SKIBA, Tommy (67 Parkwood Drive, East Hartford, CT, 06118, US)
DARLING, Robert, M. (10 Kent Lane, South Windsor, CT, 06074, US)
SKIBA, Tommy (67 Parkwood Drive, East Hartford, CT, 06118, US)
1. A fuel cell (38) comprising:
a membrane electrode assembly (72) having an electrolyte with cathode and anode catalysts disposed on opposite sides thereof and a gas diffusion layer facing each of said catalyst layers;
a fuel reactant gas flow field plate (75) having fuel reactant gas flow channels (74) along a first surface thereof;
an oxidant reactant gas flow field plate (81 ) having oxidant reactant gas flow channels (82) on a first surface thereof;
one or both of said flow field plates being porous and hydrophilic;
a water passageway (83, 84) disposed on a second surface of said one or both of said flow field plates which is opposite to said first surface thereof; characterized by:
a highly water permeable wick layer (90) disposed adjacent to said water passageway of said one or both of said flow field plates.
2. A fuel cell (38) according to claim 1 further characterized in that: said water passageway (83, 84) comprises one or more flow through channels (83).
3. A fuel cell (38) according to claim 1 further characterized in that: said water passageway (83, 84) comprises an interdigitated flow field
4. A fuel cell (38) according to claim 3 further characterized in that: said interdigitated flow field (83a, 83b) has inlet flow fields (83c) with outlet ends (101 ) which are only partially blocked and configured to allow gas to escape.
5. A fuel cell (38) according to claim 4 further characterized in that: the outlet ends ( 01 ) of said inlet flow fields (83c) have a partial wall
6. A fuel cell (38) according to claim 4 further characterized in that: the outlet ends (101 ) of said inlet flow fields (83d) have a hole (106) configured to allow gas to escape.
Enhanced by Wicks
 Fuel cells having water passageways, with water permeable wick layers between them, provide water to reactant gas flow
passageways wherein the water is evaporated in proportion to the waste heat generated in the cells; the water condensed from the exhausted reactant gas is returned to the water passageways. Optionally, the passageways may be in the form of an interdigitated flow field, to increase removal of water from the wick during water purging, at shutdown.
 It is known in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell art to evaporatively cool fuel cells, thereby deriving the benefit of the heat of vaporization, in contrast with conveying sensible heat to circulating water passing through the cells or coolant passing through coolant plates. One example is shown in U.S. 7,504,170, which is incorporated herein by reference.
 In some applications, such as in vehicles, extremely high current densities are preferred in order to support high vehicle performance. High current densities increase water production, which requires assured flow through porous, hydrophilic reactant gas flow field plates, hereafter also referred to as "water transport plates". Furthermore, increased power density requires assured cooling and humidification of the membrane.
 For high performance, the very best communication of water between water passageways and the water transport plates is beneficial.
 According to the subject matter hereof, fuel cells in a fuel cell power plant are evaporatively cooled by means of water present in passageways which are adjacent to or within a first surface of at least one of the hydrophilic, porous reactant gas flow field plates, which have reactant gas flow channels opening at a second surface of the flow field plates, opposite to said first surface. Each passageway is in fluid communication with a water reservoir. In addition, the water uptake by the flow field plates is increased by a water permeable wick layer between the flow field plates, and in intimate contact with all of the water passageways. The water supply in the passageways is enhanced by means of the water permeable wick layer adjacent to water in one or more of the
 It has been found that a fuel cell power plant in a climate which may fall below the freezing temperature of water requires removal of at least most of the water from the fuel cell stack during shutdown. This reduces the propensity to have potentially catastrophic mechanical stresses during the period of non-use of the fuel cell, and blockage (by ice) of reactant gas at startup. The reduction of water in a fuel cell stack employing a water permeable wick by blowing air through the water passageways has been found to provide an inadequate removal of water from the water permeable wicks.
 The subject matter herein further includes utilization of interdigitated coolant water flow fields which ensure that the purging air will transfer into and flow through the water permeable wick, thereby forcing more water therefrom. In one embodiment, normal conventional interdigitated flow fields are used. In another embodiment, interdigitated flow fields having less than a complete blockage at the outlet ends of the inlet flow fields assures the ability of gas (typically leaking into water passageways from the reactant flow fields) to escape the flow fields, thereby avoiding blockage of water flow and dry out of the membrane.
 Other variations will become more apparent in the light of the following detailed description of exemplary embodiments, as illustrated in the accompanying drawings.
Brief Description of the Drawings
 Fig. 1 is a simplified block diagram of a vented embodiment of an evaporatively cooled fuel cell power plant which may incorporate the subject matter hereof.  Fig. 2 is a partial, sectioned side elevation view of a fuel cell employing the subject hereof, with sectioning lines omitted for clarity.
 Fig. 3 is a partial, sectioned side elevation view of a variant of Fig. 2, where only one of the separator plates (reactant flow field plates) has water passageways.
 Fig. 4 is a partial, sectioned top view of the subject matter of Fig. 2.
 Fig. 5 is a partial section taken on the line 5-5 of Fig. 4 with flow through passageways.
 Fig. 6 is a partial section taken on the line 5-5 of Fig. 4 with alternative, interdigitated flow passageways.
 Fig. 7 is a fragmentary section taken on the line 5-5 of Fig. 4, illustrating partial obstruction of the outlet end of the inlet passageways.
 Figs. 8 and 9 are fragmentary sections taken on the line 8-8 of Fig. 7.
Mode(s) of Implementation
 Referring now to Fig. 1 , a fuel cell power plant 36, which may embody the subject matter herein, includes a stack 37 of fuel cells 38 (Fig. 2) which are shown disposed vertically, although they may be disposed horizontally.
 In this embodiment, fuel is provided to a fuel inlet 42 and flows to the right in a first fuel pass, and then flows downwardly and to the left through a fuel outlet 47. The fuel may flow through a recycle pump (not shown) back to the fuel inlet, and may be periodically purged to ambient through a valve (not shown). Single pass, triple pass or other fuel flow configurations may be used.
 In the embodiment of Fig. 1 , air is provided by a pump 52 to an air inlet 53, and the air flows upwardly through the oxidant reactant gas flow channels of the fuel cells 38. From an air outlet 57, the air flows over a conduit 58 to a condenser 59, which in a vehicle may be a conventional radiator. The exit air is passed through an exhaust 62. The condensate from the condenser 59 may be accumulated in a reservoir 64, which is connected by a water return conduit 65 to a water inlet 66. The water then flows through passageways 83, 84 (Fig. 2) into each of the fuel cells 38; the passageways 83, 84 may terminate in a manifold 68, at which removal of gas from the passageways is provided through a vent, such as a micro vacuum pump 89, of the type utilized for a 37 liter (10 gallon) aquarium, which can be bought for several dollars, for the sole purpose of supplying sufficient head (water pressure) to ensure that the water level reaches the uppermost portions of the passageways in the stack 37. The pump 89 does not cause any water flow through the vent manifold 68. Alternatively, the vent manifold 68 may be vented through a porous plug or other vent (not shown).
 Although there is a water inlet 66, there is no water outlet, the water is simply present in each fuel cell. In Fig. 2, one embodiment includes fuel cells 38, each of which comprises a conventional membrane electrode assembly 72, which includes an electrolyte with anode and cathode catalysts and gas diffusion layers on opposite sides of the electrolyte. It should be understood that the drawings herein are not at all to scale; no significance should be paid to the apparent different size of water passageways 83, 84 herein and those in the aforementioned patent.
 In the embodiment of Fig. 2, fuel reactant gas flows through horizontal channels 74 in a hydrophilic, porous substrate 75, which in this embodiment includes grooves which form a water passageway 83. On the cathode side, a hydrophilic, porous oxidant reactant gas flow field plate 81 includes vertical air flow channels 82 and grooves which form a water passageway 84. The hydrophilic porous fuel reactant gas flow field plates 75 and the hydrophilic porous oxidant reactant gas flow field plates 81 are otherwise also referred to as "water transport plates".
 In accordance with a first aspect of the subject matter herein, the fuel cells 38 of Fig. 2 include water permeable wicks 90 between the water passageways 83, 84. The wicks 90 may be thicker or thinner than the water transport plates 75, 81.
 The water permeable wicks 90 may comprise a suitable, readily available carbon paper, such as Toray H-060 which has been suitably treated, such as with tin, or a tin-containing compound or mixture, to render it sufficiently hydrophilic so to assure the desired permeability to water.
 With the water permeable wick 90 adjacent to the lands or ribs 92 of the water transport plates 75, 81 , the lands 90 provide additional surface area of the water transport plates which assist in transferring water. In contrast, in the aforesaid patent, water transfers between the water passageways and the water transport plates only through the surfaces of the water passageways.
 In the embodiment of Fig. 2, the increase in surface area between available water, including that in the wicks 90, may be at least fourfold and perhaps as much as tenfold compared with the non-wick system of the aforementioned patent.
 Fig. 3 illustrates that the subject wicks 90 may be used with fuel cells having water passageways 84 in only the air flow field plates 81 , on the cathode side. The wick 90 could as well be used instead in fuel cells having water passageways 83 in only the fuel flow field plates. With the wicks 90 in place in the embodiments of Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, the surface is at least doubled, and may increase as much as fivefold compared with prior systems having only water passageways 83, 84 without any wicks 90.
 Fig. 4 is a view looking down on a section of Fig. 2. The view is of two water passageways 83, 84, with the fuel channels 74 looking vertical and the air channels 82 looking horizontal.
 Referring to Fig. 5, a first embodiment of the present invention utilizes flow through water passageways 83. Because the water is removed during shutdown in ambient regions where the surroundings of the fuel cell power plant may go below the freezing point of water, it is desirable to remove as much water as possible from the fuel cell stack. It has been found that in the embodiments of Figs. 2 and 3, utilizing flow through water passageways 83 as illustrated in Fig. 5, purging the water passageways 83, 84 with flow of air does not remove sufficient water. An excessive amount of water remains, particularly in the permeable wicks 90, after the water passageways have been mostly cleared by purging with air.
 To improve the clearance of water from the fuel cell stack, and particularly from the water permeable wicks 90, the passageways may be formed in an interdigitated fashion, as illustrated in Fig. 6. In this figure the interdigitated water passageways comprise inlet water passageways 83a which are blocked at the outlet ends 101 thereof and the outlet
passageways 83b that are blocked at the inlet ends 102 thereof, as is conventional with interdigitated flow fields. This increases the pressure sufficiently to drive air supplied to the passageways 83a through the water permeable wick 90 as well as through the porous hydrophilic water transport plate 75a thereby to increase water removal in accordance with a second aspect of the subject matter herein.
 Another embodiment of the invention similar to Fig. 6 is shown in Figs. 7 and 8. The outlet end 101 of the inlet passageways 83c are not completely closed off, but are provided with a partial enclosure 104 which is not drawn to any scale. The purpose of this is to ensure that any gas bubbles which may enter into the inlet water passageways 83c will not become trapped therein and thereby impede the flow of water into the adjacent ribs of the water transport plate 75b and the adjacent water permeable wick 90 (shown in Figs. 2 and 3).
 Instead of a blockage 104, the outlet end 101 of the inlet water passageways 83d may simply have a small hole 106 therein, as illustrated in Fig. 9. The hole 06 is larger than the pore size of the water transport plate 75c, to facilitate gas removal without lowering the water pressure in the inlet water passageways 83d to any meaningful extent.
 Since changes and variations of the disclosed embodiments may be made without departing from the concept's intent, it is not intended to limit the disclosure other than as required by the appended claims.
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