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Title:
EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SOURCE WITH MAGNETIC CUSP PLASMA CONTROL
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/143028
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source has a buffer gas to slow ions down and thermalize them in a low temperature plasma. The plasma is initially trapped in a symmetrical cusp magnetic field configuration with a low magnetic field barrier to radial motion. Plasma overflows in a full range of radial directions and is conducted within a cone- shaped sheet to an annular beam dump.

Inventors:
MCGEOCH, Malcolm, W. (420 West Main Road, Little Compton, RI, 02837, US)
Application Number:
US2017/018118
Publication Date:
August 24, 2017
Filing Date:
February 16, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
PLEX LLC (275 Martine Street, Suite 103Fall River, MA, 02723, US)
International Classes:
H05G2/00
Foreign References:
US20160150625A12016-05-26
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MCCLELLAN, William, R. (Wolf, Greenfield & Sacks P.C.,600 Atlantic Avenu, Boston MA, 02210-2206, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. An extreme ultraviolet light source comprising: a chamber; a source of droplet targets; one or more lasers focused onto the droplets in an interaction region; a flowing buffer gas; a reflective collector element to redirect extreme ultraviolet light to a point on the collector optical axis which is an exit port of the chamber; an annular beam dump disposed around the collector optical axis; a magnetic field provided by two sets of opposed magnetic field generators that create an asymmetrical magnetic cusp with magnetic well conforming to the inside shape of the collector, wherein the laser-plasma interaction takes place at or near the zero magnetic field point of the cusp and heat and target material particles are removed to a beam dump via magnetically guided plasma flow in a cone-shaped plasma sheet with cone axis parallel to the optical axis.

2. An extreme ultraviolet source as in claim 1, wherein the flowing buffer gas comprises one of argon, helium or hydrogen.

3. An extreme ultraviolet source as in claim 1, wherein the flowing buffer gas comprises a mixture of two or more gases selected from the set argon, helium and hydrogen. 4. An extreme ultraviolet source as in claim 1, in which the cusp contains a plasma whose temperature is set to a specified level through variation of the buffer gas flow rate into the chamber.

5. An extreme ultraviolet source as in claim 4, in which the buffer gas flow rate into the chamber is controlled via use of data from a sensor of cusp plasma temperature.

6. An extreme ultraviolet source as in claim 4, in which the cusp plasma temperature is set within the range 1 electron volt to 3 electron volts 7. An extreme ultraviolet source as in claim 4, in which the cusp plasma density lies within the range 5 x 10 14 electrons cm -"3 and 2x1015 electrons cm -"3.

8. An extreme ultraviolet source as in claim 1, in which the buffer gas flow rate lies in the range 10 21 to 1022 atoms or molecules per second.

Description:
EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SOURCE WITH MAGNETIC

CUSP PLASMA CONTROL

TECHNICAL FIELD

The disclosed technology relates to the production of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light especially at 13.5nm for lithography of semiconductor chips. Specifically it describes configurations of the laser-produced-plasma (LPP) light source type that have increased plasma heat removal for scaling to ultimate power.

BACKGROUND

There is a need for more powerful sources of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light at 13.5nm in order to increase the throughput of semiconductor patterning via the process of EUV Lithography. Many different source designs have been proposed and tested (see historical summary for background [1]) including the highly efficient (up to 30%) direct discharge (DPP) lithium approach [2,3,4,5,6,7] and also laser-plasma (LPP) irradiation of tin containing [8] or pure tin droplets [9,10,11]. Laser irradiation of tin droplets has been the subject of intensive recent development [12,13], particularly in the pre-pulse variant [11], which has a demonstrated efficiency of 4% and a theoretical efficiency of up to 6%.

In both lithium DPP and tin LPP approaches it is necessary to keep metal atoms from condensing on the collection mirror that faces the EUV-emitting plasma. Also, in the tin LPP approach, but not with lithium DPP, there are fast ions ranging up to 5keV that have to be stopped otherwise the collection mirror suffers sputter erosion. The design of a successful EUV source based on a metal vapor must strictly protect against deposition on the collector of even lnm of metal in days and weeks of operation, and this factor provides the most critical constraint on all of the physics that can occur in a high power source. In the case of lithium, extremely thorough metal vapor containment is provided via a buffer gas heat pipe [2]. However, the heat pipe containment technology cannot be extended to tin sources because the heat pipe temperature would have to be 1300C to provide the equivalent tin vapor pressure versus 750C for lithium. This vastly higher working temperature renders the heat pipe approach essentially unworkable for tin whereas it is very practicable for lithium. Harilal et al. [14,15] have performed a series of studies on the use with a tin LPP source of either a magnetic field, a buffer gas, or a combination of these to slow down fast ions and protect the collection optic. Many magnetic field configurations have been discussed [16-29], with and without a buffer gas, to trap and exhaust tin ions. Methods have been proposed [30,31] to further ionize tin atoms so that they may be controlled by an applied magnetic field. The symmetrical magnetic mirror trap [18] has a long axial exhaust path for tin ions and if this path has a shallow gradient of magnetic field, can suffer from a build-up of plasma density as successive tin droplets are irradiated. Two things begin to go wrong: 1) there is an EUV absorption cross section of 2x10 - " 17 cm 2 for tin atoms that causes increasing EUV absorption loss as the plasma density builds, and 2) the mirror magnetic trap is unstable [14] to lateral plasma loss, which can expose the collection optic to tin atoms. Refinements of the mirror trap have been described [20,23] in which an asymmetry is introduced so that plasma flow is toward a weaker magnetic field at one end of the mirror configuration. This also can be combined with an electric field [20] to aid plasma extraction at the end with lower magnetic field. However, only a relatively constricted path is available for plasma exhaust toward one end of such a trap configuration, implying a limited heat removal capacity. Other magnetic configurations [27,29] have been designed to protect the collection optic, but these rely on gas cooling, and do not provide a specific path for plasma flow toward a large area plasma beam dump. Accordingly, the power scaling of such configurations is limited due to lack of heat removal.

Buffer gases have been discussed [15,32,33] to reduce ion energy and protect the collection optic. One of the main buffer gases used has been hydrogen [13,33] but as plasma power increases there is an increasing fraction of molecular hydrogen dissociation that can lead to vacuum pumping and handling problems of reactive hydrogen radicals. Coolant gases with more favorable properties, in that they do not react chemically, are argon and helium. These gases have higher EUV absorption than hydrogen [15], so they may only be used at lower density. However, argon has substantial stopping power for fast tin ions [15], and is particularly effective when a magnetic field is combined with a gas buffer to lengthen the path of tin ions via curvature in the field. SUMMARY

It is an object of the present technology to provide a symmetric cusp magnetic field within the EUV source to allow a higher power to be handled than in prior art. The symmetric cusp field is characterized by having equal opposed inner coils that establish strong opposed axial magnetic fields and a zero field point at the mid-position between them. Off axis, the radial magnetic field is weaker than the axial magnetic fields, so that plasma leakage occurs radially toward an annular beam dump location. Outer coils maintain a guiding field for plasma to deliver it to the annular beam dump. Several features of this geometry allow high power handling:

1) There is stable plasma containment at the center of the cusp;

2) There is controlled plasma outflow at the equatorial magnetic field minimum of the cusp;

3) The plasma outflow is guided by the radial magnetic field onto an annular plasma beam dump that can have a large area, maximizing the power that can be handled.

This design incorporates an inflow of buffer gas, preferably argon, that serves the following purposes:

1) Sufficient buffer gas density (approximately 50mTorr, if argon) degrades the energy of tin ions from the laser-plasma interaction, until they are thermalized at low energy (approximately leV) within the cusp trap;

2) Fresh buffer gas flows past the collection mirror surface to sweep away neutral tin atoms that otherwise would pass through the magnetic field without deflection and deposit on the mirror;

3) The buffer gas within the cusp trap dilutes the tin density via continual

replenishment to prevent tin buildup and consequent EUV absorption;

4) The buffer gas plasma outflow from the cusp carries both the tin ions and the vast majority of process heat down pre-determined magnetic field flow lines onto the plasma beam dump. In this it is aided by the large heat capacity of metastable and ionic buffer gas species;

5) Radiation from the trapped buffer gas plasma can provide additional heat loss, this time to the chamber walls and collection optic. Resonance radiation can create buffer gas metastables throughout the chamber that can Penning ionize neutral tin atoms, aiding their collection via the magnetic field; 6) The plasma outflow contributes a powerful vacuum pump action with a well- defined direction toward the plasma beam dump.

Accordingly we propose an extreme ultraviolet light source comprising: a chamber; a source of droplet targets; one or more lasers focused onto the droplets in an interaction region; a flowing buffer gas; one or more reflective collector elements to redirect extreme ultraviolet light to a point on the common collector optical axis which is an exit port of the chamber; an annular array of plasma beam dumps disposed around the collector optical axis; a magnetic field provided by two sets of opposed, symmetrical field coils that carry equal but oppositely directed currents to create a symmetrical magnetic cusp, wherein the laser-plasma interaction takes place at or near the central zero magnetic field point of the cusp and heat is removed via radial plasma flow in a 360 degree angle range perpendicular to the optical axis toward the annular array of plasma beam dumps. It is a further object of this invention to provide a near- symmetric cusp field for the capture and subsequent guiding toward an annular plasma beam dump of the tin ions and buffer gas ions from a laser-plasma interaction region. We define a "near- symmetric" cusp field as one in which the opposed axial magnetic fields may not be equal, but they both exceed the maximum radial magnetic field, implying that plasma out-flow will not be axial, but will be wholly radial. In the near- symmetric case the zero magnetic field point of the cusp lies between the axial coils and is closer to one of them.

Accordingly we propose an extreme ultraviolet light source comprising: a chamber; a source of droplet targets; one or more lasers focused onto the droplets in an interaction region; a flowing buffer gas; one or more reflective collector elements to redirect extreme ultraviolet light to a point on the common collector optical axis which is an exit port of the chamber; an annular array of plasma beam dumps disposed around the collector optical axis; a magnetic field provided by two sets of opposed, near-symmetrical field coils that carry oppositely directed currents to create a near- symmetrical magnetic cusp, wherein the laser- plasma interaction takes place at or near the zero magnetic field point of the cusp and heat is removed via radial plasma flow in a 360 degree angle range perpendicular to the optical axis toward the annular array of plasma beam dumps. According to embodiments, an extreme ultraviolet light source comprises: a chamber; a source of droplet targets; one or more lasers focused onto the droplets in an interaction region; a flowing buffer gas; a reflective collector element to redirect extreme ultraviolet light to a point on the collector optical axis which is an exit port of the chamber; an annular beam dump disposed around the collector optical axis; a magnetic field provided by two sets of opposed magnetic field generators that create an asymmetrical magnetic cusp with magnetic well conforming to the inside shape of the collector, wherein the laser-plasma interaction takes place at or near the zero magnetic field point of the cusp and heat and target material particles are removed to a beam dump via magnetically guided plasma flow in a cone-shaped plasma sheet with cone axis parallel to the optical axis.

The present technology thereby integrates, synergistically, an advantageous magnetic field configuration with an effective buffer gas. Consequently, it is anticipated that application of this invention will extend the process power (i.e. the absorbed laser power) to the range of 30kW and above, generating a usable EUV beam at the exit port of 150W, or more.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIGURE 1 illustrates the symmetrical cusp magnetic field configuration by itself. The configuration has a vertical axis of rotational symmetry.

FIGURE 2 shows magnetic field lines near the center of the symmetrical cusp configuration of FIGURE 1.

FIGURE 3 illustrates the strength of the magnetic field along directions defined with reference to FIGURE 2.

FIGURE 4 shows the symmetrical cusp magnetic field coils in relation to the collection optic, the droplet generator, the droplet capture unit, the incident laser beam and the laser beam dump.

FIGURE 5 shows the symmetrical cusp magnetic field coils guiding radial plasma flow toward the annular array of plasma beam dumps and vacuum pumps. FIGURE 6 shows a realization of the invention in which there are two collection optical elements. The figure has a vertical axis of rotational symmetry. FIGURE 7 illustrates the near- symmetrical cusp magnetic field configuration by itself. The configuration has a vertical axis of rotational symmetry.

FIGURE 8 shows magnetic field lines near the center of the near-symmetrical cusp configuration of FIGURE 7.

FIGURE 9 illustrates the strength of the magnetic field along directions defined with reference to FIGURE 8.

FIGURE 10 shows a realization of the invention in which the cusp field is near- symmetric, having its lowest field barrier in the radial direction.

FIGURE 11 illustrates certain system elements including a plurality of lasers and a buffer gas return flow loop. FIGURE 12 shows a cross section in the plane that is perpendicular to the optical axis and contains the interaction region, with additional system elements including the annular array of plasma beam dumps, the vacuum pumps and droplet injection and diagnostics ports.

FIGURE 13 A illustrates a simple cusp formed by opposed permanent magnets.

FIGURE 13B shows a cusp field generator comprised of a combination of coils and a yoke of soft magnetic material.

FIGURE 14 shows a modified cusp field geometry that supports a cone-shaped plasma sheet and high collector angle. DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Herein the corresponding like elements of different realizations of the invention are labeled similarly across the drawing set, and will not always be listed in their entirety.

We describe the underlying magnetic field configuration in its first, symmetric, embodiment with reference to Figure 1. The basic cusp configuration of the present invention comprises four circular coils divided into two sets: coils 10 and 30 in the upper half, and coils 20 and 40 in the lower half. In Figure 1 the coils are shown in cross section. There is a vertical axis 1 of rotational symmetry. Within the cross section of each winding the direction of current flow is shown by a dot for current coming out of the page and an X for current flowing into the page. In the symmetrical cusp equal and opposite currents flow in coils 10 and 20 and they have the same number of turns in their windings. They therefore generate equal and opposite magnetic fields that cancel to zero at central point 60. Additional field shaping is performed by coils 30 and 40. Coil 30 carries a current in the same direction as coil 10, and coil 40 an equal current to coil 30 but in the opposed direction. The final cusp field, indicated by magnetic field lines 50, has a disc shape around its vertical symmetry axis. This shape is designed to channel a radial plasma flow into an annular plasma beam dump as described below.

More detail on the central region of the cusp is given in Figure 2. In that figure coils 10 and 20 correspond to those labeled 10 and 20 in Figure 1. The magnetic field variation along lines AB and CD of Figure 2 is shown qualitatively in Figure 3 where X represents distance along the labeled lines. The field within coil 10 or coil 20 has a central value Bo lying on axis 1 between points C and D.

This value Bo exceeds the central value BM half way between A and B. When the cusp axial field exceeds its radial field in this manner, then plasma leakage dominates at the circle of positions defined by all possible locations of the center of line AB around rotation axis 1. Plasma outflow from this locus then follows radial field lines toward the gap between coils 30 and 40 and enters the annular plasma beam dump.

With the above description of the cusp field in place, we show in Figure 4 the disposition of several further elements of the EUV source. The outline of a vacuum chamber 70 is shown, where chamber 70 may surround all of the coil elements, or part of the set of coils. Axis of rotational symmetry 1 defines the symmetry axis of chamber 70. Set into the wall of chamber 70 is droplet source 85 that delivers a stream of material in approximately 20micron diameter droplets at a high velocity (order of 200msec "1 ) toward interaction location 60. Droplets that are not used are captured in droplet collector 95 at the opposite side of the chamber. Entering on the chamber axis is a laser beam (or beams) 75 that propagate through the center of coil 10 toward interaction region 60, where laser energy is absorbed by a droplet and highly ionized species emit 13.5nm EUV light. For example, the C0 2 laser at 10.6 micron wavelength has been found to be effective [11] with tin droplets for conversion to EUV energy, with 4% conversion demonstrated into 2% bandwidth light centered at 13.5nm in 2π steradians [11]. Laser light that is not absorbed or scattered by a droplet is captured in beam dump 80 attached to coil 20. EUV light emitted from region 60 is reflected by collection optic 110 to propagate as typical ray 120 toward the chamber exit port for EUV. Collection optic 110 has rotational symmetry around axis 1. The chamber is shown truncated at the bottom in Figure 4, but it continues until reaching the apex of the cone defined by converging walls 70 and rotation axis 1. At that position, known as the "intermediate focus" or IF, the beam of EUV light is transferred from chamber 70 via a port into the vacuum of the stepper machine.

In prior work [11] the laser has been applied as two separate pulses, a pre-pulse and a main pulse, where the pre-pulse evaporates and ionizes the tin droplet and the main pulse heats this plasma ball to create the high ionization states that yield EUV photons. When the pre-pulse is a picosecond laser pulse it ionizes very effectively [12] and creates a uniform pre-plasma to be heated by the main pulse, which is of the order of 10-20 nsec duration. Complete ionization via the pre-pulse is a very important step toward capture of (neutral) tin atoms which, if not ionized, will not be trapped by the magnetic field and could coat the collection optic. The pre-pulse laser may be of different wavelength to the main pulse laser. In addition to magnetic capture of ionized tin in the cusp field, there is also a flowing buffer gas to sweep neutral tin atoms toward the plasma dump, as discussed below.

In Figure 5 we show one embodiment of the invention in which a symmetrical magnetic cusp field guides the plasma (vertically shaded) from interaction region 60 toward plasma beam dumps 140 arranged azimuthally around chamber 70. For clarity in Figure 5, the droplet generator and droplet capture device are not shown, but instead we show the majority configuration which is an annular plasma beam dump 140 leading into vacuum pumps 150. Smaller items such as the droplet generator and laser beams for droplet measurement are interspersed between the larger plasma dump elements and may be protected from the plasma heat and particle flux by local field- shaping coils or magnetic elements.

In operation, this embodiment has a stream of argon atoms entering for example through the gap between coil 10 and collection optic 110, to establish an argon atom density of approximately 2x10 15 atoms cm - " 3 in front of collection optic 110. A stream of droplets is directed toward region 60 and irradiated by one or more laser pulses to generate EUV light. Plasma ions from the interaction can have an energy up to 5keV [14] and are slowed down by collisions with argon atoms at the same time as they are directed in curved paths by the cusp field, with the result that a thermalized plasma, more than 99.9% argon and less than 0.1% tin ions, accumulates in the cusp central region. After a short period of operation (less than 10 " sec) the accumulated thermal plasma density, and by implication its pressure, exceeds the pressure of the containment field BM at the waist of the cusp (discussed above in relation to Figures 2 and 3). Plasma then flows toward beam dumps 140 guided by the outer cusp magnetic field. The presence of a plasma flow causes neutral argon atoms to be entrained in the flow, and pumped effectively into beam dumps 140 and vacuum pumps 150. The plasma is more than 99.9% argon when tin droplet size of 20micron diameter is used at a repetition frequency of 100kHz. These parameters correspond to 1.5xl0 19 tin atoms per second in the flow, once it has reached steady state. The argon flow at a density of 10 15 cm - " 3 , velocity of

1x10 5 cmsec- " 1 and in a plasma cross-sectional area of 1000cm 2 is 1023 argon atoms per second, exceeding the tin flow by 6,600 times. It can be seen that the plasma cooling is dominated by argon, with a very minor tin component within the flow.

A further embodiment of the invention is shown in Figure 6 in which two collection optical elements 110 and 160 are deployed, one on either side of the radial plasma flow. Each of 110 and 160 is a surface generated by rotation around vertical symmetry axis 1. They achieve EUV reflectivity of, on average, approximately 50% by means of graded Mo-Si multilayer stacks. Each is protected from neutral tin atoms by a flow of clean argon that enters at positions 200, and ultimately is pumped away via plasma beam dumps 140 and vacuum pumps 150. The large solid angle of the combined collectors will improve source power in circumstances where source size is sufficiently small to be matched to the etendue of the stepper.

We describe the underlying magnetic field configuration in its second major, near- symmetric, embodiment with reference to Figure 7. This configuration comprises four circular coils divided into two sets: coils 10 and 30 in the upper half, and coils 20 and 40 in the lower half. In Figure 7 the coils are shown in cross section. There is a vertical axis 1 of rotational symmetry. Within the cross section of each winding the direction of current flow is shown by a dot for current coming out of the page and an X for current flowing into the page. In the near- symmetrical cusp opposite but unequal currents flow in coils 10 and 20 when it is considered, for example that they have the same number of turns in their windings. They therefore generate unequal and opposite magnetic fields that cancel to zero at point 60, which is no longer exactly centered between coils 10 and 20. Additional field shaping is performed by coils 30 and 40. Coil 30 carries a current in the same direction as coil 10, and coil 40 a current not equal to that in coil 30 in the opposed direction. The final cusp field, indicated by magnetic field lines 50, has a disc shape around its vertical symmetry axis. This shape is designed to channel a radial plasma flow as described below.

More detail on the central region of the cusp is given in Figure 8. In that figure coils 10 and 20 correspond to those labeled 10 and 20 in Figure 7. The magnetic field variation along lines AB, CD and EF of Figure 8 is shown qualitatively in Figure 9 where X

represents distance along the labeled lines. The field within coil 10 has value Bo lying on axis 1 between points E and F, and the field within coil 20 has value Bi on axis 1 between points C and D.

Values Bo and Bi both exceed the lowest radial magnetic field BM between A and B. When the cusp axial fields both exceed its radial field in this manner, then plasma leakage dominates at the circle of positions defined by all possible locations of the lowest field point on line AB around rotation axis 1. Plasma outflow from this locus then follows radial field lines toward (and between) coils 30 and 40.

One embodiment of the near- symmetrical cusp system is illustrated in Figure 10 in which magnetic field lines guide the plasma (vertically shaded) from interaction region 60 toward plasma beam dumps 140 arranged azimuthally around chamber 70. The laser-plasma interaction takes place at or near to the null magnetic field point 60 which is now closer to coil 20 than to coil 10 for the case illustrated in which coil 10 generates a higher field than coil 20. For clarity in Figure 10, the droplet generator and droplet capture device are not shown, but instead we show the majority configuration which is an annular plasma beam dump 140 leading into vacuum pumps 150. Smaller items such as the droplet generator and laser beams for droplet measurement are interspersed between the larger plasma dump elements and may be protected from the plasma heat and particle flux by local field-shaping coils or magnetic elements, discussed below in relation to Figure 12. A buffer gas chosen from the set hydrogen, helium and argon is flowed through the chamber at a density sufficient to slow down fast ions from the laser-plasma interaction, but not absorb more than 50% of the extreme ultraviolet light as it passes from the plasma region to an exit port of the chamber. Absorption coefficients for these gases are discussed in [15]. An argon buffer is preferred for the reasons discussed, and typically may be provided in the density range between lxlO 15 and 4xl0 15 atoms cm "3 .

In operation, this embodiment has a stream of argon atoms 200 entering for example through the gap between coil 10 and collection optic 110, to establish an argon atom density of approximately 2x10 15 atoms cm - " 3 in front of collection optic 110. A stream of droplets is directed toward region 60 and irradiated by one or more laser pulses to generate EUV light. Plasma ions from the interaction can have an energy up to 5keV [14] and are slowed down by collisions with argon atoms at the same time as they are directed in curved paths by the cusp field, with the result that a thermalized plasma, more than 99.9% argon and less than 0.1% tin ions, accumulates in the cusp central region. After a short period of operation (less than 10 " sec) the accumulated thermal plasma density, and by implication its pressure, exceeds the pressure of the containment field BM at the waist of the cusp (discussed above in relation to Figures 7 and 8). Plasma then flows toward beam dumps 140 guided by the outer cusp magnetic field. In order to contain the argon plasma density of approximately 10 15 atoms/ions cm " at a temperature of 1.5eV, the minimum cusp confinement magnetic field has a value in the range 0.01 - 1.0 Tesla. In a preferred configuration the minimum cusp confinement magnetic field has a value in the range 50mT to 200mT.

The presence of a plasma flow causes neutral argon atoms to be entrained in the flow, and pumped effectively into beam dumps 140 and vacuum pumps 150. The plasma is more than 99.9% argon when tin droplet size of 20micron diameter is used at a repetition frequency of 100kHz as discussed above.

System elements of the above embodiments are drawn in Figure 11. In general a plurality of laser systems 220, 240 etc. are directed via a lens or lenses toward the interaction region 60 within chamber 70. The buffer gas that is exhausted via beam dumps 140 and vacuum pumps 150 is cleaned and pressurized in gas reservoirs 210. As needed, gas is flowed via tubes 200 to be re-injected into the chamber at a typical location between coil 10 and collection optic 110.

Additional system elements of the above embodiments are drawn in Figure 12. This figure depicts a cross section of the system in a plane perpendicular to axis of symmetry 1 that is illustrated for example in Figure 11. This plane includes the interaction location 60. Lines of magnetic force B run radially in this view. The flux lines are guided into beam dumps 140 and vacuum pumps 150 by elements 300 that may either be small antiparallel field coils, magnetic shield material, or a combination thereof. The "annular beam dump" is in practice divided into a plurality of elements 140 that are arranged in the plane

perpendicular to the axis of symmetry that contains position 60. This division is for two main reasons: a) vacuum pump flanges are usually round, so they cannot be positioned without gaps so as to pump at all locations around a continuous annular beam dump; and b) there has to be access in this plane for the droplet stream and for optical systems that detect droplet position. All of these sub-systems may access interaction region 60 via ports 290 that are shielded from the ion flux by field-shaping elements 300. Devices that generate a suitable cusp magnetic field are a) combinations of current- carrying coils, examples of which are described herein, b) permanent magnets, and c) current- carrying coils that induce magnetism in shaped yokes of soft magnetic material. Each of these may be incorporated separately, or together in any combination, to form a "magnetic field generator". Examples of purely current-carrying generators are given above. Examples of the latter two types of generator will now be discussed.

Figure 13A shows two cylindrical permanent magnets, 510 and 520, mounted coaxially on axis of rotational symmetry 1. These each have a central empty cylinder and are opposed to each other so that, for example, the "north pole" of magnet 510 is opposite the "north pole" of magnet 520. Magnetic field lines 525 define a cusp field with a magnetic null (i.e. B=0) at location 535. Permanent magnets are of limited field strength that is borderline for control of the plasma necessary to brake fast tin ions emanating from the EUV generating laser-target interaction. If they are used, their zero power consumption is beneficial toward overall source electrical efficiency.

Figure 13B shows in cross section two opposed current carrying coils 550 and 560 mounted coaxially on axis of rotational symmetry 1. The direction of current flow, labeled by an X for current entering the page and a dot for current coming out of the page, is opposed in coils 550 and 560. Surrounding these coils is a coaxial cylindrical yoke 540 of highly permeable material, for example soft iron. When coils 550 and 560 are energized, a magnetic flux 525 is induced across the gaps in the yoke, to generate a cusp field with its magnetic null at location 535. By variation of the positions of various coils, the currents within them, the geometry of the yoke and its relative permeability, an infinite variety of cusp field designs may be produced.

A further embodiment of the invention, that provides improved extreme ultraviolet light collection efficiency, is illustrated in Figure 14. In Figure 14 the chamber is not shown and the magnetic field generating coils are shown in cross section. Their annular geometry is defined via vertical axis 1 of rotational symmetry. With reference to Figure 14, a cusp field is generated by opposed magnetic field generators 330 and 360 above, and 340 and 350 below, drawn as current-carrying coils. Within the cross section of each winding the direction of current flow is shown by a dot for current coming out of the page and an X for current flowing into the page. The term "magnetic field generator" refers not only to current carrying coils but also to permanent magnets or soft magnetic material arranged as yokes powered by current-carrying coils, either individually or in appropriate combination. The laser-plasma interaction region 60 is located on rotational symmetry axis 1 at or close to the magnetic null point of the cusp. Extreme ultraviolet radiation from position 60 propagates as typical ray 420 to a distant location on symmetry axis 1 that is an exit port of the chamber. On its path it undergoes a single reflection at the surface of collection optical element 400 that carries a multi-layer optical coating designed to reflect EUV light. Element 400 is a truncated ellipsoid of revolution about symmetry axis 1. It may have a central hole to accommodate magnetic generator 350 and to allow buffer gas entry at least at locations 200. Because of its forward- projecting aspect, ellipsoidal optical element 400 may subtend at location 60 a collection solid angle far in excess of 2π steradians.

In operation, the buffer gas is ionized to plasma by the exhaust energy of the laser- plasma interaction at position 60 and this plasma, shown in vertical shading, is trapped within magnetic well 500 shown in cross section by vertical stripe shading, with overflow into cone- shaped plasma sheet 440. The magnetic well is a volume defined by a closed surface of constant magnetic field that has a lesser value of magnetic field at all points within that volume. Plasma overflows from containment in a magnetic well via the points of least containment field. In this case the overflow locus is a circle lying on the cone-shaped plasma sheet. The magnetic field design is asymmetrical and is such that the plasma exhaust, carrying buffer gas and target material atoms and ions, overflows into and is guided in, cone- shaped sheet 440 past the forward-projecting edge of optical element 400 toward annular beam dump 140. The shape of magnetic well 500 can be distorted to conform to the inner shape of collector 400 via relatively stronger field generation at magnetic field generators 340 and 360, and weaker generation at generators 330 and 350. Here the term "conform" is used in a loose sense to indicate that the magnetic well is smaller than the collector surface but has the same general shape where they are closest to each other. It may be advantageous to have the target material droplet stream (not shown) enter via a hole in collector 400, and to have unused droplets exit through a second hole in the collector. Also, droplet position monitoring may require additional small holes in the collector.

In a further embodiment of the invention the flowing buffer gas may comprise a mixture of two or more gases taken from the set hydrogen, helium and argon. The use of a mixture enables additional performance beyond use of a single species. For example, a dominant argon buffer can supply the fundamental plasma braking effect [34] while a small addition of hydrogen can provide tin scavenging off a collector optic to maintain its high reflectivity [35,36,37]. In prior work [12] there has been 100% hydrogen usage for reasons to do with its better stopping power [38] as a neutral gas, for fast tin ions, than for example argon. This comparison is made after the relative densities of the two gases have been adjusted to give constant EUV optical transmission. When plasma electrons are the dominant braking agent [34], the nature of the ions in the plasma is not of primary importance and the advantages of relegating hydrogen to a minority species are many: a. Although injected as molecular hydrogen (H 2 ), the source plasma conditions at

(approximately) density 10 15 electrons cm - " 3 and temperature 2eV cause rapid dissociation of H 2 into H atoms. These can re-combine to H 2 on surfaces with release of heat, or they can participate in chemical reactions to form hydrides such as stannane (SnH 4 ). Because dissociation is on such a large scale, it becomes difficult to predict the heat load on any part of the surface in contact with the exhaust flow.

b. It is desirable that tin or other target material be condensed and recycled. Reactions into stannane and other hydrides can occur on surfaces or in the chamber volume, leading to downstream deposition on cool surfaces and even decomposition on hot surfaces. Lack of specificity makes it difficult to define a tin recycling stream that is close to 100% accurate and effective.

c. Hydrogen is explosive when mixed with air [38] leading to the need for severe handling precautions that add additional complexity and cost to an EUV source running on hydrogen alone.

Further realizations of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art and such additional embodiments are considered to be within the scope of the following claims. References 1. "EUV Sources for Lithography" Ed V. Bakshi, SPIE Press, Bellinghaven, WA 2005.

2. US Pat. 7,479,646 McGeoch, Jan 20 2009

3. US Pat. 8,269,199 McGeoch, Sept 18 2012

4. US Pat. 8,440,988 McGeoch, May 14 2013

5. US Pat. 8,569,724 McGeoch, Oct 29 2013

6. US Pat. 8,592,788 McGeoch, Nov 26 2013

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