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Title:
FAT CONTAINING EMULSION COMPRISING PALM OIL AND SORBITAN FATTY ACID ESTER
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2010/060713
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
An emulsion comprising a 80-15 wt% of a waterphase, 20-85 % of a fat phase and an emulsifier, wherein the fat phase comprises palm oil and palm oil olein, wherein the emulsifier comprises sorbitan ester of fatty acid, and wherein the waterphase comprises less than 0.25 wt% of protein.

Inventors:
VAN AKKEREN, Antonius,Franciscus, Maria (Unilever R & D Vlaardingen B.V, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, AT Vlaardingen, NL-3133, NL)
BELTMAN, Robert (Unilever R & D Vlaardingen B.V, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, AT Vlaardingen, NL-3133, NL)
BOER, Brigitta (Unilever R & D Vlaardingen B.V, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, AT Vlaardingen, NL-3133, NL)
DOL, Georg Christian (Unilever R & D Vlaardingen, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, AT Vlaardingen, NL-3133, NL)
FLÖTER, Eckhard (Unilever R & D Vlaardingen, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, AT Vlaardingen, NL-3133, NL)
WIERENGA, Antje, Minke (Unilever R & D Vlaardingen B.V, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, AT Vlaardingen, NL-3133, NL)
ZIMERFELD-CUKIER, Karina (Unilever Brasil Ltda, Av. Invernada 401, CEP -450 Valinhos - SP, 13271, BR)
Application Number:
EP2009/064173
Publication Date:
June 03, 2010
Filing Date:
October 28, 2009
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
UNILEVER NV (Weena 455, AL Rotterdam, NL-3013, NL)
UNILEVER PLC (100 Victoria Embankment, LondonGreater London, EC4Y 0DY, GB)
HINDUSTAN UNILEVER LIMITED (Hindustan Lever House, 165/166 Backbay ReclamationMaharashtra, Mumbai 0, 400 02, IN)
VAN AKKEREN, Antonius,Franciscus, Maria (Unilever R & D Vlaardingen B.V, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, AT Vlaardingen, NL-3133, NL)
BELTMAN, Robert (Unilever R & D Vlaardingen B.V, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, AT Vlaardingen, NL-3133, NL)
BOER, Brigitta (Unilever R & D Vlaardingen B.V, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, AT Vlaardingen, NL-3133, NL)
DOL, Georg Christian (Unilever R & D Vlaardingen, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, AT Vlaardingen, NL-3133, NL)
FLÖTER, Eckhard (Unilever R & D Vlaardingen, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, AT Vlaardingen, NL-3133, NL)
WIERENGA, Antje, Minke (Unilever R & D Vlaardingen B.V, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, AT Vlaardingen, NL-3133, NL)
ZIMERFELD-CUKIER, Karina (Unilever Brasil Ltda, Av. Invernada 401, CEP -450 Valinhos - SP, 13271, BR)
International Classes:
A23D7/01; A23D7/00; A23D7/005
Domestic Patent References:
2001-02-15
Foreign References:
JP2003310155A2003-11-05
Other References:
CHOW, M.C., AND HO, C.C.: "Properties of Palm-Oil-in-Water Emulsions: Effect of Mixed Emulsiifers" JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN OIL CHEMISTS' SOCIETY., vol. 73, no. 1, 1996, pages 47-53, XP002523175 USAMERICAN OIL CHEMISTS' SOCIETY. CHAMPAIGN.
SIEW, W.L., FARIDAH, MD JAAFAR: "COMPOSITIONAL AND DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY (DSC) STUDIES OF CRYSTALS OF PALM OLEIN" JOURNAL OF OIL PALM RESEARCH, vol. 12, no. 12, 2000, pages 1-13, XP002571334 LEMBAGA MINYAK SAWIT MALAYSIA, KUALA LUMPUR ISSN: 1511-2780
DATABASE WPI Week 200738 Thomson Scientific, London, GB; AN 2007-400685 XP002523178 & JP 2007 124948 A (RIKEN VITAMIN CO) 24 May 2007 (2007-05-24)
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ROSEN JACOBSON, Frans, L. M. (Unilever Patent Group, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, AT Vlaardingen, NL-3133, NL)
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Claims:
Claims

1. An emulsion comprising 80-15 wt% of a water phase, 20-85 % of a fat phase and an emulsifier, wherein the fat phase comprises palm oil and palm oil olein, wherein the emulsifier comprises sorbitan ester of fatty acid, and wherein the water phase comprises less than 0.25 wt% of protein .

2. Emulsion according to claim 1 wherein the palm oil olein is a dry fractionated palm oil olein.

3. Emulsion according to claim 1 or 2 wherein the palm oil olein has an iodine value (IV) of between 65 and 40.

4. Emulsion according to any of claims 1 to 3 wherein the combined amount of palm oil and palm oil olein is between 10 to 80 wt% calculated on fat phase.

5. Emulsion according to any of claims 1 to 4 wherein the ratio of palm oil to palm oil olein is from 3:2 to 4:1.

6. Emulsion according to any of claims 1 to 5 wherein the waterphase comprises less than 0.1 wt% protein.

7. Emulsion according to any of claims 1 to 6 comprising 0.05 to 2 wt% of sorbitan ester of fatty acid.

8. Emulsion according to any of claims 1 to 7 wherein the fat phase comprises HHH and HOH triacylglycerides wherein H is palmitic or stearic acid and O is oleic acid and wherein the ratio of HHH /HOH is from 0.05 to 0.27 and wherein HOH the palmitic acid level in the H fractions is at least 60 %.

9. Emulsion according to any of claims 1 to 8 wherein the fat phase comprises HHH and HOO triacylglycerides wherein H is palmitic or stearic acid and 0 is oleic acid and wherein the ratio HOO/HHH is from 3 to 8.

10. Emulsion according to any of claims 1 to 9, wherein at least 40% of the sorbitan ester of fatty acid is a sorbitan mono ester of fatty acid.

11. Emulsion according to any of claims 1 to wherein the fat phase has a saturated fatty acid (SAFA) level of between 15% and 45%, preferably between 20% to 40% and most preferably between 24% and 38%.

12. Emulsion according to any of claims 1 to 11 wherein the fat phase comprises HOH and HHO triacylglycerides wherein H is palmitic or stearic acid and O is oleic acid and the ratio of HOH/HHO is more than 3, preferably more than 4, more preferably between 3 and 7, and most preferably between 4 and 7.

13. Emulsion according to any of claims 1 to 12 wherein the fat phase comprises HHH, HOH and HOO triacylglycerides wherein H is palmitic or stearic acid and 0 is oleic acid and wherein the ratio of HOO/ (HOH+HHH) is from 0.65 and 0.7.

14. Emulsion according to any of the claim 1 to 13 wherein the emulsion is fat continuous.

15. Emulsion according to any of the claims 1 to 14 wherein at least 60 wt% of the fat phase in the β polymorphic state.

16. Emulsion according to claim 10 wherein at least 50% of the sorbitan ester of fatty acid is a sorbitan mono ester of fatty acid, preferably at least 60%.

17. Emulsion according to any of the claims 1 to 16 wherein the fatty acid in the sorbitan ester of fatty acid is selected from the group comprising, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid or stearic acid, oleic acid.

18. Emulsion according to claim 17 wherein the fatty acid is characterised by a ratio of stearic acid to palmitic acid between 3 to 1 and 1 to 3.

19. Emulsion according to any of claim 1 to 19 without preservatives .

Description:
Fat containing emulsion comprising palm oil and sorbitan fatty acid ester

Field of the invention The present invention relates to fat containing emulsions that do not need protein but still have good oral properties.

Background of the invention

Proteins, and especially dairy proteins, are often used in margarine because of the pleasant taste and to improve flavour and fat break-up.

However for some people dairy protein is not desired, e.g. people that do not eat animal product such as vegan people and persons that are allergic to dairy protein. Dairy protein may be exchanged for vegetable protein such as soy protein. However soy protein often have a not so good taste, at least not as good dairy protein. Margarines without protein are less expensive but the water phase is perceived as empty, without break-up of the water phase.

Objects of the invention

An object of the present invention is to provide a fat containing emulsion that shows good organoleptic properties without the need for proteins. Another object of the invention is to provide a fat containing emulsion wherein the water phase shows a good brake up without the presence of protein. In addition, another object of the invention is to provide a fat containing emulsion that demonstrates a good oral melt. Another object of the present invention is to provide a fat containing emulsion that has a long shelf life without the need for preservatives. Yet another object of the invention is to provide a fat containing emulsion with low level of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) . Moreover another object of the present invention is to provide a fat containing emulsion that does not need modification such as interesterification and/or hydrogenation of the fat.

Summary of the invention

Surprisingly one or more of the above mentioned objects are attained by an emulsion comprising a 80-15 wt% of a waterphase, 20-85 % of a fat phase and an emulsifier, wherein the fat phase comprises palm oil and palm oil olein wherein the emulsifier comprises sorbitan ester of fatty acid and wherein the waterphase comprises less than 0.25 wt% of protein .

A fat containing emulsion comprising palm oil and palm olein in combination with a specific emulsifier system provides a product that still has good organoleptic properties without protein. Specifically the combination of a specific fat phase with a specific emulsifier system provides emulsions with good break-up of the waterphase and a good oral melt.

Detailed description of the invention

In this specification all parts, proportions and percentages are by weight; the amount of fatty acids in an oil or fat is based on the total amount of fatty acids in said oil or fat unless otherwise stated.

The terms "fat" and "oil" are used in this specification as synonyms. The term "hardstock" refers to a fat that is solid at room temperature. The hardstock may comprise two or more different hard fats, but is preferably a single fat. The fat phase of the emulsion according to the invention may be a blend of different oils or fats and may includes a hardstock and a liquid oil. The term "liquid oil" is used in this specification for fats that are liquid at room temperature preferably also liquid at temperature below room temperature such as below 15, 10 or 5°C. Preferably the solid fat content of the liquid oil is 0 at 20 0 C, more preferably it is 0 at 15°C.

The present invention provides emulsions that comprise palm oil olein. Fats from which higher melting constituents have been removed will be indicated as "olein fractions". An olein fraction for the purpose of this description is defined as a triglyceride mixture or fat blend from which at least 10% of the higher melting constituents have been removed by some kind of fractionation, e.g. dry fractionation, multi-stage countercurrent dry fractionation or solvent fractionation. Preferably the palm oil olein is a dry fractionated palm oil olein. The higher melting constituents are indicated as "stearin fraction". Suitably the palm oil olein has an iodine value (IV) of between 65 and 40, more suitably between 60 and 45, and most suitably between 55 and 50.

Suitably the fat phase of the emulsion according to the present inventions comprises palm oil and palm oil olein in a ratio of from 3:2 to 4:1, more preferably from 5:3 to 3:1.

Preferably the emulsion according to invention comprises a fat phase wherein the combined amount of palm oil and palm oil olein is between 10 to 80 wt% calculated on fat phase, more preferably between 20 and 60 wt%, more preferably between 25 and 55 wt% and most preferably between 30 and 49 wt% calculated on fat phase.

The water phase of the emulsion according to the present invention comprises less than 0.3 wt% of protein, calculated on total emulsion. In a preferred embodiment according to the emulsion less than 0. lwt% of protein is present, more preferably less than 0.05wt%, even more preferably less than 0.01wt%, and most preferred less than 0.005wt% of protein is present in the emulsions of the present invention. In a preferred embodiment according to the emulsion no protein is present .

The composition according to the invention comprises emulsifier. The emulsifier comprises sorbitan ester of fatty acid. Sorbitan ester of fatty acid, maybe mono-, di, or tri- ester .

Suitably the fatty acid in the sorbitan ester of fatty acid is selected from the group comprising, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, or oleic acid. The sorbitan fatty acid ester in the present invention may be a mix of sorbitan esters with different fatty acids. In a preferred embodiment the fatty acid in the sorbitan ester of fatty acid is a ratio of stearic to palmitic fatty acid between 3 to 1 and 1 to 3, more preferred between 2 to 1 and 1 to 2, and most preferred between 4 to 6 and 6 to 4.

Another preferred embodiment of the invention is that the degree of esterification of the sorbitanesters is such that in the sum of mono-, di-, and tri-esters the mono-esters account for at least 40 %, more preferred at least 50% and most preferred for at least 60%.

In a preferred embodiment the combined amount of stearic acid and palmitic acid in the sorbitan ester of fatty acid is at least 40% of the total amount of fatty acids in the sorbitan ester .

Preferably 0.05 to 2 wt% of sorbitan ester of fatty acid is present in the emulsion according to the invention. More preferably 0.1 to 1 wt%, most preferably 0.2 to 0.5 wt% of sorbitan ester of fatty acid is present in the emulsion according to the invention. The amount of sorbitan ester of fatty acid is calculated on total emulsion.

Emulsions according to the invention comprise 20-85 wt% fat, preferably 40-80 wt% fat, and more preferably 50 to 65 wt% of fat.

Suitable emulsions have a fat phase with an N-line with N5 between 10% and 30% and N20 between 2.5% and 8.5% as measured by pulse NMR as described in the experimental section.

Preferred emulsions according to the present invention are fat continuous.

Emulsions with low saturated fatty acid (SAFA) level are preferred. Preferably the fat phase has a SAFA level of between 15wt% and 45wt%, preferably between 20wt% to 40wt% and most preferably between 24wt% and 38wt%. In a preferred embodiment the fat phase comprises HHH, HOH, HOO, and/or HHO triacylglycerides (TAG) . The H may be palmitic acid or stearic acid and 0 is oleic acid. TAG and fatty acid content of fats may be suitably be determined as indicated in the experimental section and are well within the skill of a skilled person. The TAGs HHH, HOH, HOO and HHO are expressed in wt% and are based on total fat.

Some examples of HHH TAGs are the mono-acyl TAGs PPP (tripalmitine) , SSS (tristearine) , but also the mixed TAGs PSP, PPS, SPS, and PSS. The order of the fatty acid in the denotation of the TAGs indicates the symmetry of the TAGs. PSP and SPS are symmetrical TAGs having the same fatty acid on the 1- and 3- position. PPS and PSS are asymmetrical TAGs having different types of fatty acids on the 1- and 3- position. HHH is the total sum of all HHH-type TAGs as described above in the fat.

The TAG HOH represents TAGs with on the middle position an oleic acid. The H may be palmitic or stearic, but is not necessarily the same in a single TAG. The group of HOH TAGs comprises POS, POP, and SOS. HOH is the total sum of the HOH- type TAGs present in the fat.

HOO TAGs are TAGs that have two oleic acid residues, one in the middle position, and one on one of the outer (1- or 3-) position of the glycerol ester. The HOO TAG also contains 1 H residue on one of the outer positions, being either palmitic or stearic acid. Thus two types of HOO TAGs may be present, POO and SOO. HOO is the total sum of HOO TAGs as described above present in the fat. HHH is the total sum of all HHH-type TAGs as described above and HOH is the total sum of the HOH-type TAGs as described above present in the fat.

Preferably the ratio of HHH /HOH is from 0.05 to 0.27, more preferably from 0.10 to 0.25, more preferably from 0.15 to 0.20.

In a preferred embodiment the ratio HOO/HHH is from 3 to 8. from 3.25 to 6, and more preferred from 3.25 to 5.75.

In another preferred embodiment, in the HOH TAGs the level of palmitic acid of the H fractions is at least 60%; this means that of all H in the total HOH group at least 60% of the H residues is palmitic acid. More preferably at least 70% is palmitic acid, and most preferred at least 80% is palmitic.

HHO TAGs consist of TAGs with one oleic acid on one of the terminal positions and one H residue in the middle position and one H residue on one of the terminal positions. H may be palmitic acid or stearic acid. The group of HHO TAGS comprises PPO, SSO, SPO, and PSO. In a preferred embodiment the ratio of HOH/HHO is more than 3, preferably more than 4, more preferably between 3 and 7, and most preferably between 4 and 7.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention the ratio of HOO/ (HOH+HHH) is from 0.65 and 0.7, more preferably from 0.65 to 0.75 and most preferably from 0.65 to 0.7. The ratio HOO/ (HOH+HHH) is the ratio of all HOO TAGs present in the fat to the combined sum of all HOH TAGs and all HHH TAGs present in the fat. A drawback of formulations containing palm oil is that they are slow to crystallise which cause inhomogeneous and brittle products and cause difficulties in continuous packaging operations (Idris Nor Aini Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 109 (2007) 422-432) . Producing products based on palm oil and its fractions can typically only be achieved by low throughput in order to avoid substantial post-crystallisation that results in brittle and inhomogeneous product structures. The high throughput for palm oil based formulations is also impeded by the lack of sufficient product viscosity at filling.

Furthermore upon storage there is an increase in solid fat content (post hardening) which is undesirable as the margarine should stay smooth and spreadable over a period of time. In addition, the β' polymorph crystallises to the stable β form after processing (Duns JAOCS 62(2) 1985) . The β crystals are large and course giving the spread a grainy texture.

It was surprisingly found in the present invention that when palm oil and palm oil olein are used in a combination to fulfil the requirements as set out above a product is produced that does not show post hardening, has a good filling viscosity and quickly stiffens up after filling, enabling a high speed through-put in the process line. The quick increase in viscosity provides a viscous product in the tub which can withstand fast movements of the tub without any spilling.

In addition, the products according to the invention show good oral properties such as good melting behaviour with excellent break-up of the water phase, without any graininess. The absence of graininess is surprising as the fat blend as characterised above is outside the scope of WO96/39855. This document discloses the ranges wherein palm oil based fat blends should be to avoid tropical graininess. The fat as characterised above is outside these ranges.

Moreover the product according to the invention does not show post hardening. Post hardening is often seen in palm oil based fat products. Post hardening is due to the slow crystalisation of the β' polymorph to the β polymorph after processing.

Surprisingly it was found that the products according to the invention are in the β polymorph state directly after filling. This is surprising as palm oil tends to crystallise in the β' form. Furthermore the product according to the invention comprises sorbitan fatty acid ester which are known to retard or even inhibit the transformation of β' into the β polymorph. Preferably at least 60 wt% of the fat phase is in the β polymorph, more preferably at least 80 wt% and most preferably at least 90 wt%. In a preferred embodiment, substantially all the fat phase is in the β polymorph. Although the fat is in the β polymorph, no graininess is detected. In a preferred embodiment, the fat phase is in the β state but without graininess. The crystallisation state of a fat composition may be determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) or Differential thermal analysis (DTA) , or by other known methods like e.g. X-ray diffraction as known to the skilled person.

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the emulsifier comprises lecithin. Preferably 0.01 to 3 wt% of lecithin is present, more preferably 0.1 to 2 wt% and most preferably 0.5 to 1 wt% of lecithin is present. The present invention is suitable for more natural products. More natural means that the product has undergone less modifications or preferably even no modifications other than refining and purification. Natural also encompasses the use of non-chemical variants of treatments, for example dry (non solvent) fractionation instead of wet (solvent) fractionation, with e.g. acetone, hexane or lanza and enzymatic rearrangement instead of chemical randomisation.

In preferred emulsion according to the invention, the fats are non-hydrogenated. Non-hydrogenated means that the fat or oil has not undergone any hydrogenation treatment. This entails the starting ingredients as well as blends and interesterified mixtures and even fractions of fats. Non-hydrogenated fats have essentially no trans-fatty acids. Preferably the fat has less than 5 wt% of trans fatty acids, more preferably less than 1 wt% or even 0 wt%.

In preferred emulsion according to the invention, the fats are non-interesterified. Non-interesterified means that the fat or oil have not undergone any interesterification treatment. This entails the starting ingredients as well as blends and even fractions of fats.

In preferred embodiment the emulsion of the present invention comprises an aqueous phase. The pH of the aqueous phase can be set to the desired value, among others to influence acidic or basic taste impression and to influence microbial stability. Preferably the pH of the aqueous phase in food products according to the invention is from 4.0 to 5.5. Optionally some protein is added to the product according to the invention within the limitation of the present invention. Protein may be added to beneficially influence the taste, flavour and nutritional value of the food product and also may be added to increase browning of food stuff when the current composition is used as a medium for shallow frying.

In a preferred embodiment the emulsion according to the present invention does not comprise preservatives. Preferably less than 0.005 wt% of preservative is present, more preferably less than 0.001wt%, even more preferably less than 0.0005wt%, and most preferred less than 0.0001wt% of preservative is present in the emulsions of the present invention.

In normal emulsions preservatives are needed when protein is used in the product. Proteins cause large waterdroplets in the emulsion which are detrimental for microbial stability. In addition the proteins are a food source for spoiling bacteria. As the present invention is especially suited for emulsion without protein, there is no need for preservatives, and more natural emulsions without or with very little preservatives may be obtained. For the purpose of the present invention the expression preservative does not encompass acids.

The emulsion according to the invention optionally may comprise other ingredients such as vitamins, taste and flavour components, colorants such as beta-carotene, anti-oxidants . Examples

Expert Sensory panel assessment

The expert sensory panel consists of a number of highly trained assessors selected from top 10% of population after screening on sensory abilities and sensitivities.

Two different methodologies are used to assess the differences products. The first is called an λ R-index test', in which test products are compared to a reference product by the sensory panel. The estimated R-index value is a measure of the relative size of difference between the test product and the reference. The higher the R-index the more the product differs from the reference. A value of 50% represents no difference, and 100% represents the highest possible difference

The second procedure is called a λ QDA' (Qualitative Descriptive Analysis) . This procedure starts with (1) individual generation of attributes under standard conditions in booths, followed by (2) a group discussion during which the attributes are compared to the standard list, synonyms and irrelevant items are excluded and experiences are exchanged. Subsequently (3) , the attributes are measured and scored individually in a randomized complete test design. The (4) Data-analysis is carried out according to Bonferroni .

SFC measurements

The solid fat content (SFC) in this description and claims is expressed as N-value, as defined in Fette, Seifen Anstrichmittel 8_0 180-186 (1978) . The stabilisation profile applied is heating to a temperature of 80 0 C, keeping the oil for at least 10 minutes at 60 0 C or higher, keeping the oil for 1 hour at 0 0 C and then 30 minutes at the measuring temperature, except where indicated otherwise.

Triacylglyceride determination Determination fatty acids composition

Fatty acids are converted to FAME by sodium methanolate. Methylated fatty acids (FAME) are separated on a capillary gas chromatography column with a high polarity stationary phase (CP-SiI 88) . Detection is based on flame ionization detector (FID) response and quantification is obtained after correction for theoretical FID response factors. Fatty acid analysis by Methyl esters can performed according to:

Duchateau et al . , Analysis of cis- and trans-fatty acid isomers hydrogenated and refined vegetable oil by capillary Gas-liquid chromatography, JOACS vol 73, no 3 (1996),

AOCS Official method Ce lc-89: Fatty acid composition by GLC, cis and trans isomers revised 1990, revised 1991, revised 1992, updated 1992 updated 1995, AOCS Official method Ce lf-96, Trans fatty acids in oils and fats by capillary GLC, 1996,

AOCS official method Ce 2-66, Preparation of methyl esters of long-chain fatty acids revised 1969, re-approved 1986, updated 1992.

Determination of 2 position in triglycerides Triglycerides are partially hydrolysed by lipase-D immobilised on accurel to give a mixture of diacylglycerol (DG) and mono- acylglycerol (MG) . As the lipase is 1-3 specific the MGs are monoglycerides with a fatty acids on the 2-position. MGs are isolated by HPLC on a diol column using isocratic elution. The collected MGs are converted to FAME with trimethylsulfonium hydroxide (TMSH) and analysed as described above. Determination of triglyceride classes

The triglyceride classes in terms of degree of saturation HHH, HOH, HHO, HOO and so forth can be determined by either Silverphase Liquid Chromatography (AgLC) or Thin Layer

Chromatography (TLC) . To determine the fatty acid composition within such a class the recovered fraction has to be subjected to subsequent FAME- analysis. A detailed description is given in The lipid handbook, eds . Frank D. Gunstone, John L. Harwood, Albert J. Dijkstra. -- 3rd ed., CRC press, 2007. Chapter 6.4.2. P. 429 to 447, in particular p. 438-439 and p. 444- 447.

Processing

The products were processed as indicated. A-unit is a scraped surface heat exchanger and a C-unit is a pin-stirrer.

Example 1 : according to the invention

Two spreads with similar composition except for the protein were produced. Product 1 with protein and product 2 without proteins .

Ingredients :

Fat phase: Fatblend 60% 0.05% sunflower lecithin

0.11% monoglyceride from fully hardened palm oil 0.25% SpanδO (Sorbitan monostearate) 0.02% flavour. Water phase: 1.5% NaCl, vitamins, colorants and citric acid acidifier (pH) . For product 1 (pH=4.5), 0.3% of Butter Milk Powder was added Product 2 (pH=4.5), no protein powder was added

Span 60 characteristics Degree of esterification between mono-, di-, and tri- fatty acid ester of sorbitol

61.5 % mono esters

34 % di esters

4.5 % tri esters Composition of fatty acid moieties

54 % palmitic acid

44 % stearic acid

2 % oleic acid

Fatblend: 33% Palm Oil,

16.5% dry fractionated palm oil olein (IV 55) 50.5% sunflower oil

Triglyceride profile

HHH 2.7 \ > (w/w) ,

HOH 15.5? > (w/w) ,

HHO 2.8 % > (w/w) ,

HLH 5.9 \ > (w/w) ,

HOO 12.2 % (w/w)

Ratios of triglycerides

HHH/HOH 0 .174 OR HOH/HHH 5 .7

HHH/HOO 0 .22 OR HOO/HHH 4 .52

HOO/ (HHH+HOH) 0 .67

H being palmitic acid or stearic acid O is oleic acid and L is linoleic acid 90% of H in HOH is Palmitic acid

Solid fat content 5°C is 22.0 %, SFC at 20 0 C is 6.1%. Level of Saturated fatty acids is 30.6 % (w/w) Symmetry ratio of the H20 triglycerides HOH/HHO is 5.5

The processing set-up was A-A-A C-C. The rotating speed in the C-units was 100 rpm, the rotating speed of the A-unit was 800 rpm, the exit temperature of the final A-unit was 8°C.

Melting duration

Melting duration is assessed by the expert sensory panel with a qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA) on both products. It was scaled on a scale going from 1-100. The higher the number the longer the melting duration. Short melting durations are indicative for a steep melting profile of the fat and a cooling sensation, both are perceived as positive for the melting behaviour .

Both melting duration were good, although the product with protein scored slightly better (34) than the product without protein (39) .

Example 2 : Comparative example

Two spreads with similar composition except for the protein were produced. Product A with protein and product B 2 without proteins .

Fat phase: Fatblend 60%

0.2% sunflower lecithin, 0.2% monoglyceride from fully hardened palm oil and

0.017% flavour. Water phase: 0.3% NaCl, vitamins, colorants citric acid acidifier (pH 4.1) .

For option 1 (pH=4.1), 0.5% of a protein powder Sour Whey), was added, in option 2 (pH=4.6), no protein powder was added.

Fat blend: 62% Sunflower oil and 38% interesterified fat based on two parts dry fractionated palm oil stearin (melting point

52 C) and on part palm kernel fat.

Characterization of fat phase

Triglyceride profile

HHH 3.7 % (w/w) ,

HOH 2.0 % (w/w) , HHO 3.1 % (w/w) ,

HLH 2.2 % (w/w) ,

HOO 2.3 % (w/w)

Ratios of triglycerides HHH/HOH 1.85 OR HOH/HHH 0.54 HHH/HOO 1.61 OR HOO/HHH 0.62 HOO/ (HHH+HOH) 0.40

H being palmitic acid or stearic acid O is oleic acid and L is linoleic acid 87% of H in HOH is Palmitic acid Level of Saturated fatty acids is 34.7 % (w/w) Symmetry ratio of the H20 triglycerides HOH/HHO is 0.66.

The processing set-up was C-A-A C. The rotating speed in the C- units was 250 rpm, the rotating speed of the A-unit was 800 rpm, the exit temperature of the final A-unit was 8°C. The line pressure was 20 bar for option 1, for option 2, 16 bar. Both products were produced on the same day, on the same line, using the same feedstocks.

The panel performed both an R-index and a qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA) on both products. The following conclusions were drawn:

- There are significant differences found between the product with protein and the product without protein, both when tested pure (r-index = 77.31) and on bread (r-index=74.79) .

- One of the significant differences between the product without protein and the product with protein is the melting duration (53 vs 45 for product without and with protein respectively) . It was concluded that addition of protein increases the melting rate for this fat blend.

The difference in melting duration between the comparative product with and without protein in this example is higher than the difference between the products according to the invention as shown in example 1.

Example 3 :

A trained panel compared the sensory experience of three products .

Product 1 (comparative) with protein Ingredients : Fat phase: Fatblend 60%

0.2% sunflower lecithin,

0.2% monoglyceride from fully hardened palm oil and

0.017% flavour. Water phase: 0.3% NaCl,

0.5% Butter Milk Powder, vitamins, colorants citric acid acidifier (pH=4.5) .

Fatblend 62% of Sunflower oil 38% interesterified fat based on two parts dry fractionated palm oil stearin (melting point 52 C) and on part palm kernel fat) .

Characterization of fat phase

Triglyceride profile

HHH 3.7 % (w/w) ,

HOH 2.0 % (w/w) ,

HHO 3.1 % (w/w) ,

HLH 2.2 % (w/w) ,

HOO 2.3 % (w/w)

Ratios of triglycerides HHH/HOH 1.85 OR HOH/HHH 0.54 HHH/HOO 1.61 OR HOO/HHH 0.62 HOO/ (HHH+HOH) 0.40

H being palmitic acid or stearic acid O is oleic acid and L is linoleic acid 87% of H in HOH is Palmitic acid Level of Saturated fatty acids is 34.7 % (w/w) Symmetry ratio of the H2O triglycerides HOH/HHO is 0.66.

The processing set-up was C-A-A C. The rotating speed in the C- units was 250 rpm, the rotating speed of the A-unit was 800 rpm, the exit temperature of the final A-unit was 8°C.

Product 2 according to invention with protein Ingredients :

Fat phase: Fatblend 60% 0.05% sunflower lecithin,

0.11% monoglyceride from fully hardened palm oil,

0.25% Span60 (Sorbitan monostearate)

0.02% flavour Water phase: 1.5% NaCl, 0.3% Butter Milk Powder, vitamins, colorants citric acid acidifier (pH=4.5) .

Span 60 characteristics

Degree of esterification between mono-, di-, and tri- fatty acid ester of sorbitol 61.5 % mono esters 34 % di esters 4.5 % tri esters

Composition of fatty acid moieties 54 % palmitic acid 44 % stearic acid 2 % oleic acid

Fat blend consists of 33% Palm Oil, 16.5% dry fractionated palm oil olein (IV 55) and 50.5% sunflower oil. Triglyceride profile HHH 2.7 % (w/w) , HOH 15.5% (w/w), HHO 2.8 % (w/w) , HLH 5.9 % (w/w) , HOO 12.2 % (w/w)

Ratios of triglycerides HHH/HOH 0.174 OR HOH/HHH 5.7 HHH/HOO 0.22 OR HOO/HHH 4.52 HOO/ (HHH+HOH) 0.67

H being palmitic acid or stearic acid 0 is oleic acid and L is linoleic acid 90% of H in HOH is Palmitic acid

Solid fat content 5°C is 22.0 %, SFC at 20 0 C is 6.1%. Level of Saturated fatty acids is 30.6 % (w/w) Symmetry ratio of the H20 triglycerides HOH/HHO is 5.5

The processing set-up was A-A-A C-C. The rotating speed in the C-units was 100 rpm, the rotating speed of the A-unit was 800 rpm, the exit temperature of the final A-unit was 8°C.

Product 3 according to invention without protein Ingredients:

Fat phase: Fatblend 60%

0.05% sunflower lecithin,

0.11% monoglyceride from fully hardened palm oil, 0.25% SpanδO (Sorbitan monostearate) 0.02% flavour

Water phase: 1.5% NaCl, vitamins, colorants citric acid acidifier (pH=4.5) .

Span 60 characteristics Degree of esterification between mono-, di-, and tri- fatty acid ester of sorbitol

61.5 % mono esters

34 % di esters

4.5 % tri esters Composition of fatty acid moieties

54 % palmitic acid

44 % stearic acid

2 % oleic acid

Fat blend consists of 33% Palm Oil, 16.5% dry fractionated palm oil olein (IV 55) and 50.5% sunflower oil.

Triglyceride profile HHH 2.7 % (w/w) , HOH 15.5% (w/w), HHO 2.8 % (w/w) , HLH 5.9 % (w/w) , HOO 12.2 % (w/w)

Ratios of triglycerides

HHH/HOH 0.174 OR HOH/HHH 5.7 HHH/HOO 0.22 OR HOO/HHH 4.52 HOO/ (HHH+HOH) 0.67

H being palmitic acid or stearic acid O is oleic acid and L is linoleic acid 90% of H in HOH is Palmitic acid Solid fat content 5°C is 22.0 %, SFC at 20 0 C is 6.1%. Level of Saturated fatty acids is 30.6 % (w/w) Symmetry ratio of the H2O triglycerides HOH/HHO is 5.5

The processing set-up was A-A-A C-C. The rotating speed in the C-units was 100 rpm, the rotating speed of the A-unit was 800 rpm, the exit temperature of the final A-unit was 8°C.

A trained panel tasted the three products after one month storage at 5°C. They ranked the 3 products on melting duration: Product 2<Product3<Productl, whereby Product 2 shows the shortest and most cooling melting, and Product 1 the slowest and least cooling melting. Product 3, which does not contain proteins, is melting faster and with a more cooling effect than Product 1 with protein.

Conclusion

In general addition of proteins enhances the melting rate of spreads. However, in products with a fat-blend and emulsifier according to the invention proteins are not necessarily required to give a satisfactory cooling melting sensation. In fact the product according to the invention without protein gives a better melting rate than a comparative product with protein .