attached graphical representations of overall performance data shown in Figures 14 and 15, wherein the subject heat transfer surface 210 is identified as the "delta epsilon" heat transfer surface and shows improved performance over other heat transfer surface structures.

[0079] Referring now to Figure 21, in some example embodiments, when in use, the heat transfer surface 10, 100, 210 of any of the example embodiments described above, is incorporated into the enclosed fluid channels of a heat exchanger 300, for instance, a transmission oil cooler (TOC) with the heat transfer surface 10, 100, 210 serving to improve overall performance of the heat exchanger although it will be understood that the heat transfer surface 10 may be

incorporated in any one of a number of heat exchangers and is not intended to be limited to use in a transmission oil cooler.

[0080] In accordance with principles known in the art, the heat exchanger 300 includes a plurality of stacked tubular members 250 that extend in spaced apart, parallel or substantially parallel relationship to one another. The plurality of stacked tubular members 250 together defines a first set of fluid channels extending therethrough for the flow of a first fluid through the heat exchanger 300. A second set of fluid passages 252 is defined between adjacent tubular members 250 for the flow of a second fluid, such as air, through the heat exchanger 300. In the example embodiment shown in Figure 21, tubular members 250 are formed by a pair of mating upper and lower plates 254, 256 and, therefore, may also be referred to as plate pairs. It will be understood, however, that tubular members 250 may also be formed as a one-piece tubular member and that the present disclosure is not intended to be limited to tubular members 250 formed as plate pairs 254, 256.

[0081] The plurality of tubular members 250 define an inlet manifold 258 and an outlet manifold 260 for the inletting and discharging of a first heat exchange fluid into and out of the heat exchanger 300. The inlet manifold 258 and outlet manifold 260 fluidly interconnect the set of fluid channels defined by the enclosed tubular members 250.

[0082] In some example embodiments, the upper and lower (or first and second) plates 254, 256 have inner surfaces that include the heat transfer enhancements features 235 in the form of triangular shaped protuberances as described above in connection with Figures 18-19. Therefore, in some

embodiments, the upper and lower (or first and second) plates 254, 256 correspond to the first and second plates 213, 215 that cooperate with corrugated member 212. Therefore, in some embodiments the heat transfer enhancement features 235 are disposed in a predetermined pattern so as to co-operate with corrugated member 212 disposed within the tubular members 250. When disposed within tubular members 50, the upper and lower bridge portions 220, 222 of the

corrugated member 12 contact, or substantially contact, the inner surfaces of plates 254, 256.

[0083] In other example embodiments, the heat transfer surface 210 is of unitary, one-piece construction formed using additive manufacturing techniques and is disposed within the fluid channels defined within tubular members 250, the outer surfaces of first and second plates 213, 215 contacting, or substantially contacting, the inner surfaces of upper and lower plates 254, 256.

[0084] In other example embodiments, the heat transfer surface 210 is not in the form of a unitary one-piece construction and first and second plates 213, 215 are in the form of inserts that are disposed within the fluid channels formed within the tubular members 250 with the corrugated member 212 being disposed within the tubular members 250 between the inserts 213, 215 that include the heat transfer enhancement features 235. [0085] While various example embodiments have been described, it will be understood that certain adaptations and modifications of the described embodiments can be made. Therefore, the above discussed embodiments are considered to be illustrative and not restrictive.