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Title:
FILM CAPACITOR
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/210854
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention concerns a film capacitor (1) comprising a film (2) that comprises a blend of polypropylene and cyclo-olefin copolymer.

Inventors:
ALBA, Carlos (Av. Arroyo de los Àngeles 9, 2°-2, Málaga, 29009, ES)
PELÁEZ, David (Av. Benyamina 41, Torremolinos, 29620, ES)
CABO, Lucía (Ebereschenweg 24, Erlangen, 91058, DE)
MAJER, Anna-Lena (Steinbergstraße 3, Germering, 82110, DE)
Application Number:
EP2018/062581
Publication Date:
November 22, 2018
Filing Date:
May 15, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
TDK ELECTRONICS AG (Rosenheimer Str. 141 e, München, 81671, DE)
International Classes:
H01G4/18; H01G4/32
Foreign References:
US6094337A2000-07-25
EP0992531A12000-04-12
JP2015016569A2015-01-29
Other References:
None
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
EPPING HERMANN FISCHER PATENTANWALTSGESELLSCHAFT MBH (Schloßschmidstr. 5, München, 80639, DE)
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Claims:
Claims (We claim)

1. A film capacitor (1) comprising a film (2) that

comprises a blend of polypropylene and cyclo-olefin copolymer .

2. The capacitor (1) according to the preceding claim,

wherein the cyclo-olefin copolymer comprises ethylene and norbornene.

3. The capacitor (1) according to one of the preceding

claims ,

wherein the cyclo-olefin copolymer comprises ethylene in the range of 15 weight% to 35 weight% and norbornene in the range of 65 weight% to 85 weight%.

4. The capacitor (1) according to one of the preceding

claims ,

wherein the cyclo-olefin copolymer comprises ethylene in the range of 23 weight% to 27 weight% and norbornene in the range of 73 weight% to 77 weight%.

5. The capacitor (1) according to one of the preceding

claims ,

wherein the blend comprises a larger amount by weight of polypropylene than of cyclo-olefin copolymer.

6. The capacitor (1) according to one of the preceding

claims ,

wherein the blend comprises an amount of at least two thirds by weight of polypropylene.

7. The capacitor (1) according to one of the preceding claims ,

wherein the blend comprises polypropylene in the range of 70 weight% to 90 weight%.

8. The capacitor (1) according to one of the preceding claims ,

wherein the blend comprises polypropylene in the range of 78 weight% to 82 weight%.

9. The capacitor (1) according to one of the preceding claims ,

wherein the polypropylene is a capacitor grade

polypropylene .

10. The capacitor (1) according to one of the preceding claims ,

wherein the film (2) is metallized.

11. The capacitor (1) according to one of the preceding claims ,

wherein the film (2) is extruded and biaxially- stretched .

Description:
Description

Film capacitor The present invention concerns a film capacitor.

Metallized film capacitors are critical components for many applications in industrial, automotive and pulse-power electronics. The physical characteristics of the polymer dielectric material in the capacitor are the primary factors determining the performance of the capacitor.

Capacitors comprising a film consisting of pure biaxially- oriented polypropylene (BOPP) show a good performance up to temperatures of 105 °C. Above this temperature, for example at 125 °C, the dielectric breakdown strength and the lifetime are significantly reduced. Neither BOPP nor other

commercially available polymer dielectric materials like polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polycarbonate (PC) can operate at temperatures above 125°C.

Several commercially available polymer dielectric materials which meet high temperature capabilities, such as

polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) and polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) are limited by an insufficient self-healing capability which is one of the basic requisites for proper functioning of any metallized film capacitor.

Accordingly, there is a demand for metallized film capacitors that can operate at temperatures above 105°C, for example at temperatures around or higher than 125°C, ideally keeping advantageous properties of BOPP such as a good self-healing ability or a relatively low dissipation factor. The present invention solves the problem of providing an advantageous film capacitor. The metallized film capacitor can be operated at temperatures above 105°C while still providing

advantageous properties of a BOPP-based metallized film capacitor.

This object is solved by the subject-matter of pending claim 1. A film capacitor is proposed which comprises a film that comprises a blend of polypropylene and cyclo-olefin copolymer (COC) .

Polypropylene is a thermoplastic polymer. The polypropylene used in the blend may be in homopolymer form. Polypropylene can constitute a major weight percentage of the blend. Cyclo- olefin copolymer is an amorphous polymer. The term "blend" can be defined as a mixture of materials, i.e. of

polypropylene and cyclo-olefin copolymer.

The film capacitor comprising a film of the blend of

polypropylene and cyclo-olefin copolymer shows advantageous properties. In particular, the self-healing ability of the film capacitor at temperatures up to 130°C is significantly enhanced with respect to a reference capacitor comprising a film consisting of pure polypropylene. Life tests have shown that the estimated mean time to failure (MTTF) of the film capacitor can be three times higher than that of the

reference capacitor comprising the film of pure

polypropylene. Moreover, the capacitor can have a dissipation factor that is lower than twice the dissipation factor of the reference capacitor based on pure polypropylene, i.e. that is only slightly higher than the dissipation factor of the reference capacitor. The dissipation factor is measured at 1 kHz, 23°C and 50% relative humidity.

As polypropylene provides a major contribution to the film of the film capacitor, the costs of the blend material are moderate. Moreover, the film can be manufactured using state- of-the-art manufacturing processes, for example biaxially stretching in tenter lines, such that its production can be cost-efficient.

The cyclo-olefin copolymer may comprise ethylene and

norbornene. Preferably, the cyclo-olefin copolymer consists of ethylene and norbornene. Preferably, the cyclo-olefin copolymer consists of an amorphous random copolymer of ethylene and norbornene. Cyclo-olefin copolymers are known in the industry as COC or COP.

The cyclo-olefin copolymer may comprise ethylene in the range of 15 weight% to 35 weight% and norbornene in the range of 65 weight% to 85 weight%. Preferably, the cyclo-olefin copolymer comprises ethylene in the range of 23 weight% to 27 weight% and norbornene in the range of 73 weight% to 77 weight%. This composition of cyclo-olefin copolymer results in a relatively low dissipation factor that is only slightly higher than the dissipation factor of the reference capacitor and in

approximately the same capacitance of the capacitor

comprising the film as in the reference capacitor. Moreover, life tests have shown that this composition of cylo-olefin copolymer results in a long lifetime of the capacitor due to a lack of internal irreversible short-circuits. As already discussed above, the cyclo-olefin copolymer preferably consists of ethylene and norbornene. The blend may comprise a larger amount by weight of

polypropylene than of cyclo-olefin copolymer. Preferably, the blend comprises an amount of at least 66.66 weight% of polypropylene. Thus, the proportion of polypropylene in the blend may be equal or greater than two-thirds of the blend.

Preferably, the blend comprises polypropylene in the range of 70 weight% to 90 weight%, more preferably in the range of 78 weight% to 82 weight%.

The polypropylene may be a capacitor grade polypropylene. Capacitor grade polypropylene may refer to polypropylenes having a high purity which are particularly suitable for use in a film capacitor. The film may be extruded and biaxially-stretched . The film may be metallized. In the following, the present invention is discussed in more detail with respect to the figures.

Figure 1 shows a film capacitor.

Figure 2 shows a flow diagram representing the method for manufacturing the film of the film capacitor.

Film capacitors are electrical capacitors with an insulating plastic film as the dielectric. Figure 1 shows a capacitor 1 comprising a dielectric film 2 which has been metallized on one side. The metallization forms an electrode 3 of the capacitor 1. The electrodes 3 of the film capacitor 1 may be metallized by applying a metal or an alloy of metals on the surface of the film. In particular, the electrodes 3 may comprise aluminium, zinc, gold, silver, magnesium or any appropriate alloy of these materials. In the film capacitor 1 shown in Figure 1, the films 2 are stacked on one another. Alternatively, two of the films 2 can be wound into a cylinder-shaped winding to form the capacitor 1. The winding can further be flattened into an oval shape by applying mechanical pressure.

The electrodes 3 are contacted by a contact layer 4, which is also referred to as schoopage. Moreover, the film capacitor 1 comprises terminals for electrically contacting the capacitor 1.

The film 2 consists of a blend of polypropylene and cyclo- olefin copolymer wherein the cyclo-olefin copolymer consists of ethylene and norbornene. The polypropylene has a greater percentage than the cyclo-olefin copolymer by weight of the blend. In particular, the polypropylene has a percentage by weight of two-thirds or more.

In the following, the manufacturing method for manufacturing the film 2 comprising a blend of polypropylene and cyclo- olefin copolymer is described. Figure 2 shows a flow diagram representing the method for manufacturing the film. The manufacturing method uses state-of-the-art customary

processes .

In a first step A, the polypropylene and the cyclo-olefin copolymer are blended together to form the blend. In the subsequent step B, the blend is melted and mixed to form a molten polymer. In the next step C, the molten polymer is filtered to form a filtered molten polymer. In the next step D, the filtered molten polymer is extruded through a flat die to form an extruded capacitor film. In the next step E, the extruded capacitor film is biaxially-stretched to form a biaxially-stretched capacitor film.

Afterwards, the biaxially-stretched capacitor film is

metallized using customary processes. Before the metallizing, the film may be surface-treated by means of corona or flame. The metallization process is preferably carried out by

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) in vacuum. The metal layer is applied at least on one surface of the film. The metal layer consists of any suitable metal, preferably aluminium, zinc, gold, silver or magnesium or appropriate alloys of the previously mentioned materials. The thickness of the metal layer usually ranges from 10 nm to 100 nm. The capacitor has good self-healing abilities up to

temperatures of 130°C. The capacitor has a dissipation factor at 1 kHz, 23°C and 50% relative humidity that is at most two times higher than the dissipation factor of a reference capacitor which comprises a film of pure polypropylene. The cost of the base material for the film is higher than that of the reference capacitor because of the contribution of cyclo- olefin copolymer. But as the majority contribution to the weight is by polypropylene, the cost of the base material is moderate. As discussed above, the manufacturing process is based on state-of-the-art manufacturing steps. Thus, the production can be carried out in a cost-efficient manner.

In the following, life test measurements are described which compare capacitors according to the present invention to a reference capacitor. The values of capacitance and

dissipation factor were measured on finished capacitors by a Keysight E4980AL Precision LCR Meter. Table 1 provides a list of the capacitors used in the present tests .

TABLE 1

Blend composition COC composition Capacitance Loss tangent

Sample Polypropylene [%] COC [%] | Norbornene [%] Ethylene [% at 1 kHz in pF at 20Hz

100% 0% 0% 0% 9.56 0,012% 80% 20% 75% 25% 9,33 0,016% 7n¾ 30% 75% 25% 9,26 0,037%

20% 80% 20% 9,79 0,016%

Sample 1 refers to a reference capacitor which comprises a film that consists only of polypropylene. Samples 2, 3 and 4 refer to capacitors according to the present invention which comprise a film containing varying percentages of a

commercially available high crystallinity capacitor grade polypropylene resin and complementary percentages of two commercially available cyclo-olefin copolymers of ethylene and norbornene. In particular, the blend according to sample 2 comprises 80 weight% polypropylene and 20 weight% of cyclo- olefin copolymer, wherein the cyclo-olefin copolymer consists of 75 weight% norbornene and 25 weight% ethylene. The blend according to sample 3 comprises 70 weight% polypropylene and 30 weight% of cyclo-olefin copolymer, wherein the cyclo- olefin copolymer consists of 75 weight% norbornene and 25 weight% ethylene. The blend according to sample 4 comprises 80 weight% polypropylene and 20 weight% of cyclo-olefin copolymer, wherein the cyclo-olefin copolymer consists of 80 weight% norbornene and 20 weight% ethylene.

The blends of samples 1 to 4 have been biaxially-stretched into capacitor films of a thickness of 8 ym by customary processes. The films have been vacuum-metallized to obtain a sheet resistance of 20 Ohm/sq. Then, the films have been transformed into metallized film capacitors comprising a rolled, flat-pressed element inside a plastic box sealed with a potted epoxy resin by customary processes identical for all samples .

Table 1 shows the average values of capacitance and the loss tangent for at least 20 capacitors from each sample. The capacitance is measured at 1 kHz. The capacitors according to samples 2 to 4 show a similar capacitance to the capacitor of sample 1 which comprises the film of pure BOPP. Moreover, the capacitors according to samples 2 to 4 show a loss tangent which is higher than that of the reference capacitor

according to sample 1. The loss tangents at 20 Hz of samples 2 and 4 are 1.33 times higher than those of the BOPP film reference and the loss tangent of sample 3 is three times higher than that of the BOPP film. The increased losses are due to the cyclo-olefin copolymer in the blend. However, on the other hand, as will be shown in the life tests, the capacitors according to samples 2 to 4 have an improved lifetime over the reference capacitors according to sample 1 as internal irreversible short-circuits occur less often in samples 2 to 4.

The performance of samples 1 to 4 under operational stress caused by temperature and by a DC voltage have been evaluated through two life tests at different temperatures. Namely, the first test has been carried out at a temperature of 120°C and the second test has been carried out at a temperature of 130°C. Five capacitors per sample have been tested in each life test. The capacitance at 1 kHz and the loss tangent at 1 kHz of the capacitors have been monitored by regular

measurements every 160 hours during the test. A capacitor has been considered as failing the test when it showed an irreversible short-circuit. Such a capacitor has therefore been removed from the test after the failure. A failure indicates that the capacitor has failed to self-heal at that point of time.

Table 2 shows the conditions under which the first life test has been performed.

TABLE 2

Voltage Steps applied in long-endurance test A

DC Voltage in V Field in V/μιη Time in Hours

2080 260 1000

2240 280 1000

The test comprised two steps of increasing voltage as

described in Table 2. During the first step which took one thousand hours of the test, a DC voltage of 2080 V has been applied, resulting in a field of 260 V per ym. During the second step which took the subsequent 1000 hours of the test, a DC voltage of 2240 V has been applied, resulting in a field of 280 V per ym. Table 3 lists the elapsed times of the test at which

irreversible breakdowns affected the capacitors from each sample and gives the estimated mean time to failure (MTTF) .

TABLE 3

Average

Hours to failure in long-endurance test A at 120°C (in increasing order) MTTF

Sample 1st. failure 2nd. failure 3rd. failure 4th. failure 5th. failure Hours

1 346 442 541 709 709 549

2 no failure after 2.000 hours of test > 2.000

3 no failure after 2.000 hours of test > 2.000 4 130 202 322 346 442 288

It can be gathered from Table 3 that the capacitors according to samples 2 and 3 did not show any failure after 2000 hours of test. The capacitor according to sample 4 showed an average MTTF of 288 hours. The reference capacitors according to sample 1 showed an average MTTF of 549 hours. Accordingly, samples 2 and 3 show a mean time to failure that is at least three times higher than that of the reference sample. It might even be much higher than three times because the failures in sample 1 took place at the first 1000 hours of the test and the voltage stress was increased in the

subsequent second 1000 hours of the test.

The second life test was carried at a temperature of 130°C and comprises four steps of increasing voltage as described in Table 4.

TABLE 4

Voltage Steps applied in long-endurance test B

DC Voltage in V Field in V/μιη Time in Hours

655 82 168

1000 125 336

1400 175 603

1665 208 448

1960 245 778

As can be seen in Table 4, the voltage stress has been increased in each phase of the test as a DC voltage of 655 V is applied in a first phase, then the voltage is increased to 1000 V in a second phase, then the voltage is increased to 1400 V in a third phase, to 1665 V in a fourth phase and finally to 1960 V in a fifth phase. Table 5 lists the elapsed times of test at which irreversible breakdowns have affected the capacitors of samples 1 to 4.

TABLE 5

Hours to failure in long-endurance test B at 130°C and increasing Vdc (in increasing order)

Sample 1st, failure 2nd, failure 3rd, failure 4th. failure 5th. failure

Ϊ 672 ΪΪ07 Ϊ300 Ϊ300 Ϊ559

2 no failure after 2.333 hours of test

3 2001 2333

4 1300 1300 1300 1540 1835

Again, the capacitors according to sample 2 did not show any failure. Only two of the capacitors of sample 3 showed

failures. Each of the failures of sample 3 occurred in the last phase of the test. The capacitors according to sample 4 showed failure later than the capacitors according to the reference sample 1.

Altogether, the life tests show that samples 2 and 3 based on blends containing respective 20 and 30 weight% of a cyclo- olefin copolymer with 75 percent by weight of norbornene and 25 percent by weight of ethylene clearly outperform reference sample 1 which is based on pure BOPP, not containing any cyclo-olefin copolymer. Moreover samples 2 and 3 also

outperform sample 4 which is based on a blend containing 20% of cyclo-olefin copolymer with 80% by weight of norbornene and 20% by weight of ethylene. The outperformance is achieved by the lack of internal irreversible short-circuits that allow samples 2 and 3 to continue under test conditions.

Accordingly, samples 2 and 3 are preferred embodiments.

Samples 2 and 3 have in common that each of them comprises cyclo-olefin copolymer which consists of 75 % by weight norbornene and 25% by weight ethylene. Sample 2 is the more preferred sample as sample 2 results in a lower loss tangent at 20 Hz as can be gathered from Table 1, and also sample 2 outperforms sample 3 in the second life test.

List of reference numerals

1 capacitor

2 film

3 electrode

4 contact layer

5 terminal