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Title:
FABS-IN-TANDEM IMMUNOGLOBULIN AND USES THEREOF
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2015/103072
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention provides multivalent and multispecific binding proteins that are capable of binding two or more antigens, or two or more epitopes. The present invention also provides methods of making and using such multivalent and multispecific binding proteins, including methods of using such binding proteins for prevention or treatment of various diseases, or for detecting specific antigens in vitro or in vivo.

Inventors:
WU, Chengbin (#56 1335 Pu Chi Road, Shanghai 2, Shanghai 2, 201112, CN)
Application Number:
US2014/072336
Publication Date:
July 09, 2015
Filing Date:
December 24, 2014
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
EPIMAB BIOTHERAPEUTICS (Room 3009,Building 3, East side of Pinghu Avenue and North side of Fanrong Roa, Pinghu City Zhejiang 0, 314200, CN)
International Classes:
C07K16/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2013150043A12013-10-10
Foreign References:
US20020004587A12002-01-10
US20060206947A12006-09-14
US20050250185A12005-11-10
US20050074821A12005-04-07
US20120301400A12012-11-29
US20070071675A12007-03-29
US20080269467A12008-10-30
US20060235208A12006-10-19
Other References:
See also references of EP 3089994A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
WU, Nan et al. (Cooley LLP, 1299 Pennsylvania Avenue NW,Suite 70, Washington DC, 20004, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS

1. A binding protein comprising at least two polypeptide chains, wherein the polypeptide chains pair to form IgG-like molecules capable of binding two or more antigens, wherein the first polypeptide chain comprises VLA, CL, VHB, and CHI, wherein VL is a light chain variable domain, CL is a light chain constant domain, VH is a heavy chain variable domain, CHI is the first constant domain of the heavy chain, A is a first antigen, and B is a second antigen.

2. The binding protein of claim 1, wherein the binding protein comprises three polypeptide chains, wherein the second polypeptide chain comprises VHA and CHI, and wherein the third polypeptide chain comprises VLB and CL.

3. The binding protein of claim 1, wherein the binding protein comprises two

polypeptide chains, and wherein the second polypeptide chain comprises VHA, CHI, VLB, and CL.

4. The binding protein of claim 1, wherein the binding protein further comprises an Fc.

5. The binding protein of claim 4, wherein the Fc is the Fc of human IgGl .

6. The binding protein of claim 4, wherein the Fc is according to SEQ ID NO: 20. 7 The binding protein of claim 4, wherein the Fc is a variant Fc.

8. The binding protein of claim 1, 2, or 3, further comprising at least one polypeptide linker.

9. The binding protein of claim 8, wherein the at least one polypeptide linker is selected from the group consisting of G,GS, SG,GGS, GSG (SEQ ID NO: 26), SGG, GGG, GGGS, SGGG, GGGGS, GGGGSGS (SEQ ID NO: 28), GGGGSGGS, GGGGSGGGGS,

GGGGSGGGGSGGGGS, AKTTPKLEEGEFSEAR, AKTTPKLEEGEFSEARV,

AKTTPKLGG, SAKTTPKLGG, AKTTPKLEEGEFSEARV, SAKTTP, SAKTTPKLGG, RADAAP, RADAAPTVS, RAD AAAAGGPGS , RADAAAA(G4S)4, SAKTTP,

SAKTTPKLGG, S AKTTPKLEEGEFSEARV, ADAAP, ADAAPTVSIFPP, TVAAP, TVAAPSVFIFPP, QPKAAP, QPKAAPSVTLFPP, AKTTPP, AKTTPPSVTPLAP, AKTTAP, AKTTAPSVYPLAP, ASTKGP, ASTKGPSVFPLAP, GENKVEYAPALMALS, GPAKELTPLKEAKVS, and GHE AAAVMQ VQ YP AS .

10. The binding protein of claim 2, wherein the binding protein is prepared from first, second, and third polypeptide chain constructs at a molar ratio of first:second:third selected from the group consisting of 1 : 1 : 1 , 1 : 1.5 : 1.5, or 1 :3 :3.

1 1. The binding protein of claim 2, wherein the first polypeptide chain comprises, from amino to carboxyl terminus, VLA-CL-VHB-CH1 -FC, the second polypeptide chain comprises, from amino to carboxyl terminus, VHA-CHI, and the third polypeptide chain comprises, from amino to carboxyl terminus, VLB-CL.

12. The binding protein of claim 2, wherein the first polypeptide chain comprises, from amino to carboxyl terminus, VHB-CH1 -VLA-CL-FC, the second polypeptide chain comprises, from amino to carboxyl terminus, VHA-CHI, and the third polypeptide chain comprises, from amino to carboxyl terminus, VLB-CL.

13. The binding protein of claim 3, wherein the binding protein is prepared from first and second polypeptide chain constricts at a molar ratio of first:second selected from the group consisting of 1 : 1 , 1 : 1.5, or 1 :3.

14. The binding protein of claim 3, wherein the first polypeptide chain comprises, from amino to carboxyl terminus, VLA-CL-VHB-CH1 -FC, and the second polypeptide chain comprises, from amino to carboxyl terminus, VHA-CHI -VLB-CL.

15. The binding protein of claim 3, wherein the first polypeptide chain comprises, from amino to carboxyl terminus, VHB-CH1 -VLA-CL-Fc, and the second polypeptide chain comprises, from amino to carboxyl terminus, VLB-CL-VHA-CH1.

16. The binding protein of claim 1 1 or 14, wherein the CL of the first polypeptide chain is fused directly to VHB.

17. The binding protein of claim 1 1 or 14, wherein the CL of the first polypeptide chain is linked to V¾ via an amino acid or an oligopeptide linker.

18. The binding protein of claim 12 or 15, wherein the CHI of the first polypeptide chain is fused directly to VLA.

19. The binding protein of claim 12 or 15, wherein the CHI of the first polypeptide chain is linked to VLA via an amino acid or an oligopeptide linker.

20. The binding protein of claim 17 or 19, wherein the linker is selected from the group consisting of G, GS, SG,GGS, GSG (SEQ ID NO: 26), SGG, GGG, GGGS, SGGG, GGGGS, GGGGSGS (SEQ ID NO: 28), GGGGSGGS, GGGGSGGGGS, GGGGSGGGGSGGGGS, AKTTPKLEEGEFSEAR, AKTTPKLEEGEFSEARV, AKTTPKLGG, SAKTTPKLGG, AKTTPKLEEGEFSEARV, SAKTTP, SAKTTPKLGG, RADAAP, RADAAPTVS,

RADAAAAGGPGS, RADAAAA(G4S)4, SAKTTP, SAKTTPKLGG,

S AKTTPKLEEGEFSEARV, ADAAP, ADAAPTVSIFPP, TVAAP, TVAAPSVFIFPP, QPKAAP, QPKAAP S VTLFPP , AKTTPP, AKTTPPSVTPLAP, AKTTAP,

AKTTAPSVYPLAP, ASTKGP, ASTKGPSVFPLAP, GENKVEYAPALMALS,

GPAKELTPLKEAKVS, and GHE AAAVMQ VQ YP AS .

21. The binding protein of claim 20, wherein the linker is selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 26 and SEQ ID NO: 28.

22. The binding protein of any one of claims 1 to 21, wherein the polypeptide chains form monomeric IgG-like molecules.

23. The binding protein of any one of claims 1 to 22, wherein the binding protein is capable of binding pairs of cytokines selected from the group consisting of IL-la and IL-Ιβ; IL-12 and IL-18, TNFa and IL-23, TNFa and IL-13; TNF and IL-18; TNF and IL-12; TNF and IL-lbeta; TNF and MIF; TNF and IL-6, TNF and IL-6 Receptor, TNF and IL-17; IL-17 and IL-20; IL-17 and IL-23; TNF and IL-15; TNF and VEGF; VEGFR and EGFR; IL-13 and IL-9; IL-13 and IL-4; IL-13 and IL-5; IL-13 and IL-25; IL-13 and TARC; IL-13 and MDC; IL-13 and MIF; IL-13 and TGF-β; IL-13 and LHR agonist; IL-13 and CL25; IL-13 and SPRR2a; IL-13 and SPRR2b; IL-13 and ADAM8; and TNFa and PGE4, IL-13 and PED2, TNF and PEG2.

24. The binding protein of claim 23, wherein the binding protein binds human IL-17 and human IL-20.

25. The binding protein of claim 24, wherein the binding protein comprises variable heavy and light chains derived from the ant-IL-17 antibody LY and the anti-IL-20 antibody 15D2.

26. The binding protein of claim 2, wherein the binding protein comprises a first polypeptide chain comprising an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 15, 25, and 27; a second polypeptide chain comprising an amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 21; and a third polypeptide chain comprising a sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 23.

27. The binding protein of claim 3, wherein the binding protein comprises a first polypeptide chain comprising an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 15, 25, and 27, and a second polypeptide chain comprising an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 29, 30, and 31.

28. The binding protein of any one of claims 1 to 22, wherein the binding protein is capable of binding pairs of targets selected from the group consisting of CD 138 and CD20; CD138 and CD40; CD19 and CD20; CD20 and CD3; CD3 and CD33; CD16 and CD33, CD3 and CD133; CD38 & CD138; CD38 and CD20; CD20 and CD22; CD38 and CD40; CD40 and CD20; CD-8 and IL-6; CSPGs and RGM A; CTLA-4 and BTN02; IGF1 and IGF2; IGF1/2 and Erb2B; IGF-1R and EGFR; EGFR and CD13; IGF-1R and ErbB3; EGFR-2 and IGFR; VEGFR-2 and Met; VEGF-A and Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2); IL-12 and TWEAK; IL-13 and IL-lbeta ; MAG and RGM A; NgR and RGM A; NogoA and RGM A; OMGp and RGM A; PDL-1 and CTLA-4; PD-1 and CTLA-4; PD-1 and TIM-3; CD137 and CD20, CD137 and EGFR, CD137 and Her-2, CD137 and PD-1, CD137 and PDL-1, VEGF and PD-L1, Lag-3 and TIM-3, OX40 and PD-1, TIM-3 and PDL-1, EGFR and DLL-4, PDGFR and VEGF, EpCAM and CD3, Her2 and CD3, CD19 and CD3, EGFR and Her3, CD16a and CD30, CD30 and PSMA, EGFR and CD3, CEA and CD3, TROP-2 and HSG, TROP-2 and CD3, VEGF and EGFR, HGF and VEGF, VEGF and VEGF (same or a different epitope), EGFR and cMet, PDGF and VEGF, VEGF and DLL-4, OX40 and PD-L1, ICOS and PD-1, ICOS and PD-L1, Lag-3 and PD-1, Lag-3 and PD-L1, Lag-3 and CTLA-4, ICOS and CTLA-4, CD47 and CD20, RGM A and RGM B; Te38 and TNFa; TNFa and Blys; TNFa and CD-22; TNFa and CTLA-4 domain; TNFa and GP130; TNFa and IL-12p40; and TNFa and RANK ligand.

29. The binding protein of claim 28, wherein the binding protein is capable of binding human CD3 and human CD20.

30. The binding protein of claim 29, wherein the binding protein comprises variable heavy and light chains derived from the anti-CD3 antibody OKT3 and the anti-CD20 antibody ofatumumab.

31. The binding protein of claim 2, wherein the binding protein comprises a first polypeptide chain comprising an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 41 and 48; a second polypeptide chain comprising an amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 44; and a third polypeptide chain comprising an amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 46.

32. The binding protein of claim 1, wherein the binding protein is capable of binding one or more epitopes on CTLA-4.

33. The binding protein of claim 1, wherein the binding protein is capable of binding one or more epitopes on PD-1.

34. The binding protein of claim 1, wherein the binding protein is capable of binding one or more epitopes on a protein that is an immune checkpoint protein on T cells.

35. The binding protein of claim 34, wherein the immune checkpoint protein is selected from the group consisting of TIM-3, Lag3, ICOS, BTLA, CD160, 2B4, KIR, CD137, CD27, OX40, CD40L, and A2aR.

36. The binding protein of claim 1, wherein the binding protein is capable of binding one or more epitopes on a protein that is involved in immune checkpoint activities.

37. The binding protein of claim 36, wherein the protein is selected from the group consisting of PD-L1, PD-L2, Galectin9, HVEM, CD48, B7-1, B7-2, ICOSL, B7-H3, B7-H4, CD137L, OX40L, CD70, and CD40.

38. The binding protein of any one of claims 1 to 37, wherein the binding protein binds to each antigen with similar or greater affinity relative to a mono-specific antibody or antibody fragment.

39. The binding protein of any one of claims 1 to 38, wherein the binding protein is conjugated to an agent selected from the group consisting of an immunoadhension molecule, an imaging agent, a therapeutic agent, and a cytotoxic agent.

40. A pharmaceutical composition comprising the binding protein of any one of the preceding claims and one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

41. A method of treating or preventing an inflammatory disease, autoimmune disease, neurodegenerative disease, cancer, sepsis, metabolic disorder, or spinal cord injury in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of the pharmaceutical composition of claim 40.

42. The method of claim 31 , wherein the inflammatory disease, autoimmune disease, or neurodegenerative disease is selected from the group consisting of asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, or

Parkinson's disease.

43. Use of the binding protein according to any one of claims 1- 39 in the manufacture of a medicament for treatment or prevention of an inflammatory disease, autoimmune disease, neurodegenerative disease, cancer, or spinal cord injury.

44. The use of claim 43, wherein the inflammatory disease, autoimmune disease, or neurodegenerative disease is selected from the group consisting of asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, or Parkinson's disease.

45. The binding protein of claim 2, wherein the binding protein comprises a first polypeptide chain comprising an amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 87; a second polypeptide chain comprising an amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 89; and a third polypeptide chain comprising a sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 91.

46. The binding protein of claim 23, wherein the binding protein is capable of binding human TNF and human IL-17.

47. The binding protein of claim 2, wherein the binding protein comprises a first polypeptide chain comprising an amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 92; a second polypeptide chain comprising an amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 95; and a third polypeptide chain comprising a sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 97.

48. The binding protein of claim 28, wherein the binding protein is capable of binding human CTLA-4 and human PD-1.

49. A method of treating a disease selected from the group consisting of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, osteoporosis, stroke, liver disease, and oral cancer in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering a binding protein according to claim 1 to the subject, wherein the binding protein is capable of binding IL-17 and IL-20.

50. A method of treating a B cell cancer in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject a binding protein according to claim 1, wherein the binding protein is capable of binding CD3 and CD20.

51. The method of claim 50, wherein the B cell cancer is selected from the group consisting of Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), precursor B cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, mature B cell neoplasms, B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, B cell prolymphocytic leukemia, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, cutaneous follicle center lymphoma, marginal zone B cell lymphoma, hairy cell leukemia, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma,

plasmacytoma, plasma cell myeloma, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder,

Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.

52. A method of treating autoimmune or inflammatory disease in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject a binding protein according to claim 1, wherein the binding protein is capable of binding TNF and IL-17.

53. The method of claim 52, wherein the autoimmune disease is selected from the group consisting of Crohn's disease, psoriasis (including plaque psoriasis), arthritis (including rheumatoid arthritis, psoratic arthritis, osteoarthritis, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis), multiple sclerosis, ankylosing spondylitis, spondylosing arthropathy, systemic lupus erythematosus, uveitis, sepsis, neurodegenerative diseases, neuronal regeneration, spinal cord injury, primary and metastatic cancers, a respiratory disorder asthma, allergic and nonallergic asthma, asthma due to infection, asthma due to infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a condition involving airway inflammation, eosinophilia, fibrosis and excess mucus production, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary fibrosis, an atopic disorder, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, eczema, allergic rhinitis, allergic enterogastritis, an inflammatory and/or autoimmune condition of the skin, an inflammatory and/or autoimmune condition of

gastrointestinal organs, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), ulcerative colitis, an inflammatory and/or autoimmune condition of the liver, liver cirrhosis, liver fibrosis, liver fibrosis caused by hepatitis B and/or C virus, scleroderma, tumors or cancers, hepatocellular carcinoma, glioblastoma, lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, a viral infection, a bacterial infection, a parasitic infection, HTLV-1 infection, suppression of expression of protective type 1 immune responses, and suppression of expression of a protective type 1 immune response during vaccination.

54.. The method of claim 53, wherein the autoimmune disease is rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or multiple sclerosis.

55. A method of treating cancer in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject a binding protein according to claim 1, wherein the binding protein is capable of binding CTLA-4 and PD-1.

56. The method of claim 55, wherein the cancer is melanoma, renal cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, liver cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, thyroid cancer, glioblastoma, glioma, leukemia, lymphoma, and other neoplastic malignancies.

57. The binding protein of claim 1, wherein the first polypeptide comprises VLA-CL-(Xl)n- V¾-CHl-(X2)n, wherein VLA is the light chain variable domain of mAb A, CL is a light chain constant domain, XI represents an amino acid or an oligopeptide linker, V¾ is the heavy chain variable domain of mAb B, CHI is the first constant domain of the heavy chain, X2 represents an Fc region or a different dimerization domain, and n is 0 or 1.

Description:
FABS-IN-TANDEM IMMUNOGLOBULIN AND USES THEREOF

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

[0001] This application claims priority to International Application No. PCT/CN2013/090923, filed December 30, 2013, which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

FIELD OF INVENTION

[0002] The present invention relates to multivalent and multispecific binding proteins, and to methods of making and using multivalent and multispecific binding proteins.

DESCRIPTION OF THE TEXT FILE SUBMITTED ELECTRONICALLY

[0003] The contents of the text file submitted electronically herewith are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety: A computer readable format copy of the Sequence Listing (filename: EPBI_001_01WO_SeqList_ST25.txt, date recorded: December 2, 2014, file size 98 KB).

BACKGROUND OF THE F VETION

[0004] Bispecific or multispecific antibodies have been generated in attempts to prepare molecules useful for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, cancers, and other disorders.

[0005] Bispecific antibodies have been produced using the quadroma technology (see Milstein, C. and A.C. Cuello, Nature, 1983. 305(5934): p. 537-40) based on the somatic fusion of two different hybridoma cell lines expressing murine monoclonal antibodies with the desired specificities of the bispecific antibody. Bispecific antibodies can also be produced by chemical conjugation of two different mAbs (see Staerz, U.D., et al, Nature, 1985. 314(6012): p. 628-31). Other approaches have used chemical conjugation of two different monoclonal antibodies or smaller antibody fragments (see Brennan, M., et al., Science, 1985. 229(4708): p. 81-3). [0006] Another method is the coupling of two parental antibodies with a hetero-bifunctional crosslinker. In particular, two different Fab fragments have been chemically crosslinked at their hinge cysteine residues in a site-directed manner (see Glennie, M.J., et al, J Immunol, 1987. 139(7): p. 2367-75).

[0007] Other recombinant bispecific antibody formats have been developed in the recent past (see Kriangkum, J., et al, Biomol Eng, 2001. 18(2): p. 31-40). Amongst them tandem single- chain Fv molecules and diabodies, and various derivatives thereof, have been used for the construction of recombinant bispecific antibodies. Normally, construction of these molecules starts from two single-chain Fv (scFv) fragments that recognize different antigens (see Economides, A.N., et al, Nat Med, 2003. 9(1): p. 47-52). Tandem scFv molecules (taFv) represent a straightforward format simply connecting the two scFv molecules with an additional peptide linker. The two scFv fragments present in these tandem scFv molecules form separate folding entities. Various linkers can be used to connect the two scFv fragments and linkers with a length of up to 63 residues (see Nakanishi, K., et al.. Annu Rev Immunol,

2001. 19: p. 423-74).

[0008] In a recent study, in vivo expression by transgenic rabbits and cattle of a tandem scFv directed against CD28 and a melanoma-associated proteoglycan was reported (see Gracie, J.A., et al, J Clin Invest, 1999. 104(10): p. 1393-401). In this construct the two scFv molecules were connected by a CHI linker and serum concentrations of up to 100 mg/L of the bispecific antibody were found. A few studies have now reported expression of soluble tandem scFv molecules in bacteria (see Leung, B.P., et al, J Immunol, 2000. 164(12): p. 6495-502; Ito, A., et al, J Immunol, 2003. 170(9): p. 4802-9; Kami, A., et al, J Neuroimmunol, 2002. 125(1-2): p. 134-40) using either a very short Ala3 linker or long glycine/serine -rich linkers.

[0009] In a recent study, phage display of a tandem scFv repertoire containing randomized middle linkers with a length of 3 or 6 residues enriched those molecules which are produced in soluble and active form in bacteria. This approach resulted in the isolation of a preferred tandem scFv molecule with a 6 amino acid residue linker (see Arndt, M. and J. Krauss, Methods Mol Biol, 2003. 207: p. 305-21).

[0010] Bispecific diabodies (Db) utilize the diabody format for expression. Diabodies are produced from scFv fragments by reducing the length of the linker connecting the VH and VL domain to approximately 5 residues (see Peipp, M. and T. Valerius, Biochem Soc Trans,

2002. 30(4): p. 507-11). This reduction of linker size facilitates dimerization of two polypeptide chains by crossover pairing of the VH and VL domains. Bispecific diabodies are produced by expressing two polypeptide chains with either the structure VHA-VLB and VHB-VLA (VH-VL configuration) or VLA-VHB and VLB-VHA (VL-VH configuration) within the same cell. A recent comparative study demonstrates that the orientation of the variable domains can influence expression and formation of active binding sites (see Mack, M., G. Riethmuller, and P. Kufer, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1995. 92(15): p. 7021-5).

[0011] One approach to force the generation of bispecific diabodies is the production of knob-into-hole diabodies (see Holliger, P., T. Prospero, and G. Winter, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1993. 90(14): p. 6444-8.18). This was demonstrated for a bispecific diabody directed against HER2 and CD3. A large knob was introduced in the VH domain by exchanging Val37 with Phe and Leu45 with Trp and a complementary hole was produced in the VL domain by mutating Phe98 to Met and Tyr87 to Ala, either in the anti- HER2 or the anti-CD3 variable domains. By using this approach the production of bispecific diabodies could be increased from 72% by the parental diabody to over 90% by the knob-into-hole diabody.

[0012] Single-chain diabodies (scDb) represent an alternative strategy to improve the formation of bispecific diabody-like molecules (see Holliger, P. and G. Winter, Cancer Immunol Immunother, 1997. 45(3-4): p. 128-30; Wu, A.M., et al, Immunotechnology, 1996. 2(1): p. 21-36). Bispecific single-chain diabodies are produced by connecting the two diabody-forming polypeptide chains with an additional middle linker with a length of approximately 15 amino acid residues. Consequently, all molecules with a molecular weight corresponding to monomeric single-chain diabodies (50-60 kDa) are bispecific. Several studies have demonstrated that bispecific single chain diabodies are expressed in bacteria in soluble and active form with the majority of purified molecules present as monomers (see Holliger, P. and G. Winter, Cancer Immunol Immunother, 1997. 45(3-4): p. 128-30; Wu, A.M., et al, Immunotechnology, 1996. 2(1): p. 21-36; Pluckthun, A. and P. Pack, Immunotechnology, 1997. 3(2): p. 83-105; Ridgway, J.B., et al, Protein Eng, 1996. 9(7): p. 617-21).

[0013] Diabody have been fused to Fc to generate more Ig-like molecules, named di-diabody (see Lu, D., et al, J Biol Chem, 2004. 279(4): p. 2856-65). In addition, multivalent antibody construct comprising two Fab repeats in the heavy chain of an IgG and capable of binding four antigen molecules has been described (see US patent 8,722,859 B2, and Miller, K., et al, J Immunol, 2003. 170(9): p. 4854-61). [0014] The most recent examples are tetravalent IgG-single-chain variable fragment (scFv) fusions (Dong J, et al. 2011 MAbs 3:273-288; Coloma MJ, Morrison SL 1997 Nat Biotechnol 15 :159-163; Lu D, et al. 2002 J Immunol Methods 267:213-226), catumaxomab, a trifunctional rat/mouse hybrid bispecificepithelialcelladhesionmolecule-CD3 antibody (Lindhofer H, et al 1995 J Immunol 155:219-225), the bispecific CD19-CD3 scFv antibody blinatumomab (Bargou R, et al. 2008 Science 321 :974-977), "dual- acting Fab" (DAF) antibodies (BostromJ, et al. 2009 Science 323: 1610-1614), covalently linked pharmacophore peptides to catalytic anti- bodies (Doppalapudi VR, et al. 2010 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:22611-22616), use of the dynamic exchange between half IgG4 molecules to generate bispecific antibodies (van der Neut Kolfschoten M, et al. 2007 Science 317: 1554-1557; Stubenrauch K, et al. 2010 Drug Metab Dispos 38:84-91), or by exchange of heavy-chain and light-chain domains within the antigen binding fragment (Fab) of one half of the bispecific antibody (CrossMab format) (Schaefer Wet al 2011 Proc Natl Acad Sci 108: 11187- 92).

[0015] There is a need in the art for single molecular entities with dual antigen binding function, and for methods of generating such multivalent and multispecific binding proteins. The present invention addresses these and other needs.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0016] The present invention provides multivalent and multispecific binding proteins, and methods of making and using such binding proteins. In one embodiment, the multivalent and multispecific binding proteins provided herein are Fabs-in-tandem immunoglobulins (FIT- Ig), and are capable of binding two or more antigens, or two or more epitopes of the same antigen, or two or more copies of the same epitope. The multivalent and multispecific binding proteins provided herein are useful for treatment and/or prevention of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases and disorders, autoimmune diseases, cancers, spinal cord injuries, sepsis, and other diseases, disorders, and conditions. Pharmaceutical compositions comprising the multivalent and multispecific binding proteins are provided herein. In addition, nucleic acids, recombinant expression vectors, and host cells for making such FIT- Igs are provided herein. Methods of using the FIT-Igs of the invention to detect specific antigens, in vivo or in vitro, are also encompassed by the invention. [0017] The present invention provides a family of binding proteins that are capable of binding two or more antigens, e.g., with high affinity. In one aspect, the present invention provides an approach to construct a bispecific binding protein using two parental monoclonal antibodies: mAb A, which binds to antigen A, and mAb B, which binds to antigen B. The binding proteins disclosed herein, in one embodiment, are capable of binding antigens, cytokines, chemokines, cytokine receptors, chemokine receptors, cytokine- or chemokine- related molecules, or cell surface proteins.

[0018] Thus, in one aspect, binding proteins capable of binding two or more antigens are provided. In one embodiment, the present invention provides a binding protein comprising at least two polypeptide chains, wherein the polypeptide chains pair to form IgG-like molecules capable of binding two or more antigens. In one embodiment, the binding protein comprises two, three, four, five, or more polypeptide chains. In one embodiment, the binding protein comprises at least one VLA, at least one VL B , at least one VHA, at least one VH B , at least one CL, and at least one CHI, wherein VL is a light chain variable domain, VH is a heavy chain variable domain, CL is a light chain constant domain, CHI is the first constant domain of the heavy chain, A is a first antigen, and B is a second antigen. In a further embodiment, the first polypeptide chain comprises a VLA, a CL, a VH B , and a CHI . In a further embodiment, the binding protein further comprises an Fc. In another embodiment, the Fc region is a variant Fc region. In a further embodiment, the variant Fc region exhibits modified effector function, such as ADCC or CDC. In another embodiment, the variant Fc region exhibits modified affinity or avidity for one or more FcyR.

[0019] In one embodiment, the binding protein comprises three polypeptide chains, wherein the first polypeptide chain comprises a VLA, a CL, a VH B , and a CHI, the second polypeptide chain comprises VHA and CHI, and the third polypeptide chain comprises VL B and CL. In a further embodiment, the first polypeptide chain of the binding protein further comprises an Fc. In another embodiment, the binding protein comprises two polypeptide chains, wherein the first polypeptide chain comprises a VLA, a CL, a VH B , and a CHI, the second polypeptide chain comprises VHA, CHI, VL B , and CL. In a further embodiment, the first polypeptide chain further comprises an Fc.

[0020] In one embodiment, the binding protein comprises three polypeptide chains, and their corresponding cDNA during co-transfection are present at a molar ratio of first:second:third of 1 : 1 : 1, 1 : 1.5: 1, 1 :3 :1, 1 : 1 : 1.5, 1 : 1 :3, 1 : 1.5: 1.5, 1 :3:1.5, 1 : 1.5:3, or 1 :3:3. In another embodiment, the binding protein comprises two polypeptide chains, and their corresponding cDNA during co-transfection are present at a molar ratio of firs second of 1 : 1, 1 : 1.5, or 1 :3, or any other ratios, through optimization, in an effort to maximize the monomeric FIT-Ig fraction in any given transfection.

[0021] In one embodiment, the binding protein of the present invention does not comprise a peptide linker. In one embodiment, the binding protein of the present invention comprises at least one amino acid or polypeptide linker. In a further embodiment, the linker is selected from the group consisting of G,GS, SG,GGS, GSG, SGG, GGG, GGGS, SGGG, GGGGS,

GGGGSGS, GGGGSGS, GGGGSGGS, GGGGSGGGGS, GGGGSGGGGSGGGGS,

AKTTPKLEEGEFSEAR, AKTTPKLEEGEFSEARV, AKTTPKLGG, SAKTTPKLGG,

AKTTPKLEEGEFSEARV, SAKTTP, SAKTTPKLGG, RADAAP, RADAAPTVS,

RADAAAAGGPGS, RADAAAA(G 4 S) 4 , SAKTTP, SAKTTPKLGG,

S AKTTPKLEEGEFSEARV, ADAAP, ADAAPTVSIFPP, TVAAP, TVAAPSVFIFPP,

QPKAAP, QPKAAP S VTLFPP , AKTTPP, AKTTPPSVTPLAP, AKTTAP,

AKTTAPSVYPLAP, ASTKGP, ASTKGPSVFPLAP, GENKVEYAPALMALS,

GPAKELTPLKEAKVS, and GHE AAAVMQ VQ YP AS . The linkers can also be in vivo cleavable peptide linkers, protease (such as MMPs) sensitive linkers, disulfide bond-based linkers that can be cleaved by reduction, etc., as previously described (Fusion Protein

Technologies for Biopharmaceuticals: Applications and Challenges, edited by Stefan R.

Schmidt), or any cleavable linkers known in the art. Such cleavable linkers can be used to release the top Fab in vivo for various purposes, in order to improve tissue/cell penetration and distribution, to enhance binding to targets, to reduce potential side effect, as well as to modulate in vivo functional and physical half-life of the 2 different Fab regions.

[0022] In one embodiment, the binding protein comprises a first polypeptide comprising, from amino to carboxyl terminus, VLA-CL-VH B -CH1-FC, a second polypeptide chain comprising, from amino to carboxyl terminus, VHA-CHI, and a third polypeptide chain comprising, from amino to carboxyl terminus, VL B -CL; wherein VL is a light chain variable domain, CL is a light chain constant domain, VH is a heavy chain variable domain, CHI is the first constant domain of the heavy chain, A is a first epitope or antigen, and B is a second epitope or antigen. In one embodiment, the Fc region is human IgGl . In another embodiment, the Fc region is a variant Fc region. In a further embodiment, the amino acid sequence of the

Fc region is at least 65%, at least 70%, at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 99%, or 100% identical to SEQ ID NO: 20. In a further embodiment, the

CL of the first polypeptide chain is fused directly to VH B . In another embodiment, the CL of the first polypeptide chain is linked to VH B via an amino acid or an oligopeptide linker. In a further embodiment, the linker is GSG (SEQ ID NO: 26) or GGGGSGS (SEQ ID NO: 28).

[0023] In another embodiment, the binding protein comprises a first polypeptide comprising, from amino to carboxyl terminus, VH B -CH1-VLA-CL-FC, a second polypeptide chain comprising, from amino to carboxyl terminus, VHA-CHI, and a third polypeptide chain comprising, from amino to carboxyl terminus, VL B -CL; wherein VL is a light chain variable domain, CL is a light chain constant domain, VH is a heavy chain variable domain, CHI is the first constant domain of the heavy chain, A is a first epitope or antigen, and B is a second epitope or antigen. In one embodiment, the Fc region is human IgGl . In another embodiment, the Fc region is a variant Fc region. In a further embodiment, the amino acid sequence of the Fc region is at least 65%, at least 70%, at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 99%, or 100% identical to SEQ ID NO: 20. In one embodiment, the CH I of the first polypeptide chain is fused directly to VLA. In another embodiment, the CHI of the first polypeptide chain is linked to VLA via an amino acid or an oligopeptide linker. In a further embodiment, the linker is GSG (SEQ ID NO: 26) or GGGGSGS (SEQ ID NO: 28).

[0024] In another embodiment, the binding protein comprises a first polypeptide comprising, from amino to carboxyl terminus, VLA-CL-VH B -CH1-FC, and a second polypeptide chain comprising, from amino to carboxyl terminus, VHA-CHI -VL B -CL; wherein VL is a light chain variable domain, CL is a light chain constant domain, VH is a heavy chain variable domain, CH I is the first constant domain of the heavy chain, A is a first epitope or antigen, and B is a second epitope or antigen. In one embodiment, the Fc region is human IgGl . In another embodiment, the Fc region is a variant Fc region. In a further embodiment, the amino acid sequence of the Fc region is at least 65%, at least 70%>, at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 99%, or 100% identical to SEQ ID NO: 20. In a further embodiment, the CL of the first polypeptide chain is fused directly to VH B . In another embodiment, the CL of the first polypeptide chain is linked to VH B via an amino acid or an oligopeptide linker. In a further embodiment, the linker is GSG (SEQ ID NO: 26) or GGGGSGS (SEQ ID NO: 28).

[0025] In another embodiment, binding protein comprises a first polypeptide comprising, from amino to carboxyl terminus, VH B -CH1-VLA-CL-FC, and a second polypeptide chain comprising, from amino to carboxyl terminus, VL B -CL-VHA-CH1; wherein VL is a light chain variable domain, CL is a light chain constant domain, VH is a heavy chain variable domain, CH I is the first constant domain of the heavy chain, A is a first epitope or antigen, and B is a second epitope or antigen. In one embodiment, the Fc region is human IgGl . In another embodiment, the Fc region is a variant Fc region. In a further embodiment, the amino acid sequence of the Fc region is at least 65%, at least 70%, at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 99%, or 100% identical to SEQ ID NO: 20. In one embodiment, the CHI of the first polypeptide chain is fused directly to VLA. In another embodiment, the CHI of the first polypeptide chain is linked to VLA via an amino acid or an oligopeptide linker. In a further embodiment, the linker is GSG (SEQ ID NO: 26) or GGGGSGS (SEQ ID NO: 28).

[0026] The binding proteins of the present invention are capable of binding pairs of cytokines. For example, the binding proteins of the present invention are capable of binding pairs of cytokines selected from the group consisting of IL-la and IL-Ιβ; IL-12 and IL-18, TNFa and IL-23, TNFa and IL-13; TNF and IL-18; TNF and IL-12; TNF and IL-lbeta; TNF and MIF; TNF and IL-6, TNF and IL-6 Receptor, TNF and IL-17; IL-17 and IL-20; IL-17 and IL-23; TNF and IL-15; TNF and VEGF; VEGFR and EGFR; PDGFR and VEGF, IL-13 and IL-9; IL-13 and IL-4; IL-13 and IL-5; IL-13 and IL-25; IL-13 and TARC; IL-13 and MDC; IL-13 and MIF; IL-13 and TGF-β; IL-13 and LHR agonist; IL-13 and CL25; IL-13 and SPRR2a; IL-13 and SPRR2b; IL-13 and ADAM 8; and TNFa and PGE4, IL-13 and PED2, TNF and PEG2. In one embodiment, the binding proteins of the present invention are capable of binding IL-17 and IL-20. The binding proteins of the present invention, in one embodiment, are capable of binding IL-17 and IL-20 and comprise variable heavy and light chains derived from the anti-IL-17 antibody LY and the anti-IL-20 antibody 15D2. In one embodiment, the binding proteins of the present invention are capable of binding IL-17 and TNF. The binding proteins of the present invention, in one embodiment, are capable of binding IL-17 and TNF and comprise variable heavy and light chains derived from the anti- IL-17 antibody LY and the TNF antibody golimumab.

[0027] In one embodiment, the binding proteins of the present invention bind IL-17 and IL- 20 and comprise a first polypeptide comprising, consisting essentially of, or consisting of an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 15, 25, and 27; a second polypeptide chain comprising, consisting essentially of, or consisting of an amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 21 ; and a third polypeptide chain comprising, consisting essentially of, or consisting of a sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 23. In another embodiment, the binding proteins of the present invention bind IL-27 and IL-20 and comprise a first polypeptide chain comprising, consisting essentially of, or consisting of an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 15, 25, and 27, and a second polypeptide chain comprising, consisting essentially of, or consisting of an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 29, 30, and 31.

[0028] In one embodiment, the binding proteins of the present invention bind TNF and IL-17 and comprise a first polypeptide comprising, consisting essentially of, or consisting of an amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NOs: 87; a second polypeptide chain comprising, consisting essentially of, or consisting of an amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 89; and a third polypeptide chain comprising, consisting essentially of, or consisting of a sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 91.

[0029] In another embodiment, the binding protein is capable of binding pairs of targets selected from the group consisting of CD 137 and CD20, CD 137 and EGFR, CD 137 and Her- 2, CD137 and PD-1, CD137 and PDL-1, VEGF and PD-L1, Lag-3 and TIM-3, OX40 and PD-1, TIM-3 and PD-1, TIM-3 and PDL-1, EGFR and DLL-4, CD 138 and CD20; CD 138 and CD40; CD19 and CD20; CD20 and CD3; CD3 and CD33; CD3 and CD133; CD47 and CD20, CD38 and CD138; CD38 and CD20; CD20 and CD22; CD38 and CD40; CD40 and CD20; CD-8 and IL-6; CSPGs and RGM A; CTLA-4 and BTN02; IGF1 and IGF2; IGF 1/2 and Erb2B; IGF-1R and EGFR; EGFR and CD13; IGF-1R and ErbB3; EGFR-2 and IGFR; VEGFR-2 and Met; VEGF-A and Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2); IL-12 and TWEAK; IL-13 and IL-lbeta; PDGFR and VEGF,, EpCAM and CD3, Her2 and CD3, CD19 and CD3, EGFR and Her3, CD16a and CD30, CD30 and PSMA, EGFR and CD3, CEA and CD3, TROP-2 and HSG, TROP-2 and CD3, MAG and RGM A; NgR and RGM A; NogoA and RGM A; OMGp and RGM A; PDL-1 and CTLA-4; CTLA-4 and PD-1; PD-1 and TIM-3; RGM A and RGM B; Te38 and TNFa; TNFa and Blys; TNFa and CD-22; TNFa and CTLA-4 domain; TNFa and GP130; TNFa and IL-12p40; and TNFa and RANK ligand, Factor IXa, Factor X. In one embodiment, the binding proteins of the present invention are capable of binding CD3 and CD20. The binding proteins of the present invention, in one embodiment, are capable of binding CD3 and CD20 and comprise variable heavy and light chains derived from the anti- CD3 antibody OKT3 and the anti-CD20 antibody ofatumumab. In one embodiment, the binding proteins of the present invention are capable of binding CTLA-4 and PD-1. The binding proteins of the present invention, in one embodiment, are capable of binding CTLA-4 and PD-1 and comprise variable heavy and light chains derived from the CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab and the PD-1 antibody nivolumab. [0030] In one embodiment, the binding proteins of the present invention bind CD3 and CD20 and comprise a first polypeptide chain comprising, consisting essentially of, or consisting of an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 41 and 48; a second polypeptide chain comprising, consisting essentially of, or consisting of an amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 44; and a third polypeptide chain comprising, consisting essentially of, or consisting of an amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 46.

[0031] In one embodiment, the binding proteins of the present invention bind CTLA-4 and PD-1 and comprise a first polypeptide chain comprising, consisting essentially of, or consisting of an amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 92; a second polypeptide chain comprising, consisting essentially of, or consisting of an amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 95; and a third polypeptide chain comprising, consisting essentially of, or consisting of an amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 97.

[0032] In one embodiment, the binding protein provided herein is capable of binding one or more epitopes on CTLA-4. In one embodiment, the binding protein provided herein is capable of binding one or more peiotpes on PD-1.

[0033] In one embodiment, the binding protein is capable of binding one or more epitopes on one or more immune checkpoint protein on T cells such as, for example, TIM-3, Lag3, ICOS, BTLA, CD 160, 2B4, KIR, CD 137, CD27, OX40, CD40L, and A2aR. In another embodiment, the binding protein is capable of binding one or more epitopes on one or more tumor cell surface protein that is involved with immune checkpoint pathways, such as, for example, PD- Ll, PD-L2, Galectin9, HVEM, CD48, B7-1, B7-2, ICOSL, B7-H3, B7-H4, CD137L, OX40L, CD70, and CD40.

[0034] In one aspect, the present invention provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising the binding proteins described herein. In one embodiment, provided herein are pharmaceutical compositions comprising the binding protein of any one of the preceding claims and one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

[0035] In another aspect, the present invention provides methods of treating or preventing an inflammatory disease, autoimmune disease, neurodegenerative disease, cancer, sepsis, or spinal cord injury in a subject in need thereof. In one embodiment, the method comprises administering to a subject an effective amount of one or more of the binding proteins provided herein, or one or more pharmaceutical compositions comprising the binding proteins provided herein and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Uses of the binding proteins described herein in the manufacture of a medicament for treatment or prevention of an inflammatory disease, autoimmune disease, neurodegenerative disease, cancer, or spinal cord injury are also provided herein. In one embodiment, the inflammatory disease, autoimmune disease, or neurodegenerative disease is selected from the group consisting of asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, or Parkinson's disease.

[0036] In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides methods for treating or preventing rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, osteoporosis, stroke, liver disease, or oral cancer to a subject in need thereof, the method comprising adminitering to the subject a FIT-Ig binding protein described herein, wherein the binding protein is capable of binding IL-17 and IL-20. In a further embodiment, the FIT-Ig binding protein comprises an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NOs: 15, 25, and 27; and amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 21; and an amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 23. In another embodiment, the FIT-Ig binding protein comprises an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NOs: 15, 25, and 27; and an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NOs: 29, 30 and 31.

[0037] In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides methods for treating or preventing a B cell cancer in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject a FIT-Ig binding protein, wherein the FIT-Ig binding protein is capable of binding one or more B cell antigen. In a further embodiment, the FIT-Ig binding protein is capable of binding CD20. In a further embodiment, the FIT-Ig binding protein is capable of binding CD20 and another antigen. In a further embodiment, the binding protein is capable of binding CD3 and CD20. In a further embodiment, the cancer is a B cell cancer. In a still further embodiment, the B cell cancer is selected from the group consisting of Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [NHL], precursor B cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, mature B cell neoplasms, B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, B cell prolymphocytic leukemia, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, cutaneous follicle center lymphoma, marginal zone B cell lymphoma, hairy cell leukemia, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, plasmacytoma, plasma cell myeloma, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides methods for treating or preventing a B cell cancer in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject a FIT-Ig binding protein, wherein the FIT-Ig binding protein comprises an amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NOs: 41 or 48; and amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 44, and an amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 46.

[0038] In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides methods for treating or preventing an autoimmune disease, inflammatory disease, or infection in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject a FIT-Ig binding protein described herein, wherein the binding protein is capable of binding TNF and IL-17. In a further embodiment, the FIT-Ig binding protein comprises sequences according to SEQ ID NOs: 87, 89, and 91. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides methods for treating or preventing an autoimmune or inflammatory disease, the method comprising administering to the subject a FIT- Ig binding protein, wherein the binding protein is capable of binding TNF and IL-17, and wherein the autoimmune or inflammatory disease is selected from the group consisting of Crohn's disease, psoriasis (including plaque psoriasis), arthritis (including rheumatoid arthritis, psoratic arthritis, osteoarthritis, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis), multiple sclerosis, ankylosing spondylitis, spondylosing arthropathy, systemic lupus erythematosus, uveitis, sepsis, neurodegenerative diseases, neuronal regeneration, spinal cord injury, primary and metastatic cancers, a respiratory disorder; asthma; allergic and nonallergic asthma; asthma due to infection; asthma due to infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); a condition involving airway inflammation; eosinophilia; fibrosis and excess mucus production; cystic fibrosis; pulmonary fibrosis; an atopic disorder; atopic dermatitis; urticaria; eczema; allergic rhinitis; allergic enterogastritis; an inflammatory and/or autoimmune condition of the skin; an inflammatory and/or autoimmune condition of gastrointestinal organs; inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD); ulcerative colitis; an inflammatory and/or autoimmune condition of the liver; liver cirrhosis; liver fibrosis; and liver fibrosis caused by hepatitis B and/or C virus; scleroderma. In another embodiment, In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides methods for treating or preventing cancer in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising adminitering to the subject a FIT-Ig binding protein described herein, wherein the binding protein is capable of binding.TNF and IL-17. In a further embodiment, the cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma; glioblastoma; lymphoma; or Hodgkin's lymphoma. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides methods for treating or preventing and infection in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject a FIT-Ig binding protein described herein, wherein the infection is a viral infection, a bacterial infection, a parasitic infection, HTLV-1 infection. In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides methods for suppression of expression of protective type 1 immune responses, and suppression of expression of a protective type 1 immune response during vaccination. [0039] In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides methods for treating rheumatoid arthritis in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject a FIT-Ig binding protein, wherein the binding protein comprises sequences according to SEQ ID NOs: 87, 89, and 91.

[0040] In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides methods for treating or preventing cancer in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising adminitering to the subject a FIT- Ig binding protein described herein, wherein the binding protein is capable of binding.CTLA- 4 and PD-1. In a further embodiment, the FIT-Ig binding protein comprises an amino acid sequence comprising SEQ ID NOs: 92, 95, and 97. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides methods for treating or preventing cancer in a subject in need thereof, wherein the bindng protein is capable of binding CTLA-4 and PD-1, and wherein the cancer is a cancer typically responsive to immunotherapy. In another embodiment, the cancer is a cancer that has not been associated with immunotherapy. In another embodiment, the cancer is a cancer that is a refractory or recurring malignancy. In another embodiment, the binding protein inhibits the growth or survival of tumor cells. In another embodiment, the cancer is selected from the group consisting of melanoma (e.g., metastatic malignant melanoma), renal cancer (e.g. clear cell carcinoma), prostate cancer (e.g. hormone refractory prostate adenocarcinoma), pancreatic adenocarcinoma, breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer (e.g. non-small cell lung cancer), esophageal cancer, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, liver cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, thyroid cancer, glioblastoma, glioma, leukemia, lymphoma, and other neoplastic malignancies.

[0041] In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides methods for treating or preventing melanoma in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject a FIT-Ig binding protein described herein, wherein the binding protein is capable of binding. CTLA-4 and PD-1. In a further embodiment, the present disclosure provides methods for treating or preventing melanoma in a subject in need thereof, wherein the method comprises administering to the subject a FIT-Ig binding protein comprising amino acid sequences according to SEQ ID NOs: 92, 95, and 97.

[0042] In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides methods for treating or preventing infections or infectious disease in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering to the subject a FIT-Ig binding protein described herein, wherein the binding protein is capable of binding CTLA-4 and PD- 1. In one embodiment, the FIT-Ig binding protein is administered alone, or in combination with vaccines, to stimulate the immune response to pathogens, toxins, and self-antigens. Therefore, in one embodiment, the binding proteins provided herein can be used to stimulate immune response to viruses infectious to humans, such as, but not limited to, human immunodeficiency viruses, hepatitis viruses class A, B and C, Epstein Barr virus, human cytomegalovirus, human papilloma viruses, herpes viruses, bacteria, fungal parasites, or other pathogens.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0043] Figure 1A shows the structure of FIT-Igs that are made up of three constructs, such as FITl-Ig, FIT2-Ig, and FIT3-Ig. Figure IB shows the three constructs used to prepare such FITl-Igs.

[0044] Figure 2A shows the basic structure of FIT-Igs that are made up of two constructs. Figure 2B shows the two constructs used to prepare such FIT-Igs.

[0045] Figure 3 provides the dual-specific antigen binding of FITl-Ig as measured by Biacore. The top panel of Figure 3 shows the results of the Biacore binding assay in which FITl-Ig was first saturated by IL-17, followed by IL-20. The bottom panel of Figure 3 shows the results of the Biacore assay in which FITl-Ig was first saturated by IL-20, followed by IL-17.

[0046] Figure 4. Shows the solubility at a range of pH of anti-IL-17/IL-20 FIT Ig or monoclonal antibody rituximab, as measured by PEG-induced precipitation.

[0047] Figure 5 shows the stability of stable CHO cell line development in both DG44 (5A and 5B) and CHO-S (5C and 5D) systems.

[0048] Figure 6 shows the binding to CTLA-4 (6A) or PD-1 (Figure 6B) by FITIO-Ig or the parental antibodies Ipilimumab and Nivolumab, as assessed by ELISA.

[0049] Figure 7 shows a multiple binding study of FITIO-Ig against both CTLA-4 and PD-1. Binding to CTLA-4 followed by PD-1; and binding by PD-1 followed by CTLA-4 are both shown as indicated in Figure 7.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION [0050] The present invention relates to multivalent and multispecific binding proteins, methods of making the binding proteins, and to their uses in the prevention and/or treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases and disorders, cancers, and other diseases. This invention pertains to multivalent and/or multispecific binding proteins capable of binding two or more antigens. Specifically, the invention relates to Fabs-in-tandem immunoglobulins (FIT-Ig), and pharmaceutical compositions thereof, as well as nucleic acids, recombinant expression vectors and host cells for making such FIT-Igs. Methods of using the FIT-Igs of the invention to detect specific antigens, either in vitro or in vivo are also encompassed by the invention.

[0051] The novel family of binding proteins provided herein are capable of binding two or more antigens, e.g., with high affinity. Specifically, the present invention provides an approach to construct a bispecific binding protein using 2 parental monoclonal antibodies: mAb A, which binds to antigen a; and mAb B, which binds to antigen b.

[0052] In one aspect, the present invention provides a binding protein comprising a variable light chain specific for a first antigen or epitope, a first light chain constant domain, a variable heavy chain specific for a second antigen or epitope, a first heavy chain CHI, a variable heavy chain specific for the first antigen or epitope, a second heavy chain CHI, a variable heavy chain specific for the second antigen or epitope, and a second light chain constant domain. In one embodiment, the binding protein further comprises an Fc region. The binding protein may further comprise one or more amino acid or polypeptide linker linking two or more of the components of the binding protein. For example, the binding protein may comprise a polypeptide linker linking the light chain variable region to the light chain constant region.

[0053] In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides a binding protein comprising a polypeptide chain comprising VL A -CL-(Xl)n-VH B -CHl-(X2)n, wherein VLA is the light chain variable domain of mAb A, CL is a light chain constant domain, XI represents an amino acid or an oligopeptide linker, V¾ is the heavy chain variable domain of mAb B, CHI is the first constant domain of the heavy chain, X2 represents an Fc region or a different dimerization domain, and n is 0 or 1.

[0054] In one embodiment, the invention provides a binding protein comprising three different polypeptide chains (Figure 1), wherein the first polypeptide chain (construct #1) comprises VL A -CL-(Xl)n-VH B -CHl-(X2)n, wherein VLA is the light chain variable domain of mAb A, CL is a light chain constant domain, XI represents an amino acid or an oligopeptide linker, Vf¾ is the heavy chain variable domain of mAb B, CHI is the first constant domain of the heavy chain, X2 represents an Fc region or a different dimerization domain, and n is 0 or 1. The second polypeptide chain (construct #2) comprises VHA-CHI , wherein VHA is the heavy chain variable domain of mAb A, and CHI is the first constant domain of the heavy chain. The third polypeptide chain (construct #3) comprises VL B -CL, wherein VL B is the light chain variable domain of mAb B, and CL is the constant domain of the light chain.

[0055] In another embodiment, the invention provides a binding protein comprising three different polypeptide chains with the overall molecular design similar to the previous embodiment except the order of the variable domains are reversed. In the embodiment the first polypeptide chain comprises VH B -CHl-(Xl)n-VLA-CL-(X2)n, wherein VLA is a light chain variable domain of mAb A, CL is a light chain constant domain, XI represents an amino acid or an oligopeptide linker, V¾ is the heavy chain variable domain of mAb B, CH I is the first constant domain of the heavy chain, X2 represents an Fc region or a different dimerization domain, and n is 0 or 1. The second polypeptide chain comprises VHA-CHI , wherein VHA is the heavy chain variable domain of mAb A and CHI is the first constant domain of the heavy chain. The third polypeptide chain comprises VL B -CL, wherein VL B is the light chain variable domain of mAb B and CL is the constant domain of the light chain.

[0056] In another embodiment the invention provides a binding protein comprising two different polypeptide chains (Figure 2), wherein the first polypeptide chain (construct #1) comprises VLA-CL-(Xl)n-VH B -CHl-(X2)n, wherein VLA is a light chain variable domain of mAb A, CL is a light chain constant domain, XI represents an amino acid or an oligopeptide linker, V¾ is the heavy chain variable domain of mAb B, CHI is the first constant domain of the heavy chain, X2 represents an Fc region or a different dimerization domain, and n is 0 or 1. The second polypeptide chain (construct #4) comprises VH A -CHl-(X3)n-VL B -CL, wherein VHA is the heavy chain variable domain of mAb A, CHI is the first constant domain of the heavy chain, X3 represents an amino acid or polypeptide that is not a constant domain, n is 0 or 1, VL B is the light chain variable domain of mAb B, and CL is the constant domain of the light chain.

[0057] In another embodiment the invention provides a binding protein comprising two polypeptide chains with the overall molecular design similar to the previous embodiment except the order of the variable domains are reversed. In this embodiment the first polypeptide chain comprises VH B -CHl-(Xl)n-VL A -CL-(X2)n, wherein VL A is a light chain variable domain of mAb A, CL is a light chain constant domain, XI represents an amino acid or an oligopeptide linker, VH B is the heavy chain variable domain of mAb B, CHI is the first constant domain of the heavy chain, X2 represents an Fc region or a different dimerization domain, and n is 0 or 1. The second polypeptide chain comprises VL B -CL-(X3)n-VH A -CHl, wherein VHA is the heavy chain variable domain of mAb A, CHI is the first constant domain of the heavy chain, X3 represents an amino acid or an oligopeptide linker, n is 0 or 1 , VL B is the light chain variable domain of mAb B, and CL is the constant domain of the light chain.

[0058] In one embodiment, the VH and VL domains in the binding protein are selected from the group consisting of murine heavy/light chain variable domains, fully human heavy/light chain variable domains, CDR grafted heavy/light chain variable domains, humanized heavy/light chain variable domains, and mixtures thereof. In a preferred embodiment VHA/VLA and VH B /VL B are capable of binding the same antigen. In another embodiment VHA/VLA and VH B /VL B are capable of binding different antigens.

[0059] In one embodiment, the first polypeptide chain comprises VLA-CL-VH B -CH1-FC, and the CL and VH B of the first polypeptide chain are directly fused together. In another embodiment, the CL and VH B are linked by an amino acid or an oligopeptide linker. In another embodiment, the first polypeptide chain comprises VH B -CH1-VLA-CL-FC, and the

CHI and VLA are directly fused together. In another embodiment, the CHI and VLA are linked by an amino acid or an oligopeptide linker. In a further embodiment, the oligo- or poly-peptide linker comprises 1 or more amino acids of any reasonable sequence that provides flexibility. Preferably the linker is selected from the group consisting of G,GS, SG,

GGS, GSG, SGG, GGG, GGGS, SGGG, GGGGS, GGGGSGS, GGGGSGS, GGGGSGGS,

GGGGSGGGGS, GGGGSGGGGSGGGGS, AKTTPKLEEGEFSEAR,

AKTTPKLEEGEFSEARV, AKTTPKLGG, SAKTTPKLGG, AKTTPKLEEGEFSEARV,

SAKTTP, SAKTTPKLGG, RADAAP, RADAAPTVS, RADAAAAGGPGS,

RADAAAA(G 4 S) 4 , SAKTTP, SAKTTPKLGG, S AKTTPKLEEGEFSEARV, ADAAP,

ADAAPTVSIFPP, TVAAP, TVAAPSVFIFPP, QPKAAP, QPKAAPSVTLFPP, AKTTPP,

AKTTPPSVTPLAP, AKTTAP, AKTTAPSVYPLAP, ASTKGP, ASTKGP S VFPL AP ,

GENKVEYAPALMALS, GP AKELTPLKE AKV S , and GHE AAAVMQ VQ YP AS . In one embodiment, the amino acid sequence of the linker may be selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs. 26, 28, and 49-86. In one embodiment, the linker is GSG (SEQ

ID NO: 26) or GGGGSGS (SEQ ID NO: 28). The linkers can also be in vivo cleavable peptide linkers, protease (such as MMPs) sensitive linkers, disulfide bond-based linkers that can be cleaved by reduction, etc., as previously described (Fusion Protein Technologies for Biopharmaceuticals: Applications and Challenges, edited by Stefan R. Schmidt), or any cleavable linkers known in the art. Such cleavable linkers can be used to release the top Fab in vivo for various purposes, in order to improve tissue/cell penetration and distribution, to enhance binding to targets, to reduce potential side effect, as well as to modulate in vivo functional and physical half- life of the 2 different Fab regions. In one embodiment, the binding protein comprises an Fc region. As used herein, the term "Fc region" refers to the C- terminal region of an IgG heavy chain. An example of the amino acid sequence containing the human IgGl Fc region is SEQ ID NO: 20. The Fc region of an IgG comprises two constant domains, CH2 and CH3.

[0060] In one embodiment, the Fc region is a variant Fc region. In one embodiment, the variant Fc region has one or more amino acid modifications, such as substitutions, deletions, or insertions, relative to the parent Fc region. In a further embodiment, amino acid modifications of the Fc region alter the effector function activity relative to the parent Fc region activity. For example, in one embodiment, the variant Fc region may have altered (i.e., increased or decreased) antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC), complement-mediated cytotoxicity (CDC), phagocytosis, opsonization, or cell binding. In another embodiment, amino acid modifications of the Fc region may alter (i.e., increase or decrease) the affinity of the variant Fc region for an FcyR relative to the parent Fc region. For example, the variant Fc region may alter the affinity for FcyRI, FcyRII, FCYRIII.

[0061] In one preferred embodiment, the binding proteins provided herein are capable of binding one or more targets. In one embodiment, the target is selected from the group consisting of cytokines, cell surface proteins, enzymes and receptors. Preferably the binding protein is capable of modulating a biological function of one or more targets. More preferably the binding protein is capable of neutralizing one or more targets.

[0062] In one embodiment, the binding protein of the invention is capable of binding cytokines selected from the group consisting of lymphokines, monokines, and polypeptide hormones. In a further embodiment, the binding protein is capable of binding pairs of cytokines selected from the group consisting of IL-la and IL-Ιβ; IL-12 and IL-18, TNFa and

IL-23, TNFa and IL-13; TNF and IL-18; TNF and IL-12; TNF and IL-lbeta; TNF and MIF;

TNF and IL-6, TNF and IL-6 Receptor, TNF and IL-17; IL-17 and IL-20; IL-17 and IL-23;

TNF and IL-15; TNF and VEGF; VEGFR and EGFR; IL-13 and IL-9; IL-13 and IL-4; IL-13 and IL-5; IL-13 and IL-25; IL-13 and TARC; IL-13 and MDC; IL-13 and MIF; IL-13 and TGF-β; IL-13 and LHR agonist; IL-13 and CL25; IL-13 and SPRR2a; IL-13 and SPRR2b; IL-13 and ADAM 8; and TNFa and PGE4, IL-13 and PED2, TNF and PEG2.

[0063] In another embodiment, the binding protein of the invention is capable of binding pairs of targets selected from the group consisting of CD 137 and CD20, CD 137 and EGFR, CD137 and Her-2, CD 137 and PD-1 , CD 137 and PDL-1 , VEGF and PD-L1 , Lag-3 and TIM-

3, OX40 and PD-1 , TIM-3 and PD-1 , TIM-3 and PDL-1 , EGFR and DLL-4, VEGF and EGFR, HGF and VEGF, VEGF and VEGF (same or a different epitope), VEGF and Ang2, EGFR and cMet, PDGF and VEGF, VEGF and DLL-4, OX40 and PD-L1 , ICOS and PD-1 , ICOS and PD-L1 , Lag-3 and PD-1 , Lag-3 and PD-L1 , Lag-3 and CTLA-4, ICOS and CTLA-

4, CD138 and CD20; CD138 and CD40; CD19 and CD20; CD20 and CD3; CD3 and CD33; CD3 and CD133; CD38 & CD138; CD38 and CD20; CD20 and CD22; CD38 and CD40; CD40 and CD20; CD47 and CD20, CD-8 and IL-6; CSPGs and RGM A; CTLA-4 and BTN02; CTLA-4 and PD-1 ; IGFl and IGF2; IGFl/2 and Erb2B; IGF-IR and EGFR; EGFR and CD 13; IGF-IR and ErbB3; EGFR-2 and IGFR; Her2 and Her2 (same or a different epitope); Factor IXa, Factor X ,VEGFR-2 and Met; VEGF-A and Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2); IL-12 and TWEAK; IL-13 and IL-lbeta ; MAG and RGM A; NgR and RGM A; NogoA and RGM A; OMGp and RGM A; PDL-1 and CTLA-4; PD-1 and TIM-3; RGM A and RGM B; Te38 and TNFa; TNFa and Blys; TNFa and CD-22; TNFa and CTLA-4 domain; TNFa and GP130; TNFa and IL-12p40; and TNFa and RANK ligand.

[0064] In one embodiment, the binding protein is capable of binding human IL-17 and human IL-20. In a further embodiment, the binding protein is capable of binding human IL- 17 and human IL-20 and comprises a FIT-Ig polypeptide chain #1 sequence that is about 65%, about 70%, about 75%, about 80%, about 85%, about 90%, about 95%, about 99%, or 100%) identical to a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO. 15, 25, and 27; a polypeptide chain #2 sequence that is about 65%, about 70%>, about 75%, about 80%>, about 85%, about 90%, about 95%, about 99%, or 100% identical to SEQ ID NO. 21 ; and a polypeptide chain #3 sequence that is about 65%, about 70%>, about 75%, about 80%>, about 85%, about 90%, about 95%, about 99%, or 100% identical to SEQ ID N0.23. In another embodiment, the binding protein is capable of binding human IL-17 and human IL-20 and comprises FIT-Ig polypeptide chain #1 sequence that is about 65%, about 70%>, about 75%, about 80%), about 85%, about 90%>, about 95%, about 99%, or 100% identical to a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO. 15, 25, and 27; and a polypeptide chain #4 that is about 65%, about 70%, about 75%, about 80%, about 85%, about 90%, about 95%, about 99%), or 100% identical to a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO. 29, 30, and 31.

[0065] In one embodiment, the binding protein is capable of binding human CD3 and human CD20. In a further embodiment, the binding protein comprises a FIT-Ig polypeptide chain #1 sequence that is about 65%, about 70%>, about 75%, about 80%>, about 85%, about 90%, about 95%), about 99%, or 100%) identical to a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO. 41 and 48; a polypeptide chain #2 sequence that is about 65%, about 70%, about 75%, about 80%, about 85%, about 90%, about 95%, about 99%, or 100% identical to SEQ ID N0.44; and a polypeptide chain #3 sequence that is about 65%, about 70%, about 75%, about 80%, about 85%, about 90%, about 95%, about 99%, or 100% identical to SEQ ID NO. 46.

[0066] In one embodiment, the binding protein is capable of binding human IL-17 and human TNF. In a further embodiment, the binding protein is capable of binding human IL-17 and human TNF and comprises a FIT-Ig polypeptide chain #1 sequence that is about 65%, about 70%, about 75%, about 80%, about 85%, about 90%, about 95%, about 99%, or 100% identical to SEQ ID NO. 87; a polypeptide chain #2 sequence that is about 65%, about 70%, about 75%, about 80%, about 85%, about 90%, about 95%, about 99%, or 100% identical to SEQ ID NO. 89; and a polypeptide chain #3 sequence that is about 65%, about 70%, about 75%, about 80%, about 85%, about 90%, about 95%, about 99%, or 100% identical to SEQ ID NO. 91.

[0067] In one embodiment, the binding protein is capable of binding human CTLA-4 and human PD-1. In a further embodiment, the binding protein is capable of binding human CTLA-4 and human PD-1 and comprises a FIT-Ig polypeptide chain #1 sequence that is about 65%, about 70%, about 75%, about 80%, about 85%, about 90%, about 95%, about 99%), or 100%) identical to SEQ ID NO. 92 a polypeptide chain #2 sequence that is about 65%, about 70%, about 75%, about 80%, about 85%, about 90%, about 95%, about 99%, or 100%) identical to SEQ ID NO. 95; and a polypeptide chain #3 sequence that is about 65%, about 70%, about 75%, about 80%, about 85%, about 90%, about 95%, about 99%, or 100% identical to SEQ ID NO. 97.

[0068] In another embodiment, the binding protein of the invention is capable of binding one or two cytokines, cytokine -related proteins, and cytokine receptors selected from the group consisting of BMP1, BMP2, BMP3B (GDF10), BMP4, BMP6, BMP8, CSF1 (M-CSF), CSF2 (GM-CSF), CSF3 (G-CSF), EPO, FGF1 (aFGF), FGF2 (bFGF), FGF3 (int-2), FGF4 (HST), FGF5, FGF6 (HST-2), FGF7 (KGF), FGF9, FGF10, FGF11, FGF12, FGF12B, FGF14, FGF16, FGF17, FGF19, FGF20, FGF21, FGF23, IGF1, IGF2, IFNA1, IFNA2, IFNA4, IFNA5, IFNA6, IFNA7, IFNB1, IFNG, IFNW1, FIL1, FIL1 (EPSILON), FIL1 (ZETA), ILIA, IL1B, IL2, IL3, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL7, IL8, IL9, IL10, IL11, IL12A, IL12B, IL13, IL14, IL15, IL16, IL17, IL17B, IL18, IL19, IL20, IL22, IL23, IL24, IL25, IL26, IL27, IL28A, IL28B, IL29, IL30, PDGFA, FGER1, FGFR2, FGFR3, EGFR, ROR1, 2B4, KIR, CD137, CD27, OX40, CD40L, A2aR, CD48, B7-1, B7-2, ICOSL, B7-H3, B7-H4, CD137L, OX40L, CD70, CD40, PDGFB, TGFA, TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, LTA (TNF-b), LTB, TNF (TNF-a ), TNFSF4 (OX40 ligand), TNFSF5 (CD40 ligand), TNFSF6 (FasL), TNFSF7 (CD27 ligand), TNFSF8 (CD30 ligand), TNFSF9 (4-1BB ligand), TNFSF10 (TRAIL), TNFSF11 (TRANCE), TNFSF12 (AP03L), TNFSF13 (April), TNFSF13B, TNFSF14 (HVEM-L), TNFSF15 (VEGI), TNFSF18, FIGF (VEGFD), VEGF, VEGFB, VEGFC, IL1R1, IL1R2, ILIRLI, IL1RL2, IL2RA, IL2RB, IL2RG, IL3RA, IL4R, IL5RA, IL6R, IL7R, IL8RA, IL8RB, IL9R, IL10RA, IL10RB, IL11RA, IL12RB1, IL12RB2, IL13RA1, IL13RA2, IL15RA, IL17R, IL18R1, IL20RA, IL21R, IL22R, IL1HY1, IL1RAP, IL1RAPL1, IL1RAPL2, IL1RN, IL6ST, IL18BP, IL18RAP, IL22RA2, AIF1, HGF, LEP (leptin), PTN, and THPO.

[0069] The binding protein of the invention is capable of binding one or more chemokines, chemokine receptors, and chemokine-related proteins selected from the group consisting of CCL1 (1-309), CCL2 (MCP -1 / MCAF), CCL3 (MIP-la), CCL4 (MIP-lb), CCL5 (RANTES), CCL7 (MCP-3), CCL8 (mcp-2), CCL11 (eotaxin), CCL13 (MCP-4), CCL15 (MIP-ld), CCL16 (HCC-4), CCL17 (TARC), CCL18 (PARC), CCL19 (MIP-3b), CCL20 (MIP-3a), CCL21 (SLC / exodus-2), CCL22 (MDC / STC-1), CCL23 (MPIF-1), CCL24 (MPIF-2 / eotaxin-2), CCL25 (TECK), CCL26 (eotaxin-3), CCL27 (CTACK / ILC), CCL28, CXCL1 (GROl), CXCL2 (GR02), CXCL3 (GR03), CXCL5 (ENA-78), CXCL6 (GCP-2), CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP 10), CXCL11 (I-TAC), CXCL12 (SDF1), CXCL13, CXCL14, CXCL16, PF4 (CXCL4), PPBP (CXCL7), CX3CL1 (SCYD1), SCYE1, XCL1 (lymphotactin), XCL2 (SCM-lb), BLRl (MDR15), CCBP2 (D6 / JAB61), CCRl (CKRl / HM145), CCR2 (mcp-lRB / RA), CCR3 (CKR3 / CMKBR3), CCR4, CCR5 (CMKBR5 / ChemR13), CCR6 (CMKBR6 / CKR-L3 / STRL22 / DRY6), CCR7 (CKR7 / EBI1), CCR8 (CMKBR8 / TER1 / CKR-L1), CCR9 (GPR-9-6), CCRL1 (VSHK1), CCRL2 (L-CCR), XCR1 (GPR5 / CCXCR1), CMKLR1, CMKOR1 (RDC1), CX3CR1 (V28), CXCR4, GPR2 (CCR10), GPR31, GPR81 (FKSG80), CXCR3 (GPR9/CKR-L2), CXCR6 (TYMSTR /STRL33 / Bonzo), HM74, IL8RA (IL8Ra), IL8RB (IL8Rb), LTB4R (GPR16), TCP 10, CKLFSF2, CKLFSF3, CKLFSF4, CKLFSF5, CKLFSF6, CKLFSF7, CKLFSF8, BDNF, C5R1, CSF3, GRCC10 (CIO), EPO, FY (DARC), GDF5, HIF1A, IL8, PRL, RGS3, RGS13, SDF2, SLIT2, TLR2, TLR4, TREM1, TREM2, and VHL.

[0070] In another embodiment, the binding protein of the invention is capable of binding cell surface protein such as, for example, integrins. In another embodiment, the binding protein of the invention is capable of binding enzymes selected from the group consisting of kinases and proteases. In yet another embodiment, the binding protein of the invention is capable of binding receptors selected from the group consisting of lymphokine receptors, monokine receptors, and polypeptide hormone receptors.

[0071] In one embodiment, the binding protein is multivalent. In another embodiment, the binding protein is multispecific. The multivalent and or multispecific binding proteins described above have desirable properties particularly from a therapeutic standpoint. For instance, the multivalent and or multispecific binding protein may (1) be internalized (and/or catabolized) faster than a bivalent antibody by a cell expressing an antigen to which the antibodies bind; (2) be an agonist antibody; and/or (3) induce cell death and/or apoptosis of a cell expressing an antigen which the multivalent antibody is capable of binding to. The "parent antibody" which provides at least one antigen binding specificity of the multivalent and or multispecific binding proteins may be one which is internalized (and/or catabolized) by a cell expressing an antigen to which the antibody binds; and/or may be an agonist, cell death-inducing, and/or apoptosis-inducing antibody, and the multivalent and or multispecific binding protein as described herein may display improvement(s) in one or more of these properties. Moreover, the parent antibody may lack any one or more of these properties, but may be endowed with them when constructed as a multivalent binding protein as herein described.

[0072] In another embodiment the binding protein of the invention has an on rate constant (Kon) to one or more targets selected from the group consisting of: at least about 10 2 M "1 s "1 ; at least about 10 3 M "1 s "1 ; at least about I O F 1 ; at least about 10 5 M "1 s "1 ; and at least about 10 6 M "1 s "1 , as measured by surface plasmon resonance. Preferably, the binding protein of the invention has an on rate constant (Kon) to one or more targets between 10 2 M "1 s "1 to 10 3 M ~ V l ; between K^M ' 1 to lOVrV 1 ; between lOVs "1 to K^M ' V 1 ; or between K^M ' 1 to 10 6 M _1 s _1 , as measured by surface plasmon resonance.

[0073] In another embodiment the binding protein has an off rate constant (Koff) for one or more targets selected from the group consisting of: at most about 10 ' V 1 ; at most about 10 ~ V l ; at most about 10 ' V 1 ; and at most about 10 ' V 1 , as measured by surface plasmon resonance. Preferably, the binding protein of the invention has an off rate constant (Koff) to one or more targets of 10 ' V 1 to 10 ' V 1 ; of 10 ~4 s _1 to 10 ' V 1 ; or of 10 "5 s _1 to lO ' V 1 , as measured by surface plasmon resonance.

[0074] In another embodiment the binding protein has a dissociation constant (K D ) to one or more targets selected from the group consisting of: at most about 10 ~7 M; at most about 10 ~8 M; at most about 10 ~9 M; at most about 10 "10 M; at most about 10 "11 M; at most about 10 ~12 M; and at most 10 ~13 M. Preferably, the binding protein of the invention has a dissociation constant (K D ) to IL-12 or IL-23 of 10 ~7 M to 10 "8 M; of 10 "8 M to 10 ~9 M; of 10 "9 M to 10 "10 M; of 10 ~10 to 10 "11 M; of 10 "11 M to 10 ~12 M; or of 10 ~12 M to 10 ~13 M.

[0075] In another embodiment, the binding protein described above is a conjugate further comprising an agent selected from the group consisting of an immunoadhesion molecule, an imaging agent, a therapeutic agent, and a cytotoxic agent. In one embodiment, the imaging agent is selected from the group consisting of a radiolabel, an enzyme, a fluorescent label, a luminescent label, a bioluminescent label, a magnetic label, and biotin. In a further embodiment, the imaging agent is a radiolabel selected from the group consisting of: 3 H 14 C 35 S, 90 Y, "Tc, m In, 125 I, 131 I, 177 Lu, 166 Ho, and 153 Sm. In one embodiment, the therapeutic or cytotoxic agent is selected from the group consisting of an immunosuppressive agent, an immuno-stimulatory agent, an anti-metabolite, an alkylating agent, an antibiotic, a growth factor, a cytokine, an anti-angiogenic agent, an anti-mitotic agent, an anthracycline, a toxin, and an apoptotic agent. In one embodiment, the binding protein is conjugated directly to the agent. In another embodiment, the binding protein is conjugated to the agent via a linker. Suitable linkers include, but are not limited to, amino acid and polypeptide linkers disclosed herein. Linkers may be cleavable or non-cleavable.

[0076] In another embodiment the binding protein described above is a crystallized binding protein and exists as a crystal. Preferably the crystal is a carrier-free pharmaceutical controlled release crystal. More preferably the crystallized binding protein has a greater half life in vivo than the soluble counterpart of said binding protein. Most preferably the crystallized binding protein retains biological activity. [0077] In another embodiment the binding protein described above is glycosylated. Preferably, the glycosylation is a human glycosylation pattern.

[0078] One aspect of the invention pertains to an isolated nucleic acid encoding any one of the binding protein disclosed above. A further embodiment provides a vector comprising the isolated nucleic acid disclosed above wherein said vector is selected from the group consisting of pcDNA; pTT (Durocher et al, Nucleic Acids Research 2002, Vol 30, No.2); pTT3 (pTT with additional multiple cloning site; pEFBOS (Mizushima, S. and Nagata, S., (1990) Nucleic acids Research Vol 18, No. 17); pBV; pJV; pcDNA3.1 TOPO, pEF6 TOPO and pBJ. The multi-specific binding proteins and methods of making the same are provided. The binding protein can be generated using various techniques. Expression vectors, host cells and methods of generating the binding proteins are provided in this disclosure.

[0079] The antigen-binding variable domains of the binding proteins of this disclosure can be obtained from parent binding proteins, including polyclonal Abs, monoclonal Abs, and or receptors capable of binding antigens of interest. These parent binding proteins may be naturally occurring or may be generated by recombinant technology. The person of ordinary skill in the art is well familiar with many methods for producing antibodies and/or isolated receptors, including, but not limited to using hybridoma techniques, selected lymphocyte antibody method (SLAM), use of a phage, yeast, or RNA-protein fusion display or other library, immunizing a non-human animal comprising at least some of the human immunoglobulin locus, and preparation of chimeric, CDR-grafted, and humanized antibodies. See, e.g., US Patent Publication No. 20090311253 Al . Variable domains may also be prepared using affinity maturation techniques. The binding variable domains of the binding proteins can also be obtained from isolated receptor molecules obtained by extraction procedures known in the art (e.g., using solvents, detergents, and/or affinity purifications), or determined by biophysical methods known in the art (e.g., X-ray crystallography, NMR, interferometry, and/or computer modeling).

[0080] An embodiment is provided comprising selecting parent binding proteins with at least one or more properties desired in the binding protein molecule. In an embodiment, the desired property is one or more of those used to characterize antibody parameters, such as, for example, antigen specificity, affinity to antigen, potency, biological function, epitope recognition, stability, solubility, production efficiency, immunogenicity, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, tissue cross reactivity, or orthologous antigen binding. See, e.g., US Patent Publication No. 20090311253. [0081] The multi-specific antibodies may also be designed such that one or more of the antigen binding domain are rendered non-functional. The variable domains may be obtained using recombinant DNA techniques from parent binding proteins generated by any one of the methods described herein. In an embodiment, a variable domain is a murine heavy or light chain variable domain. In another embodiment, a variable domain is a CDR grafted or a humanized variable heavy or light chain domain. In an embodiment, a variable domain is a human heavy or light chain variable domain.

[0082] In an embodiment, one or more constant domains are linked to the variable domains using recombinant DNA techniques. In an embodiment, a sequence comprising one or more heavy chain variable domains is linked to a heavy chain constant domain and a sequence comprising one or more light chain variable domains is linked to a light chain constant domain. In an embodiment, the constant domains are human heavy chain constant domains and human light chain constant domains, respectively. In an embodiment, the heavy chain is further linked to an Fc region. The Fc region may be a native sequence Fc region or a variant Fc region. In another embodiment, the Fc region is a human Fc region. In another embodiment, the Fc region includes Fc region from IgGl, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgA, IgM, IgE, or IgD.

[0083] Additionally, the binding proteins provided herein can be employed for tissue-specific delivery (target a tissue marker and a disease mediator for enhanced local PK thus higher efficacy and/or lower toxicity), including intracellular delivery (targeting an internalizing receptor and an intracellular molecule), delivering to inside brain (targeting transferrin receptor and a CNS disease mediator for crossing the blood-brain barrier). The binding proteins can also serve as a carrier protein to deliver an antigen to a specific location via binding to a non-neutralizing epitope of that antigen and also to increase the half-life of the antigen. Furthermore, the binding proteins can be designed to either be physically linked to medical devices implanted into patients or target these medical devices (see Burke et al.

(2006) Advanced Drug Deliv. Rev. 58(3): 437-446; Hildebrand et al. (2006) Surface and

Coatings Technol. 200(22-23): 6318-6324; Drug/device combinations for local drug therapies and infection prophylaxis, Wu (2006) Biomaterials 27(11):2450-2467; Mediation of the cytokine network in the implantation of orthopedic devices, Marques (2005) Biodegradable

Systems in Tissue Engineer. Regen. Med. 377-397). Directing appropriate types of cell to the site of medical implant may promote healing and restoring normal tissue function.

Alternatively, inhibition of mediators (including but not limited to cytokines), released upon device implantation by a receptor antibody fusion protein coupled to or target to a device is also provided.

[0084] In one aspect, a host cell is transformed with the vector disclosed above. In one embodiment, the host cell is a prokaryotic cell. In a further embodiment, the host cell is Escherecia coli. In another embodiment, the host cell is an eukaryotic cell. In a further embodiment, the eukaryotic cell is selected from the group consisting of protist cell, animal cell, plant cell and fungal cell. In one embodiment, the host cell is a mammalian cell including, but not limited to, 293, COS, NS0, and CHO and; or a fungal cell such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae; or an insect cell such as Sf9.

[0085] Another aspect of the invention provides a method of producing a binding protein disclosed above comprising culturing any one of the host cells also disclosed above in a culture medium under conditions sufficient to produce the binding protein. Preferably 50%- 75% of the binding protein produced by this method is a dual specific tetravalent binding protein. More preferably 75%-90% of the binding protein produced by this method is a dual specific tetravalent binding protein. Most preferably 90%-95% of the binding protein produced is a dual specific tetravalent binding protein.

[0086] Another embodiment provides a binding protein produced according to the method disclosed above.

[0087] One embodiment provides a composition for the release of a binding protein wherein the composition comprises a formulation which in turn comprises a crystallized binding protein, as disclosed above and an ingredient; and at least one polymeric carrier. Preferably the polymeric carrier is a polymer selected from one or more of the group consisting of: poly (acrylic acid), poly (cyanoacrylates), poly (amino acids), poly (anhydrides), poly (depsipeptide), poly (esters), poly (lactic acid), poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) or PLGA, poly (b-hydroxybutryate), poly (caprolactone), poly (dioxanone); poly (ethylene glycol), poly ((hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide, poly [(organo)phosphazene], poly (ortho esters), poly (vinyl alcohol), poly (vinylpyrrolidone), maleic anhydride- alkyl vinyl ether copolymers, pluronic polyols, albumin, alginate, cellulose and cellulose derivatives, collagen, fibrin, gelatin, hyaluronic acid, oligosaccharides, glycaminoglycans, sulfated polyeaccharides, blends and copolymers thereof. Preferably the ingredient is selected from the group consisting of albumin, sucrose, trehalose, lactitol, gelatin, hydroxypropyl- β- cyclodextrin, methoxypolyethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol. Another embodiment provides a method for treating a mammal comprising the step of administering to the mammal an effective amount of the composition disclosed above.

[0088] The invention also provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a binding protein, as disclosed above and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers include, but are not limited to, phosphate buffer or saline. Other common parenteral vehicles include sodium phosphate solutions, Ringer's dextrose, dextrose and sodium chloride, lactated Ringer's, or fixed oils. Intravenous vehicles include fluid and nutrient replenishers, electrolyte replenishers, such as those based on Ringer's dextrose, and the like. Preservatives and other additives may also be present such as for example, antimicrobials, antioxidants, chelating agents, and inert gases and the like. More particularly, pharmaceutical compositions suitable for injectable use include sterile aqueous solutions (where water soluble) or dispersions and sterile powders for the extemporaneous preparation of sterile injectable solutions or dispersions. The carrier can be a solvent or dispersion medium containing, for example, water, ethanol, polyol (e.g., glycerol, propylene glycol, and liquid polyethylene glycol, and the like), and suitable mixtures thereof. In some cases, it will be preferable to include isotonic agents, for example, sugars, polyalcohols, such as mannitol, sorbitol, or sodium chloride in the composition. Prolonged absorption of the injectable compositions can be brought about by including in the composition an agent which delays absorption, for example, aluminum monostearate and gelatin.

[0089] In a further embodiment the pharmaceutical composition comprises at least one additional therapeutic agent for treating a disorder. In one embodiment, the additional agent is selected from the group consisting of: therapeutic agents, imaging agents, cytotoxic agent, angiogenesis inhibitors (including but not limited to anti-VEGF antibodies or VEGF-trap); kinase inhibitors (including but not limited to KDR and TIE-2 inhibitors); co-stimulation molecule blockers (including but not limited to anti-B7.1, anti-B7.2, CTLA4-Ig, anti-PD-1, anti-CD20); adhesion molecule blockers (including but not limited to anti-LFA-1 Abs, anti- E/L selectin Abs, small molecule inhibitors); anti-cytokine antibody or functional fragment thereof (including but not limited to anti-IL-18, anti-TNF, anti-IL-6/cytokine receptor antibodies); methotrexate; cyclosporin; rapamycin; FK506; detectable label or reporter; a TNF antagonist; an antirheumatic; a muscle relaxant, a narcotic, a non-steroid antiinflammatory drug (NSAID), an analgesic, an anesthetic, a sedative, a local anesthetic, a neuromuscular blocker, an antimicrobial, an antipsoriatic, a corticosteriod, an anabolic steroid, an erythropoietin, an immunization, an immunoglobulin, an immunosuppressive, a growth hormone, a hormone replacement drug, a radiopharmaceutical, an antidepressant, an antipsychotic, a stimulant, an asthma medication, a beta agonist, an inhaled steroid, an epinephrine or analog, a cytokine, and a cytokine antagonist.

[0090] In another aspect, the invention provides a method for treating a human subject suffering from a disorder in which the target, or targets, capable of being bound by the binding protein disclosed above is detrimental, comprising administering to the human subject a binding protein disclosed above such that the activity of the target or targets in the human subject is inhibited and treatment or preventions of the disorder is achieved. In one embodiment, the disease or disorder is an inflammatory condition, autoimmune disease, or cancer. In one embodiment, the disease or disorder is selected from the group comprising arthritis, osteoarthritis, juvenile chronic arthritis, septic arthritis, Lyme arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, spondyloarthropathy, systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, thyroiditis, asthma, allergic diseases, psoriasis, dermatitis scleroderma, graft versus host disease, organ transplant rejection, acute or chronic immune disease associated with organ transplantation, sarcoidosis, atherosclerosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation,

Kawasaki's disease, Grave's disease, nephrotic syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome,

Wegener's granulomatosis, Henoch-Schoenlein purpurea, microscopic vasculitis of the kidneys, chronic active hepatitis, uveitis, septic shock, toxic shock syndrome, sepsis syndrome, cachexia, infectious diseases, parasitic diseases, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, acute transverse myelitis, Huntington's chorea, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, primary biliary cirrhosis, hemolytic anemia, malignancies, heart failure, myocardial infarction, Addison's disease, sporadic, polyglandular deficiency type I and polyglandular deficiency type II, Schmidt's syndrome, adult (acute) respiratory distress syndrome, alopecia, alopecia areata, seronegative arthopathy, arthropathy, Reiter's disease, psoriatic arthropathy, ulcerative colitic arthropathy, enteropathic synovitis, chlamydia, yersinia and salmonella associated arthropathy, spondyloarthopathy, atheromatous disease/arteriosclerosis, atopic allergy, autoimmune bullous disease, pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus, pemphigoid, linear IgA disease, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia,

Coombs positive haemolytic anaemia, acquired pernicious anaemia, juvenile pernicious anaemia, myalgic encephalitis/Royal Free Disease, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, giant cell arteritis, primary sclerosing hepatitis, cryptogenic autoimmune hepatitis, Acquired

Immunodeficiency Disease Syndrome, Acquired Immunodeficiency Related Diseases, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, common varied immunodeficiency (common variable hypogammaglobulinemia), dilated cardiomyopathy, female infertility, ovarian failure, premature ovarian failure, fibrotic lung disease, cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, postinflammatory interstitial lung disease, interstitial pneumonitis, connective tissue disease associated interstitial lung disease, mixed connective tissue disease associated lung disease, systemic sclerosis associated interstitial lung disease, rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease, systemic lupus erythematosus associated lung disease, dermatomyositis/polymyositis associated lung disease, Sjogren's disease associated lung disease, ankylosing spondylitis associated lung disease, vasculitic diffuse lung disease, haemosiderosis associated lung disease, drug-induced interstitial lung disease, fibrosis, radiation fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, lymphocytic infiltrative lung disease, postinfectious interstitial lung disease, gouty arthritis, autoimmune hepatitis, type-1 autoimmune hepatitis (classical autoimmune or lupoid hepatitis), type-2 autoimmune hepatitis (anti-LKM antibody hepatitis), autoimmune mediated hypoglycaemia, type B insulin resistance with acanthosis nigricans, hypoparathyroidism, acute immune disease associated with organ transplantation, chronic immune disease associated with organ transplantation, osteoarthrosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, psoriasis type 1 , psoriasis type 2, idiopathic leucopaenia, autoimmune neutropaenia, renal disease NOS, glomerulonephritides, microscopic vasulitis of the kidneys, lyme disease, discoid lupus erythematosus, male infertility idiopathic or NOS, sperm autoimmunity, multiple sclerosis (all subtypes), sympathetic ophthalmia, pulmonary hypertension secondary to connective tissue disease, Goodpasture's syndrome, pulmonary manifestation of polyarteritis nodosa, acute rheumatic fever, rheumatoid spondylitis, Still's disease, systemic sclerosis, Sjorgren's syndrome, Takayasu's disease/arteritis, autoimmune thrombocytopaenia, idiopathic thrombocytopaenia, autoimmune thyroid disease, hyperthyroidism, goitrous autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's disease), atrophic autoimmune hypothyroidism, primary myxoedema, phacogenic uveitis, primary vasculitis, vitiligo acute liver disease, chronic liver diseases, alcoholic cirrhosis, alcohol-induced liver injury, choleosatatis, idiosyncratic liver disease, Drug-Induced hepatitis, Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis, allergy and asthma, group B streptococci (GBS) infection, mental disorders (e.g., depression and schizophrenia), Th2 Type and Thl Type mediated diseases, acute and chronic pain (different forms of pain), and cancers such as lung, breast, stomach, bladder, colon, pancreas, ovarian, prostate and rectal cancer and hematopoietic malignancies (leukemia and lymphoma), Abetalipoprotemia, Acrocyanosis, acute and chronic parasitic or infectious processes, acute leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute or chronic bacterial infection, acute pancreatitis, acute renal failure, adenocarcinomas, aerial ectopic beats, AIDS dementia complex, alcohol-induced hepatitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic contact dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, allograft rejection, alpha-1- antitrypsin deficiency, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, anemia, angina pectoris, anterior horn cell degeneration, anti cd3 therapy, antiphospholipid syndrome, anti-receptor hypersensitivity reactions, aordic and peripheral aneuryisms, aortic dissection, arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis, arteriovenous fistula, ataxia, atrial fibrillation (sustained or paroxysmal), atrial flutter, atrioventricular block, B cell lymphoma, bone graft rejection, bone marrow transplant (BMT) rejection, bundle branch block, Burkitt's lymphoma, Burns, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac stun syndrome, cardiac tumors, cardiomyopathy, cardiopulmonary bypass inflammation response, cartilage transplant rejection, cerebellar cortical degenerations, cerebellar disorders, chaotic or multifocal atrial tachycardia, chemotherapy associated disorders, chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML), chronic alcoholism, chronic inflammatory pathologies, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic salicylate intoxication, colorectal carcinoma, congestive heart failure, conjunctivitis, contact dermatitis, cor pulmonale, coronary artery disease, Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease, culture negative sepsis, cystic fibrosis, cytokine therapy associated disorders, Dementia pugilistica, demyelinating diseases, dengue hemorrhagic fever, dermatitis, dermatologic conditions, diabetes, diabetes mellitus, diabetic ateriosclerotic disease, Diffuse Lewy body disease, dilated congestive cardiomyopathy, disorders of the basal ganglia, Down's Syndrome in middle age, drug- induced movement disorders induced by drugs which block CNS dopamine receptors, drug sensitivity, eczema, encephalomyelitis, endocarditis, endocrinopathy, epiglottitis, epstein-barr virus infection, erythromelalgia, extrapyramidal and cerebellar disorders, familial hematophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, fetal thymus implant rejection, Friedreich's ataxia, functional peripheral arterial disorders, fungal sepsis, gas gangrene, gastric ulcer, glomerular nephritis, graft rejection of any organ or tissue, gram negative sepsis, gram positive sepsis, granulomas due to intracellular organisms, hairy cell leukemia, Hallerrorden-Spatz disease, hashimoto's thyroiditis, hay fever, heart transplant rejection, hemachromatosis, hemodialysis, hemolytic uremic syndrome/thrombolytic thrombocytopenic purpura, hemorrhage, hepatitis (A), His bundle arrythmias, HIV infection/HIV neuropathy, Hodgkin's disease, hyperkinetic movement disorders, hypersensitity reactions, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, hypertension, hypokinetic movement disorders, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis evaluation, idiopathic

Addison's disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, antibody mediated cytotoxicity, Asthenia, infantile spinal muscular atrophy, inflammation of the aorta, influenza a, ionizing radiation exposure, iridocyclitis/uveitis/optic neuritis, ischemia- reperfusion injury, ischemic stroke, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile spinal muscular atrophy, Kaposi's sarcoma, kidney transplant rejection, legionella, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lesions of the corticospinal system, lipedema, liver transplant rejection, lymphederma, malaria, malignamt Lymphoma, malignant histiocytosis, malignant melanoma, meningitis, meningococcemia, metabolic/idiopathic, migraine headache, mitochondrial multi. system disorder, mixed connective tissue disease, monoclonal gammopathy, multiple myeloma, multiple systems degenerations (Mencel

Dejerine- Thomas Shi-Drager and Machado- Joseph), myasthenia gravis, mycobacterium avium intracellulare, mycobacterium tuberculosis, myelodyplastic syndrome, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemic disorders, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, neonatal chronic lung disease, nephritis, nephrosis, neurodegenerative diseases, neurogenic I muscular atrophies, neutropenic fever, non- Hodgkin's lymphoma, occlusion of the abdominal aorta and its branches, occlusive arterial disorders, okt3 therapy, orchitis/epidydimitis, orchitis/vasectomy reversal procedures, organomegaly, osteoporosis, pancreas transplant rejection, pancreatic carcinoma, paraneoplastic syndrome/hypercalcemia of malignancy, parathyroid transplant rejection, pelvic inflammatory disease, perennial rhinitis, pericardial disease, peripheral atherlosclerotic disease, peripheral vascular disorders, peritonitis, pernicious anemia,

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, pneumonia, POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes syndrome), post perfusion syndrome, post pump syndrome, post-MI cardiotomy syndrome, preeclampsia,

Progressive supranucleo Palsy, primary pulmonary hypertension, radiation therapy,

Raynaud's phenomenon and disease, Raynoud's disease, Refsum's disease, regular narrow

QRS tachycardia, renovascular hypertension, reperfusion injury, restrictive cardiomyopathy, sarcomas, scleroderma, senile chorea, Senile Dementia of Lewy body type, seronegative arthropathies, shock, sickle cell anemia, skin allograft rejection, skin changes syndrome, small bowel transplant rejection, solid tumors, specific arrythmias, spinal ataxia, spinocerebellar degenerations, streptococcal myositis, structural lesions of the cerebellum,

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, Syncope, syphilis of the cardiovascular system, systemic anaphalaxis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, systemic onset juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, T-cell or FAB ALL, Telangiectasia, thromboangitis obliterans, thrombocytopenia, toxicity, transplants, trauma/hemorrhage, type III hypersensitivity reactions, type IV hypersensitivity, unstable angina, uremia, urosepsis, urticaria, valvular heart diseases, varicose veins, vasculitis, venous diseases, venous thrombosis, ventricular fibrillation, viral and fungal infections, vital encephalitis/aseptic meningitis, vital-associated hemaphagocytic syndrome, Wernicke- Korsakoff syndrome, Wilson's disease, xenograft rejection of any organ or tissue.

[0091] In another aspect the invention provides a method of treating a patient suffering from a disorder comprising the step of administering any one of the binding proteins disclosed above before, concurrent, or after the administration of a second agent, as discussed above. In a preferred embodiment the second agent is selected from the group consisting of budenoside, epidermal growth factor, corticosteroids, cyclosporin, sulfasalazine, aminosalicylates, 6-mercaptopurine, azathioprine, metronidazole, lipoxygenase inhibitors, mesalamine, olsalazine, balsalazide, antioxidants, thromboxane inhibitors, IL-1 receptor antagonists, anti-IL-Ιβ monoclonal antibodies, anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies, growth factors, elastase inhibitors, pyridinyl-imidazole compounds, antibodies or agonists of TNF, LT, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-18, IL-23, EMAP-II, GM- CSF, FGF, and PDGF, antibodies of CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD-19, CD25, CD28, CD30, CD40, CD45, CD69, CD90 or their ligands, methotrexate, cyclosporin, FK506, rapamycin, mycophenolate mofetil, leflunomide, NSAIDs, ibuprofen, corticosteroids, prednisolone, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, adensosine agonists, antithrombotic agents, complement inhibitors, adrenergic agents, IRAK, NIK, IKK, p38, MAP kinase inhibitors, IL-Ιβ converting enzyme inhibitors, TNFa converting enzyme inhibitors, T-cell signalling inhibitors, metalloproteinase inhibitors, sulfasalazine, azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurines, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, soluble cytokine receptors, soluble p55 TNF receptor, soluble p75 TNF receptor, sIL-lRI, sIL-lRII, sIL-6R, antiinflammatory cytokines, IL-4, IL-10, IL-11, IL-13 and TGF .

[0092] In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical compositions disclosed above are administered to the subject by at least one mode selected from parenteral, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous, intrarticular, intrabronchial, intraabdominal, intracapsular, intracartilaginous, intracavitary, intracelial, intracerebellar, intracerebroventricular, intracolic, intracervical, intragastric, intrahepatic, intramyocardial, intraosteal, intrapelvic, intrapericardiac, intraperitoneal, intrapleural, intraprostatic, intrapulmonary, intrarectal, intrarenal, intraretinal, intraspinal, intrasynovial, intrathoracic, intrauterine, intravesical, bolus, vaginal, rectal, buccal, sublingual, intranasal, and transdermal.

[0093] One aspect of the invention provides at least one anti-idiotype antibody to at least one binding protein of the present invention. The anti-idiotype antibody includes any protein or peptide containing molecule that comprises at least a portion of an immunoglobulin molecule such as, but not limited to, at least one complementarily determining region (CDR) of a heavy or light chain or a ligand binding portion thereof, a heavy chain or light chain variable region, a heavy chain or light chain constant region, a framework region, or; any portion thereof, that can be incorporated into a binding protein of the present invention.

[0094] In another embodiment the binding proteins of the invention are capable of binding one or more targets selected from the group consisting of ABCF1; ACVR1; ACVR1B; ACVR2; ACVR2B; ACVRL1; ADORA2A; Aggrecan; AGR2; AICDA; AIF1; AIG1; AKAP1; AKAP2; AMH; AMHR2; ANGPT1; ANGPT2; ANGPTL3; ANGPTL4; ANPEP; APC; APOC1; AR; AZGP1 (zinc-a-glycoprotein); B7.1; B7.2; BAD; BAFF; BAG1; BAI1; BCL2; BCL6; BDNF; BLNK; BLR1 (MDR15); BlyS; BMP1; BMP2; BMP3B (GDF10); BMP4; BMP6; BMP8; BMPRIA; BMPRIB; BMPR2; BPAGl (plectin); BRCAl; C19orfl0 (IL27w); C3; C4A; C5; C5R1; CANT1; CASP1; CASP4; CAV1; CCBP2 (D6 / JAB61); CCL1 (1-309); CCL11 (eotaxin); CCL13 (MCP-4); CCL15 (MIP-ld); CCL16 (HCC-4); CCL17 (TARC); CCL18 (PARC); CCL19 (MIP-3b); CCL2 (MCP -1); MCAF; CCL20 (MIP-3a); CCL21 (MIP-2); SLC; exodus-2; CCL22 (MDC / STC-1); CCL23 (MPIF-1); CCL24 (MPIF-2 / eotaxin-2); CCL25 (TECK); CCL26 (eotaxin-3); CCL27 (CTACK / ILC); CCL28; CCL3 (MIP-la); CCL4 (MIP-lb); CCL5 (RANTES); CCL7 (MCP-3); CCL8 (mcp- 2); CCNA1; CCNA2; CCND1; CCNE1; CCNE2; CCR1 (CKR1 / HM145); CCR2 (mcp-lRB / RA);CCR3 (CKR3 / CMKBR3); CCR4; CCR5 (CMKBR5 / ChemR13); CCR6 (CMKBR6 / CKR-L3 / STRL22 / DRY6); CCR7 (CKR7 / EBI1); CCR8 (CMKBR8 / TER1 / CKR-L1); CCR9 (GPR-9-6); CCRL1 (VSHK1); CCRL2 (L-CCR); CD164; CD19; CD1C; CD20; CD200; CD-22; CD24; CD28; CD3; CD37; CD38; CD3E; CD3G; CD3Z; CD4; CD40; CD40L; CD44; CD45RB; CD47, CD48, CD52; CD69; CD70, CD72; CD74; CD79A; CD79B; CD8; CD80; CD81; CD83; CD86; CD137, CD138, B7-1, B7-2, ICOSL, B7-H3, B7- H4, CD137L, OX40L, CDH1 (E-cadherin); CDH10; CDH12; CDH13; CDH18; CDH19; CDH20; CDH5; CDH7; CDH8; CDH9; CDK2; CDK3; CDK4; CDK5; CDK6; CDK7; CDK9; CDK 1A (p21Wapl/Cipl); CDK 1B (p27Kipl); CDK 1C; CDK 2A (pl6INK4a); CDK 2B; CDK 2C; CDK 3; CEBPB; CER1; CHGA; CHGB; Chitinase; CHST10; CKLFSF2; CKLFSF3; CKLFSF4; CKLFSF5; CKLFSF6; CKLFSF7; CKLFSF8;

CLDN3; CLDN7 (claudin-7); CLN3; CLU (clusterin); CMKLR1; CMKOR1 (RDC1);

CNR1; COL18A1; COL1A1; COL4A3; COL6A1; CR2; CRP; CSF1 (M-CSF); CSF2 (GM-

CSF); CSF3 (GCSF); CTLA-4; CTNNB1 (b-catenin); CTSB (cathepsin B); CX3CL1

(SCYD1); CX3CR1 (V28); CXCL1 (GROl); CXCL10 (IP-10); CXCL11 (I-TAC / IP-9);

CXCL12 (SDF1); CXCL13; CXCL14; CXCL16; CXCL2 (GR02); CXCL3 (GR03);

CXCL5 (ENA-78 / LIX); CXCL6 (GCP-2); CXCL9 (MIG); CXCR3 (GPR9/CKR-L2);

CXCR4; CXCR6 (TYMSTR /STRL33 / Bonzo); CYB5; CYC1; CYSLTR1; DAB2IP; DES;

DKFZp451J0118; DNCLl; DPP4; E2F1; ECGFl; EDGl; EFNAl; EFNA3; EFNB2; EGF;

EGFR; ELAC2; ENG; ENOl; EN02; EN03; EPHB4; EPO; ERBB2 (Her-2); EREG; ERK8;

ESR1; ESR2; F3 (TF); FADD; FasL; FASN; FCER1A; FCER2; FCGR3A; FGF; FGF1

(aFGF); FGF 10; FGF11; FGF12; FGF12B; FGF13; FGF14; FGF 16; FGF 17; FGF 18; FGF19;

FGF2 (bFGF); FGF20; FGF21; FGF22; FGF23; FGF3 (int-2); FGF4 (HST); FGF5; FGF6

(HST-2); FGF7 (KGF); FGF8; FGF9; FGFR3; FIGF (VEGFD); FIL1 (EPSILON); FIL1

(ZETA); FLJ12584; FLJ25530; FLRTl (fibronectin); FLTl; FOS; FOSLl (FRA-1); FY

(DARC); GABRP (GABAa); GAGEB1; GAGEC1; GALNAC4S-6ST; GAT A3; GDF5;

GFI1; GGT1; GM-CSF; GNAS1; GNRH1; GPR2 (CCR10); GPR31; GPR44; GPR81

(FKSG80); GRCC10 (CIO); GRP; GSN (Gelsolin); GSTP1; HAVCR2; HDAC4; HDAC5;

HDAC7A; HDAC9; HGF; HIF1A; HIP1; histamine and histamine receptors; HLA-A; HLA-

DRA; HM74; HMOX1; HUMCYT2A; ICEBERG; ICOSL; ID2; IFN-a; IFNA1; IFNA2;

IFNA4; IFNA5; IFNA6; IFNA7; IFNB1; IFNgamma; IFNW1; IGBP1; IGF1; IGF1R; IGF2;

IGFBP2; IGFBP3; IGFBP6; IL-1; IL10; ILIORA; ILIORB; ILl l; ILl lRA; IL-12; IL12A;

IL12B; IL12RB1; IL12RB2; IL13; IL13RA1; IL13RA2; IL14; IL15; IL15RA; IL16; IL17;

IL17B; IL17C; IL17R; IL18; IL18BP; IL18R1; IL18RAP; IL19; ILIA; IL1B; IL1F10;

IL1F5; IL1F6; IL1F7; IL1F8; IL1F9; IL1HY1; IL1R1; IL1R2; IL1RAP; IL1RAPL1;

IL1RAPL2;IL1RL1;IL1RL2 IL1RN; IL2; IL20; IL20RA; IL21R; IL22; IL22R; IL22RA2;

IL23; IL24; IL25; IL26; IL27; IL28A; IL28B; IL29; IL2RA; IL2RB; IL2RG; IL3; IL30;

IL3RA; IL4; IL4R; IL5; IL5RA; IL6; IL6R; IL6ST (glycoprotein 130); IL7; IL7R; IL8;

IL8RA; IL8RB; IL8RB; IL9; IL9R; ILK; INHA; INHBA; INSL3; INSL4; IRAKI; IRAK2;

ITGA1; ITGA2; ITGA3; ITGA6 (a6 integrin); ITGAV; ITGB3; ITGB4 (b 4 integrin); JAG1;

JAK1; JAK3; JUN; K6HF; KAI1; KDR; KITLG; KLF5 (GC Box BP); KLF6; KLKIO;

KLK12; KLK13; KLK14; KLK15; KLK3; KLK4; KLK5; KLK6; KLK9; KRTl; KRT19

(Keratin 19); KRT2A; KRTHB6 (hair-specific type II keratin); LAMA5; LEP (leptin); Lingo-p75; Lingo-Troy; LPS; LTA (TNF-b); LTB; LTB4R (GPR16); LTB4R2; LTBR; MACMARCKS; MAG or Omgp ; MAP2K7 (c-Jun); MDK; MIB1; midkine; MIF; MIP-2; MKI67 (Ki-67); MMP2; MMP9; MS4A1; MSMB; MT3 (metallothionectin-III); MTSS1; MUC1 (mucin); MYC; MYD88; NCK2; neurocan; NFKB1; NFKB2; NGFB (NGF); NGFR; NgR-Lingo; NgR-Nogo66 (Nogo); NgR-p75; NgR-Troy; NMEl (NM23A); NOX5; NPPB; NROBl; NR0B2; NR1D1; NR1D2; NR1H2; NR1H3; NR1H4; NR1I2; NR1I3; NR2C1; NR2C2; NR2E1; NR2E3; NR2F1; NR2F2; NR2F6; NR3C1; NR3C2; NR4A1; NR4A2; NR4A3; NR5A1; NR5A2; NR6A1; NRPl; NRP2; NT5E; NTN4; ODZl; OPRDl; PCSK9; P2RX7; PAP; PARTI; PATE; PAWR; PC A3; PCNA; PD-1; PD-L1; alpha4beta7, OX40, GITR, TIM-3, Lag-3, B7-H3, B7-H4, GDF8, CGRP, Lingo-1, Factor IXa, Factor X, ICOS, GARP, BTLA, CD 160, ROR1, 2B4, KIR, CD27, OX40, CD40L, A2aR, PDGFA; PDGFB; PECAM1; PF4 (CXCL4); PGF; PGR; phosphacan; PIAS2; PIK3CG; PLAU (uPA); PLG; PLXDC1; PPBP (CXCL7); PPID; PR1; PRKCQ; PRKD1; PRL; PROC; PROK2; PSAP; PSCA; PTAFR; PTEN; PTGS2 (COX-2); PTN; RAC2 (p21Rac2); RARB; RGS1; RGS13; RGS3; RNFl lO (ZNF144); ROB02; S100A2; SCGB1D2 (lipophilin B); SCGB2A1 (mammaglobin 2); SCGB2A2 (mammaglobin 1); SCYE1 (endothelial Monocyte-activating cytokine); SDF2; SERPINA1; SERPINA3; SERPINB5 (maspin); SERPINE1 (PAI-1); SERPINF1; SHBG; SLA2; SLC2A2; SLC33A1; SLC43A1; SLIT2; SPP1; SPRR1B (Sprl); ST6GAL1; STAB1; STAT6; STEAP; STEAP2; TB4R2; TBX21; TCP 10; TDGF1; TEK; TGFA; TGFB1; TGFB1I1; TGFB2; TGFB3; TGFBI; TGFBR1; TGFBR2; TGFBR3; TH1L; THBS1 (thrombospondin-1); THBS2; THBS4; THPO; TIE (Tie-1); TIMP3; tissue factor; TLR10; TLR2; TLR3; TLR4; TLR5; TLR6; TLR7; TLR8; TLR9; TNF; TNF-a; TNFAIP2 (B94); TNFAIP3; TNFRSF11A; TNFRSF1A; TNFRSF1B; TNFRSF21; TNFRSF5; TNFRSF6 (Fas); TNFRSF7; TNFRSF8; TNFRSF9; TNFSF10 (TRAIL); TNFSF1 1 (TRANCE); TNFSF12 (AP03L); TNFSF13 (April); TNFSF13B; TNFSF14 (HVEM-L); TNFSF15 (VEGI); TNFSF18; TNFSF4 (OX40 ligand); TNFSF5 (CD40 ligand); TNFSF6 (FasL); TNFSF7 (CD27 ligand); TNFSF8 (CD30 ligand); TNFSF9 (4-1BB ligand); TOLLIP; Toll-like receptors; TOP2A (topoisomerase Iia); TP53; TPM1; TPM2; TRADD; TRAF1; TRAF2; TRAF3; TRAF4; TRAF5; TRAF6; TREMl; TREM2; TRPC6; TSLP; TWEAK; VEGF; VEGFB; VEGFC; versican; VHL C5; VLA-4; XCL1 (lymphotactin); XCL2 (SCM- lb); XCR1 (GPR5 / CCXCR1); YY1; and ZFPM2.

[0095] Given their ability to bind to two or more antigens, the binding proteins of the present invention can be used to detect the antigens (e.g., in a biological sample, such as serum or plasma), using a conventional immunoassay, such as an enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), an radioimmunoassay (RIA) or tissue immunohistochemistry. The FIT-Ig is directly or indirectly labeled with a detectable substance to facilitate detection of the bound or unbound antibody. Suitable detectable substances include various enzymes, prosthetic groups, fluorescent materials, luminescent materials and radioactive materials. Examples of suitable enzymes include horseradish peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, *-galactosidase, or acetylcholinesterase; examples of suitable prosthetic group complexes include streptavidin/biotin and avidin/biotin; examples of suitable fluorescent materials include umbelliferone, fluorescein, fluorescein isothiocyanate, rhodamine, dichlorotriazinylamine fluorescein, dansyl chloride or phycoerythrin; an example of a luminescent material includes luminol; and examples of suitable radioactive material include 3H, 14C, 35S, 90Y, 99Tc, l l lln, 1251, 1311, 177Lu, 166Ho, or 153Sm.

[0096] The binding proteins of the invention, in one embodiment, are capable of neutralizing the activity of the antigens both in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, such FIT-Igs can be used to inhibit antigen activity, e.g., in a cell culture containing the antigens, in human subjects or in other mammalian subjects having the antigens with which a binding protein of the invention cross-reacts. In another embodiment, the invention provides a method for reducing antigen activity in a subject suffering from a disease or disorder in which the antigen activity is detrimental. A binding protein of the invention can be administered to a human subject for therapeutic purposes.

[0097] As used herein, the term "a disorder in which antigen activity is detrimental" is intended to include diseases and other disorders in which the presence of the antigen in a subject suffering from the disorder has been shown to be or is suspected of being either responsible for the pathophysiology of the disorder or a factor that contributes to a worsening of the disorder. Accordingly, a disorder in which antigen activity is detrimental is a disorder in which reduction of antigen activity is expected to alleviate the symptoms and/or progression of the disorder. Such disorders may be evidenced, for example, by an increase in the concentration of the antigen in a biological fluid of a subject suffering from the disorder (e.g., an increase in the concentration of antigen in serum, plasma, synovial fluid, etc. of the subject). Non-limiting examples of disorders that can be treated with the binding proteins of the invention include those disorders discussed below and in the section pertaining to pharmaceutical compositions of the antibodies of the invention. [0098] The FIT-Igs of the invention may bind one antigen or multiple antigens. Such antigens include, but are not limited to, the targets listed in the following databases, which databases are incorporated herein by reference. These target databases include, but are not limited to, the following listings:

• Therapeutic targets (http://xin.cz3.nus.edu.sg/group/cjttd/ttd.asp);

• Cytokines and cytokine receptors (http://www.cytokinewebfacts.com/, http://www.copewithcytokines.de/cope.cgi, and

• http ://cmbi.bjmu.edu. cn/ cmbidata/cgf/CGF_Database/ cytokine.medic.kumamoto- u.ac.jp/CFC/indexR.html);

• Chemokines (http://cytokine.medic.kumamoto-u.ac.jp/CFC/CK/Chemokine.htm l);

• Chemokine receptors and GPCRs (http://csp.medic.kumamoto- u.ac.jp/CSP/Receptor.html, http://www.gpcr.org/7tm/);

• Olfactory Receptors (http://senselab.med.yale.edu/senselab/ORDB/default.asp);

• Receptors (http://www.iuphar-db.org/iuphar-rd/list/index.htm);

• Cancer targets (http://cged.hgc.jp/cgi-bin input.cgi);

• Secreted proteins as potential antibody targets (http://spd.cbi.pku.edu.cn );

• Protein kinases (http://spd.cbi.pku.edu.cn/), and

• Human CD markers (http://content.labvelocity.eom/tools/6/1226/CD_table_final_ locked.pdf) and (Zola H, 2005 CD molecules 2005: human cell differentiation molecules Blood, 106:3123-6).

[0099] FIT-Igs are useful as therapeutic agents to simultaneously block two different targets to enhance efficacy/safety and/or increase patient coverage. Such targets may include soluble targets (IL-13 and TNF) and cell surface receptor targets (VEGFR and EGFR). It can also be used to induce redirected cytotoxicity between tumor cells and T cells (Her2 and CD3) for cancer therapy, or between autoreactive cell and effector cells for autoimmune/transplantation, or between any target cell and effector cell to eliminate disease- causing cells in any given disease.

[00100] In addition, FIT-Ig can be used to trigger receptor clustering and activation when it is designed to target two different epitopes on the same receptor. This may have benefit in making agonistic and antagonistic anti-GPCR therapeutics. In this case, FIT-Ig can be used to target two different epitopes on one cell for clustering/signaling (two cell surface molecules) or signaling (on one molecule). Similarly, a FIT-Ig molecule can be designed to trigger CTLA-4 ligation, and a negative signal by targeting two different epitopes (or 2 copies of the same epitope) of CTLA-4 extracellular domain, leading to down regulation of the immune response. CTLA-4 is a clinically validated target for therapeutic treatment of a number of immunological disorders. CTLA-4/B7 interactions negatively regulate T cell activation by attenuating cell cycle progression, IL-2 production, and proliferation of T cells following activation, and CTLA-4 (CD 152) engagement can down-regulate T cell activation and promote the induction of immune tolerance. However, the strategy of attenuating T cell activation by agonistic antibody engagement of CTLA-4 has been unsuccessful since CTLA- 4 activation requires ligation. The molecular interaction of CTLA-4/B7 is in "skewed zipper" arrays, as demonstrated by crystal structural analysis (Stamper 2001 Nature410:608). However none of the currently available CTLA-4 binding reagents have ligation properties, including anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies. There have been several attempts to address this issue. In one case, a cell member-bound single chain antibody was generated, and significantly inhibited allogeneic rejection in mice (Hwang 2002 JI 169:633). In a separate case, artificial APC surface-linked single-chain antibody to CTLA-4 was generated and demonstrated to attenuate T cell responses (Griffin 2000 JI 164:4433). In both cases, CTLA- 4 ligation was achieved by closely localized member-bound antibodies in artificial systems. While these experiments provide proof-of-concept for immune down-regulation by triggering CTLA-4 negative signaling, the reagents used in these reports are not suitable for therapeutic use. To this end, CTLA-4 ligation may be achieved by using a FIT-Ig molecule, which target two different epitopes (or 2 copies of the same epitope) of CTLA-4 extracellular domain. The rationale is that the distance spanning two binding sites of an IgG, approximately 150- 170A, is too large for active ligation of CTLA-4 (30-50 A between 2 CTLA-4 homodimer). However the distance between the two binding sites on FIT-Ig (one arm) is much shorter, also in the range of 30-50 A, allowing proper ligation of CTLA-4.

[00101] Similarly, FIT-Ig can target two different members of a cell surface receptor complex (e.g. IL-12R alpha and beta). Furthermore, FIT-Ig can target CR1 and a soluble protein/pathogen to drive rapid clearance of the target soluble protein/pathogen.

[00102] Additionally, FIT-Igs of the invention can be employed for tissue-specific delivery (target a tissue marker and a disease mediator for enhanced local PK thus higher efficacy and/or lower toxicity), including intracellular delivery (targeting an internalizing receptor and a intracellular molecule), delivering to inside brain (targeting transferrin receptor and a CNS disease mediator for crossing the blood-brain barrier). FIT-Ig can also serve as a carrier protein to deliver an antigen to a specific location via biding to a non-neutralizing epitope of that antigen and also to increase the half-life of the antigen. Furthermore, FIT-Ig can be designed to either be physically linked to medical devices implanted into patients or target these medical devices (Burke, Sandra E.; Kuntz, Richard E.; Schwartz, Lewis B. Zotarolimus (ABT-578) eluting stents. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews (2006), 58(3), 437-446. ; Surface coatings for biological activation and functionalization of medical devices. Hildebrand, H. F.; Blanchemain, N.; Mayer, G.; Chai, F.; Lefebvre, M.; Boschin, F. Surface and Coatings Technology (2006), 200(22-23), 6318-6324. ; Drug/ device combinations for local drug therapies and infection prophylaxis. Wu, Peng; Grainger, David W. Biomaterials (2006), 27(11), 2450-2467. ; Mediation of the cytokine network in the implantation of orthopedic devices. Marques, A. P.; Hunt, J. A.; Reis, Rui L. Biodegradable Systems in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (2005), 377- 397; Page: 52

[00103] Mediation of the cytokine network in the implantation of orthopedic devices.

Marques, A. P.; Hunt, J. A.; Reis, Rui L. Biodegradable Systems in Tissue Engineering and

Regenerative Medicine (2005), 377-397.) Briefly, directing appropriate types of cell to the site of medical implant may promote healing and restoring normal tissue function.

Alternatively, inhibition of mediators (including but not limited to cytokines), released upon device implantation by a FIT-Ig coupled to or target to a device is also provided. For example, Stents have been used for years in interventional cardiology to clear blocked arteries and to improve the flow of blood to the heart muscle. However, traditional bare metal stents have been known to cause restenosis (re-narrowing of the artery in a treated area) in some patients and can lead to blood clots. Recently, an anti-CD34 antibody coated stent has been described which reduced restenosis and prevents blood clots from occurring by capturing endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) circulating throughout the blood. Endothelial cells are cells that line blood vessels, allowing blood to flow smoothly. The EPCs adhere to the hard surface of the stent forming a smooth layer that not only promotes healing but prevents restenosis and blood clots, complications previously associated with the use of stents

(Aoji et al . 2005 J Am Coll Cardiol. 45(10): 1574-9). In addition to improving outcomes for patients requiring stents, there are also implications for patients requiring cardiovascular bypass surgery. For example, a prosthetic vascular conduit (artificial artery) coated with anti-

EPC antibodies would eliminate the need to use arteries from patients legs or arms for bypass surgery grafts. This would reduce surgery and anesthesia times, which in turn will reduce coronary surgery deaths. FIT-Ig are designed in such a way that it binds to a cell surface marker (such as CD34) as well as a protein (or an epitope of any kind, including but not limited to lipids and polysaccharides) that has been coated on the implanted device to facilitate the cell recruitment. Such approaches can also be applied to other medical implants in general. Alternatively, FIT-Igs can be coated on medical devices and upon implantation and releasing all FITs from the device (or any other need which may require additional fresh

FIT-Ig, including aging and denaturation of the already loaded FIT-Ig) the device could be reloaded by systemic administration of fresh FIT-Ig to the patient, where the FIT-Ig is designed to binds to a target of interest (a cytokine, a cell surface marker (such as CD34) etc.) with one set of binding sites and to a target coated on the device (including a protein, an epitope of any kind, including but not limited to lipids, polysaccharides and polymers ) with the other. This technology has the advantage of extending the usefulness of coated implants.

[00104] FIT-Ig molecules of the invention are also useful as therapeutic molecules to treat various diseases. Such FIT-Ig molecules may bind one or more targets involved in a specific disease. Examples of such targets in various diseases are described below.

[00105] Many proteins have been implicated in general autoimmune and inflammatory responses, including C5, CCL1 (1-309), CCL11 (eotaxin), CCL13 (mcp-4), CCL15 (MIP-ld),

CCL16 (HCC-4), CCL17 (TARC), CCL18 (PARC), CCL19, CCL2 (mcp-1), CCL20 (MIP-

3a), CCL21 (MIP-2), CCL23 (MPIF-1), CCL24 (MPIF-2 / eotaxin-2), CCL25 (TECK),

CCL26, CCL3 (MIP-la), CCL4 (MIP-lb), CCL5 (RANTES), CCL7 (mcp-3), CCL8 (mcp-

2), CXCL1, CXCL10 (IP- 10), CXCL11 (I-TAC / IP-9), CXCL12 (SDF1), CXCL13,

CXCL14, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL5 (ENA-78 / LIX), CXCL6 (GCP-2), CXCL9, IL13, IL8,

CCL13 (mcp-4), CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CCR6, CCR7, CCR8, CCR9,

CX3CR1, IL8RA, XCR1 (CCXCR1), IFNA2, IL10, IL13, IL17C, ILIA, IL1B, IL1F10,

IL1F5, IL1F6, IL1F7, IL1F8, IL1F9, IL22, IL5, IL8, IL9, LTA, LTB, MIF, SCYE1

(endothelial Monocyte-activating cytokine), SPP1, TNF, TNFSF5, IFNA2, IL10RA,

IL10RB, IL13, IL13RA1, IL5RA, IL9, IL9R, ABCF1, BCL6, C3, C4A, CEBPB, CRP,

ICEBERG, IL1R1, IL1RN, IL8RB, LTB4R, TOLLIP, FADD, IRAKI, IRAK2, MYD88,

NCK2, TNFAIP3, TRADD, TRAF1, TRAF2, TRAF3, TRAF4, TRAF5, TRAF6, ACVR1,

ACVR1B, ACVR2, ACVR2B, ACVRL1, CD28, CD3E, CD3G, CD3Z, CD69, CD80, CD86,

CNR1, CTLA-4, CYSLTR1, FCER1A, FCER2, FCGR3A, GPR44, HAVCR2, OPRD1,

P2RX7, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, TLR10, BLR1, CCL1,

CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL15, CCL16, CCL17, CCL18, CCL19, CCL20, CCL21, CCL22, CCL23, CCL24, CCL25, CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CCR6, CCR7, CCR8, CCR9, CX3CL1, CX3CR1, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL6, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL12, CXCL13, CXCR4, GPR2, SCYE1, SDF2, XCL1, XCL2, XCR1, AMH, AMHR2, BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2, C19orfl0 (IL27w), CER1, CSF1, CSF2, CSF3, DKFZp451J0118, FGF2, GFI1, IFNA1, IFNB1, IFNG, IGF1, ILIA, IL1B, IL1R1, IL1R2, IL2, IL2RA, IL2RB, IL2RG, IL3, IL4, IL4R, IL5, IL5RA, IL6, IL6R, IL6ST, IL7, IL8, IL8RA, IL8RB, IL9, IL9R, IL10, IL10RA, IL10RB, IL11, IL11RA, IL12A, IL12B, IL12RB1, IL12RB2, IL13, IL13RA1, IL13RA2, IL15, IL15RA, IL16, IL17, IL17R, IL18, IL18R1, IL19, IL20, KITLG, LEP, LTA, LTB, LTB4R, LTB4R2, LTBR, MIF, NPPB, PDGFB, TBX21, TDGFl, TGFA, TGFBl, TGFBIII, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFBI, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFBR3, TH1L, TNF, TNFRSF1A, TNFRSF1B, TNFRSF7, TNFRSF8, TNFRSF9, TNFRSF11A, TNFRSF21, TNFSF4, TNFSF5, TNFSF6, TNFSF11, VEGF, ZFPM2, and RNF110 (ZNF144). FIT-Igs capable of binding one or more of the targets listed above are also contemplated.

[00106] Allergic asthma is characterized by the presence of eosinophilia, goblet cell metaplasia, epithelial cell alterations, airway hyperreactivity (AHR), and Th2 and Thl cytokine expression, as well as elevated serum IgE levels. It is now widely accepted that airway inflammation is the key factor underlying the pathogenesis of asthma, involving a complex interplay of inflammatory cells such as T cells, B cells, eosinophils, mast cells and macrophages, and of their secreted mediators including cytokines and chemokines.

Corticosteroids are the most important anti-inflammatory treatment for asthma today, however their mechanism of action is non-specific and safety concerns exist, especially in the juvenile patient population. The development of more specific and targeted therapies is therefore warranted. There is increasing evidence that IL-13 in mice mimics many of the features of asthma, including AHR, mucus hypersecretion and airway fibrosis, independently of eosinophilic inflammation (Finotto et al., International Immunology (2005), 17(8), 993-

1007; Padilla et al, Journal of Immunology (2005), 174(12), 8097-8105).

[00107] IL-13 has been implicated as having a pivotal role in causing pathological responses associated with asthma. The development of anti-IL-13 monoclonal antibody therapy to reduce the effects of IL-13 in the lung is an exciting new approach that offers considerable promise as a novel treatment for asthma. However other mediators of differential immunological pathways are also involved in asthma pathogenesis, and blocking these mediators, in addition to IL-13, may offer additional therapeutic benefit. Such target pairs include, but are not limited to, IL-13 and a pro-inflammatory cytokine, such as tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a). TNF-a may amplify the inflammatory response in asthma and may be linked to disease severity (McDonnell, et al., Progress in Respiratory Research (2001), 31(New Drugs for Asthma, Allergy and COPD), 247-250.). This suggests that blocking both IL-13 and TNF-a may have beneficial effects, particularly in severe airway disease. In a preferred embodiment the FIT-Ig of the invention binds the targets IL-13 and TNFa and is used for treating asthma.

[00108] Animal models such as OVA-induced asthma mouse model, where both inflammation and AHR can be assessed, are known in the art and may be used to determine the ability of various FIT-Ig molecules to treat asthma. Animal models for studying asthma are disclosed in Coffman, et al., Journal of Experimental Medicine (2005), 201(12), 1875- 1879; Lloyd, et al, Advances in Immunology (2001), 77, 263-295; Boyce et al, Journal of Experimental Medicine (2005), 201(12), 1869-1873; and Snibson, et al, Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (2005), 35(2), 146-52. In addition to routine safety assessments of these target pairs specific tests for the degree of immunosuppression may be warranted and helpful in selecting the best target pairs (see Luster et al, Toxicology (1994), 92(1-3), 229-43; Descotes, et al, Developments in biological standardization (1992), 77 99-102; Hart et al., Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (2001), 108(2), 250-257).

[00109] Based on the rationale disclosed above and using the same evaluation model for efficacy and safety other pairs of targets that FIT-Ig molecules can bind and be useful to treat asthma may be determined. Preferably such targets include, but are not limited to, IL-13 and IL-lbeta, since IL-lbeta is also implicated in inflammatory response in asthma; IL-13 and cytokines and chemokines that are involved in inflammation, such as IL-13 and IL-9; IL- 13 and IL-4; IL-13 and IL-5; IL-13 and IL-25; IL-13 and TARC; IL-13 and MDC; IL-13 and MIF; IL-13 and TGF-β; IL-13 and LHR agonist; IL-13 and CL25; IL-13 and SPRR2a; IL-13 and SPRR2b; and IL-13 and ADAM8. The present invention also contemplates FIT-Igs capable of binding one or more targets involved in asthma selected from the group consisting of CSF1 (MCSF), CSF2 (GM-CSF), CSF3 (GCSF), FGF2, IFNA1, IFNB1, IFNG, histamine and histamine receptors, ILIA, IL1B, IL2, IL3, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL7, IL8, IL9, IL10, IL11, IL12A, IL12B, IL13, IL14, IL15, IL16, IL17, IL18, IL19, KITLG, PDGFB, IL2RA, IL4R, IL5RA, IL8RA, IL8RB, IL12RB1, IL12RB2, IL13RA1, IL13RA2, IL18R1, TSLP, CCL1,

CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL13, CCL17, CCL18, CCL19, CCL20, CCL22, CCL24,CX3CL1, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, XCL1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CCR6, CCR7, CCR8, CX3CR1 , GPR2, XCR1, FOS, GAT A3, JAK1, JAK3, STAT6, TBX21, TGFB1, TNFSF6, YY1, CYSLTR1, FCER1A, FCER2, LTB4R, TB4R2, LTBR, and Chitinase.

[00110] Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a systemic disease, is characterized by a chronic inflammatory reaction in the synovium of joints and is associated with degeneration of cartilage and erosion of juxta-articular bone. Many pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF, chemokines, and growth factors are expressed in diseased joints. Systemic administration of anti-TNF antibody or sTNFR fusion protein to mouse models of RA was shown to be anti-inflammatory and joint protective. Clinical investigations in which the activity of TNF in RA patients was blocked with intravenously administered infliximab (Harriman G, Harper LK, Schaible TF. 1999 Summary of clinical trials in rheumatoid arthritis using infliximab, an anti-TNFalpha treatment. Ann Rheum Dis 58 Suppl 1 :161-4. ), a chimeric anti-TNF monoclonal antibody (mAB), has provided evidence that TNF regulates IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and VEGF production, recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells into joints, angiogenesis, and reduction of blood levels of matrix metalloproteinases-1 and -3. A better understanding of the inflammatory pathway in rheumatoid arthritis has led to identification of other therapeutic targets involved in rheumatoid arthritis. Promising treatments such as interleukin-6 antagonists (MRA), CTLA4Ig (abatacept, Genovese Mc et al 2005 Abatacept for rheumatoid arthritis refractory to tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibition. N Engl J Med. 353: 1114-23.), and anti-B cell therapy (rituximab, Okamoto H, Kamatani N. 2004 Rituximab for rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med. 351 : 1909) have already been tested in randomized controlled trials over the past year. Other cytokines have been identified and have been shown to be of benefit in animal models, including interleukin-15, interleukin-17, and interleukin-18, and clinical trials of these agents are currently under way. Dual- specific antibody therapy, combining anti-TNF and another mediator, has great potential in enhancing clinical efficacy and/or patient coverage. For example, blocking both TNF and VEGF can potentially eradicate inflammation and angiogenesis, both of which are involved in pathophysiology of RA. Blocking other pairs of targets involved in RA including, but not limited to, TNF and IL-18; TNF and IL-12; TNF and IL-23; TNF and IL-lbeta; TNF and MIF; TNF and IL-17; and TNF and IL-15 with specific FIT-Ig Igs is also contemplated. In addition to routine safety assessments of these target pairs, specific tests for the degree of immunosuppression may be warranted and helpful in selecting the best target pairs (see Luster et al, Toxicology (1994), 92(1-3), 229-43; Descotes, et al, Developments in biological standardization (1992), 77 99-102; Hart et al., Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (2001), 108(2), 250-257). Whether a FIT-Ig Ig molecule will be useful for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis can be assessed using pre-clinical animal RA models such as the collagen-induced arthritis mouse model. Other useful models are also well known in the art (see Brand DD., Comp Med. (2005) 55(2): 114-22).

[00111] The immunopathogenic hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the polyclonal B cell activation, which leads to hyperglobulinemia, autoantibody production and immune complex formation. The fundamental abnormality appears to be the failure of T cells to suppress the forbidden B cell clones due to generalized T cell dysregulation. In addition, B and T-cell interaction is facilitated by several cytokines such as IL-10 as well as co-stimulatory molecules such as CD40 and CD40L, B7 and CD28 and CTLA-4, which initiate the second signal. These interactions together with impaired phagocytic clearance of immune complexes and apoptotic material, perpetuate the immune response with resultant tissue injury. The following targets may be involved in SLE and can potentially be used for FIT-Ig approach for therapeutic intervention: B cell targeted therapies: CD-20, CD-22, CD- 19, CD28, CD4, CD80, HLA-DRA, IL10, IL2, IL4, TNFRSF5, TNFRSF6, TNFSF5, TNFSF6, BLR1, HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC7A, HDAC9, ICOSL, IGBP1, MS4A1, RGS1, SLA2, CD81, IFNB1, IL10, TNFRSF5, TNFRSF7, TNFSF5, AICDA, BLNK, GALNAC4S- 6ST, HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC7A, HDAC9, IL10, IL11, IL4, INHA, INHBA, KLF6, TNFRSF7, CD28, CD38, CD69, CD80, CD83, CD86, DPP4, FCER2, IL2RA, TNFRSF8, TNFSF7, CD24, CD37, CD40, CD72, CD74, CD79A, CD79B, CR2, IL1R2, ITGA2, ITGA3, MS4A1, ST6GAL1, CD1C, CHST10, HLA-A, HLA-DRA, and NT5E.; co-stimulatory signals: CTLA-4 or B7.1/B7.2; inhibition of B cell survival: BlyS, BAFF; Complement inactivation: C5; Cytokine modulation: the key principle is that the net biologic response in any tissue is the result of a balance between local levels of proinflammatory or antiinflammatory cytokines (see Sfikakis PP et al 2005 Curr Opin Rheumatol 17:550-7). SLE is considered to be a Th-2 driven disease with documented elevations in serum IL-4, IL-6, IL- 10. FIT-Ig Igs capable of binding one or more targets selected from the group consisting of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-a, and TNF-a are also contemplated. Combination of targets discussed above will enhance therapeutic efficacy for SLE which can be tested in a number of lupus preclinical models (see Peng SL (2004) Methods Mol Med.;102:227-72). [00112] Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex human autoimmune-type disease with a predominantly unknown etiology. Immunologic destruction of myelin basic protein (MBP) throughout the nervous system is the major pathology of multiple sclerosis. MS is a disease of complex pathologies, which involves infiltration by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and of response within the central nervous system. Expression in the CNS of cytokines, reactive nitrogen species and costimulator molecules have all been described in MS. Of major consideration are immunological mechanisms that contribute to the development of autoimmunity. In particular, antigen expression, cytokine and leukocyte interactions, and regulatory T-cells, which help balance/modulate other T-cells such as Thl and Th2 cells, are important areas for therapeutic target identification.

[00113] IL-12 is a proinflammatory cytokine that is produced by APC and promotes differentiation of Thl effector cells. IL-12 is produced in the developing lesions of patients with MS as well as in EAE-affected animals. Previously it was shown that interference in IL- 12 pathways effectively prevents EAE in rodents, and that in vivo neutralization of IL-12p40 using a anti-IL-12 mAb has beneficial effects in the myelin-induced EAE model in common marmosets.

[00114] TWEAK is a member of the TNF family, constitutively expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), with pro-inflammatory, proliferative or apoptotic effects depending upon cell types. Its receptor, Fnl4, is expressed in CNS by endothelial cells, reactive astrocytes and neurons. TWEAK and Fnl4 m NA expression increased in spinal cord during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Anti-TWEAK antibody treatment in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice resulted in a reduction of disease severity and leukocyte infiltration when mice were treated after the priming phase.

[00115] One aspect of the invention pertains to FIT-Ig Ig molecules capable of binding one or more, preferably two, targets selected from the group consisting of IL-12, TWEAK, IL-23, CXCL13, CD40, CD40L, IL-18, VEGF, VLA-4, TNF, CD45RB, CD200, IFNgamma, GM-CSF, FGF, C5, CD52, and CCR2. A preferred embodiment includes a dual-specific anti- IL-12/TWEAK FIT-Ig Ig as a therapeutic agent beneficial for the treatment of MS. Several animal models for assessing the usefulness of the FIT-Ig molecules to treat MS are known in the art (see Steinman L, et al., (2005) Trends Immunol. 26(11):565-71; Lublin FD., et al., (1985) Springer Semin Immunopathol.8(3): 197-208; Genain CP, et al, (1997) J Mol Med. 75(3): 187-97; Tuohy VK, et al, (1999) J Exp Med. 189(7): 1033-42; Owens T, et al, (1995) Neurol Clin.13(1):51-73; and 't Hart BA, et al, (2005) J Immunol 175(7):4761-8. In addition to routine safety assessments of these target pairs specific tests for the degree of immunosuppression may be warranted and helpful in selecting the best target pairs (see Luster et al, Toxicology (1994), 92(1-3), 229-43; Descotes, et al, Developments in biological standardization (1992), 77 99-102; Jones R. 2000 Rovelizumab (ICOS Corp). IDrugs.3(4):442-6).

[00116] The pathophysiology of sepsis is initiated by the outer membrane components of both gram-negative organisms (lipopolysaccharide [LPS], lipid A, endotoxin) and gram- positive organisms (lipoteichoic acid, peptidoglycan). These outer membrane components are able to bind to the CD 14 receptor on the surface of monocytes. By virtue of the recently described toll-like receptors, a signal is then transmitted to the cell, leading to the eventual production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-I). Overwhelming inflammatory and immune responses are essential features of septic shock and play a central part in the pathogenesis of tissue damage, multiple organ failure, and death induced by sepsis. Cytokines, especially tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-l, have been shown to be critical mediators of septic shock. These cytokines have a direct toxic effect on tissues; they also activate phospholipase A2. These and other effects lead to increased concentrations of platelet-activating factor, promotion of nitric oxide synthase activity, promotion of tissue infiltration by neutrophils, and promotion of neutrophil activity.

[00117] The treatment of sepsis and septic shock remains a clinical conundrum, and recent prospective trials with biological response modifiers (i.e. anti-TNF, anti-MIF) aimed at the inflammatory response have shown only modest clinical benefit. Recently, interest has shifted toward therapies aimed at reversing the accompanying periods of immune suppression. Studies in experimental animals and critically ill patients have demonstrated that increased apoptosis of lymphoid organs and some parenchymal tissues contribute to this immune suppression, anergy, and organ system dysfunction. During sepsis syndromes, lymphocyte apoptosis can be triggered by the absence of IL-2 or by the release of glucocorticoids, granzymes, or the so-called 'death' cytokines: tumor necrosis factor alpha or

Fas ligand. Apoptosis proceeds via auto-activation of cytosolic and/or mitochondrial caspases, which can be influenced by the pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. In experimental animals, not only can treatment with inhibitors of apoptosis prevent lymphoid cell apoptosis; it may also improve outcome. Although clinical trials with anti- apoptotic agents remain distant due in large part to technical difficulties associated with their administration and tissue targeting, inhibition of lymphocyte apoptosis represents an attractive therapeutic target for the septic patient. Likewise, a dual-specific agent targeting both inflammatory mediator and a apoptotic mediator, may have added benefit. One aspect of the invention pertains to FIT-Ig Igs capable of binding one or more targets involved in sepsis, preferably two targets, selected from the group consisting TNF, IL-1, MIF, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, IL-12, IL-23, FasL, LPS, Toll-like receptors, TLR-4, tissue factor, MIP-2, ADORA2A, CASP1, CASP4, IL10, IL1B, NFKB1, PROC, TNFRSF1A, CSF3, IL10, IL1B, IL6, ADORA2A, CCR3, IL10, IL1B, IL1RN, MIF, NFKB1, PTAFR, TLR2, TLR4, GPR44, HMOX1, midkine, IRAKI, NFKB2, SERPINA1, SERPINE1, and TREM1. The efficacy of such FIT-Ig Igs for sepsis can be assessed in preclinical animal models known in the art (see Buras JA, et al.,(2005) Nat Rev Drug Discov. 4(10):854-65 and Calandra T, et al, (2000) Nat Med. 6(2): 164-70).

[00118] Chronic neurodegenerative diseases are usually age-dependent diseases characterized by progressive loss of neuronal functions (neuronal cell death, demyelination), loss of mobility and loss of memory. Emerging knowledge of the mechanisms underlying chronic neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Alzheimer's disease) show a complex etiology and a variety of factors have been recognized to contribute to their development and progression e.g. age, glycemic status, amyloid production and multimerization, accumulation of advanced glycation-end products (AGE) which bind to their receptor RAGE (receptor for AGE), increased brain oxidative stress, decreased cerebral blood flow, neuroinflammation including release of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, neuronal dysfunction and microglial activation. Thus these chronic neurodegenerative diseases represent a complex interaction between multiple cell types and mediators. Treatment strategies for such diseases are limited and mostly constitute either blocking inflammatory processes with non-specific antiinflammatory agents (e.g., corticosteroids, COX inhibitors) or agents to prevent neuron loss and/or synaptic functions. These treatments fail to stop disease progression. Recent studies suggest that more targeted therapies such as antibodies to soluble Α-β peptide (including the A-b oligomeric forms) can not only help stop disease progression but may help maintain memory as well. These preliminary observations suggest that specific therapies targeting more than one disease mediator (e.g. Α-β and a pro-inflammatory cytokine such as TNF) may provide even better therapeutic efficacy for chronic neurodegenerative diseases than observed with targeting a single disease mechanism (e.g. soluble A- alone) (see C.E. Shepherd, et al, Neurobiol Aging. 2005 Oct 24; Nelson RB., Curr Pharm Des. 2005;11 :3335; William L. Klein.; Neurochem Int. 2002 ;41 :345; Michelle C Janelsins, et al., J Neuroinflammation. 2005 ;2:23; Soloman B., Curr Alzheimer Res. 2004;1 : 149; Igor Klyubin, et al, Nat Med. 2005;11 :556-61 ; Arancio O, et al, EMBO Journal (2004) 1-10; Bornemann KD, et al, Am J Pathol. 2001;158:63; Deane R, et al, Nat Med. 2003;9:907-13; and Eliezer Masliah, et al, Neuron. 2005;46:857).

[00119] The FIT-Ig molecules of the invention can bind one or more targets involved in Chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. Such targets include, but are not limited to, any mediator, soluble or cell surface, implicated in AD pathogenesis e.g. AGE (S100 A, amphoterin), pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1), chemokines (e.g. MCP 1), molecules that inhibit nerve regeneration (e.g. Nogo, RGM A), molecules that enhance neurite growth (neurotrophins). The efficacy of FIT-Ig molecules can be validated in preclinical animal models such as the transgenic mice that over-express amyloid precursor protein or RAGE and develop Alzheimer's disease-like symptoms. In addition, FIT-Ig molecules can be constructed and tested for efficacy in the animal models and the best therapeutic FIT-Ig can be selected for testing in human patients. FIT-Ig molecules can also be employed for treatment of other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Alpha- Synuclein is involved in Parkinson's pathology. A FIT-Ig capable of targeting alpha- synuclein and inflammatory mediators such as TNF, IL-1, MCP-1 can prove effective therapy for Parkinson's disease and are contemplated in the invention.

[00120] Despite an increase in knowledge of the pathologic mechanisms, spinal cord injury (SCI) is still a devastating condition and represents a medical indication characterized by a high medical need. Most spinal cord injuries are contusion or compression injuries and the primary injury is usually followed by secondary injury mechanisms (inflammatory mediators e.g. cytokines and chemokines) that worsen the initial injury and result in significant enlargement of the lesion area, sometimes more than 10-fold. These primary and secondary mechanisms in SCI are very similar to those in brain injury caused by other means e.g. stroke. No satisfying treatment exists and high dose bolus injection of methylprednisolone (MP) is the only used therapy within a narrow time window of 8 h post injury. This treatment, however, is only intended to prevent secondary injury without causing any significant functional recovery. It is heavily criticized for the lack of unequivocal efficacy and severe adverse effects, like immunosuppression with subsequent infections and severe histopatho logical muscle alterations. No other drugs, biologies or small molecules, stimulating the endogenous regenerative potential are approved, but promising treatment principles and drug candidates have shown efficacy in animal models of SCI in recent years. To a large extent the lack of functional recovery in human SCI is caused by factors inhibiting neurite growth, at lesion sites, in scar tissue, in myelin as well as on injury-associated cells. Such factors are the myelin-associated proteins NogoA, OMgp and MAG, RGM A, the scar- associated CSPG (Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans) and inhibitory factors on reactive astrocytes (some semaphorins and ephrins). However, at the lesion site not only growth inhibitory molecules are found but also neurite growth stimulating factors like neurotrophins, laminin, LI and others. This ensemble of neurite growth inhibitory and growth promoting molecules may explain that blocking single factors, like NogoA or RGM A, resulted in significant functional recovery in rodent SCI models, because a reduction of the inhibitory influences could shift the balance from growth inhibition to growth promotion. However, recoveries observed with blocking a single neurite outgrowth inhibitory molecule were not complete. To achieve faster and more pronounced recoveries either blocking two neurite outgrowth inhibitory molecules e.g. Nogo and RGM A, or blocking an neurite outgrowth inhibitory molecule and enhancing functions of a neurite outgrowth enhancing molecule e.g. Nogo and neurotrophins, or blocking a neurite outgrowth inhibitory molecule e.g. Nogo and a pro-inflammatory molecule e.g. TNF, may be desirable (see McGee AW, et al., Trends Neurosci. 2003;26: 193; Marco Domeniconi, et al, J Neurol Sci. 2005;233:43; Milan Makwanal, et al, FEBS J. 2005;272:2628; Barry J. Dickson, Science. 2002;298:1959; Felicia Yu Hsuan Teng, et al, J Neurosci Res. 2005;79:273; Tara Karnezis, et al, Nature Neuroscience 2004; 7, 736; Gang Xu, et al, J. Neurochem.2004; 91; 1018).

[00121] Other FIT-Igs contemplated are those capable of binding target pairs such as

NgR and RGM A; NogoA and RGM A; MAG and RGM A; OMGp and RGM A; RGM A and RGM B; CSPGs and RGM A; aggrecan, midkine, neurocan, versican, phosphacan, Te38 and TNF-a; AB globulomer-specific antibodies combined with antibodies promoting dendrite & axon sprouting. Dendrite pathology is a very early sign of AD and it is known that NOGO A restricts dendrite growth. One can combine such type of ab with any of the SCI-candidate (myelin-proteins) Ab. Other FIT-Ig targets may include any combination of NgR-p75, NgR- Troy, NgR-Nogo66 (Nogo), NgR-Lingo, Lingo-Troy, Lingo-p75, MAG or Omgp. Additionally, targets may also include any mediator, soluble or cell surface, implicated in inhibition of neurite e.g Nogo, Ompg, MAG, RGM A, semaphorins, ephrins, soluble A-b, pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1), chemokines (e.g. MIP la), molecules that inhibit nerve regeneration. The efficacy of anti-nogo / anti-RGM A or similar FIT-Ig molecules can be validated in pre-clinical animal models of spinal cord injury. In addition, these FIT-Ig molecules can be constructed and tested for efficacy in the animal models and the best therapeutic FIT-Ig can be selected for testing in human patients. In addition, FIT-Ig molecules can be constructed that target two distinct ligand binding sites on a single receptor e.g. Nogo receptor which binds three ligand Nogo, Ompg, and MAG and RAGE that binds A-b and SI 00 A. Furthermore, neurite outgrowth inhibitors e.g. nogo and nogo receptor, also play a role in preventing nerve regeneration in immunological diseases like multiple sclerosis. Inhibition of nogo-nogo receptor interaction has been shown to enhance recovery in animal models of multiple sclerosis. Therefore, FIT-Ig molecules that can block the function of one immune mediator eg a cytokine like IL-12 and a neurite outgrowth inhibitor molecule eg nogo or RGM may offer faster and greater efficacy than blocking either an immune or an neurite outgrowth inhibitor molecule alone.

[00122] Monoclonal antibody therapy has emerged as an important therapeutic modality for cancer (von Mehren M, et al 2003 Monoclonal antibody therapy for cancer. Annu Rev Med.;54:343-69). Antibodies may exert antitumor effects by inducing apoptosis, redirected cytotoxicity, interfering with ligand-receptor interactions, or preventing the expression of proteins that are critical to the neoplastic phenotype. In addition, antibodies can target components of the tumor microenvironment, perturbing vital structures such as the formation of tumor-associated vasculature. Antibodies can also target receptors whose ligands are growth factors, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor. The antibody thus inhibits natural ligands that stimulate cell growth from binding to targeted tumor cells. Alternatively, antibodies may induce an anti-idiotype network, complement-mediated cytotoxicity, or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The use of dual-specific antibody that targets two separate tumor mediators will likely give additional benefit compared to a mono-specific therapy. FIT-Ig Igs capable of binding the following pairs of targets to treat oncological disease are also contemplated: IGFl and IGF2; IGFl/2 and Erb2B; VEGFR and EGFR; CD20 and CD3, CD138 and CD20, CD38 and CD20, CD38 & CD138, CD40 and CD20, CD138 and CD40, CD38 and CD40. Other target combinations include one or more members of the EGF/erb-2/erb-3 family. Other targets (one or more) involved in oncological diseases that FIT-Ig Igs may bind include, but are not limited to those selected from the group consisting of: CD52, CD20, CD19, CD3, CD4, CD8, BMP6, IL12A, ILIA, IL1B, IL2, IL24, INHA, TNF, TNFSF10, BMP6, EGF, FGF1, FGF10, FGF11, FGF12, FGF13, FGF14, FGF16, FGF17, FGF18, FGF19, FGF2, FGF20, FGF21, FGF22, FGF23, FGF3, FGF4, FGF5, FGF6, FGF7, FGF8, FGF9, GRP, IGFl, IGF2, IL12A, ILIA, IL1B, IL2, INHA, TGFA, TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, VEGF, CDK2, EGF, FGF10, FGF18, FGF2, FGF4, FGF7, IGFl, IGF1R, IL2, VEGF, BCL2, CD164, CDK 1A, CDKNIB, CDKN1C, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDKN2C, CDKN3, GNRH1, IGFBP6, ILIA, IL1B, ODZ1, PAWR, PLG, TGFB1I1, AR, BRCA1, CDK3, CDK4, CDK5, CDK6, CDK7, CDK9, E2F1, EGFR, ENOl, ERBB2, ESR1, ESR2, IGFBP3, IGFBP6, IL2, INSL4, MYC, NOX5, NR6A1, PAP, PCNA, PRKCQ, PRKDl, PRL, TP53, FGF22, FGF23, FGF9, IGFBP3, IL2, INHA, KLK6, TP53, CHGB, GNRH1, IGFl, IGF2, INHA, INSL3, INSL4, PRL, KLK6, SHBG, NR1D1, NR1H3, NR1I3, NR2F6, NR4A3, ESR1, ESR2, NR0B1, NR0B2, NR1D2, NR1H2, NR1H4, NR1I2, NR2C1, NR2C2, NR2E1, NR2E3, NR2F1, NR2F2, NR3C1, NR3C2, NR4A1, NR4A2, NR5A1, NR5A2, NR6A1, PGR, RARB, FGF1, FGF2, FGF6, KLK3, KRT1, APOC1, BRCA1, CHGA, CHGB, CLU, COL1A1, COL6A1, EGF, ERBB2, ERK8, FGF1, FGF10, FGF11, FGF13, FGF14, FGF16, FGF17, FGF18, FGF2, FGF20, FGF21, FGF22, FGF23, FGF3, FGF4, FGF5, FGF6, FGF7, FGF8, FGF9, GNRH1, IGFl, IGF2, IGFBP3, IGFBP6, IL12A, ILIA, IL1B, IL2, IL24, INHA, INSL3, INSL4, KLK10, KLK12, KLK13, KLK14, KLK15, KLK3, KLK4, KLK5, KLK6, KLK9, MMP2, MMP9, MSMB, NTN4, ODZ1, PAP, PLAU, PRL, PSAP, SERPINA3, SHBG, TGFA, TIMP3, CD44, CDHl, CDH10, CDH19, CDH20, CDH7, CDH9, CDHl, CDH10, CDH13, CDH18, CDHl 9, CDH20, CDH7, CDH8, CDH9, ROB02, CD44, ILK, ITGA1, APC, CD 164, COL6A1, MTSS1, PAP, TGFB1I1, AGR2, AIG1, AKAP1, AKAP2, CANT1, CAV1, CDHl 2, CLDN3, CLN3, CYB5, CYC1, DAB2IP, DES, DNCL1, ELAC2, EN02, EN03, FASN, FLJ12584, FLJ25530, GAGEB1, GAGEC1, GGT1, GSTP1, HIP1, HUMCYT2A, IL29, K6HF, KAI1, KRT2A, MIB1, PARTI, PATE, PC A3, PIAS2, PIK3CG, PPID, PR1, PSCA, SLC2A2, SLC33A1, SLC43A1, STEAP, STEAP2, TPM1, TPM2, TRPC6, ANGPT1, ANGPT2, ANPEP, ECGF1, EREG, FGF1, FGF2, FIGF, FLT1, JAG1, KDR, LAMA5, NRP1, NRP2, PGF, PLXDC1, STAB1, VEGF, VEGFC, ANGPTL3, BAI1, COL4A3, IL8, LAMA5, NRP1, NRP2, STAB 1 , ANGPTL4, PECAM1, PF4, PROK2, SERPINF1, TNFAIP2, CCL11, CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL10, CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL6, CXCL9, IFNA1, IFNB1, IFNG, IL1B, IL6, MDK, EDG1, EFNA1, EFNA3, EFNB2, EGF, EPHB4, FGFR3, HGF, IGFl, ITGB3, PDGFA, TEK, TGFA, TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFBR1, CCL2, CDH5, COL18A1, EDG1, ENG, ITGAV, ITGB3, THBS1, THBS2, BAD, BAG1, BCL2, CCNA1, CCNA2, CCNDl, CCNEl, CCNE2, CDHl (E-cadherin), CDKNIB (p27Kipl), CDKN2A (pl6INK4a), COL6A1, CT NB1 (b-catenin), CTSB (cathepsin B), ERBB2 (Her-2), ESR1, ESR2, F3 (TF), F0SL1 (FRA-1), GAT A3, GSN (Gelsolin), IGFBP2, IL2RA, IL6, IL6R, IL6ST (glycoprotein 130), ITGA6 (a6 integrin), JUN, KLK5, KRT19, MAP2K7 (c-Jun), MKI67 (Ki-67), NGFB (NGF), NGFR, NME1 (NM23A), PGR, PLAU (uPA), PTEN, CTLA- 4, OX40, GITR, TIM-3, Lag-3, B7-H3, B7-H4, GDF8, CGRP, Lingo-1, ICOS, GARP, BTLA, CD160, ROR1, SERPINB5 (maspin), SERPINE1 (PAI-1), TGFA, THBS1 (thrombospondin-1), TIE (Tie-1), TNFRSF6 (Fas), TNFSF6 (FasL), TOP2A (topoisomerase Iia), TP53, AZGP1 (zinc-a-glycoprotein), BPAG1 (plectin), CDK 1A (p21Wapl/Cipl), CLDN7 (claudin-7), CLU (clusterin), ERBB2 (Her-2), FGF1, FLRT1 (fibronectin), GABRP (GABAa), GNAS1, ID2, ITGA6 (a6 integrin), ITGB4 (b 4 integrin), KLF5 (GC Box BP), KRT19 (Keratin 19), KRTHB6 (hair-specific type II keratin), MACMARCKS, MT3 (metallothionectin-III), MUC1 (mucin), PTGS2 (COX-2), RAC2 (p21Rac2), S100A2, SCGB1D2 (lipophilin B), SCGB2A1 (mammaglobin 2), SCGB2A2 (mammaglobin 1), SPRR1B (Sprl), THBS1, THBS2, THBS4, and TNFAIP2 (B94).

[00123] In an embodiment, diseases that can be treated or diagnosed with the compositions and methods provided herein include, but are not limited to, primary and metastatic cancers, including carcinomas of breast, colon, rectum, lung, oropharynx, hypopharynx, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, gallbladder and bile ducts, small intestine, urinary tract (including kidney, bladder and urothelium), female genital tract (including cervix, uterus, and ovaries as well as choriocarcinoma and gestational trophoblastic disease), male genital tract (including prostate, seminal vesicles, testes and germ cell tumors), endocrine glands (including the thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary glands), and skin, as well as hemangiomas, melanomas, sarcomas (including those arising from bone and soft tissues as well as Kaposi's sarcoma), tumors of the brain, nerves, eyes, and meninges (including astrocytomas, gliomas, glioblastomas, retinoblastomas, neuromas, neuroblastomas, Schwannomas, and meningiomas), solid tumors arising from hematopoietic malignancies such as leukemias, and lymphomas (both Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas).

[00124] In an embodiment, the antibodies provided herein or antigen-binding portions thereof, are used to treat cancer or in the prevention of metastases from the tumors described herein either when used alone or in combination with radiotherapy and/or other chemotherapeutic agents.

[00125] According to another embodiment of the invention, the human immune effector cell is a member of the human lymphoid cell lineage. In this embodiment, the effector cell may advantageously be a human T cell, a human B cell or a human natural killer (NK) cell. Advantageously, such cells will have either a cytotoxic or an apoptotic effect on the target cell. Especially advantageously, the human lymphoid cell is a cytotoxic T cell which, when activated, exerts a cytotoxic effect on the target cell. According to this embodiment, then, the recruited activity of the human effector cell is this cell's cytotoxic activity.

[00126] According to a preferred embodiment, activation of the cytotoxic T cell may occur via binding of the CD3 antigen as effector antigen on the surface of the cytotoxic T cell by a bispecific antibody of this embodiment of the invention. The human CD3 antigen is present on both helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells. Human CD3 denotes an antigen which is expressed on T cells as part of the multimolecular T cell complex and which comprises three different chains: CD3-epsilon, CD3 -delta and CD3 -gamma.

[00127] The activation of the cytotoxic potential of T cells is a complex phenomenon which requires the interplay of multiple proteins. The T cell receptor ("TCR") protein is a membrane bound disulfide-linked heterodimer consisting of two different glycoprotein subunits. The TCR recognizes and binds foreign peptidic antigen which itself has been bound by a member of the highly diverse class of major histocompatibility complex ("MHC") proteins and has been presented, bound to the MHC, on the surface of antigen presenting cells ("APCs").

[00128] Although the variable TCR binds foreign antigen as outlined above, signaling to the T cell that this binding has taken place depends on the presence of other, invariant, signaling proteins associated with the TCR. These signaling proteins in associated form are collectively referred to as the CD3 complex, here collectively referred to as the CD3 antigen.

[00129] The activation of T cell cytotoxicity, then, normally depends first on the binding of the TCR with an MHC protein, itself bound to foreign antigen, located on a separate cell. Only when this initial TCR-MHC binding has taken place can the CD3- dependent signaling cascade responsible for T cell clonal expansion and, ultimately, T cell cytotoxicity ensue.

[00130] However, binding of the human CD3 antigen by the first or second portion of a bispecific antibody of the invention activates T cells to exert a cytotoxic effect on other cells in the absence of independent TCR-MHC binding. This means that T cells may be cytotoxically activated in a clonally independent fashion, i.e., in a manner which is independent of the specific TCR clone carried by the T cell. This allows an activation of the entire T cell compartment rather than only specific T cells of a certain clonal identity.

[00131] In light of the foregoing discussion, then, an especially preferred embodiment of the invention provides a bispecific antibody in which the effector antigen is the human CD3 antigen. The bispecific antibody according to this embodiment of the invention may have a total of either two or three antibody variable domains.

[00132] According to further embodiments of the invention, other lymphoid cell- associated effector antigens bound by a bispecific antibody of the invention may be the human CD 16 antigen, the human NKG2D antigen, the human NKp46 antigen, the human CD2 antigen, the human CD28 antigen or the human CD25 antigen.

[00133] According to another embodiment of the invention, the human effector cell is a member of the human myeloid lineage. Advantageously, the effector cell may be a human monocyte, a human neutrophilic granulocyte or a human dendritic cell. Advantageously, such cells will have either a cytotoxic or an apoptotic effect on the target cell. Advantageous antigens within this embodiment which may be bound by a bispecific antibody of the invention may be the human CD64 antigen or the human CD89 antigen.

[00134] According to another embodiment of the invention, the target antigen is an antigen which is uniquely expressed on a target cell or effector cell in a disease condition, but which remains either non-expressed, expressed at a low level or non-accessible in a healthy condition. Examples of such target antigens which might be specifically bound by a bispecific antibody of the invention may advantageously be selected from EpCAM, CCR5, CD 19, HER-2 neu, HER-3, HER-4, EGFR, PSMA, CEA, MUC-1 (mucin), MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC7, phCG, Lewis-Y, CD20, CD33, CD30, ganglioside GD3, 9-0-Acetyl-GD3, GM2, Globo H, fucosyl GMl, Poly SA, GD2, Carboanhydrase IX (MN/CA IX), CD44v6, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), Wue-1, Plasma Cell Antigen, (membrane- bound) IgE, Melanoma Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan (MCSP), CCR8, TNF-alpha precursor, STEAP, mesothelin, A33 Antigen, Prostate Stem Cell Antigen (PSCA), Ly-6; desmoglein 4, E-cadherin neoepitope, Fetal Acetylcholine Receptor, CD25, CA19-9 marker, CA-125 marker and Muellerian Inhibitory Substance (MIS) Receptor type II, sTn (sialylated Tn antigen; TAG-72), FAP (fibroblast activation antigen), endosialin, EGFRvIII, LG, SAS and CD63.

[00135] According to a specific embodiment, the target antigen specifically bound by a bispecific antibody may be a cancer-related antigen, that is an antigen related to a malignant condition. Such an antigen is either expressed or accessible on a malignant cell, whereas the antigen is either not present, not significantly present, or is not accessible on a non-malignant cell. As such, a bispecific antibody according to this embodiment of the invention is a bispecific antibody which recruits the activity of a human immune effector cell against the malignant target cell bearing the target antigen, or rendering the target antigen accessible.

[00136] Gene Therapy: In a specific embodiment, nucleic acid sequences encoding a binding protein provided herein or another prophylactic or therapeutic agent provided herein are administered to treat, prevent, manage, or ameliorate a disorder or one or more symptoms thereof by way of gene therapy. Gene therapy refers to therapy performed by the administration to a subject of an expressed or expressible nucleic acid. In this embodiment, the nucleic acids produce their encoded antibody or prophylactic or therapeutic agent provided herein that mediates a prophylactic or therapeutic effect.

[00137] Any of the methods for gene therapy available in the art can be used in the methods provided herein. For general reviews of the methods of gene therapy, see Goldspiel et al. (1993) Clin. Pharmacy 12:488-505; Wu and Wu (1991) Biotherapy 3 :87-95; Tolstoshev (1993) Ann Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 32:573-596; Mulligan (1993) Science 260:926-932; Morgan and Anderson (1993) Ann Rev. Biochem. 62: 191-217; and May (1993) TIBTECH 11(5): 155-215. Methods commonly known in the art of recombinant DNA technology which can be used are described in Ausubel et al. (eds.), Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley &Sons, NY (1993); and Kriegler, Gene Transfer and Expression, A Laboratory Manual, Stockton Press, NY (1990). Detailed description of various methods of gene therapy are disclosed in US Patent Publication No. US20050042664.

[00138] Diagnostics : The disclosure herein also provides diagnostic applications including, but not limited to, diagnostic assay methods, diagnostic kits containing one or more binding proteins, and adaptation of the methods and kits for use in automated and/or semi-automated systems. The methods, kits, and adaptations provided may be employed in the detection, monitoring, and/or treatment of a disease or disorder in an individual. This is further elucidated below.

[00139] A. Method of Assay : The present disclosure also provides a method for determining the presence, amount or concentration of an analyte, or fragment thereof, in a test sample using at least one binding protein as described herein. Any suitable assay as is known in the art can be used in the method. Examples include, but are not limited to, immunoassays and/or methods employing mass spectrometry. Immunoassays provided by the present disclosure may include sandwich immunoassays, radioimmunoassay (RIA), enzyme immunoassay (EIA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), competitive-inhibition immunoassays, fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA), enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT), bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), and homogenous chemiluminescent assays, among others. A chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay, in particular one employing the ARCHITECT® automated analyzer (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, 111.), is an example of an immunoassay. Methods employing mass spectrometry are provided by the present disclosure and include, but are not limited to MALDI (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization) or by SELDI (surface-enhanced laser desorption/ ionization) .

[00140] Methods for collecting, handling, processing, and analyzing biological test samples using immunoassays and mass spectrometry would be well-known to one skilled in the art, are provided for in the practice of the present disclosure (US 2009-0311253 Al).

[00141] B. Kit : A kit for assaying a test sample for the presence, amount or concentration of an analyte, or fragment thereof, in a test sample is also provided. The kit comprises at least one component for assaying the test sample for the analyte, or fragment thereof, and instructions for assaying the test sample for the analyte, or fragment thereof. The at least one component for assaying the test sample for the analyte, or fragment thereof, can include a composition comprising a binding protein, as disclosed herein, and/or an anti- analyte binding protein (or a fragment, a variant, or a fragment of a variant thereof), which is optionally immobilized on a solid phase. Optionally, the kit may comprise a calibrator or control, which may comprise isolated or purified analyte. The kit can comprise at least one component for assaying the test sample for an analyte by immunoassay and/or mass spectrometry. The kit components, including the analyte, binding protein, and/or anti-analyte binding protein, or fragments thereof, may be optionally labeled using any art-known detectable label. The materials and methods for the creation provided for in the practice of the present disclosure would be known to one skilled in the art (US 2009-0311253 Al).

[00142] C. Adaptation of Kit and Method: The kit (or components thereof), as well as the method of determining the presence, amount or concentration of an analyte in a test sample by an assay, such as an immunoassay as described herein, can be adapted for use in a variety of automated and semi-automated systems (including those wherein the solid phase comprises a microparticle), as described, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,089,424 and 5,006,309, and as commercially marketed, for example, by Abbott Laboratories (Abbott Park, 111.) as ARCHITECT®. Other platforms available from Abbott Laboratories include, but are not limited to, AxSYM®, IMx® (see, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,294,404, PRISM®, EIA (bead), and Quantum™ II, as well as other platforms. Additionally, the assays, kits and kit components can be employed in other formats, for example, on electrochemical or other hand-held or point-of-care assay systems. The present disclosure is, for example, applicable to the commercial Abbott Point of Care (i-STAT®, Abbott Laboratories) electrochemical immunoassay system that performs sandwich immunoassays. Immunosensors and their methods of manufacture and operation in single -use test devices are described, for example in, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,063,081, 7,419,821, and 7,682,833; and US Publication Nos. 20040018577, 20060160164 and US 20090311253. It will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art that other suitable modifications and adaptations of the methods described herein are obvious and may be made using suitable equivalents without departing from the scope of the embodiments disclosed herein. Having now described certain embodiments in detail, the same will be more clearly understood by reference to the following examples, which are included for purposes of illustration only and are not intended to be limiting.

[00143] Although the foregoing invention has been described in some detail by way of illustration and example for purposes of clarity of understanding, it will be readily apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art in light of the teachings of this invention that certain changes and modifications may be made thereto without departing from the spirit or scope of the appended claims. The following examples are provided by way of illustration only and not by way of limitation. Those of skill in the art will readily recognize a variety of non-critical parameters that could be changed or modified to yield essentially similar results.

EXAMPLES

Example 1. Construction, expression, purification, and analysis of anti-IL17/IL-20 Fabs-in-tandem immunoglobulin (FIT-Ig)

[00144] To demonstrate the FIT-Ig technology, we have generated a group of anti-IL-

17/IL-20 FIT-Ig molecules: FITl-Ig, FIT2-Ig, and FIT3-Ig, all of which contains 3 different polypeptides, as shown in Figure 1, where antigen A is IL-17 and antigen B is IL-20. The DNA construct used to generate FIT-Ig capable of binding IL-17 and IL-20 is illustrated in FigurelB. Briefly, parental mAbs included two high affinity antibodies, anti-IL-17 (clone LY) (U.S. Patent No. 7,838,638) and anti-hIL-20 (clone 15D2) (U.S. Patent Application Publication No. US2014/0194599). To generate FIT-Ig construct #1, the VL-CL of LY was directly (FITl-Ig), or through a linker of 3 amino acids (FIT2-Ig) or 7 amino acids (FIT3-Ig) fused to the N-terminus of the 15D2 heavy chain (as shown in Table 1). The construct #2 is VH-CH1 of LY, and the 3 rd construct is VL-CL of 15D2. The 3 constructs for each FIT-Ig were co-transfected in 293 cells, resulting in the expression and secretion of FIT-Ig protein.

[00145] We also generated a group of anti-IL-17/IL-20 FIT-Ig molecules: FIT4-Ig,

FIT5-Ig, and FIT6-Ig, each of which contains 2 different polypeptides, as shown in Figure 2. The DNA constructs used to generate FIT-Ig capable of binding IL-17 and IL-20 are illustrated in Figure2B, where antigen A is IL-17 and antigen B is IL-20. Briefly, parental mAbs included two high affinity antibodies, anti-IL-17 (clone LY) and anti-hIL-20 (clone 15D2). To generate FIT-Ig construct #1, the VL-CL of LY was directly (FIT4-Ig), or through a linker of 3 amino acids (FIT5-Ig) or 7 amino acids (FIT6-Ig) fused to the N-terminus of the 15D2 heavy chain (as shown in Table 1). To generate FIT-Ig construct #4, the VH-CH1 of LY was directly (FIT4-Ig), or through a linker of 3 amino acids (FIT5-Ig) or 7 amino acids (FIT6-Ig) fused to the N-terminus of the 15D2 light chain. The 2 DNA constructs (construct #1 and #4) for each FIT-Ig were co-transfected in 293 cells, resulting in the expression and secretion of FIT-Ig protein. The detailed procedures of the PCR cloning are described below.

Example 1.1: Molecular cloning of anti-IL-17/IL-20 FIT-Ig molecules:

[00146] For construct #1 cloning, LY light chain was amplified by PCR using forward primers annealing on light chain signal sequence and reverse primers annealing on C- terminus of the light chain. 15D2 heavy chain was amplified by PCR using forward primers annealing on N-terminus of 15D2 VH and reverse primers annealing on C-terminus of CH. These 2 PCR fragments were gel purified and combined by overlapping PCR using signal peptide and CH primer pair. The combined PCR product was cloned into a 293 expression vector, which already contained the human Fc sequence.

Table 1. Anti-IL-17/IL-20 FIT-Ig molecules and DNA constructs. molecule #1 #2 #3 #4

FITl-Ig VLi7-CL-VH 20 - No linker VH 17 - VL 20 -CL

CHl-Fc CH1

FIT2-Ig VLi 7 -CL-linker- GSG VH 17 - VL 20 -CL

VH 20 -CH1-Fc CH1

FIT3-Ig VLi 7 -CL-linker- GGGGSGS VH 17 - VL 20 -CL

VH 20 -CH1-Fc CH1

FIT4-Ig VLi7-CL-VH 20 - No linker VH17-CHI-VL20- CHl-Fc CL

FIT5-Ig VLi 7 -CL-linker- GSG VHi 7 -CHl-linker- VH 20 -CH1-Fc VL 20 -CL

FIT6-Ig VLi 7 -CL-linker- GGGGSGS VHi 7 -CHl-linker- VH 20 -CH1-Fc VL 20 -CL

[00147] For construct #2 cloning, LY VH-CH1 was amplified by PCR using forward primers annealing on heavy chain signal peptide and reverse primer annealing on C-terminal of CHI . The PCR product was gel purified before cloning into 293 expression vector.

[00148] For construct #3, 15D2 light chain was amplified by PCR using forward primer annealing on N-terminal of light chain signal peptide and reverse primer annealing on the end of CL. The PCR product was gel purified before cloning into 293 expression vector.

[00149] For construct #4 cloning, LY VH-CH1 was amplified by PCR using forward primer annealing on N-terminus of heavy chain signal peptide and reverse primer annealing on the end of CHI . 15D2 VL was amplified using primers annealing on the end of 15D2 VL. Both PCR products were gel purified and combined by overlap PCR. The combined PCR product was gel purified and cloned in 293 expression vector. Table 2 shows sequences of PCR primers used for above molecular cloning.

Table 2. PCR primers used for molecular construction of anti-IL-17/anti-CD20 FIT-Igs

PI : 5 ' C AGGTGCAGCTGGTGC AGAGCGGCGCCGAAG 3 ' SEQ ID NO. 1

P2: SEQ ID NO. 2

5'GCTGGACCTGAGAGCCTGAACCGCCACCACCACACTCTCCCCTGT

TGAAGC 3 '

P3: 5' SEQ ID NO. 3

GGTGGTGGCGGTTCAGGCTCTCAGGTCCAGCTTGTGCAATCTGGCG CCGAGG3 ' P4: 5 ' GTCTGCGGCCGCTCATTTACCCGGAGACAGGGAGAG 3 ' SEQ ID NO. 4

P5 : 5 ' TAAGCGTACGGTGGCTGCACCATCTGTCTTC 3 ' SEQ ID NO. 5

P6: 5 ' SEQ ID NO. 6

CGGCGCCAGATTGCACAAGCTGGACCTGGCCTGAACCACACTCTCC CCTGTTGAAGCTC3 '

P7: 5 ' SEQ ID NO. 7

GCTGGACCTGAGAGCCTGAACCGCCACCACCACACTCTCCCCTGTT GAAGC3 '

P8: 5 ' SEQ ID NO. 8

GGTGGTGGCGGTTCAGGCTCTCAGGTCCAGCTTGTGCAATCTGGCG CCGAGG3 '

P9: 5 ' SEQ ID NO. 9

TACCTCGGCGCCAGATTGCACAAGCTGGACCTGACACTCTCCCCTG TTGAAGCTCTTTG3 '

P10: 5 ' SEQ ID NO.

CATGACACCTTAACAGAGGCCCCAGGTCGTTTTACCTCGGCGCCAG 10

ATTGCACAAG3 '

Pl l : 5 ' CAATAAGCTTTACATGACACCTTAACAGAGGCCCCAG3 ' SEQ ID NO.

1 1

P12: 5 ' TCGAGCGGCCGCTCAACAAGATTTGGGCTCAACTTTCTTG3 ' SEQ ID NO.

12

P13 : SEQ ID NO.

5'GCTGCTGCTGTGGTTCCCCGGCTCGCGATGCGCTATACAGTTGAC 13

ACAGTC3 '

P14: 5 ' SEQ ID NO.

GAAGATGAAGACAGATGGTGCAGCCACCGTACGCTTGATCTCTACC 14

TTTGTTC

3 '

[00150] The final sequences of hIL-17/hIL-20 FITl-Ig, FIT2-Ig, FIT3-Ig, FIT4-Ig,

FIT5-Ig, and FIT6-Ig are listed in Table 3.

Table 3. Amino acid sequences of anti-IL-17/IL-20 FIT-Ig molecules

Protein Sequence

Sequence

Protein region Identifier 12345678 9012345678 90

DIVMTQTPLSLSVTPGQPAS ISCRSSRSLVHSRGNTY

Anti-IL-17/IL-20 LHWYLQKPGQSPQLLIYKVSNRFIGVPDRFSGSGSGT FITl-Ig DFTLKI SRVEAEDVGVYYCSQSTHLPFTFGQGTKLEI

POLYPEPTIDE #1 SEQ ID KRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPRE

AKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLT NO.:15

LSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGECQVQ LVQSGAEVKRPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTNDI IHWVRQA PGQRLEWMGWINAGYGNTQYSQNFQDRVSITRDTSAS TAYMELISLRSEDTAVYYCAREPLWFGESSPHDYYGM DVWGQGTTVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAA LGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSG Protein Sequence

Sequence

Protein region Identifier 12345678 9012345678 90

LYSLSSWTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKV EPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLM ISRTPEVTCVWDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKT KPREEQYNSTYRWSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNK ALPAPIEKTI SKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMTKNQV SLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDS DGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYT QKSLSLSPGK*

LY VL SEQ ID DIVMTQTPLSLSVTPGQPAS ISCRSSRSLVHSRGNTY NO.:16 LHWYLQKPGQSPQLLIYKVSNRFIGVPDRFSGSGSGT

DFTLKI SRVEAEDVGVYYCSQSTHLPFTFGQGTKLEI K

CL SEQ ID RTVAAPSVFI FPPSDEQLKSGTASWCLLNNFYPREA NO.:17 KVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTL

SKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC

Linker None

15D2 VH SEQ ID QVQLVQSGAEVKRPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTNDIIHWV

NO.:18 RQAPGQRLEWMGWINAGYGNTQYSQNFQDRVSITRDT

SASTAYMELI SLRSEDTAVYYCAREPLWFGESSPHDY YGMDVWGQGTTVTVSS

CHI SEQ ID ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPV NO.:19 TVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSWTVPSS

SLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC

Fc SEQ ID DKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTP NO.:20 EVTCWVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREE

QYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAP IEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMTKNQVSLTCL VKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFF LYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLS LSPGK*

QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGSSVKVSCKASGYSFTDYHIHWV RQAPGQGLEWMGVINPMYGTTDYNQRFKGRVTITADE

Anti-IL-17/IL-20 STSTAYMELSSLRSEDTAVYYCARYDYFTGTGVYWGQ FITl-Ig SEQ ID GTLVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLV

POLYPEPTIDE #2 NO.:21 KDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLS

SVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC

LY VH SEQ ID QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGSSVKVSCKASGYSFTDYHIHWV NO.:22 RQAPGQGLEWMGVINPMYGTTDYNQRFKGRVTITADE

STSTAYMELSSLRSEDTAVYYCARYDYFTGTGVYWGQ GTLVTVSS

CHI SEQ ID ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPV NO.:19 TVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSWTVPSS

SLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC

SEQ ID AIQLTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQGISSALAWYQ NO.:23 QKPGKAPKLLIYDASSLESGVPSRFSGSGSGTDFTLT

Anti-IL-17/IL-20 ISSLQPEDFATYYCQQFNSYPLTFGGGTKVEIKRTVA FITl-Ig APSVFI FPPSDEQLKSGTASWCLLNNFYPREAKVQW

POLYPEPTIDE #3 KVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKAD

YEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC*

15D2 VL SEQ ID AIQLTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQGISSALAWYQ Protein Sequence

Sequence

Protein region Identifier 12345678901234567890

NO.:24 QKPGKAPKLLIYDASSLESGVPSRFSGSGSGTDFTLT

ISSLQPEDFATYYCQQFNSYPLTFGGGTKVEIK

CL SEQ ID RTVAAPSVFI FPPSDEQLKSGTASWCLLNNFYPREA NO.:17 KVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTL

SKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC*

Anti-IL-17/IL-20 SEQ ID DIVMTQTPLSLSVTPGQPAS ISCRSSRSLVHSRGNTY FIT2-Ig NO.:25 LHWYLQKPGQSPQLLIYKVSNRFIGVPDRFSGSGSGT

POLYPEPTIDE #1 DFTLKI SRVEAEDVGVYYCSQSTHLPFTFGQGTKLEI

KRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPRE AKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLT LSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGECGSG QVQLVQSGAEVKRPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTNDIIHWV RQAPGQRLEWMGWINAGYGNTQYSQNFQDRVSITRDT SASTAYMELI SLRSEDTAVYYCAREPLWFGESSPHDY YGMDVWGQGTTVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGG TAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQ SSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVD KKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKD TLMISRTPEVTCWVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHN AKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKV SNKALPAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMTK NQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPV LDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHN HYTQKSLSLSPGK*

LY VL SEQ ID DIVMTQTPLSLSVTPGQPAS ISCRSSRSLVHSRGNTY NO.:16 LHWYLQKPGQSPQLLIYKVSNRFIGVPDRFSGSGSGT

DFTLKI SRVEAEDVGVYYCSQSTHLPFTFGQGTKLEI K

CL SEQ ID RTVAAPSVFI FPPSDEQLKSGTASWCLLNNFYPREA NO.:17 KVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTL

SKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC

Linker SEQ ID GSG

NO.:26

15D2 VH SEQ ID QVQLVQSGAEVKRPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTNDIIHWV

NO.:18 RQAPGQRLEWMGWINAGYGNTQYSQNFQDRVSITRDT

SASTAYMELI SLRSEDTAVYYCAREPLWFGESSPHDY YGMDVWGQGTTVTVSS

CHI SEQ ID ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPV NO.:19 TVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSWTVPSS

SLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC

Fc SEQ ID DKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTP NO.:20 EVTCWVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREE

QYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAP IEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMTKNQVSLTCL VKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFF LYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLS LSPGK*

Anti-IL-17/IL-20 QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGSSVKVSCKASGYSFTDYHIHWV FIT2-Ig RQAPGQGLEWMGVINPMYGTTDYNQRFKGRVTITADE

POLYPEPTIDE #2 STSTAYMELSSLRSEDTAVYYCARYDYFTGTGVYWGQ Protein Sequence

Sequence

Protein region Identifier 12345678901234567890

SEQ ID GTLVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLV NO.:21 KDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLS

SVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC

LY VH SEQ ID QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGSSVKVSCKASGYSFTDYHIHWV NO.:22 RQAPGQGLEWMGVINPMYGTTDYNQRFKGRVTITADE

STSTAYMELSSLRSEDTAVYYCARYDYFTGTGVYWGQ GTLVTVSS

CHI SEQ ID ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPV NO.:19 TVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSWTVPSS

SLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC

Anti-IL-17/IL-20 SEQ ID AIQLTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQGISSALAWYQ FIT2-Ig NO.:23 QKPGKAPKLLIYDASSLESGVPSRFSGSGSGTDFTLT

POLYPEPTIDE #3 ISSLQPEDFATYYCQQFNSYPLTFGGGTKVEIKRTVA

APSVFI FPPSDEQLKSGTASWCLLNNFYPREAKVQW KVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKAD YEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC*

15D2 VL SEQ ID AIQLTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQGISSALAWYQ

NO.:24 QKPGKAPKLLIYDASSLESGVPSRFSGSGSGTDFTLT

ISSLQPEDFATYYCQQFNSYPLTFGGGTKVEIK

CL SEQ ID RTVAAPSVFI FPPSDEQLKSGTASWCLLNNFYPREA NO.:17 KVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTL

SKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC*

Anti-IL-17/IL-20 SEQ ID DIVMTQTPLSLSVTPGQPAS ISCRSSRSLVHSRGNTY FIT3-Ig NO.:27 LHWYLQKPGQSPQLLIYKVSNRFIGVPDRFSGSGSGT

POLYPEPTIDE #1 DFTLKI SRVEAEDVGVYYCSQSTHLPFTFGQGTKLEI

KRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPRE AKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLT LSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGECGGG GSGSQVQLVQSGAEVKRPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTNDI IHWVRQAPGQRLEWMGWINAGYGNTQYSQNFQDRVSI TRDTSASTAYMELI SLRSEDTAVYYCAREPLWFGESS PHDYYGMDVWGQGTTVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKS TSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFP AVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSN TKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPP KPKDTLMI SRTPEVTCWVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGV EVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEY KCKVSNKALPAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSRE EMTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKT TPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHE ALHNHYTQKSLSLSPGK*

LY VL SEQ ID DIVMTQTPLSLSVTPGQPAS ISCRSSRSLVHSRGNTY NO.:16 LHWYLQKPGQSPQLLIYKVSNRFIGVPDRFSGSGSGT

DFTLKI SRVEAEDVGVYYCSQSTHLPFTFGQGTKLEI K

CL SEQ ID RTVAAPSVFI FPPSDEQLKSGTASWCLLNNFYPREA NO.:17 KVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTL

SKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC

Linker SEQ ID GGGGSGS

NO.:28 Protein Sequence

Sequence

Protein region Identifier 12345678901234567890

15D2 VH SEQ ID QVQLVQSGAEVKRPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTNDIIHWV

NO.:18 RQAPGQRLEWMGWINAGYGNTQYSQNFQDRVSITRDT

SASTAYMELI SLRSEDTAVYYCAREPLWFGESSPHDY YGMDVWGQGTTVTVSS

CHI SEQ ID ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPV NO.:19 TVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSWTVPSS

SLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC

Fc SEQ ID DKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTP NO.:20 EVTCWVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREE

QYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAP IEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMTKNQVSLTCL VKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFF LYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLS LSPGK*

Anti-IL-17/IL-20 SEQ ID QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGSSVKVSCKASGYSFTDYHIHWV FIT3-Ig NO.:21 RQAPGQGLEWMGVINPMYGTTDYNQRFKGRVTITADE

POLYPEPTIDE STSTAYMELSSLRSEDTAVYYCARYDYFTGTGVYWGQ

#2 GTLVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLV

KDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLS SVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC

LY VH SEQ ID QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGSSVKVSCKASGYSFTDYHIHWV NO.:22 RQAPGQGLEWMGVINPMYGTTDYNQRFKGRVTITADE

STSTAYMELSSLRSEDTAVYYCARYDYFTGTGVYWGQ GTLVTVSS

CHI SEQ ID ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPV NO.:19 TVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSWTVPSS

SLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC

Anti-IL-17/IL-20 SEQ ID AIQLTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQGISSALAWYQ FIT3-Ig NO.:23 QKPGKAPKLLIYDASSLESGVPSRFSGSGSGTDFTLT

POLYPEPTIDE ISSLQPEDFATYYCQQFNSYPLTFGGGTKVEIKRTVA

#3 APSVFI FPPSDEQLKSGTASWCLLNNFYPREAKVQW

KVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKAD YEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC*

15D2 VL SEQ ID AIQLTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQGISSALAWYQ

NO.:24 QKPGKAPKLLIYDASSLESGVPSRFSGSGSGTDFTLT

ISSLQPEDFATYYCQQFNSYPLTFGGGTKVEIK

CL SEQ ID RTVAAPSVFI FPPSDEQLKSGTASWCLLNNFYPREA NO.:17 KVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTL

SKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC*

Anti-IL-17/IL-20 FIT4 SEQ ID DIVMTQTPLSLSVTPGQPAS ISCRSSRSLVHSRGNTY -Ig POLYPEPTIDE # NO.:15 LHWYLQKPGQSPQLLIYKVSNRFIGVPDRFSGSGSGT

1 DFTLKI SRVEAEDVGVYYCSQSTHLPFTFGQGTKLEI

KRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPRE AKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLT LSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGECQVQ LVQSGAEVKRPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTNDI IHWVRQA PGQRLEWMGWINAGYGNTQYSQNFQDRVSITRDTSAS TAYMELISLRSEDTAVYYCAREPLWFGESSPHDYYGM DVWGQGTTVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAA LGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSG Protein Sequence

Sequence

Protein region Identifier 12345678901234567890

LYSLSSWTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKV EPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLM ISRTPEVTCVWDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKT KPREEQYNSTYRWSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNK ALPAPIEKTI SKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMTKNQV SLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDS DGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYT QKSLSLSPGK*

LY VL SEQ ID DIVMTQTPLSLSVTPGQPAS ISCRSSRSLVHSRGNTY NO.:16 LHWYLQKPGQSPQLLIYKVSNRFIGVPDRFSGSGSGT

DFTLKI SRVEAEDVGVYYCSQSTHLPFTFGQGTKLEI K

CL SEQ ID RTVAAPSVFI FPPSDEQLKSGTASWCLLNNFYPREA NO.:17 KVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTL

SKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC

Linker None

15D2 VH SEQ ID QVQLVQSGAEVKRPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTNDIIHWV

NO.:18 RQAPGQRLEWMGWINAGYGNTQYSQNFQDRVSITRDT

SASTAYMELI SLRSEDTAVYYCAREPLWFGESSPHDY YGMDVWGQGTTVTVSS

CHI SEQ ID ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPV NO.:19 TVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSWTVPSS

SLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC

Fc SEQ ID DKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTP NO.:20 EVTCWVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREE

QYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAP IEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMTKNQVSLTCL VKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFF LYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLS LSPGK*

Anti-IL-17/IL-20 SEQ ID QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGSSVKVSCKASGYSFTDYHIHWV FIT4-Ig NO.:29 RQAPGQGLEWMGVINPMYGTTDYNQRFKGRVTITADE POLYPEPTIDE #4 STSTAYMELSSLRSEDTAVYYCARYDYFTGTGVYWGQ

GTLVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLV KDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLS SVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC AIQLTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQGISSALAWYQ QKPGKAPKLLIYDASSLESGVPSRFSGSGSGTDFTLT ISSLQPEDFATYYCQQFNSYPLTFGGGTKVEIKRTVA APSVFI FPPSDEQLKSGTASWCLLNNFYPREAKVQW KVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKAD YEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC*

LY VH SEQ ID QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGSSVKVSCKASGYSFTDYHIHWV NO.:22 RQAPGQGLEWMGVINPMYGTTDYNQRFKGRVTITADE

STSTAYMELSSLRSEDTAVYYCARYDYFTGTGVYWGQ GTLVTVSS

CHI SEQ ID ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPV NO.:19 TVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSWTVPSS

SLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC

Linker none Protein Sequence

Sequence

Protein region Identifier 12345678901234567890

15D2 VL SEQ ID AIQLTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQGISSALAWYQ

NO.:24 QKPGKAPKLLIYDASSLESGVPSRFSGSGSGTDFTLT

ISSLQPEDFATYYCQQFNSYPLTFGGGTKVEIK

CL SEQ ID RTVAAPSVFI FPPSDEQLKSGTASWCLLNNFYPREA NO.:17 KVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTL

SKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC*

Anti-IL-17/IL-20 FIT5 SEQ ID DIVMTQTPLSLSVTPGQPAS ISCRSSRSLVHSRGNTY -Ig POLYPEPTIDE # NO.:25 LHWYLQKPGQSPQLLIYKVSNRFIGVPDRFSGSGSGT

1 DFTLKI SRVEAEDVGVYYCSQSTHLPFTFGQGTKLEI

KRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPRE AKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLT LSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGECGSG QVQLVQSGAEVKRPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTNDIIHWV RQAPGQRLEWMGWINAGYGNTQYSQNFQDRVSITRDT SASTAYMELI SLRSEDTAVYYCAREPLWFGESSPHDY YGMDVWGQGTTVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGG TAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQ SSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVD KKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKD TLMISRTPEVTCWVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHN AKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKV SNKALPAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMTK NQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPV LDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHN HYTQKSLSLSPGK*

LY VL SEQ ID DIVMTQTPLSLSVTPGQPAS ISCRSSRSLVHSRGNTY NO.:16 LHWYLQKPGQSPQLLIYKVSNRFIGVPDRFSGSGSGT

DFTLKI SRVEAEDVGVYYCSQSTHLPFTFGQGTKLEI K

CL SEQ ID RTVAAPSVFI FPPSDEQLKSGTASWCLLNNFYPREA NO.:17 KVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTL

SKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC

Linker SEQ ID GSG

NO.:26

15D2 VH SEQ ID QVQLVQSGAEVKRPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTNDIIHWV

NO.:18 RQAPGQRLEWMGWINAGYGNTQYSQNFQDRVSITRDT

SASTAYMELI SLRSEDTAVYYCAREPLWFGESSPHDY YGMDVWGQGTTVTVSS

CHI SEQ ID ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPV NO.:19 TVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSWTVPSS

SLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC

Fc SEQ ID DKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTP NO.:20 EVTCWVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREE

QYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAP IEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMTKNQVSLTCL VKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFF LYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLS LSPGK*

Anti-IL-17/IL-20 SEQ ID QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGSSVKVSCKASGYSFTDYHIHWV Protein Sequence

Sequence

Protein region Identifier 12345678 9012345678 90

FIT5-Ig NO.:30 RQAPGQGLEWMGVINPMYGTTDYNQRFKGRVTITADE POLYPEPTIDE #4 STSTAYMELSSLRSEDTAVYYCARYDYFTGTGVYWGQ

GTLVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLV KDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLS SVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC GSGAIQLTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQGISSALA WYQQKPGKAPKLLIYDASSLESGVPSRFSGSGSGTDF TLTI SSLQPEDFATYYCQQFNSYPLTFGGGTKVEIKR TVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAK VQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLS KADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC*

LY VH SEQ ID QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGSSVKVSCKASGYSFTDYHIHWV NO.:22 RQAPGQGLEWMGVINPMYGTTDYNQRFKGRVTITADE

STSTAYMELSSLRSEDTAVYYCARYDYFTGTGVYWGQ GTLVTVSS

CHI SEQ ID ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPV NO.:19 TVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSWTVPSS

SLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC

Linker SEQ ID GSG

NO.:26

15D2 VL SEQ ID AIQLTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQGISSALAWYQ

NO.:24 QKPGKAPKLLIYDASSLESGVPSRFSGSGSGTDFTLT

ISSLQPEDFATYYCQQFNSYPLTFGGGTKVEIK

CL SEQ ID RTVAAPSVFI FPPSDEQLKSGTASWCLLNNFYPREA NO.:17 KVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTL

SKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC*

Anti-IL-17/IL-20 FIT6 SEQ ID DIVMTQTPLSLSVTPGQPAS ISCRSSRSLVHSRGNTY -Ig POLYPEPTIDE # NO.:27 LHWYLQKPGQSPQLLIYKVSNRFIGVPDRFSGSGSGT

1 DFTLKI SRVEAEDVGVYYCSQSTHLPFTFGQGTKLEI

KRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPRE AKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLT LSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGECGGG GSGSQVQLVQSGAEVKRPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTNDI IHWVRQAPGQRLEWMGWINAGYGNTQYSQNFQDRVSI TRDTSASTAYMELI SLRSEDTAVYYCAREPLWFGESS PHDYYGMDVWGQGTTVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKS TSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFP AVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSN TKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPP KPKDTLMI SRTPEVTCWVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGV EVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEY KCKVSNKALPAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSRE EMTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKT TPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHE ALHNHYTQKSLSLSPGK*

LY VL SEQ ID DIVMTQTPLSLSVTPGQPAS ISCRSSRSLVHSRGNTY NO.:16 LHWYLQKPGQSPQLLIYKVSNRFIGVPDRFSGSGSGT

DFTLKI SRVEAEDVGVYYCSQSTHLPFTFGQGTKLEI K Protein Sequence

Sequence

Protein region Identifier 12345678 9012345678 90

CL SEQ ID RTVAAPSVFI PPSDEQLKSGTASWCLLNNFYPREA NO.:17 KVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTL

SKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC

Linker GGGGSGS

15D2 VH SEQ ID QVQLVQSGAEVKRPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTNDIIHWV

NO.:18 RQAPGQRLEWMGWINAGYGNTQYSQNFQDRVSITRDT

SASTAYMELI SLRSEDTAVYYCAREPLWFGESSPHDY YGMDVWGQGTTVTVSS

CHI SEQ ID ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPV NO.:19 TVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSWTVPSS

SLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC

Fc SEQ ID DKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTP NO.:20 EVTCWVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREE

QYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAP IEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMTKNQVSLTCL VKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFF LYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLS LSPGK*

Anti-IL-17/IL-20 SEQ ID QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGSSVKVSCKASGYSFTDYHIHWV FIT6-Ig NO.:31 RQAPGQGLEWMGVINPMYGTTDYNQRFKGRVTITADE POLYPEPTIDE #4 STSTAYMELSSLRSEDTAVYYCARYDYFTGTGVYWGQ

GTLVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLV KDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLS SVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC GGGGSGSAIQLTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQGIS SALAWYQQKPGKAPKLLIYDASSLESGVPSRFSGSGS GTDFTLTI SSLQPEDFATYYCQQFNSYPLTFGGGTKV EIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYP REAKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSST LTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC*

LY VH SEQ ID QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGSSVKVSCKASGYSFTDYHIHWV NO.:22 RQAPGQGLEWMGVINPMYGTTDYNQRFKGRVTITADE

STSTAYMELSSLRSEDTAVYYCARYDYFTGTGVYWGQ GTLVTVSS

CHI SEQ ID ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPV NO.:19 TVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSWTVPSS

SLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC

Linker SEQ ID GGGGSGS

NO.:28

15D2 VL SEQ ID AIQLTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQGISSALAWYQ

NO.:24 QKPGKAPKLLIYDASSLESGVPSRFSGSGSGTDFTLT

ISSLQPEDFATYYCQQFNSYPLTFGGGTKVEIK

CL SEQ ID RTVAAPSVFI FPPSDEQLKSGTASWCLLNNFYPREA NO.:17 KVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTL

SKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC* Example 1.2: Expression, purification, and analysis of anti-IL-17/IL-20 FIT-Ig proteins:

[00151] All DNA constructs of each FIT-Ig were subcloned into pBOS based vectors, and sequenced to ensure accuracy. Construct #1, #2, and #3 of each FIT-Ig (1, 2, and 3), or construct #1 and #4 of each FIT-Ig (4, 5, and 6) were transiently co-expressed using Polyethyleneimine (PEI) in 293E cells. Briefly, DNA in FreeStyle™ 293 Expression Medium was mixed with the PEI with the final concentration of DNA to PEI ratio of 1 :2, incubated for 15min (no more than 20min) at room temperature, and then added to the 293E cells (1.0-1.2 x 10 6 /ml, cell viability > 95%) at 6(^g DNA/120ml culture. After 6-24 hours culture in shaker, peptone was added to the transfected cells at a final concentration of 5%, with shaking at 125 rpm/min., at 37°C, 8% C0 2 . On the 6th - 7th day, supernatant was harvested by centrifugation and filtration, and FIT-Ig protein was purified using protein A chromatography (Pierce, Rockford, IL) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and their concentrations determined by A280 and BCA (Pierce, Rockford, IL).

[00152] For the expression of FITl-Ig, FIT2-Ig, and FIT3-Ig, different DNA molar ratios of the 3 constructs were used, including construct #1 :#2:#3 = 1 : 1 : 1, construct #1 :#2:#3 = 1 : 1.5:1.5, and construct #1 :#2:#3 = 1 :3:3 (Table 4). FIT-Ig proteins were purified by protein A chromatography. The purification yield (7-16 mg/L) was consistent with hlgG quantification of the expression medium for each protein. The composition and purity of the purified FIT-Igs were analyzed by SDS-PAGE in both reduced and non-reduced conditions. In non-reduced conditions, FIT-Ig migrated as a single band of approximately 250 KDa. In reducing conditions, each of the FIT-Ig proteins yielded two bands, one higher MW band is construct #1 of approximately 75 KDa, and one lower MW band corresponds to both construct#2 and #3 overlapped at approximately 25 KDa. The SDS-PAGE showed that each FIT-Ig is expressed as a single species, and the 3 polypeptide chains are efficiently paired to form an IgG-like molecule. The sizes of the chains as well as the full-length protein of FIT- Ig molecules are consistent with their calculated molecular mass based on amino acid sequences.

Table 4. Expression and SEC analysis of hIL-17/IL-20 FIT-Ig proteins FITl-Ig 1 : 1 1 15.16 92.07

1 :1.5 1.5 14.73 95.49

1 :3 3 9.87 97.92

FIT2-Ig 1 : 1 1 15.59 90.92

1 :1.5 1.5 12.61 94.73

1 :3 3 7.03 97.29

FIT3-Ig 1 : 1 1 15.59 91.47

1 :1.5 1.5 15.16 94.08

1 :3 3 7.75 97.57

[00153] To further study the physical properties of FIT-Ig in solution, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) was used to analyze each protein. For SEC analysis of the FIT-Ig, purified FIT-Ig, in PBS, was applied on a TSKgel SuperSW3000, 300 x 4.6 mm column (TOSOH). An HPLC instrument, Model U3000 (DIONEX) was used for SEC. All proteins were determined using UV detection at 280 nm and 214 nm. The elution was isocratic at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. All 3 FIT-Ig proteins exhibited a single major peak, demonstrating physical homogeneity as monomeric proteins (Table 4). The ratio of construct #1 :#2:#3 = 1 :3:3 showed a better monomeric profile by SEC for all 3 FIT-Ig proteins (Table 4).

[00154] Table 4 also shows that the expression levels of all the FIT-Ig proteins are comparable to that of the regular mAbs, indicating that the FIT-Ig can be expressed efficiently in mammalian cells. For the expression of FIT4-Ig, FIT5-Ig, and FIT6-Ig, the DNA ration of construct # 1 :#4 = 1 : 1, and the expression level were in the range of 1 - 10 mg/L, and the % Peak monomeric fraction as determined by SEC was in the range of 58-76%. Based on this particular mAb combination (LY and 15D2), the 3-polypepide FIT-Ig constructs (FITl-Ig, FIT2-Ig, and FIT3-Ig) showed better expression profile than that of the 2-polypeptide FIT-Ig constructs (FIT4-Ig, FIT5-Ig, and FIT6-Ig), therefore FITl-Ig, FIT2-Ig, and FIT3-Ig were further analyzed for functional properties

Example 1.3 Determination of antigen binding affinity of anti-IL-17/IL-20 FIT-Igs

[00155] The kinetics of FIT-Ig binding to rhIL-17 and rhIL-20 was determined by surface plasmon resonance (Table 5) with a Biacore XI 00 instrument (Biacore AB, Uppsala, Sweden) using HBS-EP (10 mM HEPES, pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl, 3 mM EDTA, and 0.005% surfactant P20) at 25 °C. Briefly, goat anti-human IgG Fey fragment specific polyclonal antibody (Pierce Biotechnology Inc, Rockford, IL) was directly immobilized across a CM5 research grade biosensor chip using a standard amine coupling kit according to manufacturer's instructions. Purified FIT-Ig samples were diluted in HEPES-buffered saline for capture across goat anti-human IgG Fc specific reaction surfaces and injected over reaction matrices at a flow rate of 5 μΐ/min. The association and dissociation rate constants, kon (M-ls-1) and koff (s-1) were determined under a continuous flow rate of 30 μΕ/ηιίη. Rate constants were derived by making kinetic binding measurements at ten different antigen concentrations ranging from 1.25 to 1000 nM. The equilibrium dissociation constant (M) of the reaction between FIT-Ig and the target proteins was then calculated from the kinetic rate constants by the following formula: KD = koff/kon. Aliquots of antigen samples were also simultaneously injected over a blank reference and reaction CM surface to record and subtract any nonspecific binding background to eliminate the majority of the refractive index change and injection noise. Surfaces were regenerated with two subsequent 25 ml injections of 10 mM Glycine (pH 1.5) at a flow rate of 10 μΕ/ηιίη. The anti-Fc antibody immobilized surfaces were completely regenerated and retained their full capture capacity over twelve cycles.

Table 5. Functional characterizations of anti-IL-17/IL-20 FIT-Ig molecules

[00156] The Biacore analysis indicated the overall binding parameters of the three

FIT-Igs to hIL-17 and hIL-20 were similar, with the affinities of the FIT-Igs being very close to that of the parental mAb LY and 15D2, and there was no lose of binding affinities for either antigen binding domains (Table 5).

[00157] In addition, tetravalent dual- specific antigen binding of FIT-Ig was also analyzed by Biacore. FITl-Ig was first captured via a goat anti-human Fc antibody on the Biacore sensor chip, and the first antigen was injected and a binding signal observed. As the FITl-Ig was saturated by the first antigen, the second antigen was then injected and the second signal observed. This was done either by first injecting IL-17 then IL-20 or by first injecting IL-20 followed by IL-17 for FIT2-Ig (Figure 3). In either sequence, a dual-binding activity was detected, and both antigen binding was saturated at 25-30 RU. Similar results were obtained for FIT2-Ig and FIT3-Ig. Thus each FIT-Ig was able to bind both antigens simultaneously as a dual-specific tetravalent molecule.

[00158] The expression profile and dual-binding properties of FIT-Ig clearly demonstrated that, within the FIT-Ig molecule, both VL-CL paired correctly with their corresponding VH-CH1 to form 2 functional binding domains, and expressed as a single monomeric, tetravalent, and bispecific full length FIT-Ig protein. This is in contrast to the multivalent antibody type of molecules (Miller and Presta, US Patent 8722859), which displayed tetravalent but mono-specific binding activities to one target antigen.

Example 1.4 Determination of biological activity of anti-IL-17/IL-20 FIT-Ig

[00159] The biological activity of FIT-Ig to neutralize IL-17 function was measured using GROa bioassay. Briefly, Hs27 cells were seeded at 10000 cells/5 ΟμίΛνεΙΙ into 96 well plates. FIT-Ig or anti-IL-17 control antibody (25 μί) were added in duplicate wells, with starting concentration at 2.5 nM followed by 1 :2 serial dilutions until 5 pM. IL-17A (25 μί) was then added to each well. The final concentration of IL-17A was 0.3 nM. Cells were incubated at 37°C for 17h before cell culture supernatant were collected. Concentrations of GRO-a in cell culture supernatants were measured by human CACL1/GRO alpha Quantikine kit according to the manufacturer's protocol (R&D systems).

[00160] The biological activity of FIT-Ig to neutralize IL-20 function was measured using IL-20R + BAF3 cell proliferation assay. Briefly, 25μΙ ^ of recombinant human IL-20 at 0.8 nM was added to each well of 96-well plates (the final concentration of IL-20 is 0.2 nM). Anti-IL20 antibody or FIT-Ig or other control antibody were diluted to 400 nM (working concentration was 100 nM) followed by 5-fold serial dilutions and were added to 96-well assay plates (25μΙ, per well). BaF3 cells stably transfected with IL-20 receptor were then added to each well at concentration of 10000 cell/well in volume of 50 μΐ ^ RPMI 1640 plus 10% FBS, Hygromycin B at the concentration of 800μg/ml, G418 at the concentration of 800μg/ml. After 48-hr incubation, ΙΟΟμί CellTiter-Glo Luminescent buffer were added to each well. Contents were mixed for 2 minutes on an orbital shaker to induce cell lysis and plates were incubated at room temperature for 10 minutes to stabilize luminescent signal. Luminescence was recorded by SpectraMax M5.

[00161] As shown in Table 5, all FIT-Igs were able to neutralize both hIL-20 and hlL-

17, with affinities similar to that of the paternal antibodies. Based on functional analysis using both Biacore and cell-based neutralization assays, it appears that all 3 FIT-Igs fully retain the activities of the parental mAbs. There was no significant functional differences among the three FIT-Igs, indicating that the linker was optional, and that FIT-Ig construct provided sufficient flexibility and special dimension to allow dual binding in the absence of a peptide spacer between the 2 Fab binding regions. This is in contrast to DVD-Ig type of molecules, where a linker between the 2 variable domains on each of the 2 polypeptide chain is required for retaining activities of the lower (2 nd ) variable domain.

Example 1.5 Stability study of anti-IL-17/IL-20 FIT-Ig

[00162] FITl-Ig protein samples in citrate buffer (pH=6.0) were individually incubated at constant 4 °C, 25 °C and 40 °C for 1 day, 3 days or 7 days; Similarly, FITl-Ig protein samples were freeze-thawed once, twice or three times. The fractions of intact full monomeric protein of all samples was detected by SEC-HPLC, with 10 μg of each protein sample injected into Utimate 3000 HPLC equipping Superdex200 5/150 GL at flow rate 0.3 mL/min for 15 min, and data was recorded and analyzed using Chromeleon software supplied by the manufacturer. Table 6 shows that FITl-Ig and FIT3-Ig remained full intact monomeric molecule under these thermo-challenged conditions.

Table 6. Stability analysis of FIT-Ig by measuring % full monomeric fractions by SEC

3 98.94 98.35

7 98.82 98.37

IX freeze-thaw 98.89 98.21

2X freeze-thaw 95.37 98.21

3X freeze-thaw 95.24 98.35

Example 1.6 Solubility study of anti-IL-17/IL-20 FIT-Ig

[00163] The solubility of FITl-Ig was analyzed by measuring sign of precipitation in the presence of increasing concentration of PEG6000 (PEG6000 was purchased from Shanghai lingfeng chemical reagent co. Ltd). Briefly, solubility of protein in the presence of PEG6000 was obtained as a function of PEG6000 concentration (0, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%>). The solubility studies were conducted at a temperature of 25 °C at a solution pH of 6.0. Briefly, protein was precipitated by mixing appropriate quantities of buffered stock solutions of the protein, PEG and the buffer to get the desired concentration of the components. The final volume was made up to 200 μΐ and the concentration of protein was set at 1.0 mg/mL. The final solutions were mixed well and equilibrated for 16 h. After equilibration, the solutions were centrifuged at 13000 rpm for 10 min to separate the protein precipitate. Protein solubility was measured at 280 nm using Spectra Max Plus384 (Molecular Device) and obtained from the absorbance of the supernatant, and calculating the concentration based on standard curve of protein concentration (Figure 4A). We also analyzed a commercial antibody Rituxan using the same experimental method under 3 different pH conditions (Figure 4B). It appears that the protein solubility is dependent on the pH conditions, and that the predicted solubility of FIT-Ig would be in the range of monoclonal antibodies.

Example 1.7 Pharmacokinetic study of anti-IL-17/IL-20 FIT-Ig

[00164] Pharmacokinetic properties of FITl-Ig were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley

(SD) rats. FIT-Ig proteins were administered to male SD rats at a single intravenous dose of 5 mg/kg via a jugular cannula or subcutaneously under the dorsal skin. Serum samples were collected at different time points over a period of 28 days with sampling at 0, 5, 15, and

30min; 1 , 2, 4, 8, and 24hr; and 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21 , and 28 day serial bleeding via tail vein, and analyzed by human IL-17 capture and/or human IL-20 capture ELISAs. Briefly, ELISA plates were coated with goat anti-biotin antibody (5 μg/ml, 4° C, overnight), blocked with Superb lock (Pierce), and incubated with biotinylated human IL-17 (IL-17 capture ELISA) or IL-20 (IL-20 capture ELISA) at 50 ng/ml in 10% Superblock TTBS at room temperature for 2 h. Serum samples were serially diluted (0.5% serum, 10%> Superblock in TTBS) and incubated on the plate for 30 min at room temperature. Detection was carried out with HRP- labeled goat anti human antibody and concentrations were determined with the help of standard curves using the four parameter logistic fit. Several animals, especially in the subcutaneous group, showed a sudden drop in FIT-Ig concentrations following day 10, probably due to developing an anti-human response. These animals were eliminated from the final calculations. Values for the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by non- compartmental model using WinNonlin software (Pharsight Corporation, Mountain View, Calif).

[00165] The rat PK study, FITl-Ig serum concentrations were very similar when determined by the two different ELISA methods, indicating that the molecule was intact, and capable of binding both antigens in vivo. Upon IV dosing, FITl-Ig exhibited a bi-phasic pharmacokinetic profile, consisting of a distribution phase followed by an elimination phase, similar to the PK profile of conventional IgG molecules. The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated based on the two different analytical methods were very similar and are shown in Table 7. Clearance of FIT-Ig was low (~12 mL/day/kg), with low volumes of distribution (Vss~130 mL/kg) resulting in a long half-life (Tl/2>10 days). Following subcutaneous administration, FIT-Ig absorbed slowly, with maximum serum concentrations of approximately 26.9 μg/ml reached at 4 days post-dose. The terminal half-life was about 11 days and the subcutaneous bioavailability was close to 100%. As demonstrated by these results, the properties of FITl-Ig are very similar to a conventional IgG molecule in vivo, indicating a potential for therapeutic applications using comparable dosing regimens.

[00166] The pharmacokinetics study of FIT-Ig has demonstrated a surprising breakthrough in the field of multi-specific Ig-like biologies development. The rat pharmacokinetic system is commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry for preclinical evaluation of therapeutic mAbs, and it well predicts the pharmacokinetic profile of mAbs in humans. The long half-life and low clearance of FIT-Ig will enable its therapeutic utility for chronic indications with less frequent dosing, similar to a therapeutic mAb. In addition, FIT- Ig, being 100-kDa larger than an IgG, seemed to penetrate efficiently into the tissues based on its IgG-like volume of distribution parameter from the PK study.

Table 7. Pharmacokinetics analysis of FITl-Ig in SD Rats

Example 1.8 Stable CHO cell line development studies of FIT-Ig

[00167] It has been observed that FIT-Ig was efficiently expressed in transiently- transfected 293E cells. In order to further determine the manufacturing feasibility of FIT-Ig, stable transfections were carried out in both CHO-DG44 and CHO-S cell lines, and subsequent clone selections as well as productivity analysis were performed. Briefly, CHO cells were transfected by electroporation with 8x10 6 cells in 400 μΐ transfection solution plus 20ug DNA (for CHO DG44 cells) or 25 μg DNA (for CHO-S cells) subcloned in Freedom pCHO vector (Life Technologies). The stable cell line selection was done using routine procedures. Briefly, for CHO-DG44 selection, upon transfection, stable pool was selected (- HT/2P/400G, where P is μg/mL Puromycin, G is μg/mL G418), and protein production was analyzed by IgG ELISA. Top pools were selected and proceed to amplification for several rounds with increasing concentration of MTX (50, 100, 200 and 500 nM), followed by analysis of protein production by IgG ELISA. The top pools were then selected for subcloning. For CHO-S cell selection, the first phase selection was performed in medium containing 10P/400G/100M (M is nM MTX), followed by analysis of protein production. Then the top pools were selected and proceed to 2 nd phase selection in either 30P/400G/500M or 50P/400G/1000M, followed by protein production measurement by ELISA. The top pools were then selected for subcloning. For protein productivity analysis, fully recovered cell pools (viability >90%) were seeded at 5 10 5 viable cells/mL (CHO DG44) or 3 10 5 viable cells/mL (CHO-S) using 30 mL fresh medium (CD FortiCHO™ medium supplemented with 6 mM L-glutamine) in 125-mL shake flasks. The cells were incubated on a shaking platform at 37°C, 80% relative humidity, 8% C02, and 130 rpm. Sample cultures daily or at regular intervals (e.g., on day 0, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, and 14) to determine the cell density, viability, and productivity until culture viability drops below 50%> or day 14 of culture is reached. After sampling, feed the cultures with glucose as needed.

[00168] The overall process of FITl-Ig CHO stable cell line development showed features similar to that of a monoclonal antibody development in CHO cells. For example, during DG44 pool analysis under 2P/400G, the VCD continued to increase until day 10-12 up to about 1.3E7, whereas cell viability remained above 80%> up to day 13-14, and the productivity reached almost 40 mg/mL on day 14 (Figure 5A). Upon amplification at 5P/400G/50M, productivity reached above 50 mg/mL on day 14 (Figure 5B). For CHO-S cell selection, the titer reached above 200 mg/mL during the phase 1 selection (Figure 5C), and above 370 mg/mL at the phase 2 selection (Figure 5D). These levels of productivity are similar to what have been previously observed for regular human mAb development is our laboratory, suggesting that FIT-Ig display mAb-like manufacturing feasibility for commercial applications.

Example 2: Construction, expression, and purification of anti-CD3/CD20 Fabs-in- tandem immunoglobulin (FIT-Ig)

[00169] To demonstrate if a FIT-Ig can bind to cell surface antigens, we have generated an anti-CD3/CD20 FIT-Ig molecule FIT7-Ig and FIT8-Ig, which is the 3- polypeptide construct, as shown in Figure 1. The construct used to generate FIT-Ig capable of binding cell surface CD3 and CD20 is illustrated in FigurelB. Briefly, parental mAbs include two high affinity antibodies, anti-CD3 (OKT3) and anti-CD20 (Ofatumumab). To generate FIT7-Ig construct #1, the VL-CL of OKT3 was fused directly (FIT7-Ig) or through a linker of 7 amino acids linker (FIT8-Ig) to the N-terminus of the Ofatumumab heavy chain (as shown in Table 8). The construct #2 is VH-CH1 of OKT3 and the 3 rd construct is VL-CL of Ofatumumab. The 3 constructs for FIT-Ig were co-transfected in 293 cells, resulting in the expression and secretion of FIT-Ig proteins. The detailed procedures of the PCR cloning are described below:

Example 2.1 Molecular cloning of anti-CD3/CD20 FIT-Ig:

[00170] The molecular cloning method is similar as that for anti-hIL-17/hIL-20 FIT-Ig.

Table 8. Anti-CD3/CD20 FIT-Ig molecules and constructs.

[00171] Table 9 shows sequences of PCR primers used for molecular construction above.

Table 9. PCR primers used for molecular construction of anti-IL-17/IL-20 FIT-Igs

SEQ ID NO.

P4: GTCTGCGGCCGCTCATTTACCCGGAGACAGGGAGAG 32

P 12 : TCGAGCGGCCGCTCAACAAGATTTGGGCTC AACTTTCTTG 33

P20: CAGGTCCAGCTGCAGCAGTCTG 34

P22:GCCTGCGAAGTCACCCATCAGGGCCTGAGCTCGCCCGTCACAAAGA 35 GCTTCAACAGGGG

P23: 36

TACGAGAAACACAAAGTCTACGCCTGCGAAGTCACCCATCAGGGCCTG AG

P24: 37

TGACGCTGAGCAAAGCAGACTACGAGAAACACAAAGTCTACGCCTGCG AA

P25:CTCGCCCGTCACAAAGAGCTTCAACAGGGGAGAGTGTGAAGTGCA 38 GCTGGTGGAGTCTG

P28: 39

GCTGCTGCTGTGGTTCCCCGGCTCGCGATGCGAAATTGTGTTGACACAG TC [00172] The final sequences of anti-CD3/CD20 FIT-Ig are described in Table 10.

Table 10. Amino acid sequences of anti-CD3/CD20 FIT-Ig

Protein Sequence

Sequence

Protein region Identifier 12345678901234567890

OKT3/Ofatumumab SEQ ID QIVLTQSPAIMSASPGEKVTMTCSASSSVSYMNWY

FIT7-Ig NO.:41 QQKSGTSPKRWIYDTSKLASGVPAHFRGSGSGTSY POLYPEPTIDE #1 SLTISGMEAEDAATYYCQQWSSNPFTFGSGTKLEI

NRTVAAPSVFI FPPSDEQLKSGTASWCLLNNFYP

REAKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLS

STLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNR

GECEVQLVESGGGLVQPGRSLRLSCAASGFTFNDY

AMHWVRQAPGKGLEWVSTISWNSGSIGYADSVKGR

FTI SRDNAKKSLYLQMNSLRAEDTALYYCAKDIQY

GNYYYGMDVWGQGTTVTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPS

SKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGAL

TSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGT

QTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPP

CPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMI SRTPEVTCW

VDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNS

TYRWSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAPIE

KTI SKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMTKNQVSLTCL

VKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGS

FFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQ

KSLSLSPGK*

OKT3 VL SEQ ID QIVLTQSPAIMSASPGEKVTMTCSASSSVSYMNWY

NO.:42 QQKSGTSPKRWIYDTSKLASGVPAHFRGSGSGTSY

SLTISGMEAEDAATYYCQQWSSNPFTFGSGTKLEI N

CL SEQ ID RTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPR NO.: 17 EAKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSS

TLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRG EC

Linker none

Ofatumumab VH SEQ ID EVQLVESGGGLVQPGRSLRLSCAASGFTFNDYAMH

NO.:43 WVRQAPGKGLEWVSTISWNSGSIGYADSVKGRFTI

SRDNAKKSLYLQMNSLRAEDTALYYCAKDIQYGNY YYGMDVWGQGTTVTVSS

CHI SEQ ID ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPE NO.: 19 PVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVT

VPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC

Fc SEQ ID DKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISR NO.:20 TPEVTCVWDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTK

PREEQYNSTYRWSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSN Protein Sequence

Sequence

Protein region Identifier 12345678901234567890

KALPAPIEKTI SKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMTK NQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTP PVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHE ALHNHYTQKSLSLSPGK*

OKT3/Ofatumumab SEQ ID QVQLQQSGAELARPGASVKMSCKASGYTFTRYTMH

FIT7-Ig NO.:44 WVKQRPGQGLEWIGYINPSRGYTNYNQKFKDKATL POLYPEPTIDE #2 TTDKSSSTAYMQLSSLTSEDSAVYYCARYYDDHYC

LDYWGQGTTLTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGG TAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAV LQSSGLYSLSSWTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSN TKVDKKVEPKSC

OKT3 VH SEQ ID QVQLQQSGAELARPGASVKMSCKASGYTFTRYTMH

NO.:45 WVKQRPGQGLEWIGYINPSRGYTNYNQKFKDKATL

TTDKSSSTAYMQLSSLTSEDSAVYYCARYYDDHYC LDYWGQGTTLTVSS

CHI SEQ ID ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPE NO.: 19 PVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVT

VPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC

OKT3/Ofatumumab SEQ ID EIVLTQSPATLSLSPGERATLSCRASQSVSSYLAW

FIT7-Ig NO.:46 YQQKPGQAPRLLIYDASNRATGIPARFSGSGSGTD POLYPEPTIDE #3 FTLTI SSLEPEDFAVYYCQQRSNWPITFGQGTRLE

IKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFY PREAKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSL SSTLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFN RGEC*

Ofatumumab VL SEQ ID EIVLTQSPATLSLSPGERATLSCRASQSVSSYLAW

NO.:47 YQQKPGQAPRLLIYDASNRATGIPARFSGSGSGTD

FTLTI SSLEPEDFAVYYCQQRSNWPITFGQGTRLE IK

CL SEQ ID RTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPR NO.: 17 EAKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSS

TLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRG EC*

OKT3/Ofatumumab SEQ ID QIVLTQSPAIMSASPGEKVTMTCSASSSVSYMNWY

FIT8-Ig NO.:48 QQKSGTSPKRWIYDTSKLASGVPAHFRGSGSGTSY POLYPEPTIDE #1 SLTISGMEAEDAATYYCQQWSSNPFTFGSGTKLEI

NRTVAAPSVFI FPPSDEQLKSGTASWCLLNNFYP

REAKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLS

STLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNR

GECGGGGSGSEVQLVESGGGLVQPGRSLRLSCAAS

GFTFNDYAMHWVRQAPGKGLEWVSTISWNSGSIGY

ADSVKGRFTISRDNAKKSLYLQMNSLRAEDTALYY

CAKDIQYGNYYYGMDVWGQGTTVTVSSAS KGPSV

FPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVS

WNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVP

SSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDK

THTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMI SRTP

EVTCVWDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPR

EEQYNSTYRWSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKA

LPAPIEKTI SKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMTKNQ Protein Sequence

Sequence

Protein region Identifier 12345678901234567890

VSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPV LDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEAL HNHYTQKSLSLSPGK*

OKT3 VL SEQ ID QIVLTQSPAIMSASPGEKVTMTCSASSSVSYMNWY

NO.:42 QQKSGTSPKRWIYDTSKLASGVPAHFRGSGSGTSY

SLTISGMEAEDAATYYCQQWSSNPFTFGSGTKLEI N

CL SEQ ID RTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPR NO.: 17 EAKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSS

TLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRG EC

Linker SEQ ID GGGGSGS

NO.:28

Ofatumumab VH EVQLVESGGGLVQPGRSLRLSCAASGFTFNDYAMH

WVRQAPGKGLEWVSTISWNSGSIGYADSVKGRFTI SRDNAKKSLYLQMNSLRAEDTALYYCAKDIQYGNY YYGMDVWGQGTTVTVSS

CHI SEQ ID ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPE NO.: 19 PVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVT

VPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC

Fc SEQ ID DKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISR NO.:20 TPEVTCVWDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTK

PREEQYNSTYRWSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSN KALPAPIEKTI SKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMTK NQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTP PVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHE ALHNHYTQKSLSLSPGK*

OKT3/Ofatumumab SEQ ID QVQLQQSGAELARPGASVKMSCKASGYTFTRYTMH

FIT8-Ig NO.:44 WVKQRPGQGLEWIGYINPSRGYTNYNQKFKDKATL POLYPEPTIDE #2 TTDKSSSTAYMQLSSLTSEDSAVYYCARYYDDHYC

LDYWGQGTTLTVSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGG TAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAV LQSSGLYSLSSWTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSN TKVDKKVEPKSC

OKT3 VH SEQ ID QVQLQQSGAELARPGASVKMSCKASGYTFTRYTMH

NO.:45 WVKQRPGQGLEWIGYINPSRGYTNYNQKFKDKATL

TTDKSSSTAYMQLSSLTSEDSAVYYCARYYDDHYC LDYWGQGTTLTVSS

CHI SEQ ID ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPE NO.: 19 PVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVT

VPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSC

OKT3/Ofatumumab SEQ ID EIVLTQSPATLSLSPGERATLSCRASQSVSSYLAW

FIT8-Ig NO.:46 YQQKPGQAPRLLIYDASNRATGIPARFSGSGSGTD POLYPEPTIDE #3 FTLTI SSLEPEDFAVYYCQQRSNWPITFGQGTRLE

IKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFY PREAKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSL SSTLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFN RGEC*

Ofatumumab VL SEQ ID EIVLTQSPATLSLSPGERATLSCRASQSVSSYLAW

NO.:47 YQQKPGQAPRLLIYDASNRATGIPARFSGSGSGTD Protein Sequence

Sequence

Protein region Identifier 12345 67 8 9012345 67 8 90

FTLT I S S LE PE DFAVYYCQQRSNWP I T FGQGTRLE IK

CL SEQ ID RTVAAPSVFI FPPS DEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPR NO.: 17 EAKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQE SVTEQDSKDS TYSLS S

TLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLS S PVTKS FNRG EC *

Example 2.2 Expression and purification of anti-CD3/CD20 FIT-Ig:

[00173] All DNA constructs of each FIT-Ig were subcloned into pBOS based vectors, and sequenced to ensure accuracy. Construct #1, #2, and #3 of each FIT-Ig were transiently co-expressed using Polyethyleneimine (PEI) in 293E cells. Briefly, DNA in FreeStyle™ 293 Expression Medium was mixed with the PEI with the final concentration of DNA to PEI ratio of 1 :2, incubated for 15min (no more than 20min) at room temperature, and then added to the 293E cells (1.0-1.2 x 10 6 /ml, cell viability > 95%) at 6(^g DNA/120ml culture. After 6-24 hours culture in shaker, add peptone to the transfected cells at a final concentration of 5%, with shaking at 125 rpm/min., at 37°C, 8% C0 2 . On the 6th - 7th day, supernatant was harvested by centrifugation and filtration, and FIT-Ig protein purified using protein A chromatography (Pierce, Rockford, IL) according to manufacturer's instructions. The proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and their concentration determined by A280 and BCA (Pierce, Rockford, IL) (Table 11).

Table 11. Expression and SEC analysis of anti-CD3/CD20 FIT-Ig proteins

Example 2.3 Binding activities of anti-CD3/CD20 FIT-Ig molecules:

[00174] Binding of anti-CD3/CD20 FIT-Igs to both targets were analyzed by FACS, using Jurkat cells that express CD3 on the cell surface, as well as Raji cells that express CD20 on the cell surface. Briefly, 5x 10 5 cells were washed in ice-cold PBS and blocked with 2% FBS on ice for 1 hr. Cells were incubated with antibody, FIT-Ig (100 nM), or isotype control on ice for lhr and washed 3 times with PBS. Secondary antibody (goat anti-human IgG labeled with Alexa Fluor 488, Invitrogen) were added and incubated with cells on ice for 1 hr in dark followed by three times wash with PBS. Samples were analyzed in FACs calibur. The cell surface binding shows that both FIT7-Ig and FIT8-Ig were able to binding to both cell surface antigens CD3 and CD20 in a concentration dependent manner. Compared to the binding activities of the parental mAbs, FIT-Ig showed a reduced binding intensity to CD3 on Jurkat cells, but an enhanced binding intensity to CD20 on Raji cells. In all binding studies, FIT7-Ig and FIT8-Ig showed similar binding activities to both antigens, indicating the linker did not make a significant impact on its binding ability for FIT8-Ig (Table 12).

Table 12. Cell surface antigen binding studies of anti-CD3/CD20 FIT-Ig proteins

Example 3: Construction, expression, and purification of anti-TNF/IL-17 Fabs-in- tandem immunoglobulin (FIT-Ig)

[00175] Another FIT-Ig that can bind to human IL-17 and human TNFa (FIT9-Ig) was also generated using anti-IL-17 mAb clone LY, and anti-TNF mAb Golimumab, in the 3- polypeptide construct, as shown in Figure 1. To generate FIT9-Ig construct #1, the VL-CL of Golimumab was fused directly to the N-terminus of LY heavy chain (as shown in Table 13). The construct #2 is VH-CH1 of Golimumab and the 3 rd construct is VL-CL of LY. The 3 constructs for FIT9-Ig were co-transfected in 293 cells, resulting in the expression and secretion of FIT9-Ig proteins. The final sequences of anti-TNF/IL-17 FIT-Ig are described in Table 14.

Example 3.1 Molecular cloning of anti-TNF/IL-17 FIT-Ig:

[00176] The molecular cloning method is similar as that for anti-hIL-17/hIL-20 FIT-Ig.

Table 13. Anti-TNF/IL-17 FIT-Ig molecule and constructs. FIT-Ig Construct #1 Linker Construct Construct molecule #2 #3

FIT9-Ig VL TOF -CL-VHiL_i 7 -CHl-Fc No linker VH NF -CHI VL IL _ 17 -CL

Table 14: Amino acid sequences of anti-TNF/IL-17 FIT-Ig molecules

Protein Sequence

Protein region Sequence 12345678901234567890

Identifier

EIVLTQSPATLSLSPGER

ATLSCRASQSVYSYLA

Anti-IL- WYQQKPGQAPRLLIYD

TNF/IL-17 FIT9- SEQ ID NO.: 87 ASNRATGIPARFSGSGS Ig GTDFTLTISSLEPEDFAV

POLYPEPTIDE YYCQQRSNWPPFTFGP

#1 GTKVDIKRTVAAPSVFI

FPPSDEQLKSGTASVVC

LLNNFYPREAKVQWKV

DNALQSGNSQESVTEQ

DSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSK

ADYEKHKVYACEVTH

QGLSSPVTKSFNRGECQ

VQLVQSGAEVKKPGSS

VKVSCKASGYSFTDYHl

HWVRQAPGQGLEWMG

VINPMYGTTDYNQRFK

GRVTITADESTSTAYME

LSSLRSEDTAVYYCAR

YDYFTGTGVYWGQGT

LVTVSSASTKGPSVFPL

APSSKSTSGGTAALGCL

VKDYFPEPVTVSWNSG

ALTS G VHTFP AVLQ S S G

LYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGT

QTYICNVNHKPSNTKV

DKKVEPKSCDKTHTCP

PCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPP

KPKDTLMISRTPEVTCV

VVDVSHEDPEVKFNWY

VDGVEVHNAKTKPREE

QYNSTYRVVSVLTVLH

QDWLNGKEYKCKVSN

KALPAPIEKTISKAKGQ

PREPQVYTLPPSREEMT

KNQVSLTCLVKGFYPS

DIAVEWESNGQPENNY Table 14: Amino acid sequences of anti-TNF/IL-17 FIT-Ig molecules

Protein Sequence

Protein region Sequence 12345678901234567890

Identifier

KTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYS KLTVDKSRWQQGNVFS C S VMHE ALHNHYTQKS LSLSPGK*

GOLIMUMAB VL SEQ ID NO.: 88 EIVLTQSPATLSLSPGER

ATLSCRASQSVYSYLA

WYQQKPGQAPRLLIYD

ASNRATGIPARFSGSGS

GTDFTLTISSLEPEDFAV

YYCQQRSNWPPFTFGP

GTKVDIK

CL SEQ ID NO.: 17 RT V AAP SVFIFPPSDEQL

KS GT AS V VCLLNNF YP

REAKVQWKVDNALQS

GNSQESVTEQDSKDST

YSLSSTLTLSKADYEKH

KVYACEVTHQGLSSPV

TKSFNRGEC

Linker None

LY VH SEQ ID NO.:22 QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGS

SVKVSCKASGYSFTDY

HIHWVRQAPGQGLEW

MGVINPMYGTTDYNQR

FKGRVTITADESTSTAY

MELSSLRSEDTAVYYC

ARYDYFTGTGVYWGQ

GTLVTVSS

CHI SEQ ID NO.: 19 ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKS

TSGGTAALGCLVKDYF

PEPVTVSWNSGALTSG

VHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLS

SVVTVPSSSLGTQTYIC

N VNHKP SNTKVDK VE

PKSC

Fc SEQ ID NO.:20 DKTHTCPPCPAPELLGG

PSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISR

TPEVTCVVVDVSHEDP

EVKFNWYVDGVEVHN

AKTKPREEQYNSTYRV

VSVLTVLHQDWLNGKE

YKCKVSNKALPAPIEKT

ISKAKGQPREPQVYTLP

PSREEMTKNQVSLTCL Table 14: Amino acid sequences of anti-TNF/IL-17 FIT-Ig molecules

Protein Sequence

Protein region Sequence 12345678901234567890

Identifier

VKGF YP SDI AVE WE SN GQPENN YKTTPP VLD S DGSFFLYSKLTVDKSR WQQGNVFSCSVMHEA LHNHYTQKSLSLSPGK*

QVQLVESGGGVVQPGR

SLRLSCAASGFIFSSYA

Anti-TNF/IL-17 MHWVRQAPGNGLEWV FIT9-Ig SEQ ID NO.: 89 AFMSYDGSNKKYADSV

POLYPEPTIDE KGRFTISRDNSKNTLYL

#2 QMNSLRAEDTAVYYC

ARDRGIAAGGNYYYYG

MD VWGQGTTVT VS S A

STKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTS

GGTAALGCLVKDYFPE

PVTVSWNSGALTSGVH

TFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSV

VTVPSSSLGTQTYICNV

NHKPSNTKVDKKVEPK

SC

GOLIMUMAB VH SEQ ID NO.: 90 QVQLVESGGGVVQPGR

SLRLSCAASGFIFSSYA

MHWVRQAPGNGLEWV

AFMSYDGSNKKYADSV

KGRFTISRDNSKNTLYL

QMNSLRAEDTAVYYC

ARDRGIAAGGNYYYYG

MD VWGQGTTVT VS S

CHI SEQ ID NO.: 19 ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKS

TSGGTAALGCLVKDYF

PEPVTVSWNSGALTSG

VHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLS

SVVTVPSSSLGTQTYIC

N VNHKP SNTKVDKKVE

PKSC

SEQ ID NO.:91 DIVMTQTPLSLSVTPGQ

PASISCRSSRSLVHSRG

Anti-IL- NTYLHWYLQKPGQSPQ

TNF/IL-17 FIT9- LLIYKVSNRFIGVPDRFS ig GSGSGTDFTLKISRVEA

POLYPEPTIDE ED VG V Y YC S Q STHLPF

#3 TFGQGTKLEIKRTVAAP

SVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTAS Table 14: Amino acid se uences of anti-TNF/IL-17 FIT-I molecules

Example 3.2 Expression, purification, and analysis of anti-TNF/IL-17 FIT-Ig proteins:

[00177] All DNA constructs of each FIT-Ig were subcloned into pBOS based vectors, and sequenced to ensure accuracy. Construct #1, #2, and #3 of FIT9-Ig were transiently co- expressed using Polyethyleneimine (PEI) in 293E cells as described previously and FIT9-Ig proteins were purified by protein A chromatography. The expression level was 10-23 mg/L. The purified protein was subjected to functional analysis using cell-based assays for IL-17 (production of GROa by Hs27 cells) and TNF (production of IL-8 by L929 cells). The neutralization potency of FIT9-Ig against human TNF was 11.6 pM (compared to 15.9 pM by Golimumab in the same experiment), as against human IL-17 was 122 pM (compared to 51.5 pM by LY in the same experiment). Overall FIT9-Ig maintained the biological activities of the parental mAbs.

Example 4: Construction, expression, and purification of anti-CTLA-4/PD-l Fabs-in- tandem immunoglobulin (FIT-Ig) [00178] Another FIT-Ig that can bind to human CTLA-4 and human PD-1 (FITIO-Ig) was generated using anti-CTLA-4 mAb Ipilimumab, and anti-PD-1 mAb Nivolumab, in the 3 -polypeptide construct, as shown in Figure 1. To generate FITIO-Ig construct #1 , the VL- CL of Ipilimumab was fused directly to the N-terminus of Nivolumab heavy chain (as shown in Table 15). The construct #2 is VH-CH1 of Ipilimumab and the 3 rd construct is VL-CL of Nivolumab. The 3 constructs for FITIO-Ig were co-transfected in 293 cells, resulting in the expression and secretion of FITIO-Ig proteins.

Example 4.1 Molecular cloning of anti-CTLA-4/PD-l FIT-Ig:

[00179] The molecular cloning method is similar as that for anti-hIL-17/hIL-20 FIT-Ig.

The final sequences of anti- CTLA-4/PD-1 FIT-Ig are described in Table 16.

Table 15. Anti-CTLA-4/PD-l FIT-Ig molecule and constructs.

Table 16. Amino acid se uences of anti-CTLA-4/PD-l FIT-I molecules

Table 16. Amino acid sequences of anti-CTLA-4/PD-l FIT-Ig molecules

Protein Sequence

Protein region Sequence 12345678901234567890

Identifier

LRLDCKASGITFSNSGM

HWVRQAPGKGLEWVA

VIWYDGSKRYYADSVK

GRFTISRDNSKNTLFLQ

MNSLRAEDTAVYYCAT

NDD Y WGQGTLVT VS S

ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKS

TSGGTAALGCLVKDYF

PEPVTVSWNSGALTSG

VHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLS

SVVTVPSSSLGTQTYIC

N VNHKP SNTKVDKKVE

PKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPE

LLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDT

LMISRTPEVTCVVVDVS

HEDPEVKFNWYVDGV

EVHNAKTKPREEQYNS

TYRVVSVLTVLHQDWL

NGKEYKCKVSNKALPA

PIEKTISKAKGQPREPQ

VYTLPPSREEMTKNQV

SLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVE

WESNGQPENNYKTTPP

VLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVD

KSRWQQGNVFSCSVM

HEALHNHYTQKSLSLSP

GK*

IPILIMUMAB VL SEQ ID NO.:93 EIVLTQSPGTLSLSPGER

ATLSCRASQSVGSSYLA

WYQQKPGQAPRLLIYG

AFSRATGIPDRFSGSGS

GTDFTLTISRLEPEDFA

VYYCQQYGSSPWTFGQ

GTKVEIK

CL SEQ ID NO.: 17 RTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQL

KS GT AS V VCLLNNF YP

REAKVQWKVDNALQS

GNSQESVTEQDSKDST

YSLSSTLTLSKADYEKH

KVYACEVTHQGLSSPV

TKSFNRGEC

Linker None

NIVOLUMAB VH SEQ ID NO.: 94 QVQLVESGGGVVQPGR Table 16. Amino acid sequences of anti-CTLA-4/PD-l FIT-Ig molecules

Protein Sequence

Protein region Sequence 12345678901234567890

Identifier

SLRLDCKASGITFSNSG

MHWVRQAPGKGLEWV

AVIWYDGSKRYYADSV

KGRFTISRDNSK TLFL

QMNSLRAEDTAVYYC

ATNDDYWGQGTLVTV

ss

CHI SEQ ID NO.: 19 ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKS

TSGGTAALGCLVKDYF

PEPVTVSWNSGALTSG

VHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLS

SVVTVPSSSLGTQTYIC

NVNHKPSNTKVDKKVE

PKSC

Fc SEQ ID NO.:20 DKTHTCPPCPAPELLGG

PSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISR

TPEVTCVVVDVSHEDP

EVKFNWYVDGVEVHN

AKTKPREEQYNSTYRV

VSVLTVLHQDWLNGKE

YKCKVSNKALPAPIEKT

ISKAKGQPREPQVYTLP

PSREEMTKNQVSLTCL

VKGF YP SDI AVE WE SN

GQPENN YKTTPP VLD S

DGSFFLYSKLTVDKSR

WQQGNVFSCSVMHEA

LHNHYTQKSLSLSPGK*

QVQLVESGGGVVQPGR

SLRLSCAASGFTFSSYT

Anti-CTLA- MHWVRQAPGKGLEWV 4/PD-l FITIO-Ig SEQ ID NO.: 95 TFISYDGNNKYYADSV POLYPEPTIDE KGRFTISRDNSKNTLYL

#2 QMNSLRAEDTAIYYCA

RTGWLGPFDYWGQGT

LVTVSSASTKGPSVFPL

APSSKSTSGGTAALGCL

VKDYFPEPVTVSWNSG

ALTS G VHTFP AVLQ S S G

LYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGT

QTYICNVNHKPSNTKV

DKKVEPKSC

IPILIMUMAB VH SEQ ID NO.: 96 QVQLVESGGGVVQPGR Table 16. Amino acid se uences of anti-CTLA-4/PD-l FIT-I molecules

Example 4.2 Expression, purification, and functional analysis of anti-CTLA-4/PD-l FIT-Ig proteins:

[00180] All DNA constructs of each FIT-Ig were subcloned into pBOS based vectors, and sequenced to ensure accuracy. Construct #1, #2, and #3 of FITIO-Ig were transiently co- expressed using Polyethyleneimine (PEI) in 293E cells as described previously and FIT9-Ig proteins were purified by protein A chromatography to 98% monomeric full protein. The expression levels were up to 43 mg/L. The purified protein was subjected to binding analysis using ELISA against recombinant CTLA-4Ig and PD-1. Briefly, for binding to CTLA-4, human CTLA-4Ig (R&D Systems) was immobilized on 96-well plates, followed by routine wash and blocking procedures. Then FIT-10-Ig or Ipilimumab at various concentrations were added to the plate, followed by incubation and multiple wash steps, and detected with anti- human Fab -HRP. For binding to PD-1, human PD-1 (with a his tag) (R&D Systems) was immobilized on 96-well plates, followed by routine wash and blocking procedures. Then FIT- 10-Ig or Nivolumab at various concentrations were added to the plate, followed by incubation and multiple wash steps, and detected with anti-human Fc -HRP (Figure 6). It appears that FITIO-Ig was able to bind both CTLA-4 (A) and PD-1 (B) with similar activities as the parental mAbs Ipilimumab and Nivolumab, respectively.

[00181] In addition, multiple-antigen binding study was done using OctetRed to determine if FITIO-Ig was able to bind recombinant CTLA-4 and PD-1 simultaneously. Briefly, FITIO-Ig was immobilize on AR2G sensor at concentration of 10 μg/ml, followed by binding of CTLA-4Ig and then PD-1 (or PD-1 first, then CTLA-4Ig) in assay buffer (PBS pH 7.4, 0.1% BSA, 0.02% Tween), with concentration at 80 nM. At the end of the experiment, the surface was regenerated with 10 mM glycine at pH1.5 five times (Figure 7). This experiment shows that FITIO-Ig was able to bind PD-1 when it had already bound to CTLA- 4, and vice versa, indicating that FITIO-Ig was able to bind both CTLA-4Ig and PD-1 simultaneously.

[00182] All publications, patent applications, and issued patents cited in this specification are herein incorporated by reference as if each individual publication, patent application, or issued patent were specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference in its entirety.




 
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