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Title:
FAT BASED COMPOSITION FOR FROZEN OR CHILLED FOOD PRODUCTS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/142648
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention is directed to a frozen and/or chilled food product comprising a fat based composition wherein the fat based composition comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC25 of at least 30%. It was found that adding a milk fat fraction to a fat based composition improves the crack of the fat based composition, especially when applied as coating on a frozen product, shortens the solidification time of the fat based composition in or on a frozen or chilled food product, and/or gives a longer lasting taste of the fat based composition in or on a frozen and/or chilled food product.

Inventors:
LANDUYT, Alex Ghislaine (LE Amersfoort, NL-3818, NL)
DEPYPERE, Frédéric Roger (LE Amersfoort, NL-3818, NL)
BOERBOOM, Fransiscus Johannes Gerardus (RL Almere, NL-3818, NL)
Application Number:
NL2013/050189
Publication Date:
September 18, 2014
Filing Date:
March 15, 2013
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
FRIESLAND BRANDS B.V. (Stationsplein 4, LE Amersfoort, NL-3818, NL)
International Classes:
A23D9/00; A23C13/12; A23G1/30; A23G1/36; A23G1/46; A23G9/32
Foreign References:
US6488971B1
US6488971B1
Other References:
ROUSSEAU D ET AL: "RESTRUCTURING BUTTERFAT THROUGH BLENDING AND CHEMICAL INTERESTERIFICATION. 1. MELTING BEHAVIOR AND TRIACYLGLYCEROL MODIFICATIONS", JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN OIL CHEMISTS' SOCIETY, SPRINGER, DE, vol. 73, no. 8, August 1996 (1996-08), pages 963-972, XP000621175, ISSN: 0003-021X, DOI: 10.1007/BF02523403
KAREN SMET ET AL: "Influence of milk fatty acid composition and process parameters on the quality of ice cream", DAIRY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol. 90, no. 4, 18 March 2010 (2010-03-18) , pages 431-447, XP055086361, ISSN: 1958-5586, DOI: 10.1051/dst/2010006
SCHMELZER J M ET AL: "Interactions of Milk Fat and Milk Fat Fractions with Confectionery Fats", JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, AMERICAN DAIRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION, US, vol. 84, no. 2, February 2001 (2001-02), pages 332-344, XP026990171, ISSN: 0022-0302 [retrieved on 2001-02-01]
ABD EL-RAHMAN A M ET AL: "EFFECT OF MILK FAT FRACTIONS ON THE SENSORY EVALUATION OF FROZEN DESSERTS", JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, AMERICAN DAIRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION, US, vol. 80, no. 9, September 1997 (1997-09), pages 1936-1940, XP000720167, ISSN: 0022-0302
DATABASE WPI Week 201282 Thomson Scientific, London, GB; AN 2012-R09921 XP002715807, & JP 2012 244920 A (ASAHI DENKA KOGYO KK) 13 December 2012 (2012-12-13)
RANSOM-PAINTER K L ET AL: "Incorporation of milk fat and milk fat fractions into compound coatings made from palm kernel oil", JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, AMERICAN DAIRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION, US , vol. 80, no. 10 1 October 1997 (1997-10-01), pages 2237-2248, XP008155845, ISSN: 0022-0302 Retrieved from the Internet: URL:http://www.journalofdairyscience.org/issues [retrieved on 2013-11-01]
SONWAI; ROUSSEAU FOOD CHEMISTRY vol. 119, 2010, pages 286 - 297
LOHMAN; HARTEL JAOCS vol. 71, no. 3, 1994, pages 267 - 276
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
JANSEN, C.M. (V.O, Johan de Wittlaan 7, JR Den Haag, NL-2517, NL)
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Claims:
Claims

1. A frozen and/or chilled food product comprising a fat based

composition wherein the fat based composition comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC25 of at least 30%, and/or a SFC30 of at least 20% and/or a SFC35 of at least 15%, and or a SFC40 of at least 2%, and/or an SFC40 of less than 40%, and/or a SFC45 of less than 15%.

2. Frozen and/or chilled food product according to claim 1 wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC25 of less than 60%, and/or a SFC30 of less than 58% and/or a SFC35 of less than 50%.

3. Frozen and/or chilled food product according to claim 1 or 2 wherein the fat based composition is fat continuous.

4. Frozen and/or chilled food product according to any of the previous claims wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC25 of at least 36%, preferably at least 41%, 43%, preferably at least 45%, more preferably at least 50%, more preferably at least 55%, and more preferably at least 57%.

5. Frozen and/or chilled food product according to any of the previous claims wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC30 of at least 25%, preferably at least 32%, more preferably at least 35%, preferably at least 37%, more preferably at least 40%, more preferably at least 45%, more preferably at least 50%, and most preferably at least 55%.

6. Frozen and/or chilled food product according to any of the previous claims wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC35 of at least 15%, preferably at least 21%, more preferably at least 24%, preferably at least 27%, more preferably at least 30%, more preferably at least 35%, more preferably at least 40%, more preferably at least 45%, and most preferably at least 48%.

7. Frozen and/or chilled food product according to any of the previous claims wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC25 of from 36% to 57%, more preferably of from 41% to 55%, more preferably of from 43% to 53%, more preferably of from 45% to 51%and most preferably of from 45% to 49%.

8. Frozen and/or chilled food product according to any of the previous claims wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC30 of from 25% to 56%, preferably of from 27% to 53%, more preferably of from 30% to 51%, more preferably from 32% to 49%, more preferably from 35% to 47%, more

preferably from 38% to 45%, and most preferably from 40% to 43%.

9. Frozen and/or chilled food product according to any of the previous claims wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC35 of from 15% to 48%, preferably of from 18% to 45%, more preferably of from 21% to 42%, more preferably of from 24% to 39%, more preferably of from 27% to 37%, more preferably of from 30% to 37%, and most preferably of from 32% to 35%.

10. Frozen and/or chilled food product according to any of the previous claims wherein the milk fat fraction is obtained by means other than solvent fractionation.

11. Frozen and/or chilled food product according to any of the previous claims wherein the fat based composition comprises up to 5 wt% of milk fat fractions, preferably 0.5- 10wt% milk fat fraction, more preferably 1-8 wt% milk fat fraction, more preferably 1.5-5wt% milk fat fraction, more preferably from 2wt% to 3.5wt% and most preferably from 2.5wt% to 3 wt% milk fat fraction, based on weight of the fat based composition.

12. Frozen and/or chilled food product according to any of the previous claims wherein the fat based composition comprises up to 3.5 % of native or unfractionated milk fat based on the weight of the fat based composition.

13. Use of a fat based composition as defined to any of the previous claims for coating a frozen and/or chilled product.

14. Use of a milk fat fraction as defined in any of the claims 1-12 for improving crack and/or shortening solidification time, and/or uniform pick up weight and/or longer taste of the fat based composition, preferably in frozen and/or chilled food products.

15. Fat based coating for a frozen or chilled food product comprising the fat based composition as defined in any of claims 1- 12 as coating.

16. Method to produce a fat based composition as defined in any of claims 1-12 comprising the steps of

a) preparing a fat based mixture by mixing the ingredients of the fat based composition

b) optionally refining the fat based mixture

c) optionally conching the fat based mixture

d) optionally tempering the fat based mixture,

wherein the milk fat fraction may added in step (a) and/or added after refining (step b) or after the conching step (c)..

17. Method to produce a frozen and/or chilled food product with a fat based composition according any of claims 1-12

a) providing a fat based composition as defined in any of claims 1-12 b) applying the fat based composition to the frozen and/or chilled food product

c) packaging the frozen and/or chilled product with the fat based composition

Description:
Title: Fat based composition for frozen or chilled food products. The invention

The present invention is directed to a fat based composition comprising milk fat fractions, which is suitable for application in frozen or chilled products such as ice cream products and chilled deserts.

Background

Chocolate coated frozen confectionary products, such as chocolate coated ice cream, are well liked by consumers. These products typically consist of a frozen core, such as an ice cream bar, with an outer coating of chocolate and/or compound coating. Among these coated products, the ice cream bars on a stick are most known. A luxury and indulgence feeling is often associated with this kind of products. There are several sensory aspects that contribute to the feeling of indulgence when consuming the chocolate or compound coated ice cream products. The first bite into a chocolate coated ice cream product breaks the chocolate coating and a clearly audible crack is associated with a thick layer of good quality chocolate by consumers. When taking a bite of the chocolate coated ice cream product, and both chocolate and ice cream are present in the same bite, the chocolate flavor preferably lingers until after the ice cream flavor has gone.

Coated frozen confectionary products are generally made by dipping the frozen core, such as ice cream, into a liquid coating composition and allowing the coating to solidify. The coating requires to be completely solidified before the coated product may be packaged to avoid sticking of the coating to the packaging material and to avoid deformations of the coating. Solidification time of the coating is therefore an important factor when producing coated frozen confectionary products on a large scale and on an automated line. For quahty reasons the coating weight, thickness and/or coating uniformity should preferably also not vary too much from product to product. Milk fat and milk fat fractions have been used previously in chocolate compositions, mainly to inhibit bloom (Sonwai and Rousseau, Food Chemistry 119 (2010) 286-297; Lohman and Hartel JAOCS vol 71, no 3 (1994) 267-276). US 6488971 describes a chocolate coating for ice cream products wherein the chocolate coating comprises up to 30% butter fat to lower the melting point of the chocolate coating.

An object of the invention is to provide a fat based composition that is suitable for application in frozen or chilled products. Another object of the invention is to provide a frozen or chilled confectionary product comprising the fat based composition. A further object of the invention is to provide a frozen or chilled product coated by the fat based composition. Moreover, another object of the invention is to provide a chocolate composition comprising the fat based composition. In addition, an object of the invention is to provide a fat based composition that gives a good crack of the coating or chips on or in the frozen or chilled product upon the first bite. Moreover, an object of the present invention is to provide a shorter solidification time of the liquid chocolate coating on the frozen confectionary product. Furthermore, it is an object of the invention to provide a composition that gives a uniform coating on the frozen product that does not vary too much between products. Yet another object of the invention is to provide a chocolate composition that gives a longer-lasting chocolate flavor especially when a bite comprises both frozen or chilled product and chocolate composition. The present invention provides a solution for one or more of the above mentioned objects. The inventors found that milk fat fractions that have a solid fat content at 25°C of at least 30% provide a composition that is suitable for application in or on frozen and/or chilled products. The milk fat fractions were especially suitable for coating, especially chocolate coating, of frozen or chilled products such as ice cream and chilled deserts. Therefore the present invention provides a chilled or frozen food product comprising a fat based composition wherein the fat based composition comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC25 of at least 30%.

Summary of invention

In a first aspect the present invention relates to a chilled and/or frozen food product comprising a fat based composition wherein the fat based composition comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC25 of at least 30%.

In another aspect the present invention relates to a chilled and/or frozen food product comprising a fat based composition wherein the fat based composition comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC30 of at least 20%.

In an additional aspect the present invention relates to a chilled and/or frozen food product comprising a fat based composition wherein the fat based composition comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC35 of at least 10%.

In an additional aspect the present invention relates to a chilled and/or frozen food product comprising a fat based composition wherein the fat based composition comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC40 of at least 2%.

In an additional aspect the present invention relates to a chilled and/or frozen food product comprising a fat based composition wherein the fat based composition comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC40 of less than 40%.

In an additional aspect the present invention relates to a chilled and/or frozen food product comprising a fat based composition wherein the fat based composition comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC45 of less than 15%. More even yet another aspect of the invention relates to a method of production for a chilled and/or frozen food product comprising a fat based composition comprising a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC25 of at least 30%., and/or wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC30 of at least 20%, and/or wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC35 of at least 11%, and/or wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC40 of at least 2%, and/or wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC40 of less than 40%, and/or wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC45 of less than 15%.

In even a further aspect the invention is directed to the use of a milk fat fraction to produce a fat based composition to be used for a frozen and/or chilled food product wherein the fat based composition has improved crack, wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC25 of at least 30%, and/or wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC30 of at least 20%, and/or wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC35 of at least 10%, and/or wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC40 of at least 2%, and/or wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC40 of less than 40%, and/or wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC45 of less than 15%. By improved crack is meant that a crack is more audible or sensed by a consumer when it bites into the fat based composition. It is to be understood that for both the application as coating of a food product, as well as application inside the food product, such as chips or chunks, a crack may be experienced by consumers upon biting in the fat based composition.

In even a further aspect the invention is directed to the use of a milk fat fraction to produce a fat based composition for a frozen and/or chilled food product wherein the fat based composition is applied as a coating, wherein the fat based composition has an improved solidification time, wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC25 of at least 30%, and/or wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC30 of at least 20%, and/or wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC35 of at least 10%, and/or wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC40 of at least 2%, and/or wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC40 of less than 40%, and/or wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC45 of less than 15%. In even a further aspect the invention is directed to the use of a milk fat fraction to produce a fat based composition for a frozen and/or chilled food product, wherein the fat based composition is a chocolate composition, wherein the chocolate coating has a longer lasting flavor, wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC25 of at least 30%, and/or wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC30 of at least 20%, and/or wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC35 of at least 10%, wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC40 of at least 2%, and/or wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC40 of less than 40%, and/or wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC45 of less than 15%.

Detailed description

Description of figures:

Figure IDynamic solidification behavior of cocoa butter at 23 °C and 25°C

Figure 2: Dynamic sohdification behavior of cocoa butter/Milk fat (SBO=AMF; BOl=MMFl; B02=MFF2) with a ratio of 85/15 Cocoabutter/milk fat (fraction)

Figure 3: Dynamic sohdification behavior of cocoa butter/Milk fat (SBO=AMF; BO 1=MFF 1; BO2=MFF2) with a ratio of 80/ Cocoabutter/milk fat (fraction)

Figure 4: Examples of bites from icecream for panel sensory test Figure 5: results of panel sensory test SBO=AMF and BO2=MMF2 Figure 6: DSC melting profile

The present invention is related to a frozen and/or chilled food product comprising a fat based composition and especially, chocolate

composition. It was found that the fat based composition of the present invention and/or embodiments thereof are very suitable to be used in chilled and/or frozen product such as ice cream and/or chilled deserts. Especially the use of the fat based composition as coating is very suitable. It was found that the solidification time of the liquid fat based composition comprising the milk fat fraction of the invention is shorter. It was also found that a fat based composition gives an improved crack when biting into the fat based

composition in or on the frozen and/or chilled food product when using the milk fat fraction of the present invention. In addition, it was found that the fat based composition of the present invention, the lavor lingers longer when both frozen and/or chilled food product and fat based composition are consumed; the flavor even lingers on until after the flavor of the frozen and/or chilled food product is gone, this is especially true for chocolate flavors, and chocolate compositions.

For the context of the present application a frozen and/or chilled food product is an edible product that has a temperature of -30°C to 10°C. The temperature in this case refers to the storage temperature and/or temperature of consumption. In a preferred embodiment the frozen and/or chilled food product has a temperature between -25°C and 8°C, more preferably between - 20°C and 6°C, more preferably between -18°C and 4°C, more preferably between -15°C and 2°C, and most preferably between -10°C and 0°C. For the purpose of the present invention, a frozen product usually has a temperature between -30°C to -5°C, and stored at these temperatures. The frozen food product of the invention and/or embodiments thereof is also consumed at a temperature between -30°C to -5°C. By consumed it means that the food product has the temperature at the start of the consumption, such as at the first bite. As generally the temperature of the surroundings is higher than the frozen and/or chilled food product, the temperature of the product will rise while consuming. Also when the product is in the mouth, the temperature of the product will rise. Therefore the consumption temperature is the

temperature at the beginning of the consumption. In a preferred embodiment the frozen food product has a temperature between -25°C to -10°C, more preferably between -20°C and - 12°C, more preferably between - 18°C and -15°C. For the purpose of the present invention a chilled food product is a food product that has a storage and/or consumption temperature between 0°C and 10°C. In a preferred embodiment the chilled food product has a temperature between -2°C to 8°C, more preferably between 4°C and 6°C.

The frozen or chilled food product preferably contains protein, carbohydrates and/or fat. The frozen or chilled food product may be a light product and/or or a low fat or zero fat product. The frozen and/or chilled food product may be a confectionary product, or another frozen and/or chilled food product that is rich in sweetening matter such as sugars and may be eaten without the use of cutlery but with the fingers. In a preferred embodiment, the frozen and/or chilled product comprises at least 2 wt% of sweetening matters, and/or at least 2 wt% of fat or fat replacers. In a preferred

embodiment the frozen and/or chilled food product is water-continuous.

A well known frozen products is ice cream based on a dairy product such as cream, yoghurt or milk, or it may be based on a non-dairy alternative such as a non-dairy cream. The frozen product may also be based on fruit, nuts, coconut cream, coconut flesh, coconut milk, chocolate, or soy., The frozen product may be in the form of a bar, on a stick, as a roll, in the form of a praline. The frozen product is preferably made of a dairy base such as cream and/or milk, or milk ingredients such as milk proteins, milk sugars and/or milk fats. Preferably the frozen product has a creamy texture. The frozen product may comprise other ingredients such as nuts, caramel, cookie pieces, chocolate, cookie dough, fruits such as bananas and/or strawberry and/or other berries, coconut pieces, gingerbread pieces, candy pieces, and many more . The frozen product may have a variety of taste, such as dairy cream, vanilla, chocolate, caramel, toffee, coffee, fruity flavour such a banana and/or berry such as strawberry, coconut, nuts, and/or combinations thereof.

The chilled food product are e.g. chilled deserts and may be based on dairy products such as cream, yoghurt and/or milk, but may also be based on non-dairy alternative such as non-dairy cream, soy, wheat, coconut, chocolate, fruit, nuts, and/or combinations thereof. The chilled food product may have a pourable or spoonable composition. The chilled food product is preferably made of a dairy base such as cream and/or milk, or milk ingredients such as milk proteins, milk sugars and/or milk fats. Preferably the chilled food product has a creamy texture. The chilled food product may comprise other ingredients such as nuts, caramel, cookie pieces, chocolate, cookie dough, fruits such as bananas and/or strawberry and/or other berries, coconut pieces, gingerbread pieces, candy pieces, and many more . The chilled food product may have a variety of taste, such as dairy cream, vanilla, chocolate, caramel, toffee, coffee, fruity flavour such a banana apple, citrus, and/or berry such as strawberry, or raspberry, coconut, nuts, and/or combinations thereof.

The fat based composition may be a chocolate composition or a compound composition.. European regulations regarding chocolate (EU directive 2000/36/EC) mandate that in order to be labeled as chocolate the fat content of the cocoa product comprises at least 95-100% cocoa butter and dairy fat. US regulation do not allow other vegetable fat than cocoa butter to be included in chocolate compositions. It is to be understood that the present invention encompasses composition that may be labeled "chocolate" according to national legislation, but also encompasses compositions that are not allowed to be labeled "chocolate" according to national legislation. What in some countries may be labeled "chocolate" may in other countries not be labeled "chocolate". Compound coating is also known as compound chocolate and is a non-chocolate product replacement that may include vegetable fat and is often made from a combination of cocoa, vegetable fat, and sweeteners. Vegetable fat in compound coating may include, coconut oil, palm, palm kernel oil, canola, sunflower, safflour and/or fractions and/or esterifications thereof. In a preferred embodiment, the fat based composition, comprises at least 16 wt% total dry cocoa solids up to 100%, and may further comprise sugar or other sweetening matter including artificial sweeteners, and/or protein. The fat based composition may comprise milk or milk derived ingredients, such as milk powder, preferably in an amount of 0-40 wt%. In addition, in a preferred embodiment the fat based composition may comprise sugar in an amount of 0- 80wt%. In a preferred embodiment the fat based composition, comprises at least 43 wt% total dry cocoa solids, preferably including at least 26 wt% cocoa butter. In another preferred embodiment, the fat based composition comprises at least 25 wt % total dry cocoa solids and at least 14 wt% dry milk solids, preferably including not less than 3,5 wt% milk fat. In another preferred embodiment, the fat based composition, , comprises at least 2.5 wt % of dry non-fat cocoa solids. White chocolate is expressly included in the present invention as fat based composition. White chocolate comprises, cocoa butter, milk or milk products and sugars and comprises at least 20 wt% cocoa butter at least 14 wt% dry milk solids and at least 3,5wt % is milk fat and/or milk fat fractions. Compound coating has the benefit that is usually less expensive than chocolate as cocoa butter is usually more expensive than other vegetable fats. Preferably the fat based composition is a compound composition or chocolate composition. In a preferred embodiment, the fat based composition comprises cocoa butter, and more preferably comprising cocoa butter in an amount of at least 50wt% of the total fat of the fat based coating, more preferably at least 55wt%, 60wt%, 65wt%, 70wt%, 75wt%, 80wt%, 85wt%, 90wt% and/or at least 95wt% of cocoa butter in the fat phase of the fat based composition.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention and embodiments thereof the fat based composition comprises fat, sweetening matter, protein, and/or non-fat cocoa solids. Preferably the fat comprises cocoa butter, vegetable fat, and/or dairy fat.. The fat of the fat based composition may comprise vegetable fats other than cocoa butter. The fat of the fat based composition preferably comprises at least 50% vegetable fat based on the total fat of the fat based composition, more preferably at least 55%, 60%, 65%, 70, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90% and/or at least 95% of vegetable fat. In a preferred embodiment the vegetable fat of a compound coating is selected from the group consisting of palm kernel oil, palm oil, coconut oil, hydrogenated forms thereof, and/or interesterified forms thereof, and mixtures thereof. Suitable vegetable fats are cocoa butter replacers, cocoa butter substitutes and/or cocoa butter equivalents such as palm kernel oil, coconut oil, soybean oil, cotton seed oil, palm oil, shea oil, and/or hydrogenated forms thereof

In a preferred embodiment, the fat based composition comprises an amount of fat ranging from 20% to 65%. In another preferred embodiment of the invention and embodiments thereof, the fat based composition comprises 10-60% of sweetening matter.

Preferably at least 10wt% of sweetening matter is present in the fat based composition. Sweetening matter may be sugar, such as simple sugars (monosaccharides) such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, or disaccharides such as sucrose, maltose and lactose. Sweetening matter may also include sugar substitutes such as stevia, steviol glycosides,, aspartame, sucralose, , acesulfame potassium, aspartame-acesulfame salt, saccharin, sorbitol, xylitol, cyclamate, brazzein, curculin, erythritol, glycyrrhizin, glycerol, hydrogenated starch hydrolysates, isomalt, lactitol, mogroside, mabinlin, maltitol, mannitol, miraculin, monatin, monelin, osladin, pentadin, tagatose, thaumatin, alitame, dulcin, glucin, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neotame, advantame, P-4000 and/or combinations thereof. Also envisioned are combinations of sugar and sugar substitutes. Furtermore bulking agents may be present in the fat based composition^ uch fibers, e.g. inulin, polydextrose. In a preferred embodiment, at least 12wt% sweetening matter is present in the fat based composition, more preferably at least 15wt%, more preferably at least 20wt%, more preferably at least 22wt%, more preferably at least 25wt%, more preferably at least 30wt%, more preferably at least 35wt%, more preferably at least 40wt%, more preferably at least 45wt%, more preferably at least 50wt%, more preferably ate least 55wt%, more preferably at least 60wt%. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention and embodiments thereof, the sweetening matter is sugar, and/or a mix of sugar with sugar substitutes.

It is to be understood that some sweetening materials have a high sweetness index, while others have a lower sweetness index. A skilled person will understand that a sweetening material with high sweetness index may be used in a lower amount than sweetening materials with lower sweetness index.

In another preferred embodiment, the fat based composition according to the invention and/or embodiments thereof comprises sugar and/or sweetening material preferably in an amount of 10 to 80 wt%, more preferably in an amount of 20 to 70 wt%, more preferably in an amount of 25 to 60 wt% and most preferably in an amount of 30 to 55 wt% based on total weight of the chocolate.

In another preferred embodiment the fat based composition according to the invention and/or embodiments thereof comprises milk or milk derived ingredients such as e.g. milk powder, preferably in an amount of 0 to 50 wt%, preferably 1 to 40 wt%, more preferably 2 to 35 wt%, more preferably 5-30wt%, more preferably 10-25wt% and most preferably 15-20 wt%.

In another preferred embodiment the fat based composition according to the invention and/or embodiments thereof comprises dry fat free cocoa solids preferably in an amount of 2.5 to 45 wt%, more preferably in an amount of 5 to 40 wt%, more preferably in an amount of 10-35 wt%, more preferably in an amount of 15 to 30 wt%, more preferably in an amount of 20 to 25 wt%. Dry fat free cocoa solids are the solid fraction of chocolate mass or liquor which remains when the cocoa butter has been removed.

In another preferred embodiment the fat based composition according to the invention and/or embodiments thereof comprises other ingredients selected from the group comprising, emulsifiers such as lecithin from soy, sunflower, or rapeseed, AMP,, mono- and diglycerides and their lactic acid esters and citric acid ester (citrem), PGPR, STS, aromas or flavors such as, natural vanilla, vanillin or herbs, other ingredients such as nuts, raisins, and/or fruits.

The fat based composition or coating of the present invention comprises a milk fat fraction. In a first aspect the present invention relates to a fat based composition comprising a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC25 of at least 30%. Under milk fat it is understood a fat mixture originating from milk, which is generally a mixture of triacylglycerols of a large variety of fatty acids. In the context of the invention the terms "oil" and "fat" are used interchangeably. Any suitable source of milk fat can be used, such as cream, butter or anhydrous milk fat. Under milk fat also fractions thereof are understood. Milk fat fractions can be obtained by fat fractionation techniques known to a person skilled in the art, for example, by fractionation based on crystallisation. However, other fat fractionation techniques such as supercritical CO2 extraction, fractionation with solvent, short path distillation and dry fractionation, vacuum filtration, centrifugation and the use of a membrane press are also suitable. Most preferred are fractionation techniques that do not involve the use of solvents, and particular do not involve organic solvents and or surface active agents. Preferred fractionation techniques may be selected from the group comprising, supercritical CO2 extraction, short path distillation, dry fractionation, vacuum filtration, centrifugation and the use of a membrane press. Milk fat fractions in the present invention can be obtained by single or multi-step fractionation of milk fat. Preferably, anhydrous milk fat is used to obtain the milk fat fractions.

Fractionation by crystallisation may be based on partial crystallisation of triglycerides with a high melting point caused by controlled slow cooling under mild stirring and then on their separation from the remaining liquid fats by filtration or centrifugation. The solid phase formed by the crystals is called stearin fraction and the remaining liquid phase is called olein fraction. The operation may be repeated in multiple ways on oleins and/or stearins obtained by new melting and cooling at different temperatures.

These successive operations performed on the fat fractions obtained in the previous steps are called multi-step fractionations. For example from a first olein fraction a second olein and stearin fraction are obtained, being denoted as olein-olein (OO) or olein-stearin (OS) respectively. These multi-step fractions may again be fractionated. For example the OS fraction is further fractionated into a olein fraction (OSO) and a stearin fraction (OSS). In general the order of fractionating is indicated, e.g. SO is the olein fraction of a stearin fraction.

Under the melting point of a milk fat fraction it is understood the slip melting point

The present invention is directed to a fat based composition comprising a milk fat fraction having a SFC25 of at least 30%. Solid fat content (SFC) is a measure of the percentage of fat in crystalline (solid) phase to total fat (the remainder being in liquid phase). It is usually indicated by a temperature, e.g. SFC25 is the solid fat content at 25°C. It is followed by the percentage of crystalline/solid fat, thus SFC25= 30 means that at 25°C the fat consist of 30 % solid fat. The SFC may be measured by NMR by standardised methods:

• AOCS Cd 16b-93 revised in 2000; Direct Method

• AOCS Cd 16-81 revised in 2000, Indirect Method

• ISO 8292

• IUP AC 2.150

In the prior art, the solid fat amount of a fat may also be indicated by Solid fat index (SFI). The SFI of a fat is measured using a dilatometer that measures the expansion of a fat as it is heated; density measurements are taken at a series of standardized temperature check points. The resulting SFI/temperature curve is related to melting qualities and flavor. It should be noted that SFC and SFI do not result in the same solid fat measures and cannot be used interchangeably. The milk fat fractions of the present invention are indicated in solid fat content (SFC) and not in solid fat index (SFI).

The milk fat fraction has a SFC25 of at least 30%, and/or a SFC30 of at least 20%, and/or a SFC35 of at least 10%, and/or a SFC40 of at least 2%, and/or a SFC40 of at less than 40%, and/or a SFC45 of less than 15%.

In a preferred embodiment the fat based composition of the present invention and embodiments thereof comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC25 of less than 60%.

In a preferred embodiment the fat based composition of the present invention and embodiments thereof comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC30 of less than 58%.

In a preferred embodiment the fat based composition of the present invention and embodiments thereof comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC35 of less than 50%.

In a preferred embodiment the fat based composition of the present invention and embodiments thereof comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC 25 of at least 33%, preferably at least 35%, more preferably at least 37%, more preferably at least 40%, more preferably at least 43%, preferably at least 45%, more preferably at least 50%, more preferably at least 55%, and most preferably at least 57%.

In a preferred embodiment the fat based composition of the present invention and embodiments thereof comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC 30 of at least 23%, preferably at least 25%, more preferably at least 27%, more preferably at least 30%, preferably at least 33%, more preferably at least 35%, preferably at least 37%, more preferably at least 40%, more preferably at least 45%, more preferably at least 50%, and more preferably at least 55%. In a preferred embodiment the fat based composition of the present invention and embodiments thereof comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC 35 of at least 12% preferably at least 15%, more preferably at least 17%, more preferably at least 19%, more preferably at least 21% preferably at least 24%, more preferably at least 27%, more preferably at least 30%, more preferably at least 35%, more preferably at least 40%, more preferably at least 45%, and more preferably at least 48%.

In a preferred embodiment the fat based composition of the present invention and embodiments thereof comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC40 of at least 2%, preferably at least 4%, preferably at least 5%, more preferably at least 6%, preferably at least 8%, preferably at least 10%, preferably at least 12%, more preferably at least 15%, more preferably at least 20%, more preferably at least 25%, more preferably at least 30%, more preferably at least 35%.

In a preferred embodiment the fat based composition of the present invention and embodiments thereof comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC40 of less than 40%, preferably less than 38%, preferably less than 35%, more preferably less than 30%, more preferably less than 25%, more preferably less than 20%, more preferably less than 18%, more preferably less than 16%.

In a preferred embodiment the fat based composition of the present invention and embodiments thereof comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC45 of less than 15%, preferably less than 12%, preferably less than 10%, more preferably less than 8%, more preferably less than 6%, more preferably less than 4%, more preferably less than 2%, more preferably less than 1%.

In a preferred embodiment the fat based composition of the present invention and embodiments thereof comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC25 of from 36% to 57%, more preferably of from 41% to 55%, more preferably of from 43% to 53%, more preferably of from 45% to 51%and most preferably of from 45% to 49%.

In a preferred embodiment the fat based composition of the present invention and embodiments thereof comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC30 of from 25% to 56%, preferably of from 27% to 53%, more preferably of from 30% to 51%, more preferably from 32% to 49%, more preferably from 35% to 47%, more preferably from 38% to 45%, and most preferably from 40% to 43%..

In a preferred embodiment the fat based composition of the present invention and embodiments thereof comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC35 of from 15% to 48%, preferably of from 18% to 45%, more preferably of from 21% to 42%, more preferably of from 24% to 39%, more preferably of from 27% to 37%, more preferably of from 30% to 37%, and most preferably of from 32% to 35%.

In a preferred embodiment the fat based composition of the present invention and embodiments thereof comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC40 of from 2% to 40%, preferably from 5% to 35%, preferably fro 8% to 30%, more preferably from 10% to 27%, more preferably from 12% to 25% and more preferably from 15% to 23%, and more preferably from 17% to 20%.

In a preferred embodiment the fat based composition of the present invention and embodiments thereof comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction has a SFC45 of 0% to about 15%, preferably from 12% to 0.5%, preferably from 10% to 1%, more preferably from 8% to 2%, more preferably from 6% to 4%.

In a preferred embodiment the fat based composition of the present invention and embodiments thereof comprises a milk fat fraction wherein the milk fat fraction is obtained by means other than solvent fractionation.

In another embodiment of the present invention and embodiments thereof the milk fat fraction is a stearin fraction. Preferably a stearin fraction obtained at a temperature of 15 to 20 °C. The stearin fraction may be fractionated further to provide a second stearin (SS) fraction or even the olein fraction of the stearin fraction (SO). The fractions of the stearin fraction may be fractionated further, e.g. to provide a third stearin fraction (SSS), the olein fraction of the second stearin fraction (SSO), the stearin fraction of the olein fraction of the first stearin fraction (SOS), or the olein fraction of the olein fraction of the first stearin fraction (SOO). It is to be understood that the further fractions from the stearin fraction are regarded as stearin fractions.

In a preferred embodiment the fat based composition of the present invention and embodiments thereof comprises up to 20 wt% of milk fat fractions, preferably 0.5wt% to 20 wt% milk fat fraction, more preferably lwt% to 16wt% milk fat fraction, more preferably from 1.5wt% to 12wt% milk fat fraction, more preferably 2wt% to 10 wt% milk fat fraction, more preferably from 2.5wt% to 9 wt% milk fat fraction, and even more preferably from 3wt% to 8 wt%, or even more preferably from 3.5 wt% to 6 wt%, more preferably from 4 wt% to 5 wt%. On the basis of the fat phase, the fat based composition comprises up to 50 wt% milk fat fraction, preferably from lwt% to 50 wt%, more preferably from 2wt% to 40 wt% milk fat fraction, more preferably from 3wt% to 35 wt% milk fat fraction, more preferably from 5wt% to 30wt%, more preferably from 7wt% to 27wt%, more preferably from 10wt% to 23 wt% milk fat fraction, more preferably from 12 wt% to 20 wt%, and more preferably from 15 wt% to 18 wt% milk fat fraction. The fat based composition according to the invention and/or embodiments thereof may comprise a fat phase in an amount of 5wt% to 80 wt%, more preferably in an amount of 10wt% to 75wt%, more preferably in an amount of 20wt% to 70wt%, more preferably from 30wt% to 65wt%, more preferably from 40 wt% to 60 wt% and most preferably in an amount of 45wt% to 55 wt%, based on total weight of the fat based

composition. Preferably the majority of the fat phase of the fat based composition, especially chocolate composition, of the present invention and/or embodiments thereof comprises cocoa butter. However in an another embodiment the fat based composition, especially compound composition, of the invention and/or embodiments thereof the fat phase may comprise other fats than milk fat fraction and cocoa butter, such as cocoa butter equivalents, cocoa butter alternatives, cocoa butter replacers, cocoa butter improvers, and cocoa butter substitutes. Suitable fats for the fat phase of the fat based composition and fat based composition of the present invention are shea fat, illipe fat, sal fat, kokum gurgi fat, mango kernel fat, and fractions thereof, fractionated vegetable fats, palm mid fractions, fractionated lauric oils, palm kernel fractions, hydrogenated vegetable fats, interesterified vegetable fats, interesterified, hydrogenated, solid fraction of tea seed oil. Suitable amounts of vegetable fats other than cocoa butter are at least 0.5 wt%, at least lwt%, at least 2 wt%, at least 3, wt%, at least 4 wt%, at least 5 wt%, at least 7 wt%, at least 8 wt%, at least 9 wt%, at least 11 wt%, at least 12 wt%, at least 13 wt%, at least 16 wt%, at least 20 wt%, at least 22 wt%, at least 23 wt%, at least 26 wt%, at least 30 wt%, and/or 3 at least 7 wt% based on fat phase. Preferably the amount of other vegetable fats or oils is less than 90 wt%, more preferably less than 80wt%, more preferably less than 70wt% and more preferably less than

60wt%, more preferably less than 50wt% and more preferably less than 40wt%, on total weight of fat based composition. Preferred amounts of vegetable fats other than cocoa butter are between 0- 100wt%, between 1 and 95 wt%, between 3 and 90 wt%, between 5 and 80 wt%, between 7 and 75 wt%, between 10 and 65 wt%, between 12 and 55 wt%, between 15 and 45 wt%, between 17 and 35 wt%, between 20 and 25 wt% on total weight of fat based composition.

In another aspect of the present invention and embodiments thereof the fat based composition of the present invention and/or embodiments thereof is a coating for a frozen or chilled food product. In yet another aspect of the present invention, the present invention and/or embodiments thereof are directed to a frozen product coated with the fat based composition of the invention and/or embodiments thereof.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, in the frozen and/or chilled product of the present invention and/or embodiments thereof, the fat based composition is present in an amount between 0.5 wt% and 45 wt%, more preferably between 1 wt% and 40 wt%, more preferably between 2 wt% and 35 wt%, more preferably between 3 wt% and 30 wt%, more preferably between 4 wt% and 25 wt%, more preferably between 5 wt% and 23 wt%, more preferably between 7 wt% and 20 wt% and more preferably between 10 and 17 wt%.In a preferred embodiments of the present invention the fat based composition is used in the form as pieces such as chips or chunks, throughout the frozen and/or chilled food product.

Another aspect of the present invention is a method to produce a fat based composition according to the present invention and embodiments thereof comprising the steps of

a) preparing a fat based mixture by mixing the ingredients of the fat based composition b) optionally refining the fat based mixture

c) optionally conching the fat based mixture

d) optionally tempering the fat based mixture,

wherein the milk fat fraction may added in step (a) and/or added after refining (step b) or after the conching step (c)..

Another aspect of the present invention is a method to produce a frozen and or chilled food product with a fat based composition according to the present invention and embodiments thereof comprising the steps of

a) providing a fat based composition according to the invention b) applying the fat based composition to the frozen and/or chilled food product

c) packaging the frozen and/or chilled product with the fat based composition

In a preferred embodiment, the fat based composition is melted until liquefied before application to the frozen and/or chilled product. In a preferred

embodiment, the fat based composition is solidified on or in the frozen and/or chilled product after application and before the packaging.

In a preferred embodiment, the frozen and/or chilled product is dipped in the liquefied fat based composition in step b). In another preferred embodiment the liquefied fat based composition sprayed on the frozen and/or chilled product in step b). In a preferred embodiment, the liquefied fat based composition is mixed in the frozen and/or chilled food product in step b).

It will be understood that the temperature to liquefy the fat based composition depends on the composition, on the fat content, and other ingredients. A skilled person will be able to find the suitable temperature with routine experiments. Suitable temperatures to liquefy the fat based composition are between 40°C and 60°C, or between 45 °C and 55°C.

It has been found that fat based compositions of the present invention have a shorter solidification time when compared to fat based compositions without milk fat fractions. In addition, when coating through dipping, the pick-up weight of products with the fat based composition of the present invention was much more uniform than the pick up weight of a fat based composition without milk fat fraction.

In one step of the method of the invention and/or embodiments thereof sugar is mixed with a milk fat fraction and cocoa mass, cocoa mass is made from fermented cocoa beans that are then dried, cleaned, and roasted after the fermentation. After the shell is removed from roasted fermented cocoa beans the resulting cacao nibs are then ground to cocoa mass. For the purpose of the present invention, cocoa mass also comprises chocolate liquor, which is liquefied cocoa mass.

The method of the invention and/or embodiments thereof comprises the step of mixing sugar with a cocoa mass. In a preferred embodiment sugar and/or sugar substitutes in an amount of 10 to 80 wt%, more preferably in an amount of 20 to 70 wt%, more preferably in an amount of 30 to 60 wt% and most preferably in an amount of 40 to 55 wt% is mixed with the chocolate mass. The amount of sugar and/or sugar substitutes is on total weight of the fat based composition. It is to be understood that also sugar substitutes may be used.

In another preferred embodiment of the method of the present invention and embodiments thereof, milk or milk powder may be added, preferably in an amount of 1 to 50 wt%, preferably 2 to 40 wt%, more preferably 3 to 35 wt%, more preferably 5-39wt%, more preferably 10-25wt% and most preferably 15-20 wt% based on total weight of the fat based composition.

In a preferred embodiment, the method of the invention and/or embodiments thereof produces a fat based composition comprising cocoa solids preferably in an amount of 2.5 to 90 wt%, more preferably in an amount of 10 to 80 wt%, more preferably in an amount of 20-70 wt%, most preferably in an amount of 25 to 60 wt% based on total weight of the fat based composition. Total cocoa solids comprise cocoa butter, cocoa liquor and cocoa powder. .

In another preferred embodiment of the method of the present invention, other ingredients selected from the group comprising emulsifiers such as lecithin, PGPR, AMP, mono- and diglycerides, STS, aromas or flavors such as vanilla, vanilhn, herbs, and/or other ingredients such as nuts, raisins, and/or fruit may be added.

Refining reduces the size of the non fat cocoa solids and sugar crystals. Refining the fat based composition can be done with a grinder Conching is the process of distributing the fat phase evenly within the fat based composition. It is an important process that promotes flavor development and may remove traces of water. Conching may last up to 78 hours. Conching is important to the final texture and flavor of fat based composition. During conching the fat based composition mixture is mixed, sheared, agitated and aerated. Conching and refining of the fat based composition may be done simultaneously by a grinder.

Tempering is the process of controlled crystallization of the fat phase. Cocoa butter can crystallize into six different polymorphic forms. The primary purpose of tempering is to assure that only the desired polymorph, type V, is formed so that the chocolate is glossy, firm, has a good snap, and melts near body temperature. Less stable polymorphs of cocoa butter render the chocolate, soft, crumbly and/or too easy to melt. Generally, the fat based composition is first heated to around 45 °C (113 °F) to melt all crystals. Next, the fat based composition is cooled to about 27 °C (81 °F), which will allow crystal types IV and V to form. At this temperature, the c fat based

composition is agitated to create many small crystal "seeds" which will serve as nuclei to create small crystals in the fat based composition. The fat based composition is then heated to about 31 °C (88 °F) to eliminate any type IV crystals, leaving just type V. After this point, any excessive heating of the fat based composition e will destroy the temper and this process will have to be repeated. However, there are other methods of tempering that may be used. The most common variant is introducing already tempered, solid "seed" fat based composition. Tempering machines (or temperers) with computer controls can be used for producing consistently tempered fat based composition, particularly for large volume applications.

A skilled person will be able to adjust the refining, conching and tempering parameters according to the fat based composition and its intended use. Examples

Measuring Solid fat content:

Determining the solid fat content of a fat sample at a certain temperature using pulse-NMR. Required Equipment: pulse-NMR spectrometer (Bruker Mini Spec mq 20), waterbath (0 °C, 10, 15, 18, 20, 25 en 30 °C (aU ± 0.1 °C) (Temperatures can be adjusted dependent on the measurement range), calibrated thermometer (in 0.1 °C), Aluminum blocks, glass tubes, d = 10 mm Method

Pre-treatment sample

Samples are melted in a water bath at a temperature of 85°C. When the samples are clear they are filtered in a folding filter with anhydrous sodium sulphate. After filtration the sample is reheated to 80°C.

Bruker Mini Spec MQ20 NMR equipment. The NMR device keeps switched on due to the time needed to warm up.

The sample tubes need to be placed dry and clean in the NMR as dirt can damage the measuring cell. Keep the white lid on the measuring opening after removal of the sample tube. The NMR needs a daily check every 24 hours. Make sure the sample is clean, homogeneous and without crystals. Otherwise heat up the sample. Fill 8 tubes with between 3,5 to 4 cm of sample and wipe off the tube on the outside with a tissue. Put all tubes in a waterbath of 0 °C during 60 min. Wipe off the tubes and place respectively: 2, 2, 1, 1, 1 en 1 tubes in the water baths of 10, 15, 18, 20, 25 en 30 °C during 60 min.

Measure de NMR value of the 8-tubes. Dry each tube prior to placing it in the NMR measuring cell. Measure each sample in duplicate. For the samples up to 18 °C 2 samples are required for a duplicate measurement. The tubes with temperatures of 18°C and higher are measured in duplicate on the same sample. Note each sample in the NMR book in two decimals and calculate the average. Examples: Fat blend used:

100% cocoa butter (CB) versus a blend of cocoa butter and milk fat (MF) in ratio of CB/MF

90/10

85/15

80/20 MF: maybe anhydrous milk fat (AMF) or a milkfat fraction (MFF), depending on the experiment. Anhydrous milk fat is indicated as AMF, milk fat fractions are hard milk fat fractions with the following SFC properties:

Milk fat fractions:

Example 1:

Dynamic solidification behaviour:

Rotational viscometer

Rotation mode

Cup and bob

Dynamic conditions: fixed rotational speed, shear rate 75 1/s

Fixed temperature: 25°C for cocoa butter

CB / CBE:

Use crystallization starter: CP

Endpoint: shear stress 210 Pa

Shape of curve Dynamic solidification behaviour at 23°C in minutes to reach end point shear stress of 210 Pa. Cocoa butter / milk fat (fractions): ratios 90/10, 85/15, and 80/20. Chocolate with pure cocoa butter reaches end point shear stress at 210 Pa in 5.1 minutes at 23°C.

Dynamic solidification behaviour at 23°C in minutes

CB= cocoa butter; AMF=anhydrous milk fat; MFF=milk fat fraction

See figures 1, 2, and 3. Wherein figure 1 shows the dynamic solidification behavior of cocoa butter at 23 °C and 25°C. Figure 2 shows the dynamic solidification behavior of cocoa butter/Milk fat (SBO=AMF; BOl=MMFl; B02=MMF2) with a ratio of 85/15 Cocoabutter/milk fat (fraction). Figure 3 shows dynamic solidification behavior of cocoa butter/Milk fat (SBO=AMF; BOl=MMFl; B02=MMF2) with a ratio of 80/ Cocoabutter/milk fat (fraction).

Example 2:

Coating of ice cream

Ice coating base chocolate:

Dark chocolate base with 45% sugar, 39% cocoa mass, 12% cocoa butter and 3% cocoa powder, others: emulsifiers, flavours

34% fat including 0,7% lecithin

Final recipe:

Addition of CB/MF to obtain 45% fat.

Ratios CB/MF

90/10: 4,4% MF on total recipe

85/15: 6,7% MF on total recipe

80/20: 8,8% MF on total recipe Mixing of chocolate; heating chocolate to a temperature of 40°C

Ice stick dipping of an ice with a temperature: -15°C < T < -12°C

Performed at room temperature: 19 < T < 21°C

The test was carried out with 5 sticks per test. Chocolate pick-up weight was measured, as well as two solidification times.

Solidification time 1: time (sec) when sides are solidified

Solidification time 2: time (sec) when tip is solidified

MF AMF

%MF 0 4.4 6.7 8.8

Pick-up 24.82 23.18 24.43 23.66

weight

average (g)

T sol 1 38.00 34.60 31.50 30.00

average (s)

T sol 2 73.80 80.80 75.75 74.00

average (s)

Pick-up 1.28 2.53 0.91 1.58

weight stand

dev

T sol 1 stand 3.39 2.88 0.58 0.71

dev

T sol 2 stand 2.39 3.35 7.63 6.04

dev MFF1

%MF 4.4 6.7 8.8

Pick-up 24.82 25.18 25.18 weight

average (g)

T sol 1 36.40 27.60 28.20 average (s)

T sol 2 70.00 65.20 60.40 average (s)

Pick-up 1.45 1.15 1.01 weight stand

dev

T sol 1 stand 2.30 2.07 1.30 dev

T sol 2 stand 4.95 3.19 4.10 dev

MFF2

%MF 4.4 6.7 8.8

Pick-up 26.13 25.48 26.18 weight

average (g)

T sol 1 31.75 28.25 27.00 average (s)

T sol 2 60.00 58.00 55.60 average (s)

Pick-up 0.59 0.66 0.51 weight stand

dev

T sol 1 stand 2.87 1.50 1.00

dev

T sol 2 stand 1.41 2.16 3.21

dev

There are no significant differences in pick-up weight observed, however there is less variation in pick-up weight with milk fat fraction. There is thus a more homogenous layer of chocolate with milk fat fraction. In general, increase in milk fat, decreased the variation of the pick up weight, and MFF2 doing slightly better than MFF 1 at higher amounts of milk fat fraction.

In general there is a decrease in solidification time when more milk fat was used, however when compared to 100% cocoa butter, adding anhydrous milk fat increased the total solidification time (T sol 2). The milk fat fractions gave a faster solidification than 100% cocoa butter or with anhydrous milk fat, with MFF2 having the faster solidification.

Example 3: Sensory tests:

Composition milk chocolate ice coating: 39,5% sugar - 24,5% cocoa butter - 21% cocoa mass - 8,5% milk powder - 6% milk fat - others: emulsifiers, flavours

The milk chocolate ice coating contains 43% fat in total, composed of 7,5% milk fat, 35% cocoa butter and 0,5% lecithin. Within the 7,5% milk fat, 1,7% is contained in the added milk powder while 5,8% is added as such. Chocolate coating with anhydrous milk fat and MFF2 are compared.

Samples were given straight from the freezer (- 18°C), and had to be evaluated within 10 minutes. Sensory test principle

Two alternative forced choice tests were performed on 7 previously selected attributes. The test was performed in three steps (A - B - C): at each of the steps the ice coatings were compared on the following attributes:

Step A: first bite, attribute: crack: both chocolate and ice cream should be in bite

Step B: chocolate alone: melting speed, chocolate flavor intensity, chocolate flavor duration; bite at one of the sides, only chocolate.

- Step C: chocolate together with ice: melting speed, chocolate flavor

intensity, chocolate flavor duration; bite at other side.

See figure 4 for examples of bites.

The test was performed with 40 panehsts. To randomize the order in which the two samples were presented to the panelists, two series were set up, as indicated in the below table. For each series, the number of panelists was 20.

The panelists were asked to compare sample 1 and sample 2 after each step (A - B - C). Each question needed to be answered, even if the panelist was not sure.

STEP A: Indicate which of the two samples has

Strongest crack/crunchiness

STEP B: Indicate which of the two samples has:

Slowest melt of chocolate Most intense chocolate flavor

Longest chocolate flavor

STEP C Indicate which of the two samples has:

Slowest melt of chocolate

Most intense chocolate flavor

Longest chocolate flavor

Test Results

After cleaning up the dataset for inconsistent and/or incomplete responses, the results of 36 panelists were maintained.

Figure 5 gives an overview of the obtained results. With a total of 36 panelists, at least 24 people with a same choice are needed to be able to conclude a significant (p < 0.05, 95% confidence level) difference between the samples. Step A: a significantly (p < 0.001) stronger crack (upon first bite as well as during consumption) was noted for the ice coating with the MFF2.

Step B: a majority of the panelists attributes to the ice coating with the MFF2 the slowest melting behavior, the most intense chocolate flavor and the longest perception of the chocolate flavor. The results, though, are only indicative of a trend, as they are not significant on a 95% confidence level.

Step C: the ice coating with the MFF2 is perceived to be significantly (p < 0.05) slower melting than the reference with AMF. As in step B, the responses of the panelists are indicative, though not significant (p > 0.05), of a more intense and longer lasting chocolate flavor in the ice coating with the extra hard butter oil fraction, as compared to the reference with AMF. Example 4: DSC melting profile

Samples were placed in the DSC cup, kept for 3 sec at -20°C and were then heated to 45°C at a heating rate of 5°C/min. The DSC melting profile curves are shown in figure 6. From the measurements it could be derived that the milk chocolate with MFF2 melted at a significantly higher (p<0,05) temperature than the milk chocolate with AMF. Moreover, a second - significantly (p<0,05) higher temperature - melting peak was noticed for the milk chocolate with MFF2.

Sample Onset Maximum Offset Enthalpy

(°C) (°C) (°C) (J/g)

Peak 1

AMF 10,1 ±0,5 21,3 ±0,3 26,6 ± 0,4 28,7 ± 1,1

MFF2 10,6 ±0,7 23,0 ±0,3 28,4 ±0,6 30,8 ± 0,2

Peak 2

AMF 31,9 ±0,2 33,6 ±0,1 36,5 ± 0,2 0,3 ±0,2

MFF2 33,7 ±0,3 36,0 ±0,4 37,6 ±0,1 1,6 ±0,1