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Title:
FIBER REINFORCING POLYMER COMPOSITE AND ARTICLES MADE THEREFROM
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/022483
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Pultruded fiber reinforced polymer composite is disclosed, having a blend of conventional pultrusion resins and a rigidsol. The replacement of some of the conventional pultrusion resin with the rigidsol does not adversely affect mechanical properties but does enhance affinity of the pultruded part to a polyvinyl chloride-containing capstock.

Inventors:
ZHAO LEI (US)
ALI FAYAZ (US)
PUCKETT PAUL (US)
Application Number:
US2017/043456
Publication Date:
February 01, 2018
Filing Date:
July 24, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
POLYONE CORP (44012, US)
International Classes:
C08J5/04; B32B27/08; B32B27/18; B32B27/30; C08L67/03
Foreign References:
US20080241533A12008-10-02
US20140154937A12014-06-05
US20150004368A12015-01-01
US20090092821A12009-04-09
US20130202873A12013-08-08
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HORNICKEL, John H. et al. (44012, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A fiber reinforcing polymer composite, comprising:

(a) reinforcing fiber

(b) rigidsol having a Brookfield viscosity (ASTM D182425°C, 20 rpm) of about 1200 - 3000 centipoise, and

(c) pultrusion resin selected from the group consisting of polyesters, vinyl esters, epoxies, and combination thereof,

wherein the reinforcing fiber is pultruded through the rigidsol and the pultrusion resin.

2. The composite, according to Claim 1, wherein the rigidsol, when fused as a resin, has

(1 ) a Shore D hardness (ASTM D2240-02 after 15 seconds) of more man 60,

(2) a Tensile Strength (ASTM D638) of more than about 48

MPa,

(3) a Percent Elongation (ASTM D638) of less than 10%.

3. The composite of Claim 1 or Claim 2, wherein the reinforcing fiber is selected from the group consisting of glass, steel, carbon, polyaramide, silica carbide, quartz, cellulose, juke, hemp, sisal, basalt, and combinations thereof.

4. The composite of Claim 3, wherein the glass fiber is selected from the group consisting of being S-2 glass, S-l glass, ECR glass, A-R glass, D glass, R glass, E glass, and combinations thereof.

5. The composite of any one of Claims 1-4, wherein the diameter of each reinforcing fiber ranges from about 13 μιη to about 35 μηι.

6. The composite of any one of Claims 1-5, wherein the reinforcing fiber has

(a) a yield for each roving of fibers ranging from about 52 yield to about 1650 yield;

(b) a tensile strength (ASTM D2343) ranging from about 300 to about 450 Kilopounds per square inch;

(c) a tensile Modulus (ASTM D2343) ranging from about 10 to about 12 Megapounds per square inch; and

(d) a tensile Strain (ASTM D2343) ranging from about 2% to about 4%.

7. The composite of any of Claims 1-6, wherein the composite further comprises heat stabilizers, UV absorbers, fillers, release agents, biocides, pigments, or combinations thereof.

8. The composite of any one of Claims 1-7, wherein the pultrusion resin is an isophthalic polyester resin.

9. The composite of any of Claims 1-8, wherein the composite comprises 60-70 weight percent of reinforcing fiber, 20-30 weight percent of rigidsol, and 5-7 weight percent of pultrusion resin.

10. A pultruded article shaped from the composite of any one of Claims

1-9.

11. The pultruded article of Claim 10 laminated to a sheet containing polyvinyl chloride.

12. A laminate of an article of the composite of any one of Claims 1-9 and a sheet containing polyvinyl chloride, wherein the sheet is a capstock to the article.

13. The laminate of Claim 12, wherein the article is pultruded into a building material.

14. The laminate of Claim 13, wherein the building material is selected from the group consisting of wall studs, truss supports, beams, parts of windows, parts of doors, fascia, siding, trim, decking, fencing, and ornamental non-load-bearing appurtenances.

15. A building material made of a laminate of any of Claims 12-14.

Description:
FIBER REINFORCING POLYMER COMPOSITE

AND ARTICLES MADE THEREFROM

CLAIM OF PRIORITY

[0001] This application claims priority from U.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial Number 62/366,764 bearing Attorney Docket Number 12016024 and filed on July 26, 2016, which is incorporated by reference.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] This invention relates to use of a rigidsol to coat fiber for pultrusion of plastic articles.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] Plastic has taken the place of other materials in a variety of industries. In the packaging industry, plastic has replaced glass to minimize breakage, reduce weight, and reduce energy consumed in manufacturing and transport. In other industries, plastic has replaced metal to minimize corrosion, reduce weight, and provide color-in-bulk products. Recently, an entire industry has arisen involving fiber reinforcement of polymer compounds, sometimes called "fiber reinforced polymer composites" (FRP composites).

[0004] FRP composites made by the standard pultrusion processes typically use thermoset resins, which allow high processing speed but do not allow good adhesion to thermoplastic capstocks.

[0005] Thermoplastic pultrusion, on the other hand, provides products with good bonding characteristics, but is slower to process and not

commercially viable for some industrial scale applications.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0006] What the art needs is a FRP composite which achieves all of good bonding or affinity characteristics to thermoplastic capstocks, excellent processing speed, and excellent neat distortion resistance, exceeding the limits of the testing machine.

[0007] The work disclosed herein solves that need in the art by using a specially-formulated thermoset-thermoplastic hybrid resin blend to achieve those desired balance of physical properties. For purposes of this invention, the rigidsol is considered a thermoplastic because it processes as a thermoplastic before curing.

[0008] One aspect of the invention is a fiber reinforcing polymer composite, comprising (a) reinforcing fiber, (b) rigidsol having a Brookfield viscosity (ASTM D18242S°C, 20 rpm) of about 1200 - 3000 centipoise, and (c) pultrusion resin selected from the group consisting of polyesters, vinyl esters, epoxies, and combination thereof, wherein the reinforcing fiber is pultruded through the rigidsol and the pultrusion resin.

[0009] Another aspect of the invention is a pultruded shaped article made from the composite.

[00010] Another aspect of the invention is an assembly of the pultruded shaped article and a capstock having affinity for the shaped article.

[00011] Embodiments will become apparent from a description of the embodiments of the invention in relation to the following drawing.

[00012] BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

[00013] Fig. 1 is a photo of an experiment involving Comparative

Example A.

[00014] Fig.2 is a photo of the same experiment involving Example 1.

EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION

[00015] Fiber Reinforcement

[00016] Those persons having ordinary skill in the art of thermoset pultrusion will recognize candidates for fiber reinforcement in the composites of the invention. Non-limiting examples of candidates for reinforcement fiber include glass, steel, carbon, polyaramide (Kevlar ® fiber), silica carbide, quartz, cellulose, juke, hemp, sisal, basalt, and combinations thereof.

[00017] Of these candidates, there are several excellent choices for glass fiber, among them being S-2 glass, S-l glass, ECR glass, A-R glass, D glass, R glass, and E glass, alone or in combination. Of these glass fiber commercial products, PPG Hybon 9312, PPG Hybon 2662, PFG 1712, Jushi E6DR30 -

312T, OC Advantex SE8400 LS and PPG Innofiber 2026 are particularly preferred because they have the following physical properties:

[00018] The range of diameter of each fiber can range from about 13 μπι to about 35 μιη and preferably from about 13 μιη to about 28 μπι.

[00019] The yield of each roving of fibers can range from about 52 yield

(9600 tex) to about 1650 yield (300 tex).

[00020] Tensile strength (ASTM D2343) can range from about 300 Kilopounds per square inch (Ksi) to about 450 Ksi and preferably from about 350 Ksi to about 400 Ksi.

[00021] Tensile Modulus (ASTM D2343) can range from about 10 Megapounds per square inch (Msi) to about 12 Msi and preferably from about 10.5 Msi to about 11.5 Msi.

[00022] Tensile Strain (ASTM D2343) can range from about 2% to about 4% and preferably from about 2.5% to about 3.5%.

[00023] Conventional Pultrusion Resin

[00024] DION* 31020 is a high reactivity isophthalic polyester resin designed for the pultrusion process. This resin is formulated for pultruded composites up to 3/8" thick with glossy, fiber-free surfaces at fast line speeds. The resin has high Heat Distortion Temperature, excellent chemical and water resistance, good mechanical property retention at elevated temperatures, 100% compatibility with polyvinyl acetate, fast line speeds, high gloss, and consistent batch to batch performance.

[00025] Other conventional pultrusion resin candidates include polyesters, vinyl esters, and epoxies which become thermoset upon initiation during the pultrusion two zone manufacturing process. Commercially favored conventional resins include without limitation Aropol L-2450 and Aropol L- 2452 unsaturated polyester resins, DERAKANE 411 and DERAKANE 440 epoxy vinyl ester resins, and HETRON D-1398 and HETRON D-1222 epoxy vinyl ester resins, all from Ashland Inc.; and Dion 31020, Dion31022, Dion 31069, Dion 31071, Dion 31052, and Dion 31830 vinyl ester resins from Reichold LLC.

[00026] Rigidsol Resin

[00027] Rigidsols useful in the present invention are those which are formed from dispersion-, micro suspension-, and emulsion-grade poly( vinyl chloride) (PVC) resins (homopolymers and copolymers) and plasticizers. Exemplary dispersion-grade PVC resins are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos.

4,581,413; 4,693,800; 4,939,212; and 5,290,890, among many others such as those referenced in the above four patents.

[00028] Desirably, the rigidsols are formulated to be rigid, rather than flexible, upon fusing of the PVC resin particles. Sometimes, these type of rigidsols are called "rigidsols" in order to emphasize that, while they have begun their use as a flowable resin, after fusing, they are a rigid plastic.

[00029] Rigidsols desirable in the present invention are those which, when fused, have a Shore D hardness (ASTM D2240-02 after 15 seconds) of more than about 60 and preferably more than 70. Also, desirable rigidsols, when fused, can have a Tensile Strength (ASTM D638) of more than about 7000 psi (48 MPa) and preferably more than 8000 or 9000 psi (55-62 MPa). Finally, the desirable rigidsols, when fused, exhibit only a small amount of Percent Elongation (ASTM D638) of less than 10% and preferably less than 5%.

[00030] Presently preferred rigidsols for use in the present invention are those commercially available from PolyOne Corporation as Geon™ MB2756 natural rigidsol acrylate-modified polyvinyl chloride, and Zeon Technologies (Salisbury, NC, USA) as Pultuff™ brand rigidsol resins for structural composite applications.

[00031] Suitable grades are identified as rigid, non-phthalated rigidsols which are low in viscosity (Brookfield viscosities (ASTM D182425°C, 20 rpm) of about 1200 - 3000 centipoise).

[00032] Optional Functional Additives

[00033] Fultrusion formulations usually include more than resin and plasticizer. Non-limiting examples of functional additives, which can also be present in the pultrusion formulations for this invention, include heat stabilizers, UV absorbers, fillers, release agents, biocides, initiators, pigments, and combinations thereof. Such functional additives are available from a number of commercial sources known to those working the plastics industry and might also be present in commercially available rigidsols, such as the Geon™ and Pultuff™ resins identified above.

[00034] Table 1 shows acceptable, desirable, and preferable ranges of ingredients useful in the present invention, all expressed in weight percent (wt. %) of the entire mixture. The mixture can comprise, consist essentially of, or consist of these ingredients. Any number between the ends of the ranges is also contemplated as an end of a range, such that all possible combinations are contemplated within the possibilities of Table 1 as candidate mixtures for use in this invention.

[00035] The pultrusion process is a continuous forming process, in which resin impregnated reinforcements enter a die, whereby they are formed into a net shape and exit the die cavity, preferably as finished parts. For thermoset pultrusion process, all of the curing of resin should take place inside the die.

USEFULNESS OF THE INVENTION

[00036] Flexural Modulus (ASTM D790) of FRP unidirectional composite of the present invention can be at least 4 Msi (27.S GPa), can exceed 7 Msi (48.2 GPa), and has been found with glass fiber loading of 80 weight percent to exceed 8 Msi (SS.2 GPa).

[00037] Heat distortion temperature exceeds 75°C and can exceed 87 °C or even 100°C at the higher loadings of glass fiber in the FRP composite.

[00038] Structural strength of FRP composite of the present invention allows FRP composite to become useful in heavy load-bearing structural capacities. The use of the rigidsol does not detract from that load-bearing property but adds an affinity for PVC -containing capstock that conventional thermoset FRP composite formulations do not possess.

[00039] Non-limiting examples of FRP composite usage include exposed wall studs, truss supports, beams, windows, doors, fascia, siding, trim, etc. in addition to the conventional uses of FRP composite in construction, such as decking, fencing, ornamental non-load-bearing appurtenances, etc. Any of these conventional products and parts made from FRP composite formulations can now benefit from the affinity the FRP composite formulation in such shapes can have with PVC-containing capstock.

[00040] Appearance of FRP composite of the present invention can be determined by the profile of the extrusion die from which the FRP composite emerges after coating the pultruded fiber with the blend of the two resins, one thermoset and the other curable thermoplastic. Generally, the FRP composite has smooth surface, but one can also include other additives to provide a finely mottled non-woven fiber appearance. [00041] Customers can also request a variety of custom shapes and sizes of pultruded FRP composite formulation to best suit their needs. Depending upon the desired stiffness, weight, strength, flex, density, and tensile

requirements, persons having ordinary skill in the art without undue

experimentation can work to develop the customized FRP composite.

Composite products can be fabricated using glass fiber-reinforced plastics either in a mat/roving (MR-GFRP) or unidirectional (U-GFRP) design. High performance carbon fiber unidirectional reinforcements are also available. EXAMPLES

[00042] Table 2 shows the ingredients to prepare pultruded glass fiber reinforcing polymer composites. A conventional pultrusion resin serves as Comparative Example A with that resin blended with rigidsol to demonstrate the value of the invention of that blend of pultrusion resins.

[00043] The only difference between the formulation and pultrusion of Comparative Example A and Example 1 was the replacement of 80% of the conventional pultrusion resin with rigidsol.

[00044] To test affinity of the pultrusion formulation to a polyvinyl cMoride-ccfltaining capstock, a pultruded part made from the formulation in Comparative Example A having an area of 0.390 inches x 0.090 inches (0.99 cm x 0.23 cm) and then cut into a section 18 inches (46 cm) in length was compression molded with a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheet of 0.787 inches (2 mm) thickness made from Geon™ 87180 capstock. The compression molding temperature was sufficiently high enough to melt the FVC. The compression force was 30 tons (266,893 Newtons). The goal was to determine if the PVC sheet would bond or adhere to the pultruded part of Comparative Example A. Upon demolding, gravity caused the PVC sheet to immediately fall from the pultruded part. No evidence was evident of adhesion or bonding or other affinity between the two parts of different material composition. Fig. 1 shows the photo of the results.

[00045] The same affinity test was performed using the formulation of Example 1 in a pultruded part of the same size and shape. The same compression molding was used; the same molding temperature was used. Upon demolding, the PVC sheet could not be dislodged from the pultruded part even with average manual force applied. [00046] Without being limited to a particular theory, it is believed that the presence of PVC-containing rigidsol in the surface of the pultrusion product permits, upon elevated temperature compression molding, at least a physical affinity of bonding of like materials (PVC of two types) at the interface between the PVC sheet and the PVC-containing pultruded part.

[00047] The implications of this simple comparison are not trivial. Using pultrusion manufacture of fiber reinforcing polymer parts which have an affinity for polyvinyl chloride permits greater versatile usage of both the pultruded part as a building and construction material, such as a window frame, and the PVC containing sheet serving as an aesthetic capstock.

[00048] For example, a building material can be an article containing the composite disclosed herein in a pultruded shape selected from the group consisting of wall studs, truss supports, beams, parts of windows, parts of doors, fascia, siding, trim, decking, fencing, and ornamental non-load-bearing appurtenances, all covered by a capstock of polyvinyl chloride.

[00049] Because the pultrusion technique can produce two dimensional parts of any conceivable length and because after pultrusion one can apply the PVC capstock to the pultruded part, large volume manufacturing of building and construction materials can occur, benefiting both supplier and customer.

[00050] The invention is not limited to the above embodiments. The claims follow.