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Title:
FASTENER SYSTEMS AND METHODS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/079538
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A system includes a washer, a nut, a retainer structure,, and a gasket. The washer has a bore extending between a distal end and a proximal end. A first section of the bore extends from the distal end to a shoulder portion, A second section of the bore extends from the shoulder portion to the proximal end. The shoulder portion defines an aperture. The nut is configured to be received in the first section of the bore. The nut includes a threaded bore configured to threadably engage a threaded shaft of a bolt. The retainer structure is configured to axially retain die nut in the first section of the bore of the washer. The gasket has a through-bore axially aligned with the bore of the washer and the threaded bore of the nut. The gasket is configured to be axially retained in the second section of bore of the washer.

Inventors:
WILTGEN, Raymond, Thomas (W4202 W. Black Point Drive, Lake Geneva, WI, 53147, US)
MAY, David, Brian (9721 E. Flathorn Drive, Scottsdale, AZ, 85255, US)
Application Number:
US2018/056426
Publication Date:
April 25, 2019
Filing Date:
October 18, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
SECURITY LOCKNUT, LLC (999 Forest Edge Drive, Vernon Hills, IL, 60061, US)
International Classes:
F16B31/00; F16J15/02
Foreign References:
JP2000320520A2000-11-24
RU2016103104A2017-08-07
USD799315S2017-10-10
CN201221543Y2009-04-15
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HUFFMAN, Gregory, M. (McDonnell Boehnen Hulbert & Berghoff LLP, 300 South Wacker DriveChicago, IL, 60606, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A fastener system comprising:

a washer having a bore e tending between ·& distal ead and a proximal end, wherein a first section of the bore extends from the distal end to a shoulder portion, wherein a second section of the bore extends from the -shoulder portion to the proximal end, wherein the shoulder portion defines an. aperture;

nut configured to be received in the first section of the bore, wherein the nut comprises a threaded section configured to threadably engage a threaded shaft of a bolt; a retainer structure configured to axialiy retain the nut in the first sectio of the bore of the washer; and

a gasket having a through-bore :.&xially- aligned with th bore of the washer and the threaded section of the nut, wherein, the gasket is configured to be axialiy retained in the second section of the bore of the washer.

2. The fastener system of claim !, further comprising a protective structure configured to be received is the first section of the bore of the washer distal of the retainer structure, wherein the protective structure extends from, the nut to a side wall of the washer.

3. The fastener system of claim 1 , -wherein the first section of the bore includes a side wail extending from the distal end of the washer to the shoulder portion, and

wherein- the sid wall comprises a recess that is satiable for retaining the retainer structure.

4. The fastener system of claim 1, wherein the second section of the bore comprises:

a first tapered wall extending outwardly from, the shoulder portion toward the proximal end of the washer, and

a flange section proximal of" the first tapered wall and extending inwardly to provide an engagement surface for axialiy retaining the gasket.

5. The fastener system of claim 4, wherein the second section of the bore further comprises a second tapered wall extending outwardly from the flange section to the proximal end of th e wa sh er, and

wherein a gap is formed between a proximal portion of the gasket and the second tapered wall of the washer.

6. The fastener system, of claim 4, wherein an exterio surface of the gasket comprises a distal portion, a flange portion, and a proximal poition,

wherein the distal portion of the exterior surface tapers outwardl from a first end wall of the gasket toward the -flange portion,

wherein the proximal -portion of the exterior surface- tapers -inwardly from the flange portion toward a second end wall of the gasket, and

wherein the .flange section of the washer engages the flange portion of the gasket, to axially retain the gasket in the second section of the washer.

7. The fastener system of claim 6S wherein the distal portion has a surface profile with a con tour that approximately matches a tapered contour of the first tapered wall in the second section of the washer.

8. The .-fastener system of claim 6, wherein the distal 'portion of the- gasket abuts the first, tapered wall in the second section of the washer.

9. The fastener system of claim 8, wherein the first end wall of the gasket is at the shoulder portion of the washer,

10. The fastener system of claim 6, wherein the proximal portion of the gasket extends -beyond the proximal end of the washer.

11. The fastener system of -claim 6·,. wherein the proximal portion of the gasket comprises one or more indi cator mailings that indicate a size of the gasket.

12. The fastener system of claim 4? wherein the nut extends from a first end face to a second end face,

wherein the shoulder portion .limits axial .movement of the nut in a proximal direction, and wherein th shoulder portion of me washe and a second end face of the nut are generally flat surfaces, whic are substantially perpendicular to an axis of the bore.

13, The fastener system of claim 1, wherein the not .'comprises a bore extending from a first end face of the nisi to a second end face of the nut,

wherein the second end face engages the shoulder portion of the washer, and wherein the bore of the nut comprises a chamfer at the second end face, and •wherein the chamfe is suitable to receive the gasket when/the gasket is compressed against a structural element

.14, The fastener system of claim 1, further comprising a lock ring,

wherein the nut further comprises an unthreaded section that is configured to receive a lock ring, and

wherein the lock ring comprises a threaded, inner wall and an outer surface having a lug, and

wherein the lug is configured to rotatahly lock the lock ring to the nut.

.15. The. fastener system of claim I , wherein the nut is rofatable relative to the washer when the nut is received in the first section of the bore of the washer,

16. The fastener system of claim ! , wherein the nut comprises an outer surface including a grip portion, which has a non-round shape.

17. The fastener system of claim 1, wherein the retainer structure is a retaining ring.

18. The fastener system of claim !, wherein a dwell is formed between the shoulder portion of the washer and the retainer structure, and

wherein the nut can move axiaiiy within the dwell.

1 . A method of assembling a fastener system, wherein the: fastener system comprises a washer, a nut, a retainer structure, and a gasket wherein the washer comprises a bore extending between a distal end and a proximal end, wherein a first section of the bore extends from the distal end to a shoulder portion, wherein a second section of the bore extends from the shoulder portion to the proximal end, the method comprising:

inserting the gasket in the second section of the bore of the washer, wherein the gasket is axially retained, in the second section of the bore;

inserting the nut in ihe first section of the bore of the washer; and-

'coupling the retainer structure t the washer in the. first, section of the bore to axially retain the nut. in the first section of the bore of the washer.

20. The method of claim .1 , furthe compri ing coupling a. protective structure to the nut of the retainer structure in the first section of the bore of the washer, wherein the protective structure is distal of the retainer structure, wherein the protective structure extends from the not to a side wail of the washer.

21. The method of claim 19, wherein i nserting the gasket comprises:

deforming the gasket;

while deforming the. gasket, inserting the gasket until flange portion of the gasket passes a flange section of the washer;

after inserting: the flange portion of the gasket passes the flange section of the washer, allowing the gasket to return to ¾ .non-deformed shape such that the flange portion of the gasket engages the flange section of the washer to axial ly retain the gasket in the second sec tion of the bore of the washer.

22. The method of claim 19, wherein coupling the retainer structure to the washer comprises;

applying a force to the retainer structure to reduce a size of the retainer structure to a size that is smaller than a diameter of a side wall, of the bore in the first section of the washer; while applying, the force to the retainer structure, inserting the retainer structure into the bore until the retainer structure is located at a recess in th side wall; and

after the retainer structure is at the recess, removing the force from the retainer structure to allow the retaine structure to expand into the recess,

wherein the retainer structure is ax tally retained in the recess and extends inwardly fromthe side wall to provide an a¾ia! stop that limits movement of the nut in. a distal direction.

23. The method of claim 19, further comprising inserting a lock ring into .an uathreaded section of a bore of the nut.

24, A fastener system comprising:

a washer having a bore extending between a distal end and a proximal end;

a gasket having a, through-bore axiaily aligned with the bore of the washer, wherein the gasket s configured to be axiaily retained in the bore of the washer;

a nut comprising bore havin a threaded section and an unthreaded section, wherein ihe threaded section is configured to threadablv engage a threaded sh aft of a bolt; and

a lock ring in the unthreaded section of the nut, wherein the lock ring comprises a threaded inner wall and an outer surface having a lug, wherein the lug is configured to rotatahly lock the lock ring to the nut.

Description:
FASTENER SYSTEM ARB METHODS

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

[0001 ] The present application claims priority to IJ.S. Provisiona! Patent Application No. 62/574,586, filed on October 19, 2017, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

FIELD

[0002] The present disclosure generally relates to fastener systems and methods, and more particularly to fastener systems and methods for coupling and sealing a plurality of structural elements.

BACKGROUND

[0003] . Mills are used in a variety of Mining operations to mine mineral ores. A typical mill includes a cylindrical shell, and a sacrificial liner to protect the shell. A fastener system inciudiog a plurality of liner bolts, robber seals, washers, and nuts are typically used to secure the sacrificial liner to the shell.

SUMMARY

(00041 In an example, a system include a washer, a nut, a retainer structure, and a gasket. The washer Iras a bore extending . between a distal end and a proximal end. A first section of the bore extends from the distal end to a shoul der portion. A second section of the bore extends from the shoulder portion to the proximal end. The shoulder portion defines an aperture. The nut is configured to be received in the first section of the bore. The nut includes a threaded section configured to threadaMy engage a threaded ' shaft of a bolt. The retainer structure is configured t ax sally retain the nut in the firs section of the bore of the washer. The gasket has a through-bore axialiy aligned with the bore of the washer and the threaded section of the nut. The gasket is configured to be axialiy retained in the second section of the bore of the washer.

[0005] In another example, a method of assemblin a fastener system is described. The fastener system includes a washer, a nut, a retainer structure, and a gasket. The washer includes a bore extending ' between a distal end and a proximal end. A first section of the bore extends from the distal end to a shoulder portion . A second section of the bore extends from the shoulder portion to the proximal end. The -method includes ' inserting the gasket io the second secti on of the bote of the washer. The gasket is axially retained in the second section of the bore. The method also includes inserting the ran in the first section of the bore of the washer. The method farther includes coupling the retainer structure to the washer in the first section of the bore to axially retain the nut in the first section of the bore of the washer.

{QW6] in another example, a fastener system includes a washer, a gasket, a hut, arid a lock ring. The washer has a hate extending between a distal end and a . roximal end. The gasket has a through-bore axially aligned with the bore of the washer. The gasket is configured, to be axtally retained in the bore of the washer. The nut includes a bore having a threaded section and an unthreaded section. The threaded section is configured to threadabiy engage a threaded shaft: of a ' bolt The lock ring is in the unthreaded section of the nut. The lock ring, includes a threaded inner wall and as outer surface having a lug. The lug is configured to rotatab!y lock the lock ring to the nut-

[0007] The features, functions,, and advantages that have been discussed can be achieved independently in various mbod ments or may be combined in yet other embodiments further details of which can be seen with reference to the following description and drawings..

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF HE PICURES

[0008] The novel features believed characteristic of the illustrative embodiment are set forth in the appended claims. The illustrative embodiments, however, as well as a preferred mode of use, further objectives and descriptions thereof will, best be understood: by reference to the following detailed description of an illustrative embodiment of the present disclosure when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein:

[0009] Figure i is an exploded view of a .fastener system according to an example embodiment.

[ ' 001.0] Figure -2 is a perspective view of the fastener system of Figure 1.

[0011] Figure 3 is another perspective view of the fastener system of Figure L

[0012] Figure 4 is a cross- sectional view of the fastener system of Figure 1.

[0013] Figure 5 is a cross-sectional view of a washer according to an example embodiment.

[0014] Figure 6 is a cross-sectional view of a gasket according , to an example embodiment. [0015] Figure 7 is a cross-sectional view of a nut according to an example embodiment.

[0016] Figure 8 is a perspective view of a lock rin according to an example embodiment

[00 7] Figure 9 is a top view o f the nut of Figures 1 n 7,

[0018] Figure IOA depicts a first stage of a process for coupling a first structural element and a second structural element, ..according to an example embodiment

[0019] Figure 10B depicts a second stage of a process for coupling a first structural element and a second structural element, according to an example embodiment.

[0020] Figure 10C depicts a third stage of a process for coupling a first structural element and a. second structural element, according to an example embodiment

|f )21] Figure ' 10D depicts a fourth stage of a process for coupling a first structural element and a second structural element, according to an example-embodiment

[0022] Figure iOE depicts fifth stage of a process for coupling a first structural element and a second structural element, according to an example embodiment

[0023] Figure 11 depicts a kit of gaskets according to -an example embodiment

[0024] Figure: I2A is a cross-sectional vie of a fastener system according to art ex amp fa .embodiment

[0025] Figure 12B is a perspective view of the fastener system of Figure I A.

[0026] Figure 12C is another perspective vie w of the fastener system of Figure T2A.

[0027] Figure 13A is a perspective view of a fastener system according to another example embodiment.

[0028] Figure 13B is another perspective view of the fastener system of Figure ISA.

[0029] Figure 1.3C is a cross-sectional view of the fastener system of Figure BA.

[0030] Figure 14 is a cross-sectional view of a washer according to an example embodiment.

[003.1 ] Figure 1.5 is a cross-sectional view of a gasket according to an example embodiment.

j [0032] Figure Π is a flowchart of an. example proces for assemblin a fetener system, according to an example embodiment

[0033] Figure 17 is a flowchart, of an exampl process for asae.rabl.ing a . fastener system thai can be used with process shows in Figure 16.

[0034] Figure 18 is a. flowchart of an example process for assembling fastener system that can. be used with process shown in. Figure 1.6.

[0035] Figure 19 is a flowchart of an example process for assembling a fastener system, that ' can be used w th: process shown in Figure 16.

[0036] Figure 20 is a flowchart of an example process for assembling a. fastener system thai can be used with process shown in. Figure 16.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0037] Disclosed embodiments will now b described more fully hereinafter with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which some, but not all of the disclosed embodiments are shown, indeed, several different embodiments ma be described and should not. he construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein. Rather, these embodiments are described so that thi disclosure will be thorough and complete and will fully convey the scope of the disclosure; to those skilled in the art.

[0038] As noted above, conventionally a sacrificial liner is coupled to a mill shell by a fastener system including a linear bolt, a rubber seal, a washer, and a nut A problem with conventional fastener systems is that the rubber seal tends to experience heavy wear and tear, which may lead to slurry egress ing from the mill through the■ ■■ sacrificial liner and the ' mill shell.

[0039] Additionally, the sacrificial liners are routinely replaced during maintenance of the ills. To do so, the .fastener system is decoupled from the sacrificial, liner and the mill shell. When the bolt is unthreaded from the nut, there is no longer any structure holding together the rubber seal, the washer, and the nut. As such, it can be difficult to handle these distinct and separate components as the fastener system is decoupled from the sacrificial liner and the mill -shell hi some instances, one or more of these components may fall -causing damage to the components -and/or making retrieval of the components challenging (e.g., a bolt may fall through a grating). Accordingly, handling and using conventional fastener systems ' can b time-consuming . ' and inefficient, and may lead to extended downtime of the mill.

[0040] The fastener systems of the present disclosure can beneficially address one or more of the drawbacks of conventional fastener systems. For example, the fastener systems of the present disclosure can include a washer thai can retain one or more eonrponeois of tbe fastener systems (e.g., a gasket and/or a nut). Additionally, for example, the fastener systems of the present disclosure can beneficially improve the seal, by compressing and deforming a gasket into engagement with a t hreaded shaft of fee liner bolt

[0041] Referring now to Figures 1-4, a fastener system 100 is depicted according to a example embodiment of the present application. More particularly. Figure 1 i an exploded view of the fastener sysiem 100, Figure 2 and Figure 3 are perspective views of the f stener system 100, and Figure 4 is cross-sectional view of the fastener system ϊ 00 ' taken through line 4 in Figure 2.

[0042] As shown in Figures 1 -4, the fastener system 100 includes a washer 110, a gasket 1 12, a nut 1 14, a lock ring 1 16, a retainer structure 1 18, and a protective structure .120. The fastene system 1.00 includes a passageway 122 extending from a distal end 124 of the fastener sysiem .100 to a proximal end 126 of the fastener system 100. in. Figures 1 -4, the passageway 122 has an axis 128. A described in. ' further detail below, the passageway 122 can have a size and shape that is based, at least in part, on size and shape of a bolt to which the fastener system 1.00 .ma be coupled.

[0043] Figure 5 is a cross-sectional side view of the washer 1 .10 accordin to an example. As shown in Figures 4-5, at the washer 1 .10, the passageway; 12 is provided by a bore 1.30 extending, from a distal end 1:32 of the washer 1 1.0 to a proximal end. 134 of the washer 1 10. A shown i Figures 4-5, a first section 136 of the bore 1.30 extends from the distal erid 1.32 of the washer 11.0 to a shoulder portion 138 in the bore .130, Additionally, as shown in Figures 4-5, a second section 140 of the bore 130 extends from the shoulder portion 138 to the proximal end 134 of the washer 1.10. As such, in this example, the shoulder portion 138 can partition the bore 130 into the first section 136 and the second. section 140.

[0044] Additionally, as shown in Figures 4-5, the first section 136 of the bore 130 iiiciud.es a side tvali 142 extending from the distal end 132 of the washer 1 10 to the shoulder portion i.38. The shoulder portion 1 8 extends inwardly from the side wall 142 toward, the axis 128 to provide an end wall of the first section 1.36, The shoulder portion 138 defines an aperture .144.centered on the axis 128. The side wail. 142 can include a recess 146 that is suitable for retaining the retainer structure 1 18, a shown in Figure 4 and described in further detail below.

[0045] Also, as s o n in Figures 4-5, the second section 140 of the bore 130 can include a first tapered wall 148 extending outwardly (i.e., away from the axis 28) fern the shoulder portion 1 38 toward the proximal end 134 of the washer 5 .1 . Proximal of the first tapered wall .148 is a flange, section 150, which extends inwardly to provide an engagement surface for axialiy retaining: the gasket 112. The second section 140 farther includes a second tapered, wall 152 extending outwardly from the flange section 1 50 to the prox imal end 134 of the washer 1 .10. Accordingly, in this -arrangement, the flange section 150 is between the first tapered wall 148 and the second Capered wall 152. Additionally, for example, the first tapered wall 148 can define a first conical portion of the second section 140, the flange section 150 can define a generally cylindrical portion, of the second section 140_ and the second tapered wa ll 1.52 can define a second conical portion of the second section 140.

(0046] As shown in Figures 4-5, the washer 1.10 can receive and axialiy retain the gasket 1 12 in the second section .14 of the bore 130. The gasket 1 12 can be made from a deformabfe material such as, for example, a rubber, poiyisoprene, and or polyhuiadiene,

[0047] Figure 6 depicts a cross-sectional side view of the gasket .1.12 according to an example. As shown in Figures 1 -4 and Figure 6, the gasket 1 .12 has a through-bore 154 that extends from a first end wall 15 of the gasket: 1 12 to a second end wall 158 of the gasket 1 12, The through-bore- 13.4 is centered on the axis 128 and, thus, is axially aligned wit the bore 130 of the washer 110.

[0048] An. exterior surface 160 of the gasket 1.12 includes a distal, portion 162, a flange portion: 164, and a proximal portion 166. The distal portion 162 of the exterior surface 1.60 tapers outwardly (i.e., away from the axis 128} from the first end wall 156. toward the flange portion 164. in an example, the distal portion 162 Can have a surface profile with a contour that approximately matches a tapered contour of the first tapered wall 148 in the second section 140 of the washer 1 10. A described further below, this can assist in guiding defomiation of the gasket 1.12 toward bolt when the: gasket 1 2 is compressed during coupling of the fastener system 100 to a structural element.

[0049] The flange portion 164 can provide for axial retention of the gasket 1 12 in the second section 140 of the washer 1 10, More particularly, a diameter (or other dimension) of the flange .portion 164 can be greater than a diameter (of other dime«sio«) of the flange section 150 in the bore BO of the washer 110. As such, to couple die gasket Π2 to the washer 1 10, the gasket 3 12 can be ■■ deformed -and insetted into the bore 130 at the proximal end 134 of the: was er 1 50. Once the flange portion 164 of the gasket 1 12 passes the flange section 150 of the washer 1 .10, the gasket 1 12 can return to a non-deformed shape the., relaxed shape) as shown in Figure 4,

[0050] In this arrangement, the flange section I 50 of die washer 110 engages the flange portion 164 of the gasket 1 12 to axially r tain the gasket 1 12 in the second section 140 of the washer 1 1 . As shown i Figure 4„ when the gasket. 1 :12 is received in the second section 140 of the washer 1 10,. (ί) the distal portio 162 of the gasket 1 12 can abut the first tapered wall 148 and (iil the first end wall 156 of the gasket 112 can he at ' or proximal to the shoulder portion 138 of the washer 110. Further, in the example shown in Figure 4, the distal portion 162 of the. gasket 11:2 generally corresponds in- shape and size to the first tapered wall 1:4$ of the washer .1 10, arid the flange portion. .164 of the gasket 112 generally corresponds in shape anil size to the flange section 150 of the washer 110.

[0051] As shown in Figure 4 and Figure 6, the proximal portion 166 of the exterior surface 160 tapers inwardly from the fla e portion 1 4 toward the second end wall 1.58. As shown in Figure 4, a gap 168 . is fprmed between the proximal portion 166 of the gasket 1 12 and the second, tapered wall 152 of the washer 1 10 when the gasket 1 12 is received in the second section 140 of the washer 1 10. As described in further detail below, the gap 1 o8 can provide a, space into which the gasket 1 12: can deform whe the fastener system 100 engages a structural element while coupled to a holt,

[0052] As shown in Figures 3-4,, the proximal portion 166 can extend beyond the proximai end 134 of the- washer 1 1 when the gasket 1, 12- is coupled to the washer 1 10 (and the fastener system 1,00 is ' disengaged fxorn a structural dement). As shown in. Figure 1 , Figure 3, and Figure 6, the p xiroai portion. 166 ca include one or more indicator markings 170. For instance, the indicator marking(s) 170 can. include a quantity of raised rings on the proximal portion 166 of the gasket 112; however, the indicator marking(s) 170 can have a different structure (e.g., recessed rings, raised bumps, text, symbols, colors, etc..) in othe examples. In one implementation, the indicator niarking(s} 170 can indicate a size of the gasket 1 12. [0053] As shown in Figure ' , the washer i 10· can ' receive and -axially ' retain tire nut 114, the retamer structure 118, and the protecti ve structure 120 In the first section 136 of the bore 130. Figure 7 depicts a cross-sectional view of the nut. i 14 according to an example. As shown in Figures 4 and 7, the tou .! .1 includes a bote 172 that extends from a first end face 174 to a second end face 176 of the out 1 14. The bore 172 includes: a threaded ·. section 178 sad an -unthreaded section 180, which are axlaily aligned with the axis 128. The threaded section 178 is proximal of the unthreaded section 180 in the bore 172. The threaded section 178 can tkreadably engage with threads on the boll The unthreaded section 18 can receive the lock ring 1 16, as described further below.

[0054 An outer surface 182 of the nut 1.14 includes -a flange 184,- groove 186, and a grip portion .188. The ' flange 184 has a diameter (or other dimension) thai is greater than the diameter of the aperture 144 in the shoulder portion 138 (as. ' shown in Figure 5), As such, the shoulder portion 1.38 ears provide: a stop structure, which limits the axial movement of the: nut 114 in the proximal -direction. In Figures 4-5 and 7.. the shoulder portion 138 and the second end face .176 are generally flat surfaces, which are substantially perpendicular to the axis 128. This can beneficially facilitate distributing force over a relatively large surface area of the shoulder portion 1 8 of the washer 1 S O and the second end face 176 of the nut 114 when the fastener system 100 is under tension.

[0055] The flange 1 4 of the nut 1 14 and the first section 136 of the washer 110 are sized and shaped such- that the nut .1 .14 and the washer 1 0 can rotate, relatively to each other (i.e., the nut 114 and the washer 1 10 are not romionaHy fixed). For example, the flange 1.84 of the nut. 1 14 and/or the side wall 142 of the first section 136 m the washer 1 10 can have a generally circular Shape. Additionally, for example, the diameter of the .first section 136 of the bore 130 can be greater than ' the diameter -of " the flange 184 of the nut 1 14.

[0056] In Figures 1-2 and 7, the grip portion 188 is hexagonal; however, the grip portion 188 can have a different shape is other examples. In general, the grip portion 1 8 can have a non-round shape that facilitates applying torque to the gri portion 188 and/or resisting rotation of grip portion 188 while torque is applied to a bolt being coupled to the fastener system 100. W ithin examples, the nut 1 14 can be mad of a metal.

[0057] In Figures 1 and 4, the retainer structure 118 is a retaining ring, which can retain the nut 114 in the first section 136 of the washer 110 when positioned in the recess 146. As shown in Figure 1, the retainer structure 1 18 include a generally ring-shaped structure having a pair of free ends. 1.90. .Each of the fee ends 1.90 can include a lug hole 191. The lug hole 19! can receive a tool (e.g., a pliers) for deforming the retainer structure 1 18 during insertion and removal of the retainer structure 1 18 from the recess 146 of the washer 1 10.

[0058] As shown in Figure 4, when the retainer structure 1 18 is in the recess 146, a first portion of the retainer structure 1 18 engages the recess 1 6 and a -second portion of the retainer structure 118 extends inwardly (i.e.,. from the recess 146 toward the axis 128) past the side -wail 142 of the first section 136, As such, the retainer structure 1 18 can have a cross- sectional width that is greater than a corresponding cross-sectional width of the recess 146. In this arrangement, the second portion of the retainer structure 1 18 can provide a stop structure, whic limits axial movement of the nu 1 14 in the distal direction, due to engagement between the flange- 184 and the second portion of the retainer structure- 1 18.

[0059] Also, as shown in Figure d, when, the retainer structure 118 Is in the recess 146, a dwell 192 is formed between the shoulder portion 138 of the washer Π0 and the retainer structure 18, and the flange 184 of the nut 114 is in the dwell 192. The dwell 192 provides a space in which the nut 1.14 can axiaiiy move within the washer 1 10 (i.e., the -nut 1 14 can move axiaiiy between a distal point at which the nut 1 14 engages the retainerstructure 118 aad a proximal point at which the nut 1 14 engages the shoulder portion 138 of the washer 110), By allowing the nut 1 1 to axiaiiy move within the dwell 192, the nut 114 can be allowed to rotate relati ve to the washer 110 and the gasket 1 1.2 during certain stage of a process for fastening a plurality of structural elements to each other using the fastener system 100 and a bolt, as described further below.

[0060] The protective structure 120 can he received in the first section 136 of the bore 130 of the washer 1 10 distal of the retainer .structure. 118 and the flange 184 of the nut 114, For -example, the protective strticture 120 can be- retained- in the groove 186 of the nut 1.1.4. The protective structure 120 is a generall ring-shaped structure having a cross-sectional width that corresponds to a distance between the groove .186 and the side wall 142 of the washer 11 . in this arrangement,, the protective structure 120 can provide a barrier that inhibits (or prevents) ingress of dirt and/or debris into a proximal portion of the first section 136 of the washer 1 10. As examples, the protective structure 12 can be made from a rubber, a silicone, and/or a plastic material [00 1] As noted above,, the lock rin 1 16 can ' be received in the unthreaded section I SO of the bore 172 in the nut 114. Figure 8 depicts the lock ring . ! 16 according to an example. As shown in Figure 8, the Jock ring 1.16 includes a threaded inner wall 194 defining a threaded bore 196 w threadsbly engaging a threaded shaft of a bolt, and an outer surface 197 having a lug 198 .for rotatably locking the rin to the nut 114. " The; lug 198 has a semi-circular configuration and extends substantially the entire height of the lock ring 116. The big 198 c n be beveled on one or both ends. In other examples, the lug 198 can have any other suitable structure and/or the lock ring 116 can include additional logs 19$, The lock ring 1 16 can additionally or alternatively include any other suitable locking structure ibr rotatably locking the lock ring 1 16 to the nut 1 1 , such as, for example, one or more knurls, keyways, dowel pins or the like.

[0062] Before coupling: to the nut .1 14 * the lock rin 1 16 initially has a generally elliptical shape. The generally elliptical shape is not intended to re uire symmetry, especially since the lock rin 116 may need to be distorted to achieve its generally ' elliptical shape. The lock ring 1 16 can be made from any suitable steel alloy or any other suitable material. Tbe lock ring 1 1 can have any other structure and configuration in accordance with other embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0063] In some examples, a thermal diffusion coating can be applied to the lock ring 1 16. The thermal diffusion coating can. be applied in any suitable manner. The thermal diffusion process creates a zinc metal layer alloyed to the surface of the lock ring 116, utilizing a zi c powder formulation or other suitable formulation. The lock ring 1 16 can be coated fay adding the ring and a suitable amount of the formulation to a drum, which is sealed and heated in an oven or the like. The drum, rotates slowly in the oven, while it undergoes a multi-stage heating and cooling cycle. The thermal diffusion coating may be applied in any other suitable manner in accordance with other embodiments of the present disclosure. The thermal diffusion coating adds to the liie of the lock ring 11 and the nut 1 14 because, among other reasons, it reduces galling between the lock ring 1 16· and bolt.

[0064] Figure 9 depicts a top view of the n ot 114 according to an example. As noted above, the lock ring 116 is received by the " unthreaded section 180 of the bore 172 in the nut 1 14. A top face of tbe nut 114 defines a slot 1 9 contiguous with the unthreaded section 180 of the bore 172 for receiving the lug 198 of the lock ring 1 16 to rotatably lock the lock ring 1 16 to the nut 1 14. The nut 1 14 can be made of steel or any other suitable material. [0065] When the tmt 114 -arid the lock ring 116 are assembled, the lock .ring 1 16 is ro!aiabi locked to the nut 13 . The lock ring 116 is disposed within the unthreaded section 180 of the bore 172 and the log 198 disposed within the slot 199 defined fay the mil 1 14, The threaded inner wall 194 of the lock ring 1 16 is in. general axial alignment with, t e threaded section 178 of the .tmt ! 14. There ma be. separation between the threaded inner wall 194 of th lock ring 1 16 and the threaded section 178 eves though the are in general axial alignment. The lock ring 1 16 with its generally elliptical configuration is disposed within the substantially cylindrical. unthreaded .section. 180 of the bor 172. The lock ring 1 16 may be squeezed or pressed in. ' an suitable -manner -as it is inserted into the unthreaded section 180 of the bore 172, The generally elliptical .shape of the lock ring 116 engages the unthreaded section 180 of the n ot 114 to maintain the lock ring 1 .16 within the unthreaded secti on 180 of the bore 172.

[0066] In the example depicted by Figures I «5, ' the proximal - end 134 of the washer 1.10 ha a generally flat .surface profile. In an alternative example., the proximal end 134 of the washer .110 can have a contoured surface profile. For instance, the proximal end 1 34 can be -contoured to -match a surface profile of a surface of a structural, element that the proximal end 134 engages when the fastener system 1:00 is under tension,. This ca help to distribute the force over a greater surface area and of reduce (or prevent) defection of the washer 1 10 when under tension,

(0067] In implemesiations in. which the proximal end 134 has a contoured surface profile, the washe :! 10 can include one or more alignment markings on an exterior surface of the washer 1 10, By aligning the markings relative to each other or another reference point, the washer 1 10 can be aligned such that the proximal end 134 properly mates with the structural element

[006$] To assemble the fastener system .100, the gasket 1.12 can be coupled to the washer 1.10. For example , the distal portion .162 of the gasket 11 can be inserted int the second section 140 of the bore 130 in the washer 1 .10 until the flange portion 164 of the gasket 1 12 is located in the flange section 150 of the washer 1 1 . As noted above, because the flang portion 1 4 is greater in size than the second tapered wall 1.52 of the washer .1 10, the gasket .112 can be deformed as it is inserted to allow the flange portion 164 of the gasket 1 12 to pass into the flange section 1.50 of the washer 1 10. After the gasket 1 12 is fully inserted into the second section 1:40 of the washer 1.10, the flange portion 164 of the gasket 112 abuts the flange section 150 of the washer 11 to axially retain the gasket 1 12 in the second section 140 of the was her 1 10.

[0069] Within some exam les, prior to inserting the gasket 1 12 in the washer J 10, an adhesive can be applied to the second tapered wall 148 of the washer 1.10 and/or th distal portion 162 of the gasket 1 12. In such, exarnples, the adhesive can assist and/or enhance the axial retention of the gasket ! 12 i the washer 1 1 ,

00?0} Additionally, to assemble the fastener system 100, the nut 1 14, the retainer structure Π8, and the protective Structure 120 are coupled to the washer 1 10, To do so, the nut 1 14 is first inserted into the first section 136 of the bore 130 in the washer 110. The nut 1 14 can be inserted until the second end wail 176 of the nut 114 abuts against the shoulder portion 138 of the washer 1 10, Within some examples, prior to inserting- the out 1 14, a grease can be applied to the second end wall 176 of the nat 114 and/or the shoulder portion 1.38 of the washer 11.0. Applying the grease can reduce friction between the nut 1 1 and the washer 1 10, for example, daring rotation of the nut 114 relative to the washer 1 1 .

[0071] After inserting the nut 114 in the first section .136 of the washer 110, the retainer structure 118 can be inserted in the reces 146, For example, this can include inserting & tool (e.g., pliers) into the lu holes 191 of the retainer structure 1 18 and applying a force, using the tool, to reduce the size of the retainer structure 118 to a s ze that is smaller than a diameter of the side wall 142 of the first section 136 of the bore 330 the washer 1 10. While applying the force to retainer structure 1 18, the retainer structure 1 18 can be inserted into the bore 130 and located, at the recess 1 6. The force, applied by the too i can be removed and the retainer structure 1 18 can then expand into the recess 146. With the. etainer structure 1 18 in the recess 1.46, at least a portion of the retainer structure 1 18 extends inwardly from the side wall 142 to provide an axial stop, limiting movement of the nut 1 14 in the distal direction..

[00 * 72] After the retainer structure 118 is inserted in the recess 146, the protective structure 120 is inserted in the groove 186 on the nut 1 14. The lock ring 1 1 can be inserted into the nut 1 14 at before, during, or after inserting the nut 114 into the washer 1 10.

[0073] In the assembled state, the washer 1 10, the gasket 1 12, the nut 1 14, the lock ring 1 16, the retainer structure 1 1 , and the protective structure 120 are coupled to each other. As such, the fastener system 1.00 can provide an integrated assembly unit for coupling with a bolt. [0014] A process for coupling a: plurality ' ' bf structural elements to each other using the fastener system 100 and a bolt will ROW be described with respect to Figures 10A~i0E, l o one example, the plurality of structural elements I002A, 1002B can include a miii shell and a sacrificial liner for a ball mill, a .roller mill, and or a SAG- mill However, in other examples, the structural elements 1002A, I002B can nclude any structures. More- generally, the .structural elements 1002 A, 1O02B can be structures that are coupled to each other, experience rigorous, operating conditions (e.g., relatively substantial vibrational .forces) .* and/or provide a seal against flui d egress from one side of the structures ip another side of the structures,

[0075] For simplicity, the example process is described for two: structural elements 10Q2A, 1.002B; however, the fastener system 100 can be used to couple more than two structural elements I 002A, 1002.B in other examples, For instance, in another ' example, -a rubber ' layer can be arranged between a sacrificial liner and a mill shell, and th fastener system 100 can be used to couple the sacrificial liner, the rubber layer, and: the mill shell to each other.

[0076J As shown in Figure 1 A, the first structural element 1002 A and the second structural element 1002B can each, include an- perture 1003A, 1003.8. In operation, the fust structural element 1002 A and the second structural element 1.0028 can be positioned such that the apertures 1003 A, 1003B are aligned. Then, as shown in Figure !OB, a bolt 1004 can be inserted through the apertures I003A, 1003.8 of the first, structural, element 1002 and second structural element 1002B. The bolt 1004 can have a bolt head 1004.4 and a threaded shaft ΊΟ04Β. In some exanipies, the bolt head 1 04 A can reside in a recess in an interior surface of the first structural element . 1 ' 002A.

[0077] As shown in Figure lOB, after th bolt 1004 is inserted, the threaded shaft I004B extends from an exterior surface 1005 of the second structural element 10028. Next, as shown in Figure 10C, the fastener system 100 can he aligned with, the bolt 1.004 such that the proximal end 126 of the fastener system 100 faces the exterior surface 1005 of the second structural element I002B, and th -passageway 12:2 is a ially aligned with the threaded shaft 1004B of the bolt 1004. The fastener system 100 can then be axially moved towards the second straernrai element 1002.8 until the threaded shaft 1004B of the bolt 1.004 contacts the threaded section 178 of the bore 172 in the But 1 14.

[0078] Next, the nut 1 1 and/or the holt can. ' be . , rotated to move the nut 114 along the threaded shaft 10048 of the holt 1.004. Initially, the nut 1 1 can rotate .relative to the washer 110 and the gasket 112. This cart mitigate (or prevent) damage and/or wear on the washer 1 10 and/or the gasket 1 12, The fastener system 1 0 is moved towards the second structural, element 1002B until the second end wall 158 of the gasket 112 contacts the exterior surface 1005 of the second structural element 1Θ02Β a shown in Figure HID. After the second end waif 1,58 of the gasket 112 contacts the second structural element- 1002 B, the nut 1 1 and/or the ' bolt 1 04 can ' be further rotated.

[0079] As the nut 114 and/or the bolt 1004 are further rotated, the second structural element 1002B applies a force to the gasket 1 12. Hits force first causes a portion of the gasket 112 to deform towards and onto the threaded shaft 1004B of the bolt 1004, thereby sealing the apertures 1003 A, 1003B of the first -structural element I002A and the second structural element 10028, As the nut .1 1 and/or the holt continue to rotate, the gasket 112 can further deform outwardly into the gap 1 8 (as shown in Figure 4) between the gasket 112 and: the second tapered wall 152 of the washer 1 10. When the nut 114 and the bolt 100 achieve a desired and/or predetermined tension, rotatio of the nut 114 and/or the bolt 1004 can cease. Figure IDE depicts the fastener- system 1 0 and the boh 1004 coupling the first structural element 1002 A to the second structural element 1002B under the desired and/or predetermined tension.

[0080] Within examples, when the nut 1 14 and the bolt arc under the desired and/or predetermined tension, the proximal end 134 -of the washer 110 contacts the exterior surface 1.005 of the second structural element 1.0026, To achieve this, the gap 168 is sized to. allow for sufficient, deformation of the gasket 1 12 so that the gasket 112 does not protrude proxtmally from ' the proximal end 134 (and -inhibit or prevent contact between the proximal end 134 and the second structural element).

[0081] Also, during rotation of the nut 114 and/or the bolt 1004, the threaded shaft 1004B of the boh. 1004 eventually engages the- lock ring 1 16. As the bolt 1004 rotates relative, to the lock ring 116, the threaded shaft 1004B mreadably climbs the ; threaded inner wall 194 of the Sock ring 1.16. As the rotation continues, the threaded shaft 1004B of the bolt 1004 causes the lock ring 1 16 to distort to a generally- circular shape. The distortion increases the stress in the lock, ring 1 16, Rotational, resistance results From, the lock ring 116 due to Its distorted condition such that a strong Sock is provided between the lock rin 116 and the threaded shaft 1O04B of the bolt 1004 to secure the bolt 1004 to the fastener system 100 and to prevent unlocking; [0082] The distortion of the lock ring 1 16 creates a farce normal to ihe direction of the axis of the threaded shaft Ϊ004Β of the bolt 1004. This force causes Motion between the lock ring 116 and the threaded shaft 1004B of the bolt 1004 durin rotation, and the increased force results in improve! functionality of the fastener system 100. The thermal diffusion coati g can help- o reduce galling between the mating surfaces.

[0083] Within examples, due to the dimensions of the lock ring 1 16, the stress in the lock ring 1 1 as it is distorted during the engagement of. the lock ring 1 16 and the shaft of the bolt 1004 is less than a yield stress of the lock ring 1 16, Because the stress in the distorted lock ring 1.16 is below the yield stress, the lock ring 1 16 will, normally return to its original size and shape once th shaft I 004B s disengaged from the lock ring 1 16. The nut 114 and lock ring 1 16 can thus he repeatedly .re-tightened and can be re~used. Additionally, because the stress is below the yield stress, the lock ring 1 36 is less susceptible to cracking failure, less likel to decrease in performance, over time, -arid less likely to decrease in performance with repeated use. The inclusion of the -.thermal diffusion coating aiso : provides benefits.

[0084] Designing or otherwise constructing the lock ring 116 and the nut 114 such that the stress in the lock ring 1 16 during engagement is less than the yield stress of the lock ring 116- can be achieved by engineering principles and/or by trial and error as described, for example, in U.S. AppL No. 13/298,971 , filed on November 17, 2031 , which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[O0S5] Within, examples, the fastener system 100 can be re-usable. That is, the fastener system 300. can be coupled and decoupled with the bolt 100 and the structural elements ΙΘ02Α, 1 0.2B multiple times. In some instances, however, after an initial, use of the fastener system 1.00, the apertures 1003 A, 1003B of the .first and second structural dements 1002 A, 10028 may change. For example, during operation, vibrational forces may cause the holt to wear on and enlarge one or more of the apertures IQ03A > 1 038 of the structural elements 100 A, I002B, As such, when The fastener system 100 is to be re- coupled, the apertures 1003 A,. I.003B may be too large relative to the size of the gasket 1 3:2 to achieve a complete seal.

[0086] In this scenario, the initial gasket 112 can be removed from the fastener system 100 and a replacement .-gasket 3 12 can be inserted into the washer HO. The . replacement gasket 112 can have a different size and/or shape to better seal the enlarged apertures .1.003 A, 10Q3B of the structural elements) 1002A, I002B-. Accordingly, even though the aperture 1003 A in the first structural element 1002 A and/or the aperture 10O3B in the secoad structural element I002B has become enlarged, ' the fastener system 100 can retrofitted wilt the replacement gasket to achieve a -target sealing capability.

[0087] In some examples, a kit including a plurality of gaskets 1 12 can be provided. Each gasket 1 12 in the kit can have a different size and/or shape (e.g., a differently sized and/o shaped proximal portion 66). Within some examples, each gasket 112 m the kit can have a respective indicator marking 170 indicating the size of the gasket 1 12. To select a replacement gasket 112 to the kit, the sim of the aperture in the structural elements) can be measured and, then the measured size can be used with a lookup table or chart to select an appropriately sized gasket 1 12 from the kit.

[0088] Referring to Figure 11, a kit 1106 of gaskets 132A-1 J.2C is depicted according to an example embodiment As shown ' in figure 10 » . the kit 1 106 includes a first gasket f 1.2A havmg a first size, a second gasket I l;2B ving a second size, and a third gasket 112C having a third size. The first size of the first gasket 112 A, the second size of the secoad gaske 1128, and the third size of the third gasket 1 12C are different than each other. As shown in Figure 10, the first gasket 1 12A includes a first indicator marking 1 0 A indicating the first size, the second . gasket 1 12B includes a second indicator marking 170S indicating the second size, and the third gasket 112C includes a third indicator marking I 0C indicating the third size. Additionally, as shown in Figure 10, the first indicator marking 170A, the second indicator marking 170B, and the third indicator marking 170C are different from each other.

$089] Referring now to Figures i:2A- l C, a fastener system 1200 is depicted according to another example embodiment The fastener system 1200 is substantially similar to the fastener system 100 described above with respect to Figures J -9. For example, the fastener system 1200 includes a washer 1 10, a gasket 1232, a nut 1214, a retainer structure 1218:, and protective structure 1220 that are substantially similar and/or the. me as the washer .1 .10, the gasket 112, the not 1214, the retainer structure 1 18, and the protective structure 120, respectively, described above with respect to Figures 1 -9.

[0090] However, the: fastener system 1200 differs from the fastener system 1Θ0 m that the nut 12-14 ' include? an enlarged chamfer 1215. More specifically, as shown in Figure 12, the nut 1214 includes a bore 1280. extending from a first end face 1274 of the nut 1214 to a second end face 1276 of the nut 12.14. Additionally, as shown in Figure. 1 A, the second end face 1276 of the nut 121 engages a shoulder portion 1238 of the washer 12.10. The bore 1280 of the nut 1214 includes the chamfer 1215 at the second end ' face 1276, and the chamfer 1213 is suitable to receive the gasket 1212 when the gasket 1212 is compressed against a structural element (e.g., the second structural element 1 02 B in Figures 10A-10E).

[0091] In this a mgernent, the chamfer 1215 of the rust 1214 can facilitate leformiug the gasket 1212 distally and into engagement with the threaded shaft 1004B of the bolt 1004. That is, the chamfer .1215 can provide a space into which the gasket .1212 can deform and provide a: surface for guiding the gasket 1212 into engagement with the bolt 1004, This can help to enhance the seal between the gasket 1.21.2 and the bolt 1004 in passage 1222 of the fastener system 1200 and, thus, a seat in the apertures 1003 A, I003B of the first structural element 1002A and the second structural element 1002B in Figures 10A-10B.

[ΟΘ92] Additionally, as showri in Figure 1.2, the -washer 1210 can. include one or more hold-assist features 1217 on an external surface 1 19 of the washer 1.210. For example, in Figure 1.2, the hold-assist features 121 ? include a plurality of holes that are configured to receive a tool such as, for example, a spanner wrench. In this arrangement, an operator can insert the tool (e.g., the spanner wrench) into one or more of die holes to facilitate holding the washer 1210 in a particular rotational position relative to. the first -structural element 1002A, the second structural element 10028, and dr the bolt 1 04 during the operations described above with respect to Figures !OA-iOE,

[0093] In Figure- 12, the hold-assist features 1217 include the plurality of holes arranged in a common plane around a clrctmiferen.ee of external surface 121 , However, the hold-assist features 1.217 can he arranged .differently on. the external surface 1219 of the washer 1210 in other example embodiments.

[0Θ94] 1 ' n the e mple's described above, the fastener system 100, 1200 is ' configured to be assembled in a manner that allows for the components of the fastener system 1.00, 1 00 to be retained in the washer 1 10, 1210. This can beneficially assist in facilitating handling and increase efficiency in coupling and decoupling the fastener system 100, 1200 to and from the bolt 1004 in operation, i turn, this can increase (or maximise) operational efficiencies and reduce a time to assemble, maintain, and/or repair a mill (or other system Including the first, structural element 1Q02A and the second structural -element 1O02B).

[0095] Although the fastener system 100, 1200 that can be: assembled as a unit that is self-retaining can be beneficial, a modified version, of the fastener system 100, 1.200 can be configured such that one or more of th eompoweuts '' described above are not retained in. the washer 10, 1210. As ao example. Figures 13A-13C depict a fastener system 1300 according to another example embodiment. In particular, Figure 13A is a perspective view of the fastener system 1300, Figure 13B is another perspecti ve view of the fastener system 1300, and Figure 13C is a cross-sectional view of the fastener system 1300.

0096] As sh ws in Figures 13A-13C, the fastener system 1300. includes a washer 13.10, a gasket 1312. a nut 1314, and a lock ring 1.316. Figure 14 depicts a cross-sectional view of the washer 1310 in isolation. As shown in Figures 13A--13C and 14, . the washer 1310 includes a bore 1.330 extending from a distal end 1332 of the washer 1310 to a proximal end 1334 of the washer 1.10. Also, as shown in Figures I3A-13C and 14, the bore 1330 can include a ' first tapered wall 1348 extending outwardly from the distal end 1332 toward the proximal end 1334 of the washer 1310, Proximal of the first tapered wall 1348 Is a flange section 1350, which extends inwardly to prov de an engagement surface tor axially retaining the gasket 312.

(0097] The bore 1330 of the washer 1310 further includes a second tapered, wall 1352 extending outwardly from the flange section. 1350 to the proximal end 1334 of the washer 1310, Accordingly, i this arrangement the flange section 1350 is between the first tapered wali 1348 and the second tapered wall 1352. Additionally, for example, th first tapered wail 1348 can define a first conical portion of the bore 1330, the flange. . section. 1350 can define a generally cylindrical, portion of the bore 1330, and the second tapered wall 1352 can define a second conical portion, of the bore 1330,

(0098J As shown in Figure 13C, the washer IS lO ean receive and axially retain the gasket 1312 in the bore 1330. The gasket 1.312 can be substantially similar and/or identical to the gasket 1 12 described above. Figure 15 is a cross-sectional view of the- gasket 1.312 according to an example - embodiment.. As such, as described above, the gasket 1312 can include a through-bore 1354 that extends from a first end wall 1356 of the gasket 1 12 to a second end wall 1358 of the gasket 1312, Additionally, as described above 6, the gasket 1312 can include an exterior surface 1360, which includes a distal portion 1362, a flange portio 1364, and a proximal portion 1366.

[0099] As shown in Figure 13C and Figure 15, the distal portion 1362 can have a surface profile with a contour that -approximately matches, a. tapered contour of the first tapered wail 1348 in the bore .1330 of the washer 1310. Additionally, the flange portion. 1364 can provide for axial reteaiioa of the gasket 1312 in the flange sfection 1350 the bore 1330 of the washer 1310. As. such, - to couple the gasket 1312 to the washer 1310, the gasket 1312 can be deformed and inserted into the bore 1330 at the proximal end 1334 of the washer .1310, as described above. Once the flange portion 1364 of the gasket 1312 passes the flange sectio 1350 of the washer 13.10, the gasket 1312 can return to a non-deformed (i.e., relaxed) shape as shown in Figure 13C.

[0100] In this arrangement the flange section 1350 of the washer 1 10 engages the flange portion 1364 of the gasket 1312 to axiaily retain the gasket I 312 in the bore 1330 of the washer 1310, As shown in Figure 13C, when, the gasket 1312 is received in the bore 1330 of the washer 1310, (i) the distal portion 1362 of the gasket 1312 can abut the fir t tapered wall 1348 and (ii) the first end wall 1356 of the gasket 1312 can he at or proximal to the distal end 1332 of the. washer 1310,

[010.1] As shown in .Figure 13C and Figure 15, the proximal portion. 1366 of the exterior surface 1360 tapers inwardly from the flange portion 1364 toward the second end wall 1358. As shown, in Figure 13C, a gap 1368 is - formed between the proximal portion 1366 of the gasket 1312 and the second tapered wall 1352 of the washer 1310 when the gasket 1312 is received in the bore 1330 of the washer 1310. As described above . , the gap 1368 can provide a space into which the gasket 1 12 can deform when the fastener system 1300 engages a structural element (e.g., the second structural element 10Q2B) -while coupled to a holt (e.g., the bolt 1004).

[ 1 2] As shown in Figures : 1 ~ 13€, the proximal portion 1366 of the gasket 1312 ca extend beyond the proximal end 1334 of the washer 13.10 when the gasket .13.12- is coupled to the washer 13.10 (and the fastener system 1300 is disengaged from a structural element). As shown in Figures 13B, 13C, and 15, the proximal portion 1366 can include one or more indicator markings 1370

[0103] The nut 1 14 includes a bore 1372 that extends from first end face .1374 to a second end face 1376 of the nut 1314. The bore 1372 includes a threaded section 1 78 and an unthreaded section 1380. The threaded section 1.378 is proximal of the unthreaded section 1380 in the tee 1.372. The threaded section .1378 ' can ihreadably engage with the threaded shaft 1Θ04Β of the bolt. 1004. The uaihreadedl section 1380 can receive the lock ring 1316, as described above. [0104] An. outer surface 1382 of the not 1.314 includes a. grip portion 1388. in Figures 13A-I3C, the grip portion 1388 is hexagonal; however, the grip portion 1388 ca» have a different shape in other -examples. n general, the grip portion .1388 can have a non-round shape that facilitates apply ing torque to the grip portion 1388 ' and/or resisting rotation of grip portion .1388 while torque is applied to a bolt (e.g., the boh 1004} being- coupled to -the fastener system 1300,

[0105] As shown in Figures I3A-.13C, the nut .1314 is arranged on the washer .131-0 such mat m ' second end face 137 of the nut 1.314: engages- the distal end 1332 of the washer 1310. in figure 13C, the distal end 1332 of the washer 1310 includes a raised portion 1333, which is engaged with the second end face 1376 of the tint 1314. During use, the raised portion 1333 of the distal end .1332 of the washer 1310 may experience wear and tear, in an implementation, when the out 1314 is decoupled irons the washer 1310 (e.g., durin maintenance and/or repair of a mill), the raised portion 1333 can be grinded so a to: .improve a condition of the distal end 1332 for engaging the- ' second end face 1376 of the nut 131 ( without creatin a recess in the distal end 1332 of the washer 1310).

.0106] Additionally, as shown in Figures I3A 3C, the bore 1372 of the nut 131.4 is ax rally aligned with the bore 1330 of the washer 131.0, In this arrangement, a bolt (e.g., the bolt 1004) can extend thro ugh the nut 1314 and the washer 1310.

[0107] Although the fastener systems 100, 1200 can provide a number of benefits associated with retaining the nut 114, 1.214 in the washer Π0, 1210 described above, the fastener- system 1300 shown in Figures I3A-1S cm be manufactured at reduced costs: while retaining other benefits and ad vantages of the liste er .systems ' 100:, 1200 described above,

[0.108] Referring now to Figure 16, . a flow chart of an example process 1600 for assembling a fastener system ' is shown according to m example embodiment. The fastener system can include a washer, a not, a retainer structure, and a gasket. The washer can include a bore extending between a distal end and a proximal end. A first section of the bore extends from the distal end to a shoulder portion. A second section of the bore extends from the shoulder portion to the proximal end.,

[0109] As shown in Figure 16, the process 1600 can, include inserting the gasket in the second section of the bore of the washer at block 1630. The gasket is axialiy retained in the second section of the bore. At block 1612, the process 1600 can include inserting the nut in the first section of the bore of the washer. At block 1 1 , the process 1600 can include coupling the retainer structure to the washer in the first section of the bore to aXially retain the nut. in the fi rst section of the bore of the washer.

[0110] Figures Π-20 depict additional aspects of the process 1.600 according to toiler exaffipl.es. As shown in figure .17, the process 1600 can also include coupling a protecti ve structure to the rust of the retainer structure in th first section of the bore of the washer at block 1616. The protective structure is distal of the retainer structure, and the protective structure extends from the nut to a side .wall of the washer.

fOl l l ] As shown In Figure IS, inserting the gasket at block 1610 can include deforming the gasket at block .1618. While deforming the gasket at block 16.18, the process 1600 can include Inserting the gasket until a flange ortion of the gasket passes a flange section of the washer at block 1620. After inserting the flange portion of the gasket passes the flange section of the washer at block 1620, the process 1600 can include allowing the gasket to return to a non-deforrned shape such that the flange portion of the gasket engages the -flahge section of the washer to axially retain the gasket in the second section of the bore of the washer at block 1622.

[0.1 12] As shown in Figure 19, coupling the retainer structure to the washer at block 1614 can ' include applying a force to the retainer structure to reduce size of the retainer structure ' to- a. size that is smaller than, a diameter of a side wall of the bore in the first, section of the washer at block 1624. While applying the force to the- retaine structure at block 1.624, the process 1600 can include inserting the retainer structure into the bore until the retainer structure is located at a recess in the side wall at block ! 626. After the retainer structure is at the. recess at block .1626, the: process 1600 can include removing the force ' .from the retainer structure to allow the retainer structure to expand into the recess at block 1628. The retainer structure is axially retained in the recess and extends inwardly from the side wail to provide an axial stop that limits movement of the nut in a distal direction.

[01 13] As shown in Figure 20, the process 1600 can also include inserting a Sock ring into an unthreaded section of a bore of the nut at block 1630.

[0.114] The description, of the different advantageou arrangements has been presented for purposes of illustration and description, and is not intended to be exhaustive or limited to the embodiments in the form disclosed. Mart modifications and variations will be apparent t those o ordinary skill in the art. Further, different advantageous embodiments may describe different advantages as compared to other advantageous embodiments:. The embodiment or embodiments selected are chosen and described in order to explain Ae principles of the embodiments, the practical 'application, and to enable others of ordinary skill in the art to understand the disclosure for various embodiments wi th various- modifications as are suited to the particular use- contemplated.