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Title:
FAST CHARGE MODE FOR EXTENDED TRIP
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/070654
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A system and method for early identification of an impending fast-charge or fast-charge opportunity and use of that information to prepare the battery cells for the fast-charge.

Inventors:
DANGLER CHRISTOPHER (US)
STEWART SARAH (US)
KISHIYAMA CLAY (US)
Application Number:
US2013/067064
Publication Date:
May 08, 2014
Filing Date:
October 28, 2013
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
TESLA MOTORS INC (US)
International Classes:
H01M10/44; H02J7/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO1999009420A11999-02-25
Foreign References:
US20090143929A12009-06-04
US20110298624A12011-12-08
US6624615B12003-09-23
US20110156652A12011-06-30
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SODERBERG, Richard (Palo Alto, CA, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed as new and desired to b protected by Le ter Patent of the United States is;

1. A fast-chiarging system for a rechargeable energy storage systenL comprising;

a fast-charge prediction system ident fying an upcoming fast-charge event for the reehaiTjeabie energy storage system;

ao e vironment control syst m coupled to the energy storage system controlling.

temperature environment of the energy storage system responsive to. a first operational profile using said temperature environment tn adjust a temperature of the energy storage system to a first temperature target of a standard operating temperature; and

a manager setting a second operational profile for said environment control system responsive to said npeoming fast-charge event, said second operation profile using said temperature environment to ad sst said temperature of the energy storage system to a second temperature above said standard operating temperature.

2. lire fast- charging system of claim 1 wherein said second temperature is in a range of 35

°c o sr i

3. The first-chargin system of claim. .1 wherein said first temperature is less than.40 "C and wherein said second temperature is in a range of a lower fast-charger temperature to 55 *ϋ, wherein said lower f t- charger temperature is the grea er1' of 35 "C -and said, first temperature.

4. The fast-charging system of claim Ϊ wherein said temperature en vironment includes a BY AC having a temperature lowering characteristic tor the energy storage system after an activation by said envi.ron.ment control system and wherein said second: o er tion l profile delays said acti tion when adjusting said temperature of said -energy storage system,

5. The fast-charging system of claim 1 wherei n said temperature en vironment includes a beat exchanger wi th a coolant having a tempera toe lowering characteristic for the energy storage system responsive to a coolant flow .rate set by said environment control system and wherein said second operational profile reduces said coolant flow rate to adjust said temperature of said energy storage system. 'The fast-charging system of 'claim I wherein said temperature environment includes a variable insulating barrier having a temperature raising characteristic for the energy storag : system after an activation by said environment control system and wherein said second operational profile ctuates said act vation, adjust .said temperature of the •energy storage system. , The fast-charging system of claim I wherein said fast-charge prediction system includes a use interfhce recei ving a user input, said fast-charge prediction system identifies said upcoming fast-charge event responsive to said user inpnt. , The fast- chargi g system o 'ciai.ni 1 wherein the energy storage system is disposed in an electric vehicle having an electric p o ulsion motor further comprising a navigation syste geoloeating a position of a fast-charge station along a drive route of said electric vehicle within a current drive range while said temperature environment operates with said first operational, profile, , The fast-charging system of claim 8 wherein said fast-charge prediction system identifies said fast-charge event when said electric vehicle approaches said position, within a predetermined distance and a aximu , drive range of said electric vehicle Is less than a predete rmined range , 0, A fast-charging method for an energy storage system, comprising:

a) identifying an upcoming fast-charge event for the rechargeable energy storage system; h) controlling, a tem erature en ironment for the e erg storage system, msponsi e to a first operational profile using said temperature environment to adjust a. temperature of the energy storage system to a first temperature target for a standard operating j mperature and

ct setting a second operational profile for said environment control system responsive to said upcoming fast-charge event, said second operation profile using said temperature environment to adjust said temperature to a second temperature above said standard operating temperature. .1. The fast-charging method of claim. 1.0 wherein said identifying step a) includes

responding to a user Input manually indicating said upcoming fast-charge event.

12. The fast-charging method of claim 10 wherein said identifying step a) includes responding automaticall xmiig a computer system when said electric vehicle approaches a position of a. fast-charging s ation within a predetermined distance and a max mum drive range of said electric vehicle s less than a predetemimed range.

13, A charging system for a rechargeable energy storage system of an electric vehicle having an electric propulsion motor, comprisin ;

a charge prediction system identifying an coming charge' event for the rechargeable energy storage sy tem, said charge prediction system predicting one of a fast-charge event and a non-fast-charge event for said upcoming charge event;

an environment control system coupled to the energy storage system controlling a temperature environment of the energy torage system responsive to a first operational profile using said temperature environment to adjust a temperature of the energ storage system to a first temperature target of a standard operating temperature and

a manager setting a second operational profile for said environment control system responsive to said upcoming fast-charge event, said second operation profile using said temperature en vironment to adjusi said temperature of the energy storage system to a second temperature above said standard operating tempera tore when said u coming charge event .includes said fast charge event, otherwis said manager maintaining said first operational profile for said environment control system, when said upcoming charge event includes said no · fast-charge event,

14; The charging system of claim 13 wherein said second iemperatere i in a range of 35 "Ό to 55 t:

15. The charging, system, of claim 13 wherein aid first temperature is less than 40 "C and wherein said second temperature Is in a range of a lower fast-charger temperature to 55 °C, wherein, said lower fast-charger temperature is the greater of 3.5 "C and said first temperature.

16. The charging system, of claim 13 wherein said temperature environme t includes a

HV'AC ha ing a temperature lowering characteristic for the energy storage system after an activation hy said environment control system and wherein said second operational profile delays said activatio when adjusting said temperature of said energy storage system..

17. 'The charging s stem of claim 13 wherein said temperature ea^irb' rftent includes a heat exchanger with a eooku having a e tperatyre lowering characteristic for the energy sto age: syst m responsive to a coolani flow rate set by said, environment control system aud wherein said second operational profile reduces said coolant flow rate to adjust said temperature of s id energy storage system,

18. The char ing system of cM 1.3 wherein said tempemtore environment in ludes a variable insulafhig hasTier ving a temperatur raising charact ristic for the energ storage system after an activation by said environment control syste and wherein said second operational profile actuates said activation to adjosst said temperature of the ener y storage system.

19. The charging system of claim 13 wherein said fast-charge prediction system includes a user interface receiving a user input, said fast-charge prediction system identifies said upcoming fast-charge event responsive to. said. user input

Description:
FAST CHARGE MODE FOR EXTENDED TRIP

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

10001) The present invention relates general] to charging battery cells of a rechargeable battery m ule, nd more specifically, but not exclusively, to efficient fast charging of battery cells of a rechargeable battery module.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The subject matter discussed in the background section should not be assumed to be prior art me el as a result of its mention in. the background section.- Similarly, a problem mentioned in the background section or associated with the ' subject matter of the background section should not be assumed to have been previously recognized in the prior art. The subject -m tter in the background section, merely represerits difte.;:-ent approaches, which in and of itternseives may also be invent ons. f<M903j Fast charging of battery cells is- Improved when the battery cells are warmer than the typical ambient ahd/or standard operating- temperature. Battery cells are often cooled and maintained at a decreased tempera tare during operation. This is counter-productive to the fast-charging conditions, and may unnecessarily consume resources in counter-productively cooling the battery cells,

[0004] What -is needed is a system and method for early identification of an Impending fast- charge or fast-charge opportunity and use. of that information to prepare- the battery cells for the fast- charge.

BRIEF SUMMARY OE THE INVENT ION

[0005] Disclosed, is a system and method for early identification of an impending fast- charge or fast-charge opportunit and use of thai in bmiation to prepare the battery cells for the fast- charge. iCXH& ' j The following summary of the Invention is provided to facilitate an understanding of some of technical features .related to fasi-ehargmg battery cells, and is not intended to be a full description of the present invention. A full appreciatio of the various aspects of the invention can be gained fey taking the entire specification , clai ms, dr awings, and abstract as -whole. The present invention ' is applicable to other collections and. uses of battery cells besides batter cell modules usedn electric vehicles,

(0007] A fast-charging system for a rechargeable energy storage system, including a fast- charge prediction s stem identifying an upcoming fast-charge event for the rechargeable energ storage system; an environment control system coupled to the energy storage system controlling a temperature- environment of the energy storage system responsive to a first operations] profile using the temperature environment to adjust a temperature of the ener y storage system, to a first temperature target of a standard operating temperature; and a manager setting a second operational profile for the environment control system responsive to the upcoming fast-charge event, the second operation profile usin the temperature environment to adjust the temperature of the energ storage system to a second temperature above the standard operating temperature.

[0008] A last-charging method for an energy storage system, including a) ide tifying an upcoming fast-charge event for the rechargeabl energy storage system; b) controllin a temperature environment for the energy storage system responsive to a. irst operational, profile using the temperature en vironment to adjust a temperature of the energy storage system, to a first temperature target for & standard operating temperature; and c) setting a second operational profile for the environment control system responsi ve to the upcoming fast-charge .event the second operation profile using the temperature environment to adju t the- temperature, to a second temperature above the standard operating temperature,

[0009] A charging system for a rechargeahle energy storage sy stem, of an electric vehicle having an electric propulsion motor, including a charge prediction system identifying an upcoming charge event for the rechargeable energy storage system, the charge- prediction, system predicting- one of a ' fast-charge- event and a nou-fast-charge event for the upcoming charge event: an e vironment control system coupled to the energy stora e sy tem controlling temperature environment of the energy storage system responsive to a first operational profile using th temperature environment to adjust a temperature of the energy storage system to a first temperature target of a standard operating temperature; and a manager-setting a second- operational profile for the environment control system, responsive to the upcoming fast-charge event the second operation profile using the temperature environment to adjust the temperature of the energy storage system to second tem erature above the standard operating temperature when the upcoming charge event includes the fast charge event. otherwise the manager maintaining the first Operational profile for the environment control system when the ' u com ng charge event includes the non-fast-charge event,

(0010] Any of the embodiments described herein may be osed alone or together with one another in any combination. Inventions encompassed within this specification may also include embodiments that are only partially mentioned or alluded to or are not mentioned or alloded to at all this brief summary or in the abstract. Although various embodiments of the in vention, may have bee .motivated by various deficiencies with the prior art, hich may be discussed or alluded to in one o .more, places in the specification, the embodiments of the invention do not necessarily address any of these deficiencies, in other words, different embodiments of the invention may address different, deficiencies that may he discussed in the specification. Some embodiments may only partially add ess some deficiencies or just one deficienc that may be discussed in the specification, and some embodiments ma not address any of these deficiencies.

(€012] Other features, benefits, and advan tages of the present invention will be apparent upon a review ' of the present disclosure, including the specification, drawings, and claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[00.12] The accompanying figures, i which like reference meral refer io identical or funetionaliy-similai' elements. throughout the separate views and which, are. incorporated in and form a part of the speeifkahom further illustrate the present invention and, together with the detailed description of the invention, serve to explain the principles of the present invention.

[0013] FIG, I is a schematic block diagram for a representative electric .motor system Incorporating a prefers«d embodiment of the present invention; and

[0014] FID, 2 illustrates a flowchart for a process that m y be implemented by the management syste of FIG. L

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE IN VENTION

[IM ISJ Embodiment of the present invention provide a system and method for early identification of an impending fast-charge or, fast-charge opportunity and use of that Information to prepare the battery ceils for the: fast-charge. The following description is presented to enable one of ordinary skill in the aft to make and use the- invention a d is provided in the . cont xt of a patent application, and its requirements.

(00163 Various modification ii to the preferred embodiment and the generic principles and features " described ' herein will ' be readily- apparent to those skilled in the art.. Thus, the present, invention is not intended, to be limited to the embodiment shown but is to be accorded the wides scope consistent with the principles and features described h e n,

({KM.7} In the following text, the terms ''energy storage assembly," "battery/ ' ¾el.!/ " "battery cell," "battery cell module," and '"battery cell pack," "electric double-layer capacitor, ' * and "mtraeapaeitosy ' may he used interchangeably (unless the context indicates otherwise" and may refer to any of a variet of different rechargeable configurations and cell chemistries including, but not limited to. lithium ion (e.g., lithium, iron phosphate, lithium, cobalt oxide, other li thium, metal, oxides, etc.), lithium ion polymer, nickel metal hydride, nickel cadmium, nickel hydrogen, nickel sine, silver zinc, or other chargeable hig energy storage type/configuration.

[DIMS] Embodiments of the present invention are applicable to s ems that employ electric motors in general, and more specifically to vehicles using multiphase electric induction motors powered by energy stored in an energy storage system that include one or more battery cell modules arranged into a battery pack. Electric vehicles (EVs) include vehicles that have one or more sources of stored energy designed to provide electrical energy to the vehicle, wherein the electrical energy .is used to at least in part to provide-some energ used to propel the vehicle. Electric vehicles may include vehicles designed to cany passengers,: to transport goods, or to provide specialty work capabilities. For example, electric vehicles Include passenger automobiles, trucks, and recreational xvatem fts such as boats, in addition, electric vehicles include specialty vehicles, such as. -fork, tracks used to lift and move cargo, vehicles tha incorporate conveyor belts to move objects, such as mobile conveyor belt vehicles used to load and unload cargo such as luggage from airplanes, and specialty equipment used in. areas where exhaust fumes from typical gasoline, diesel, or propane powered equi ment may present .hazards to -personnel,, such as in underground mining operations, in various instances, electric vehicles are designed and ..intended to be operated on public highways as licensed automobiles, including both cars and trucks, ill *>| Generally, an electric vehicle include some form of a device or devices capable of storing energy and that is operable to provide ■■ electrical power to- the vehicle. The electrical power may be used to at least in part pro ide energ for propelling the vehicle. In some instances, the electrical power i used to provide the energy required for ail of e vehicle's functions; including prope.Uiag.the vehicle. hi many instances, the sonrce of the stored energy is a rechargeable battery pack. In various embodiments, a recharge ble battery pack includes a plurality of individual rechargeable battery cells that are electrically coupled to provide a rechargeable battery pack.

(0020] in the discussion herein, various rates of charging are described. For rechargeable energy storage systems, there are charging stations (sometimes EV charging station., electric recharging point, and the like) that supplies electric energy for BY recharging. The rate the e ergy storage system receives the electric energy is often specified according to a standard, snch as a mode, defined by the international Electro technical Commission (lEC), For example they define the terms slow charging and fast charging whic are relevant to. some of the embodiments of the present invention when detailing standard chargin (non-fast charging - e.g., mode I or mode 2) and fast- charging (e.g., mode 3 or higher). Charging stations am typically viewed as providing predetermined qu nti ed charging sates, sometimes a charging station may be able to supply either (or both) a last charge and a slow charge * A prediction of a fast-charge event identifies the availability of fas charging rates from a fast-charging station.

[0021] In other contexts, fast charging and non-fast charging are related to lifetime perfo mance effects of recharging on the energy storage system. The rate at which electric energy charges the energy storage system, can. impact the lifetime performance. In the present context, a non-fast charging rate is a rase where battery life is benefited by adjusting the cell, temperature under a standard operatin temperature and fast-charging is a charge rate, where battery fe As benefited by adjusting the temperature above the standard operating temperature. In a ' charge rate zone where the lifetime: performance is not strongly dependent on the charge temperature a management system, can maintain the standard operating temperature target when this target uses the least amount of energy,

[0022] Specifically,, while charging at higher temperature lowers impedance there are other effects at play as .well. When charging at typical, rates (non-mst-charge rate , * the best lifetime performance Is below the drive standard operating temperature. Thus for these charges, the mau.agem.en system, would want to lower the temperature of the battery pack before charge.

However, as the charge rate increases, the benefits from goin to higher temperature increase and there is cros over point where the management system, preferably heats the energy storage system to reser e: hfetirne performance, f¾0i23] Thus in the present content, ( e "class' of charging; that is trying to be predicted, as a. fast charge rate i a rate here it is necessary to increase the temperature of the cell in order to protect the cycle life of the ceil. The temperature of the energy storage system is adjusted based upon the predicted charge rate of. an upcoming charging- event Typically this means that hen a fast charge rate i u com ng, , the temperature of the energy storage system will need to be increased above the standard operating temperature. Based upon type of c argin stations and diarging rates available, the- uantization of the charging rates means that, for most cases, the m nagemen s s m, will either be in a heating mode for an upcoming fast charge mode or a cooling mode for an upcoming standard charge mode. The embodiments described herein do not include a dynamicall changing response to the charge rate (some embodiments could do so), rather the mode would be selected by the management system based on the val ue or expected value of t he charge rate. This process could, for example, use a lookup table, charge rate vs. temperature, so there may be different temperature targets .tor different charge rates.

[0024] ' Standard- operating temperature varies based upon many factors, but for a particular implementation based upon a set of assumptions, it is a predetermined value. This standard operating temperature is -a..reference point used in by the embodiments of the presen in vention.

[1)025] FIG. I is a. schematic block diagram for a. representative electric motor system 100 incorporating -a preferred embodiment of the presen invention. To simplify further discussion, system 100 wi.11. be described belo in the- contest of an. electric vehicle. However i is understood that system 100 may be part of another device or system other than an electric vehicle, System 1.00 includes an. energy storage system (ESS) .105 that includes a vehicle propulsion battery or the like and at least one propnlsion moto 110 for con verting energy into mechanical motion., such as rotary motion, ESS 105 includes various components associated with transmitting energy to: and from the vehicle .propulsion battery in various examples, including safety components, cooling components, heating components, rectifiers, and the like. ESS 1.05 may be implemented in many different ways and include many different components, but for purposes of this example, ESS includes a propulsion battery, ultraeapaciior, or the like. Thus, the present subject matter should not be construed, to he limited to the configurations disclosed herein, as other configurations are possible and within the scope of the present invention,

[0026] The propulsion battery of ESS i 05 of this example inei ade one or more lithium ion batteries, In some examples, the battery includes a plurality of lithium ion batteries coupled in parallel and/or series. Some examples include cylindrical lithium son baitcrles. In some cases, ESS i OS includes one or mare batteries compatible with the 18650 battery standard, but the present subject matter is not so limited. Some examples include hundreds' to thousands of batteries which ar interconnected. The vehicle propulsion battery used In ESS 105. in some examples, provides approximately 390 volts,

[6027] Additionally system 100 includes an energy conve er 1 15, Energy converter I J 5 converts energy from ESS 105 into energy useable by motor 1 1 . hi some instances, there is energy flow from motor 1 10 into ESS 105 through energy converter I I S, ESS TQ5 tmirsmits energy to energy converter 1 IS, which converts the transmi ted energy into energy usable by motor 1 10 to propel the electric vehicle. Moto 110 may also generate energy that is transmitted to energy converter 1 15. in these instances, energy converter 15 converts the transmitted energy from, motor 1 0 into energy which may be stored in ESS 105. Energy converter 115 includes semiconductor power devices such as transistors. These transistors may include on or more field effect transistors. Some examples include metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors.. Some examples chxle one or more insulated gate bipolar transistors. As such, various examples, the energy converter 1 1 S includes switching elements which are configure to receive direct current (DC) power from ESS 105 and to output multiphase (e.g.. three-phase) alternating current (AC) to power motor 110. A rotary motion of motor 110 is transmitted from a transmission to one or more wheels of the EV via one or more axles.

[OCSS] A management system .120 provides control for one or mom of ESS 105 and energ converter 1 15. In some cases, management system 120 Is coupled to a vehicle system which moni or safely (such as a crash sensor). In some examples management system 120 is coupled to one or more driver inputs (such as a speed adjuster, colloquially termed a throttle, although the present subject . nuttier is not limited to examples having an actual throttle). Management system 1:20 Is configured to control power to one or mo of ESS 105 and ene gy converter 1 15.

[8029] Some embodiments of management system 120 include a navigation system, that may further include nip-planning features and a mapping system, for ideniiiying various destinations and points-of-interest and. associated inlbrruation including directions, range, drive time, and the like from a present l ocation to the various destinations and .points of interest. For purposes of the present invention, these points~of -Interest include a home location, one or more destinations, way-points. and fast-charging stations. Management system 120 may collect all or a portion of this information automatically/autonomously, semi-automatical! , or manually.

(0030] power connector i 25 accesses an external power source 139, e.g., a chargin station, to recei e nergy and communicate it with ESS 105 through energy converter 1 15. in some examples, the charging station converts power from, a single phase 110V AC power source into power storable by ESS 105. in additional examples, the charging station converts, po er from, a 220V AC power soarce into power storable by ESS 105. Some implementations include single- phase line vol ages while others employ polyphase line voltages, FIG. I illustrates an

implementation in which energy converter 1.15 converts power from external power wurce 1 0 to energy storah.le by ESS 105,

(0031] ESS 105 is described herein as includi ng cooling sy stems and. temperature con trol equipment for maintainin ESS 105 at the desired operating temperature. System 100 includes an environmental control 135 that controls the cooling systems and temperature control equipment. Environmental control 135 ma be incorporated into . management system. 120.

[0032] Ex ternal power source 130 may be incorporated into recharging equipment that i sometimes referred to as an EV charging station, or electric recharging poin , charging point, electric vehicle supply equipment (B.VSE , There. are different performance levels (sometimes called charging modes) for this recharging equipment. These performance levels are sometimes referred to by different charging levels; level I is a. relatively slow charging level available from i 10 V AC, such; as a type of charger available in many owner homes. A level 2 chargin is 240 volt AC charging, and level 3 charging provides 500 volt DC high-current charging (also sometimes referred to as DC Fast Charge}:.

[0033] In typical operation, a user connects external power source 1.30 to power connector 125 to Initiate charging of ESS 105. How long it takes to charge ESS 1 5 to the desired level depends upon several factors including- a status of ESS 105 (eg., a state of charge (SOC) s cell tempera mreCs), cell chemistry,, and the like) and charging level of external power source 130.

Depending upon other factors, sometimes there is a conditioning period for ESS 105 prior to initiating charging.. What happens to system. 100 during this conditioning period can be dependent upon some of the real-time factors described herein. On of the big. influences of what, systems roust be adjusted is what level of charging station will be used for .recharging. [0034] For example, fa charging of ESS 105 is improved when the cals in ESS 105 are warmer than the standar operating temperature. During o eration, cells of ESS 105 are cooled and maintained within an operational temperature range that i s no greater than a target temperature ie.g,, 40 "C). Prefera l lu ri g ast charging, the- c&% are maintained mininmo of 10 degrees Celsins above ihe standard operating temperature with a preferred temperature target about 40 "C This- temperature is generally above the operating temperature range, Therefore ESS 103 most be adjusted, (actively warming ES 105 or passi vely allowing ESS 105 to -rise) from the operational temperature to each this fast-charging temperature, Ho we ver in some cases cooling is necessary or desirable to reach the appropriate temperature for fast-charging (arid/or standard non-fast-ehsrging),

[0035] Management system 120 preferabl anticipates whe fast-charging is going to be used and prepares ESS 105 i advance so it is closer to the desired fast-charging temperature when the user desires to ini ti:a e..fa.st : -charg.iiig. There are various mechanisms by which . management s stem 120 is able to amicipate this situatio and/or pre are ESS for mst-charging.

[0036] Anticipation of an upcoming fast-charging event may be determined i» mmj different: ways. For purpos s of this discussion, management system 120 operates the EV using an operational profile for cooling, warming, charging, discharging, and the like prior to this

determination. Once management system 120 determines that a fast-charging event is upcoming, depending upon, operating conditions of the EV, management system. 120 switches to a pre-fast- charging profile for cooling, warming, charging, discharging, and the like. The current operating conditio s and the immediacy of the upcoming rast-ehargiug event determine an aggressivenes level of the pre-fhst-chas-ging profile. The following examples describe various determination modalities for establishing that a ast-cfrarging event is upcoming as well as various pre-fast- charging prof lies. Unless indicated to the contrary, the various manners of determination may be matched to the various pre ~f si ohargrng; profiles.

[ IB7] PIG, 2 illustrates a flowchart for a process 200 that may be implemented by management system .120 of FIG, .1, Process 200 begins with a test at step 205 to determine whether them is an upcoming fast-charge event. The determinatlovt may he based upon deductian/lnehietion from, operator actions and itinerary/schedule, past history of fast-charging events and locations stored and accessed from a memory in coordination wit current location/destination, analysis of an SOC of ESS 1 OS i conjunction with navigation data providing fast-charging station locations In relation to current vehicle location, and the like, Process 200 loops back to ste 205 when the test at step 205 is negative. When '' the test at step 205 is affirmative, process 200 advances to step 210 to establish pan.mete.rs for the upcoming fast-charge event. Managem nt system 120 may, when, determining the upcoming fast-charge event consider how -im.min¾rit/urgent the event and other parameters that may he used in setting/implementing the pre-tast-eharge profile.

[0 38] After step 2 J 0, process 200 performs step 21.5 to switch operational modes of the EV. Process 200 at step 2.1 causes Pie EV to begin operatin in anticipatio of the upcoming , fast- charge even by using the pre-fast~eharge profile instead of the operational profile. Of course the pre- fast -charge profile may be ' integrated into tire operational profile to Include the special operational steps described herein. These embodiments distinguish between an operational, mode and the re- fast-charge m<xie in that the pre-fast-chatge mode causes the EV io operate in a mode other than that, designed for standard driving conditions. I this example, a predominate distinction is modification to en vironmental control 1.35 to aise a temperature of the battery ceils of ESS 1.05 to be above standard operating temperature, and more specifically to have the battery cells reach an ideal, f ast~ c rging temperature. The ideal fast-charging temperature -is dependent upon many factors including S-OC of battery cells of ESS 105, cumulati e energy throughput of battery cells of ESS 105, direct cm-rent resistance of battery ceils of ESS 105, power and mcurrent available from the external power source, ambient temperature at the external power source, and desired fast-charge time, among others. A typical, fast-charge -optimal temperature from this ex m le: is 45 ' +-/- ID i:' C

[IM 9] Step 215 perform the switch to the pte-fast-charging profile at the appropriate time, the appropriate time based upon, the time required to implement the parameter ' s of the p-e-fast- charging profile the level of aggressiveness in the implementation, and when the fast-charging event occurs or is scheduled to occur.

10040] Process 200 tests at step 220 following step 2 IS whether the fast-charge event has been inliiated/eaneeiled. Management . system .120 is able to automatically detect when the fast- charge event begins or is canceled. When the test at step 220 is negative, proc s 200 performs step 225 and continues to operate the EV using the pre-fast charge profile, Some .implementations of mau.agem.ent system. 1.20 operate m real-time or near-real time and adapt the pre-fast-ehatge profile to current information on temperature, SCX2, range/time to initiation o the fast-charge event, and the like.. After step 225, process 200 returns to ste 220 to test whether the fast-charge event has been initiated/canceled. Some implenten tations may not provide a polling test bu t could be implemented as an interrupt:- based upon die inl iatlon/cancelstion of the fast-charge event. [CH>41] When the fast-charge event initiated or canceled, the test at step 220 is affirmative and process 200 then, performs step 230. Step 230 switches operation of the EV from the pre-fast- charge profile, such as, for example,, t (he operational, profile. After step 230, process 200 returns to step 205 to monitor for another upcoming fast-charge event.

[0042] The following examples scenarios include representative .determinations and pre- fast-charge profiles..

[0043] Exma h ii

1004 ] At any point during operation, -a use of the EV indicates a plan to perform a fast charge soon af er completion of the current drive session, At this point management system 120 implements, the pre-fast-e arge profile and causes the EV to eater a mode in which a goal of environmental control 135 is to maintain cell temperature as close to the ideal fast charge temperature as possible. This goal may be achieved in. a number of wa s, including: delaying BVAC events, reducing coolant flow mte in ESS 105, insulating ESS 105 with some mechanical apparatus, . . using some energy to warm ESS 105 during drive, and the like.

[0045] it would also be beneficial for management system 120 to include in its processing information relatin to approximately how many miles away the fast charge locatio is for other parameter thai -could be used to determine ho w long until the fast-charge event may occur}, in this manner, a more aggressive method can be take to prepare the battery a it approaches the fast charge station. Management system 120 can also take into account how much vehicle range- is remaining in relation to the fast charge location. Management system 120 is able to use mis information to set parameters of the pm-fast-ehai'ge profile snob as how much energy from ESS 105 will be used and how aggressively ESS 1.05 can fee. warmed, (For example, if EV ha a. significant quantity of range left and is within a. predetermined distance front time to the fast charger, the pre- fhst-charge profile may cause the EV to urn additional energ to solely heat ESS 1.05 before arri val at the fast-charge location),

[0046] Exam 2:

[0047] Before a drive starts, the driver indicates that the drive will be a long/extended range dri ve. Fast charge locations are mapped out (manually or automatically) on the navigation system . using OPS and other geotocation services. In this wa , management system 120 is able to eierarine when to switch profiles as the EV approaches the identified locations.

(00 S] 1.8 some situations, fast charging may not he available when charging is required, in such situations. e.g., at a hotel, motel, or other overnight charging location that does not support fast- ebargu g, the charging locations are identified as "normaf " charge locations. Management system 120 doe net switch profiles for no -fast-charging locations,

i " iM>St ] After a drive and once connected to a charger, management system 120 selects a correct charging temperature based orrcommno leaf ion with the charging system (e,g.» charge rate available, projected charge time, and the like) Management system 120 may predict as well what the most likely charge station will be once the -SOC fails to a certain level and prepare accordingly for fast charge or standard charge (for instance while driving 200 miles away from, home management system 120 predicts use of a fast charge when a fast charger is known to fee within X number of miles when the SOC is getting low. or expect standard charging when SOC is low and the vehicle is near its usual charging port that h a standard charger,) im Ex m l 4:

[0052] Profile switching by manage ent system. 1.20 is not limited to changes initiated daring dri e, but is available daring other standard operation to address time management of a given fast charge session. Upon initiation of a fast-charge event, the driver selects the range requested (SOC) and the ti me needed te achieve this SOC. Of course many of the ti mes, this will be as m uch range as fast as possible. Other times when mere is fkxibility allows for several "medium rate" charge sessions that could be requested. In such cases, management system 120 can be smarter about how to use the time to prepare ESS ! QS, For exam le, when the driver requests 80% SOC in 2 hours, then, man.ageoie.nt system. 120 is able to determin the optimal, combination, of pre-heating ESS 105 and using a. lower rate charge to meet the deadline. Similarly th driver may identify thi need in terras of range by a certain time (for example, 80 miles range by 3 pm)< Th driver identification may foe performed directly my using a user interface of management system 120 or management system .120 may deduce this Information tram, an. itinerary or calendar stored in, or accessible by, management system 120, Γ0053Ί Exams!© Ss

101 54] Charging at a high enough rate naturally heats ESS 103 due to joule heating. Some pre-fast- charging profile accounts for the anihierii and. standard operating temperatures and slowly ramps up the fast-c¾argi.og current, taking advantage of joule heating to minimize additional heating. Management system 120 may provide for x of short pulses to be ¾se . to beat up the battery at the sta of a fast charge.

[0055 ' ] Management system 120 in preferred embodiment includes a. co puter system with, a processor and memory storing compiler-program instructions implementing one or m re of the processes and features described herein, to r . emhodmients, management system 120 includes a user interface.

C 56J The system and et ods above has been described In genera! terms as an aid to understanding details of preferred embodiments of the present invention. In the description, herein, numerous specific details are provided, sncft as examples of components and/or methods, to provide a. thorough nderstanding of embodiments of the present invention. Some features and benefits of the present, invention am . realized in such modes and are not required in every case. One skilled in. the relevant art will recognize, however, that an embodiment of the invention can b practiced without one or more of the specific details, or with other apparatus, systems, assemblies, methods, components, materials, parts, and/or the like, in other instances, well-known structures, materials, or operations are not specifically shown or described in detail to avoid obscuring aspects of

embodiments of the re ent invention,

(0057] Reference throughout this specification to "one em odiment", "an embodiment", or "a specific embodiment" means that a particular featum, structure, or characteri tic described in. connection with the embodiment is included in at least one embodime t of the pmsent invention and not necessarily in all. embodiments, Tims, respective appearances of the phrases "In one

embodiment' * , "in. an embodi ent's or "in a specific embodiment" in various places throughout this specification are not necessarily referring to the same embodiment. Furthermore, the particular features, structures, or chameteristics of any specific embodiment of the present invention, may he combined in any suitable manner with one or more other embodiments. It is to be understood, that other variations and modifications of the embodiments of the present invention described and illustrated herein, am possible in ligh of the teachings herein, and are to be considered as part of the spirit and scope of the present invention. (CKJaSJ It will also be appreciated that one or mom of the elements depicted in the dra in /figores .cm also b implemented n a more separated or integrated .m nner, or e en rem v l or rendered as inoperable in certain cases, as is useful in accorda« ¾ with a particular application.

(0059] Additionally, any signal arrows in the drawings/Figures should be considered only as- exemplary, and n t limitin , unless otherwise specifically rioted. f½thermore, the term "or * as used herein is generally nt nded to mean "and or 5X unless otherwise indicated, Combinations of com onents or steps will al o be considered as being noted, where terminology is ..foreseen as rendering the abilit to separate or combine is unclear,

£0 60] As used i n the description herein and throughout, the claims that fellow; V, aft", and "the" includes plural, references unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Also, as used in the description herein and throughout the claims that follow, the meaning of ''in" includes ¾ and "on" nless the context dearly dictates otherwise.

[ )061 ] The foregoing description of illustrated embodiments: of the present Invention, including what is described in the Abstract, is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to die precise forms disclosed herein. While specific embodiments of, and examples for. the invention are described herein for Illustrative purposes only, various equivalent modifications are. possible within the spirit and scope of the present invention, as diose skilled in the relevant art will recognize and appreciate. As indicated, these modifications may be made to the present invention in light of the foregoing description of illustrated embodiments of the present invention..and .are to be included within the spirit and scops of the present invention.

[0062] Thus, while the present; Invention has been described herein with reference to particular embodiment thereof, latitude of modification, various changes and substitutions are intended in the foregoing disclosures, and it will be appreciated that in some instances some features of embodiments of the invention will be employed without a. corresponding use of other features without departing from the scope and. spirit of the invention as set forth. herefom, many

modification may be made to : adapt a particular situation or material to the essential, scope and s irit of the present invention, it is intended that the invention not be limited to the particular terms used in following claims and/or to the particular embodiment disclosed as the best mode contemplated for canyiog out this . invention, but that the invention will include any and all embodiments and e uvalents falling wst the. scope of iiie appended claims. Thus, the sco e of the in enton is to be determined solely by the appended clams.