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Title:
FLAME RETARDANT COMPOSITE ARTICLES AND METHODS FOR REDUCING EXPOSURE TO FLAMES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/212549
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Described are composite articles containing covered core textiles that exhibit low flammability and thermal shrinkage resistance. A composite article is described comprising (1) a textile layer comprising a covered core yarn and (2) a heat reactive layer. The articles can be National Fire Protection Agency ("NFPA") 2112 compliant.

Inventors:
ARIFOGLU, Mustafa (W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc.551 Paper Mill Roa, Newark DE, 19711, US)
Application Number:
US2018/030753
Publication Date:
November 07, 2019
Filing Date:
May 03, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
W. L. GORE & ASSOCIATES, INC. (555 Paper Mill Road, Newark, DE, 19711, US)
International Classes:
B32B5/02; A41D31/00; A62B17/00; B32B5/04; B32B5/08; B32B5/22; B32B5/24; B32B5/26; B32B7/12; B32B27/08; B32B27/20; B32B27/32; C08K3/04; D06M11/74; D06M15/564
Domestic Patent References:
WO2009055046A12009-04-30
WO1991001621A21991-02-21
WO2016055926A12016-04-14
Foreign References:
US20090110919A12009-04-30
US20130004747A12013-01-03
US4862730A1989-09-05
US4532316A1985-07-30
Other References:
DATABASE WPI Week 201859, 29 March 2017 Derwent World Patents Index; AN 2018-617506, XP002787712
DATABASE WPI Week 201739, Derwent World Patents Index; AN 2017-23700J, XP002787775
DATABASE WPI Week 200351, Derwent World Patents Index; AN 2003-539409, XP002787776
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SCHINDLER, Barry, J. et al. (Greenberg Traurig, LLP500 Campus Drive, Suite 40, Florham Park NJ, 07932, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A composite article comprising;

a) a textile layer comprising a covered core yam, wherein the covered core yam comprises a core and one or more cover materials which at least partially cover the core; b) an adhesive layer bonded to the textile layer;

wherein the adhesive layer comprises a polymer resin and an expandable graphite that expands at least 900 pm upon heating to 280°C; and

wherein the article has a shrinkage, in at least one direction, of less than 20 percent in the thermal shrinkage test according to ASTM 2894-14.

2. The composite article of claim 1, wherein the core comprises a heat stable, non- meltable fiber.

3. The composite article of claim 1 or 2, wherein the one or more cover materials is a thermoplastic, a polyamide, a polyester, a polyurethane, a polyolefin, an acrylic or a combination thereof.

4. The composite article of any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the textile layer is a woven or a knit textile.

5. The composite article of any one of claims 1 to 4, further comprising one or more additional layers, wherein the additional layer comprises a thermally stable textile, a waterproof breathable material, a thermally stable film, or a combination thereof. 6 The composite article of claim 5, wherein the one or more additional layer comprises expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).

7. The composite article of any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the textile layer further comprise at least one other yam or filament that is different than the covered core yam.

8. The composite article of any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the second yam or filament is a yam or filament comprising a thermoplastic, polyamides, nylon, nylon 6, nylon 6,6; polyester, polyethylene terephthalate, polytrimethylene terephthalate; polyurethane; polyolefin, polyethylene, polypropylene, acrylic or a combination thereof.

9. The composite article of any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the core comprises from 10 to 90 percent by weight of the covered core yam, based on the total weight of the covered core yam.

10. The composite article of any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the covered core yam comprises at between 1 percent and 100 percent by weight of the textile layer, based on the total weight of the textile layer.

11. The composite article of any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein a combination of the cover material and the adhesive layer forms a char when the article is exposed to flame.

12. The composite article of any one of claims 1 to 11, formed as a garment, wherein the textile layer is oriented away from the body of the wearer.

13. The composite article of any one of claims 1 to 13, wherein the covered core yam is core spun.

14. The composite article of any one of claims 1 to 14, wherein the core comprises a p-aramid, m-aramid, a modacrylic, a flame retardant cotton, a polybenzimidazole (PBI), a polybenzoxazole (PBO), polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), wool, FR viscose, FR rayon, carbon fiber or a combination thereof.

Description:
FLAME RETARDANT COMPOSITE ARTICLES

AND METHODS FOR REDUCING EXPOSURE TO FLAMES

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] This disclosure relates to composite articles comprising a textile layer containing covered core yams, that exhibit low flammability and low thermal shrinkage resistance. In particular, the articles can be National Fire Protection Agency (“NFPA”) 2112 compliant.

BACKGROUND OF THE DISCLOSURE

[0002] In hazardous environments where infrequent and short duration exposure to fire and extreme heat is possible, such as those encountered by search and rescue and police, protective materials are desirable to reduce bum injuries. Protective gear for persons exposed to these conditions should provide some enhanced protection compared with conventional technical garments to allow the wearer to get away from the hazard quickly and safely, rather than to combat the hazard. However, given that the fire and extreme heat exposure is expected to be only occasional, the weight and usability of the garment should be similar to those of conventional garments. Similarly, the weight, appearance and feel of the garment should be similar to conventional garments with good colorfastness, printability, and abrasion resistance. The cost for waterproof, flame retardant, protective clothing has also been an important consideration for the large number of hazardous exposure applications outside fire protection, thereby precluding the use of typical, inherently flame retardant textiles such as those used in fire-fighting community.

[0003] Traditionally, flame retardant (FR) protective garments have been made with an outermost layer consisting of non-combustible, non-melting fabric made of, for example, aramids, polybenzimidazole (PBI), poly p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole (PBO), modacrylic blends, polyamines, carbon, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), or blends and combinations thereof. These fibers may be inherently flame retardant but may have several limitations. Specifically, these fibers may be very expensive, difficult to dye and print, and may not have adequate abrasion resistance. Additionally, these fibers pick up more water and offer unsatisfactory tactile comfort as compared to nylon or similar thermoplastic based fabrics.

[0004] As part of a solution, thermoplastic and/or meltable materials have been proposed in flame retardant composite materials. For example, US Publication No. 2009/0110919, describes multilayer bum protective materials that can contain an outer layer comprising a flammable, meltable material, and a layer of heat reactive material comprising a polymer resin-expandable graphite mixture. As another example, US Pub. No. 2013/004747 describes an article comprising a textile made of fibers/filaments having a partially internal discontinuous pattern of an impregnating material which penetrates the textile. The impregnating material may contain at least one additive comprising expandable graphite material that can work as a fire blocker in case of heat contact. The non-impregnated areas are air permeable and the textile is water vapor permeable and has reduced water absorption and re-dry time.

[0005] One desirable property for all flame retardant articles is low thermal shrinkage when exposed to flame and/or high temperatures. The National Fire Protection Agency (“NFPA”) 2112 standard includes this as a requirement for compliance. While thermoplastic and/or meltable fibers have been used in flame retardant garments, they often exhibit high thermal shrinkage when exposed to high temperatures or flame. It can be a challenge to use these materials in flame retardant materials and garments where low thermal shrinkage is desired because the thermal shrinkage of a thermoplastic or meltable layer can significantly affect the thermal shrinkage performance of the entire composite. There continues to be a need for flame retardant textiles that utilize thermoplastic polymers without high thermal shrinkage. Additionally, solutions that allow for the use of thermoplastic materials in flame retardant garments that meet NFPA 2112 compliance standards may be desirable.

SUMMARY OF THE DISCLOSURE

[0006] The present disclosure is directed toward a first embodiment that is a composite article comprising a textile layer comprising a) a covered core yam, wherein the covered core yam comprises one or more cover materials which may at least partially cover the core, b) an adhesive layer bonded to the textile layer, wherein the adhesive layer comprises a polymer resin and an expandable graphite that expands at least 900 micrometers (pm) upon heating to 280 ° C; and wherein the article has a thermal shrinkage, in at least one direction, of less than 20% in a thermal shrinkage test according to ASTM 2894-14. The disclosed composite articles can be useful for producing garments or other fire retardant textiles that resist thermal shrinkage when exposed to relatively high temperatures and, if exposed to a flame, produce a layer of char material which does not support the continued burning of the material and insulates the underlying surface from at least some of the heat. [0007] In a second embodiment, the disclosure relates to the composite article of the first embodiment, wherein the core comprises a heat stable, non-meltable fiber.

[0008] In a third embodiment, the disclosure relates to the composite article of any one or more of the previous embodiments, wherein the one or more cover materials is a

thermoplastic, a polyamide, a polyester, a polyolefin, an acrylic or a combination thereof.

[0009] In a fourth embodiment, the disclosure relates to the composite article of any of one or more of the previous embodiments, wherein the textile layer is a woven or a knit textile.

[0010] In a fifth embodiment, the disclosure relates to the composite article of any of one or more of the previous embodiments, further comprising one or more additional layers, wherein the additional layer comprises a thermally stable textile, a waterproof breathable material, a thermally stable film or a combination thereof.

[0011] In a sixth embodiment, the disclosure relates to the composite article of the sixth embodiment, wherein the one or more additional layer comprises expanded

polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).

[0012] In a seventh embodiment, the disclosure relates to the composite article of any of one or more of the previous embodiments, wherein the textile layer further comprises at least one other yam or filament that is different than the covered core yam.

[0013] In an eighth embodiment, the disclosure relates to the composite article of the seventh embodiment, wherein the at least one other yam or filament is a yam or filament comprising a thermoplastic, polyamide, nylon, nylon 6, nylon 6,6, polyester, polyethylene terephthalate, polytrimethylene terephthalate, polyurethane, polyolefin, polyethylene, polypropylene, acrylic or a combination thereof.

[0014] In a ninth embodiment, the disclosure relates to the composite article of any of one or more of the previous embodiments, wherein the core comprises from 10 to 90 percent by weight of the covered core yam, based on the total weight of the covered core yam.

[0015] In a tenth embodiment, the disclosure relates to the composite article of any of one or more of the previous embodiments, wherein the covered core yam comprises between 1 and 100 percent by weight of the textile layer, based on the total weight of the textile layer. [0016] In an eleventh embodiment, the disclosure relates to the composite article of any of one or more of the previous embodiments, wherein a combination of the cover material and the adhesive layer forms a char when the article is exposed to flame.

[0017] In a twelfth embodiment, the disclosure relates to the composite article of any of one or more of the previous embodiments, formed as a garment, wherein the textile layer is oriented away from the body of the wearer.

[0018] In a thirteenth embodiment, the disclosure relates to the composite article of any of one or more of the previous embodiments, wherein the covered yam is a core spun yam.

[0019] In a fourteenth embodiment, the disclosure relates to the composite article of any of one or more of the previous embodiments, wherein the core comprises para-aramid (p- aramid), meta-aramid (m-aramid), modacrylic, a fire resistant cotton, a polybenzimidazole (PBI), a polybenzoxazole (PBO), polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), wool, flame retardant (FR) viscose, FR rayon carbon fiber or a combination thereof.

[0020] In a fifteenth embodiment, the disclosure relates to the composite article of any one or more of the previous embodiments, wherein the adhesive layer is bonded in a continuous or a discontinuous manner to the textile layer.

[0021] In a sixteenth embodiment, the disclosure relates to the composite article of any one or more of the previous embodiments, wherein the textile weight is in the range of from 40 to 150 grams/meter 2 .

[0022] In a seventeenth embodiment, the disclosure relates to the composite article of any one or more of the previous embodiments, wherein the textile comprises from 1 to 100% of the covered core yam.

[0023] In an eighteenth embodiment, the disclosure relates to the composite article of any one or more of the previous embodiments, wherein the composite article has a break open time that is increased by 20 seconds compared to the same composite textile but made without the covered core yam and when measured according to the Horizontal Flame test.

[0024] In a nineteenth embodiment, the disclosure relates to the composite article of any one or more of the previous embodiments, wherein the composite article further comprises one or more additional layers. [0025] Any of the above embodiments can provide a composite article which is suitable for use in a garment for workers that may be exposed to hazardous environments. The garments can be shrink resistant, breathable, and/or flame retardant while being relatively lightweight, flexible and comfortable to wear.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0026] The operation of the present invention should become apparent from the following description when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

[0027] Figure 1 is a schematic illustration of a cross-sectional view of one embodiment described herein.

[0028] Figure 2 is a schematic illustration of cross-sectional view of another embodiment described herein.

[0029] Figure 3 is a schematic illustration of cross-sectional view of another embodiment described herein.

[0030] Figure 4 is a schematic illustration of an embodiment described herein.

[0031] Figure 5 is a schematic illustration of cross-sectional view of another embodiment described herein.

[0032] Figure 6 is a schematic illustration of cross-sectional view of another embodiment described herein.

[0033] Figure 7a is a schematic illustration of one embodiment of a polymer resin- expandable graphite applied as discrete dots.

[0034] Figure 7b is a schematic illustration of one embodiment of a pattern of a polymer resin-expandable graphite applied in a grid. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DISCLOSURE

[0035] A composite article that exhibits low thermal shrinkage is described herein. The composite articles described herein can be relatively lightweight and still retain excellent flame resistance and low thermal shrinkage. In addition, embodiments maintain the appearance and weight of a traditional garment. The composite articles also provide excellent colorfastness, printing, abrasion resistance, and relatively low cost. In some embodiments, the articles can be compliant with at least the low thermal shrinkage requirement of National Fire Protection Agency (“NFPA”) 2112. The NFPA 2112 Standard provides minimum requirements for the design, construction, evaluation, and certification of flame-retardant clothing for use by industrial personnel.

[0036] In some embodiments, the composite article comprises a) a textile layer comprising a covered core yam, the covered core yam comprises a core and one or more cover materials which at least partially cover the core; and b) an adhesive layer bonded to the textile layer; wherein the adhesive layer comprises a polymer resin and an expandable graphite that expands at least 900 micrometers (pm) upon heating to 280 ° C; and wherein the composite article has a shrinkage, at least in one direction, of less than 20 percent as measured by a thermal shrinkage test according to ASTM 2894-14. In other embodiments, the composite article has a shrinkage, at least in one direction of less than 15 percent or less than 10 percent as measured by the thermal shrinkage test according to ASTM 2894-14.

[0037] As used herein, the phrase“covered core yam” means a yam comprising core wherein the core can be monofilament, multifilament, staple fibers or a combination thereof and wherein the exterior of the core is at least partially covered or enclosed by a covering material. The covering material can independently be monofilament, multifilament, staple fibers or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the covering material does not completely enclose the core, meaning that at least a portion of the core can be visible to the naked eye (or when using at most up to 2x magnification) through gaps in the covering material, while in other embodiments, the covering material does completely enclose the core, meaning that the core is not visible to the naked eye (or when using up to at most 2x magnification) through gaps in the covering material. The term“filament” means an endless or quasi-endless, elongated member of natural or man-made material. The term

“monofilament” means a single filament. The term“multifilament” means a collection of filaments in a substantially parallel arrangement, although the filaments can be twisted together about a common axis. As used herein, the term filament will include both monofilament and multifilament materials unless it is specifically stated otherwise. The term “fiber” or“staple fiber” means a relatively short, elongated member of natural or synthetic material. A fiber will typically be of a discrete length (usually less than 50 centimeters) and the length being much greater than the height and width dimensions.

[0038] Covered core yams can be prepared by any method known in the art. Examples include, but are not limited to, core spun materials and wrapped cores. In some embodiments, the covered core yam can be prepared by bonding the covering material to the core. In other embodiments, the core can be coated by the covering material. Traditionally, covered core yams are fashioned by creating or providing a core that can be a filament core or staple fiber core and wrapping the core with one or more staple fibers, filaments, fibers, or yams. One example of a covered yam is sewing thread where a core of polyester filament is wrapped with staple cotton to produce the covered yam. In contrast to sewing thread, the present disclosure relates to covered core yams where the core is a heat stable, non-meltable core and the covering material which covers the core comprises a filament or fiber material that is meltable and/or exhibits melt shrinkage, such as a thermoplastic fiber.

[0039] As used herein, the phrases“adhesive layer”,“heat reactive material” and“polymer resin-expandable graphite mixture” are used interchangeably and mean an adhesive composition and/or a layer thereof comprising a polymer resin and an expandable graphite.

In the present disclosure, the adhesive layer comprising the polymer resin and expandable graphite is generally adhered to at least one surface of the textile layer comprising the covered core yam. When the composite article is formed into, for example, a garment, the textile layer is a layer that is on the outer side of the garment and the adhesive layer is on an inner side of the textile layer, wherein the inner and outer orientations are in relation to the wearer of the garment. The phrase“additional adhesive layer” means a layer of a textile adhesive, wherein the textile adhesive is a polymer resin, optionally containing an expandable graphite.

[0040] The composite article (100) comprises a textile (120) comprising a covered core yam (10). FIG. 4 shows an example of a covered core yam (10) configuration. The covered core yam (10) comprises a core (20) comprising or consisting essentially of a filament or fibers, for example, staple fibers. More specifically, the core (20) can take a variety of forms, for example, monofilament, multifilament, twisted multifilament, flat multifilament, or a staple fiber yam. This provides the interior or core of the covered core yam (10). The core (20) can be made from one material or the core can be made from more than one material, for example, more than one filament or more than one fiber. The covered core yam (10) also comprises a cover material (30) that at least partially surrounds or encloses the core material. The cover material (30) can be oriented around the core material in a variety of ways, including wrapped and core spun, for example. FIG. 4 shows an example of a core spun material where the cover material (30) is twisted around the core (20), surrounding the core (20).

[0041] In some embodiments, the core can comprise a material that does not exhibit thermal shrinking. In other embodiments, the core can comprise a material that undergoes limited or low thermal shrinking, such as shrinking a distance of less than 20 percent, or less than 15 percent, or less than 10 percent, or less than 5 percent in any direction when the covered core yam is exposed to 260°C for 5 minutes, according to ASTM 2894-14. When used in the composite articles, it is believed that the lack of thermal shrinking of the core limits or prevents the thermal shrinking of the covered core yam and, in turn, limits or prevents the thermal shrinkage of the textile layer comprising the covered core yam, and finally, limits or prevents the thermal shrinkage of the composite article. In some

embodiments, the core can be comprised of a heat stable and/or non-meltable material. As non-limiting examples, the core can comprise p-aramid, m-aramid, a modacrylic, a flame retardant cotton, a polybenzimidazole (PBI), a polybenzoxazole (PBO), polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), wool, FR viscose, FR rayon, carbon fiber, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the core comprises TWARON® p-aramid material or TECHNORA® p-aramid material, both available from Teijin Aramid, Conyers, Georgia, USA. In other embodiments, the core comprises NOMEX® m-aramid material, available from DuPont, Wilmington, Delaware, USA.

[0042] The covered core yam also comprises a cover material that can be a thermoplastic material or a meltable material in the form of one or more of a filament, fiber, yam, a coating or a combination thereof. The cover material can comprise a material that exhibits high thermal shrinking, such as shrinking a distance of 20 percent or 15 percent or 10 percent or more in any direction when the covered core yam is exposed to 260°C for 5 minutes. In one embodiment, the cover material can be one material. In others embodiment, the cover material can be two or more materials. As non-limiting examples, the cover material can comprise a thermoplastic, a polyamide, a polyester, a polyolefin, an acrylic or a combination thereof. In a preferred embodiment, the cover material can comprise a polyamide or a polyester or a combination thereof.

[0043] In certain embodiments, the core comprises at least 10 percent by weight of the total weight of the covered core yam, e.g., more than 20 percent by weight, more than 30 percent by weight, more than 40 percent by weight, more than 50 percent by weight, more than 60 percent by weight, more than 70 percent by weight, or more than 80 percent by weight of the total weight of the covered core yam. In terms of ranges, the core comprises from 10 percent by weight to 90 percent by weight of the covered core yam, e.g., from 20 percent by weight to 80 percent by weight or from 30 percent by weight to 60 percent by weight, based on the total weight of the covered core yam.

[0044] The covered core yam (10) can be used to produce the textile or textile layer (120). Since it is a yam, the covered core yam (10) can be used in known weaving and knitting processes to form the desired textile layer (120) as a woven textile or a knit textile. For example, a woven textile comprising a covered core yam may have a plain weave, twill, satin, ripstop, or herringbone constmction, or combinations thereof. In other embodiments, a knit textile comprising the covered core yam can be a warp knit, weft knit, circular knit, jersey knit, ribbed knit, interlock knit or terry knit textile. The textile (120) comprises the covered core yam (10) and, in other embodiments, can further comprise at least one other yam or filament that is different than the covered core yam.

[0045] Textiles comprising the covered core yam can be thin and relatively lightweight to reduce the weight of the composite article. In some embodiments, the textile comprising the covered core yam can be lightweight, having a weight greater than or equal to 40

grams/square meter (g/m 2 ), up to about 220 g/m 2 . In embodiments, the composite article comprises a textile comprising a covered core yam which is knit or woven, wherein the textile has a weight in the range of from 210 to 220 g/m 2 , or 200 to 210 g/m 2 , or 190 to 200 g/m 2 , or 180 to 190 g/m 2 , or 170 to 180 g/m 2 , or 160 to 170 g/m 2 , or 150 to 160 g/m 2 , or 140 to 150 g/m 2 , or 130 to 140 g/m 2 , or 120 to 130 g/m 2 , or 110 to 120 g/m 2 , or 100 to 110 g/m 2 , or 90 to 100 g/m 2 , or 80 to 90 g/m 2 , or 70 to 80 g/m 2 , or 60 to 70 g/m 2 , or 50 to 60 g/m 2 , or 40 to 50 g/m 2 . In still further embodiments, the textile has a weight of 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46,

47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89 or 90 g/m 2 . [0046] In some embodiments, the textile comprising the covered core yam can comprise a plurality of covered core yams in the warp direction. In other embodiments, the textile comprising the covered core yam can comprise a plurality of covered core yams in the fill or weft direction. And in some embodiments, the textile comprising the covered core yam can comprise a plurality of the covered core yams in the warp direction and a plurality of the covered core yams in the fill or weft direction. In one embodiment, the textile comprising the covered core yam can be comprised entirely of the covered core yam. In some embodiments, there is a predetermined gap between each covered core yam in the textile, such as every other pick is a covered core yam, every third pick is a covered core yam, every fifth pick is the covered core yam, or every tenth pick is the covered core yam. Similarly in certain embodiments, every other end is the covered core yam, every third end is the covered core yam, every fifth end is the covered core yam, or every tenth end is the covered core yam, for example. Other variations of the amount and placement of the covered core yam in a textile would be apparent and readily achievable to one of ordinary skill in the art.

[0047] In some embodiments, the textile comprising the covered core yam can further comprise at least one other filament, fiber, yam or a combination thereof. The textile can comprise in the range of from 1 percent to 100 percent by weight of the covered core yam, wherein the percentage by weight is based on the total weight of the textile. In other embodiments, the textile can comprise in the range of from 1 percent to 70 percent, from 1 percent to 50 percent, from 1 percent to 20 percent, from 1 percent to 10 percent, from 1 percent to 5 percent, from 5 percent to 80 percent, from 5 percent to 50 percent, from 5 percent to 30 percent, from 5 percent to 20 percent, from 10 percent to 80 percent, from 10 percent to 50 percent, from 10 percent to 30 percent, from 10 percent to 20 percent, from 20 percent to 80 percent, from 20 percent to 50 percent, from 30 percent to 80 percent, from 30 percent to 50 percent, from 50 percent to 90 percent, or from 60 percent to 90 percent by weight of the covered core yam, based on the total weight of the textile. If present, the at least one other filament, fiber, yam or combination thereof can be any of the known filaments, fibers and yams. In some embodiments, the at least one other filament, fiber, yam or combination thereof is a meltable filament, fiber or yam. For example, the at least one other filament, fiber or yam can be those filaments, fibers or yams that are meltable according to the Melting and Thermal Stability Test and can include, for example, polyamides, for example, nylon, nylon 6, nylon 6,6; polyester, polyethylene terephthalate, polytrimethylene terephthalate; polyurethane; polyolefin, polyethylene, polypropylene, acrylic or a combination thereof. The textile layer comprising a covered core yam can be a breathable layer, for example, having a moisture vapor transmission rate (MVTR) of greater than or equal to 1000 g/m 2 /24hr or a non-breathable layer.

[0048] The composite article (100) also comprises an adhesive or adhesive layer (130) that is bonded to the textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam. The adhesive layer (130) can be thermoplastic or cross-linkable polymers, for example, polyester, poly ether, polyurethane, polyamide, acrylic, vinyl polymer, polyolefin, silicone, epoxy or a combination thereof. As an example of an adhesive that is a combination, the adhesive can be a hydroxyl functional polymer that is crosslinked by a polyisocyanate, thereby forming a polyester urethane copolymer. In other embodiments, the adhesive can be a flame retardant adhesive or an adhesive comprising a heat reactive material. Suitable flame retardant adhesives can include any of the adhesive polymers listed above that further comprise one or more flame retardant material. Suitable flame retardant materials can be, for example one or more of chlorinated compounds, brominated compounds, antimony oxide, organic phosphorous-based compounds, zinc borate, ammonium polyphosphate, melamine cyanurate, melamine polyphosphate, molybdenum compounds, alumina trihydrate, magnesium hydroxide, triphenyl phosphate (TPP), resorcinol bis-(diphenylphosphate) (RDP), bisphenol-A

(diphenylphosphate) (BADP), tricresyl phosphate (TCP), organophosphonates,

organophosphinates, phosphonate esters having a general formula of (I):

wherein n = 0 or 1, Ri and R2 are C1-C4 alkyl, R3 is H or C1-C4 alkyl, and R 4 is a linear or branched alkyl. A combination of any of the above flame retardant materials can also be used. Specific embodiments of (I) can include, for example, methyl-bis((5-ethyl-2-methyl-2- oxido-l,3,2-dioxaphosphorinan-5-yl) methyl) ester and methyl (5-ethyl-2-methyl-2-oxido- l,3,2-dioxaphosphorinan-5-yl) methyl methylphosphonate or a combination thereof. The flame retardant material or materials may be present in the adhesive material in an amount of between 1 and 50 percent by weight, based on the total amount of the adhesive material and the flame retardant material.

[0049] In other embodiments, the adhesive layer can comprise a heat reactive material, for example, an expandable graphite. In further embodiments, the adhesive layer comprises a polymer resin and an expandable graphite that expands at least 900pm upon heating to 280 ° C. The expandable graphite can have an average expansion rate of at least 9

micrometer/°C (pm/°C) when tested according to the Expansion test disclosed herein.

Depending on the desired properties of the composite article, it may be desirable to use an expandable graphite having an expansion rate greater than 9 pm/°C between l80°C and 280°C, or an expansion rate greater than l2pm/°C between l80°C and 280°C, or an expansion rate greater than l5pm/°C between l80°C and 280°C. One expandable graphite suitable for use in certain embodiments expands by at least 900 microns in a thermo mechanical analysis (TMA) expansion test described herein when heated to 280°C. Another expandable graphite suitable for use in certain embodiments expands by at least 400 microns in the TMA expansion test described herein when heated to 240°C. Expandable graphite particle size suitable for the adhesive should be chosen so that the polymer resin-expandable graphite mixture may be applied with the selected application method. For example, where the adhesive is applied by a gravure printing technique, the expandable graphite particle size should be small enough to fit in the gravure cells.

[0050] The polymer resins are typically polymer resins that are adhesive and having a melt or softening temperature of less than 280°C. In some embodiments, the polymer resins are sufficiently flowable or deformable to allow the expandable graphite to expand substantially upon heat exposure at or below 300°C, preferably at or below 280°C. It may be desirable that the extensional viscosity of a polymer resin is low enough to allow for the expansion of expandable graphite and high enough to maintain the structural integrity of the heat reactive material after expansion of the mixture of polymer resin and expandable graphite. In other embodiments a polymer resin is used which has a storage modulus between 10 3 and 10 8 dyne/cm 2 and Tan delta between 0.1 and 10 at 200°C. In another embodiment a polymer resin is used that has a storage modulus between 10 3 and 10 6 dyne/cm 2 . In another embodiment a polymer resin is used that has a storage modulus between 10 3 and 10 4 dyne/cm 2 . Polymer resins suitable for use in some embodiments are elastomeric. Other polymer resins suitable for use in some embodiments are cross-linkable, such as crosslinkable polyurethane, for example, MOR-MELT® R7001E (from Rohm & Haas,

USA). In other embodiments, suitable polymer resins are thermoplastic having a melt temperature between 50°C and 250°C, such as DESMOMELT® VP KA 8702 (from Bayer Material Science LLC, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, USA). Polymer resins suitable for use in embodiments described herein comprise polymers which include but are not limited to polyester, polyether, polyurethane, polyamide, acrylic, vinyl polymer, polyolefin, silicone, epoxy or a combination thereof. Flame retardant materials optionally may be incorporated in the polymer resin. In one embodiment, the polymer resins may include at least one component or additive selected from the group consisting of chlorinated compounds, brominated compounds, antimony oxide, organic phosphorous-based compounds, zinc borate, ammonium polyphosphate, melamine cyanurate, melamine polyphosphate, molybdenum compounds, alumina trihydrate, magnesium hydroxide, triphenyl phosphate (TPP), resorcinol bis-(diphenylphosphate) (RDP), bisphenol-A (diphenylphosphate) (BADP), tricresyl phosphate (TCP), organophosphonates, organophosphinates, phosphonate esters having a general formula of (I) which may enhance the flame retardant property of the composite articles. In embodiments, the polymer resin may contain and/or function as an adhesive, for example, for attaching the textile layer comprising a covered core yam to an inner layer.

[0051] In some embodiments, upon exposure of the composite article to flames and/or heat, for example, a temperature above 300°C, the textile layer comprising the covered core yam, and specifically the cover material, melts and can mix with the heat reactive material. At the same time, the expandable graphite can expand. This process can form a char comprised of the cover material and the heat reactive material, that is, a combination of at least the cover material and the heat reactive material form a char when the composite article is exposed to a flame. The char formed in this process can form a layer that does not support combustion and therefore, any flame extinguishes relatively quickly. The material resulting from high temperature exposure of the textile layer comprising the covered core yam and the heat reactive material is a heterogeneous melt mixture of the cover material and heat reactive material. In some embodiments, composite articles can have a break-open time that is increased by at least 20 seconds, or increased by at least 30 seconds, when compared to a textile composite constmcted of substantially the same materials but without the covered core yam in which the melt absorption process described above does not occur, when tested according to the method for Horizontal Flame Test described herein. In other embodiments, the composite articles have a shrinkage, in at least one direction of less than 20 percent in the thermal shrinkage test according to ASTM 2894-14. In still further embodiments, the composite articles have a shrinkage, in at least one direction of less than 15 percent or less than 10 percent in the thermal shrinkage test according to ASTM 2894-14.

[0052] In some embodiments wherein the adhesive layer, upon expansion, can form a plurality of tendrils comprising expanded graphite. The total surface area of the polymer resin-expandable graphite mixture increases significantly when compared to the same mixture prior to expansion. In one embodiment, the surface area of the mixture is increased at least five times after expansion. In another embodiment, the surface area of the mixture increases at least ten times after expansion. In addition, tendrils will often extend outward from the expanded mixture. In an embodiment where the polymer resin-expandable graphite mixture is situated on a substrate in a discontinuous form, the tendrils will extend to at least partially fill the open areas between the discontinuous domains. In a further embodiment, the tendrils will be elongated, having a length to width aspect ratio of at least 5 to 1.

[0053] The polymer resin-expandable graphite mixture may be produced by a method that provides an intimate blend of polymer resin and expandable graphite, without causing substantial expansion of the expandable graphite. Suitable mixing methods include but not limited to paddle mixer, blending and other low shear mixing techniques. In one method, the intimate blend of polymer resin and expandable graphite particles is achieved by mixing the expandable graphite with a monomer or prepolymer prior to polymerization of the polymer resin. In another method, the expandable graphite may be blended with a dissolved polymer, wherein the solvent in removed after mixing. In another method, expandable graphite is blended with a hot melt polymer at a temperature below the expansion temperature of the graphite and above the melting temperature of the polymer. In methods which provide an intimate blend of polymer resin and expandable graphite particles or agglomerates of expandable graphite, the expandable graphite is coated or encapsulated by the polymer resin prior to expansion of the graphite. In other embodiments, the intimate blend is achieved prior to applying the polymer resin-expandable graphite mixture to a substrate.

[0054] The polymer resin-expandable graphite mixture comprises less than or equal to 50 weight percent, or less than or equal to 40 weight percent, or less than or equal to 30 weight percent of the expandable graphite, based on the total weight of the polymer resin and the expandable graphite. In other embodiments, the expandable graphite comprises less than or equal to 20 weight percent, or less than or equal to 10 weight percent, or less than or equal to 5 weight percent, based on the total weight of the polymer resin and the expandable graphite. Generally, from 5 weight percent to 50 weight percent of expandable graphite, based on the total weight of the polymer resin and the expandable graphite, is desired. In some embodiments, desirable flame resistance performance may be achieved with even lower amounts of expandable graphite. Loadings as low as 1 percent may be useful. Depending on the properties desired and the construction of the resulting textile composites, other levels of expandable graphite may also be suitable for other embodiments. Other additives such as pigments, fillers, antimicrobials, processing aids and stabilizers may also be added to the mixture.

[0055] The adhesive may be applied to a surface (122) of the textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10) such as exemplified in FIG.1 and/or to the surface of an optional additional layer to form the adhesive layer (130) such as exemplified in FIG. 2. The adhesive layer (130) may be applied as a continuous layer. However, where enhanced breathability and/or hand is desired, the adhesive layer (130) may be applied discontinuously to form a layer of adhesive material having less than 100 percent surface coverage. A discontinuous application providing less than 100 percent surface coverage may take a variety of patterns including, but not limited to, dots, grids, lines or a combination thereof. In some

embodiments with discontinuous coverage, the average distance between adjacent areas of the discontinuous pattern is less than 5 millimeters (mm), or preferably less than 3.5mm, 2.5mm, l.5mm, or 0.5mm. The average distance between adjacent areas can be measured by measuring the edge-to-edge spacing between adjacent dots. In embodiments where properties such as hand, breathability, and/or textile weight are important, a surface coverage of less than 90 percent, or less than 80 percent, or less than 70 percent, or less than 60 percent, or less than 50 percent, or less than 40 percent, or less than 30 percent may be used. One method for achieving a coverage of less than 100 percent comprises applying the adhesive by printing the adhesive onto a surface of the textile layer comprising the covered core yam or to the optional additional layer by, for example, gravure printing. Figures 7a and 7b illustrate examples in which the adhesive layer (130) is provided in discontinuous patterns of dots (132) (FIG.7A) and grids (134) (FIG. 7B) to a substrate (180) such as to one surface of the textile layer comprising the covered core yam. The adhesive of the adhesive layer (130) may be applied at a rate to achieve an add-on weight of between 10 g/m 2 to 100 g/m 2 of the mixture. In some embodiments, the adhesive of the adhesive layer (130) is applied at a rate to achieve an add-on weight of less than 100 g/m 2 , or less than 75 g/m 2 , or less than 50 g/m 2 , or less than 25 g/m 2 .

[0056] In one example of a discontinuous application, such as in the application of discrete dots (130) in Figure 7A, the polymer resin-expandable graphite mixture can be applied to the textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10) forming an adhesive layer (130) of heat reactive material in the form of a multiplicity of discrete dots. Optionally, an additional layer can then be placed upon the applied adhesive layer (130) and the resulting laminate can be run through the nip of a 2-roll roller to form the composite article (100) as a 2-layer laminate. Upon expansion, the discrete dots form a pattern of structures having structural integrity thereby providing sufficient protection to the composite article (100) to achieve the enhanced properties described herein. By structural integrity it is meant that the heat reactive material after expansion withstands flexing or bending without substantially disintegrating or flaking off the optional additional layer or the textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10), and withstands compression upon thickness measurement when measured according to the Thickness Change Test described herein. In some embodiments, the composite article (100) of the present invention changes thickness upon heat exposure .

[0057] The thickness of the composite article after expansion is at least 0.5 mm greater, e.g., at least 0.8 mm greater, at least 1 mm greater, at least 1.5 mm greater, at least 2 mm greater, than the thickness of the composite article prior to expansion. In other embodiments, the thickness of the composite article after exposure to flame and or heat is at least 20 percent greater than the thickness of the composite article before exposure to flame and/or heat.

[0058] The adhesive layer (130) may be applied in a variety of patterns, for example, dots, lines, or grids. Other methods for applying the adhesive material may include screen printing, or spray or scatter coating or knife coating, provided the adhesive material may be applied in a manner in which the desired properties upon exposure to heat or flame are achieved.

[0059] The composite articles (100) can optionally comprise one or more additional layers like an inner layer (140) and/or a facial layer (110), wherein the adhesive layer (130) is disposed between the textile layer (120) and at least one of the one or more additional layers. The one or more additional layers can independently be a textile, a thermally stable textile, a waterproof breathable material, a thermally stable film or a combination thereof. The one or more additional layers, if present, can be oriented on one or both sides of the textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10), forming an inner layer (140) or a facial layer (110); with the adhesive layer (130) disposed at least between the textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10) and the additional layer. In some embodiments, additional adhesive layers may be present between each of the layers, wherein the additional adhesive layer or layers can independently be the same or different as the adhesive layer comprising the polymer resin and expandable graphite. In general, any of the polymer resins described as suitable for the adhesive layer (130) comprising the polymer resin and expandable graphite can be used as the additional adhesive layer. If two or more additional layers are present in the composite article, one of the additional layers can be adhered to the textile layer comprising the covered core yam via the adhesive layer while the other layer may be adhered in any other way known in the art, for example, the layers may be stitched together, wherein the stitching is around the edges of one or more of the layers, the stitching is throughout the area of one or more of the layers or both. In some embodiments, the composite article (100) consists of, or consists essentially of a textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10), an adhesive layer (130), and an additional layer, wherein the adhesive layer (130) is disposed between the textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10) and the additional layer. The disclosure also relates to a composite article (100) comprising a textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10), an adhesive layer (130), a waterproof breathable layer, and an additional layer, wherein the adhesive layer (130) is disposed at least between the textile layer (120) and the waterproof breathable layer. In still further embodiments, the composite article (100) comprises, consists of, or consists essentially of a facial layer (110) oriented on one side (124) of the textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10), an adhesive layer (130), and an inner layer (140) oriented on the other side (122) of the textile layer (120) from the facial layer (110), wherein the adhesive layer (130) is disposed between the textile layer (120) comprising a covered core yam (10) and both the facial and inner layers (110, 140). Used in this context, consisting essentially of means that the composite article (100) contains those layers mentioned, attached or bonded to one another in the specified order, and no other additional layers that materially affect the composite article. [0060] In some embodiments and as shown in FIG. 1, the composite article (100) comprises a textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10), and an adhesive layer (130). The covered core yam (10) is comprised of a core (20) covered by a covering material (30). As shown in FIG. 1, only some of the fibers in the textile layer (120) are covered core yams (10). At least one other yam, fiber or filament (40) that is different than the covered core yam (10) can be used within the textile layer (120) if desired. In some embodiments, the adhesive layer (130) is bonded to at least one side (122) of the textile layer (120).

[0061] In another embodiment and as shown in FIG. 2, an additional layer in form of an inner layer (140) is shown. In this embodiment, the composite article (100) comprises a textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10) to 100%, an adhesive layer (130) which is disposed between the textile layer (120) and the inner layer (140). The adhesive layer (130) is attached to one side (122) of the textile layer (120).

[0062] In the embodiment shown in FIG. 3, two additional layers are shown. The composite article (100) comprises a first additional layer, sometimes referred to as a facial layer (110) that is adjacent to the textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10), an adhesive layer (130), for example, an adhesive comprising a heat reactive material and a second additional layer, sometimes referred to as an inner layer (140). The facial layer (110) and the textile layer (120) can be laminated together or bonded using an adhesive that can be the same or different as the adhesive layer (130). In some embodiments, the adhesive layer (130) is disposed on an inner side (122) of the textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10). The covered core yam (10) is comprised of a core (20) covered by a covering material (30). As shown in FIG. 3, only some of the fibers in the textile layer (120) are covered core yams (10). At least one other yam, fiber or filament (40) that is different than the covered core yam (10) can be used within the textile layer (120) as well. An outer surface (112) of facial layer (110) can be exposed and visual to the environment. The adhesive layer (130) does not penetrate through to or does not come into contact with the facial layer (110) so that an adhesive layer comprising heat reactive material is not visible and does not cause a color change or surface deformation on the outer surface (112) of the facial layer (110). Depending on the material of the facial layer (110), the outer surface (112) has a surface topology that provides the look and feel of a garment. To improve the aesthetic appearance of the composite article (100), the adhesive layer (130) comprising heat reactive material should not cause deformations to form a undesirable grid or darkening pattern on the outer surface (112) of the facial layer (110). A darkening pattern is a result of the typically darker color of the adhesive layer (130) comprising heat reactive material relative to the textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (120) and is not desirable. Specifically, the outer surface (112) of the facial layer (110) appears without deformations, e.g., without a dimples or bumps from the adhesive layer (130) comprising heat reactive material.

[0063] In some embodiments, the one or more additional layers can be attached to the textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10) so that in the composite article (100), for example, a garment, the additional layer is a facial layer (110) oriented on the outside of the garment, that is, on the side that is opposite a wearer of the garment. The optional facial layer (110) (example shown in FIG. 3) can comprise a variety of materials that are attached to the textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10). In some embodiments, the facial layer (110) can comprise a colored or printed, relatively lightweight material, for example, a textile, including woven, knit, and non-woven. In other

embodiments, the facial layer (110) can be a film, for example, a porous (breathable) film or a nonporous (non-breathable) film. As used herein, the term film means a continuous, layer having a larger ratio between surface area and thickness, i.e. essentially two-dimensional.

The film can be provided as a coating on a substrate or it can be free-standing and handled as a separate object. In still further embodiments, the facial layer (110) can comprise a breathable material. As used herein, the term breathable means that the material can have a moisture vapor transmission rate (MVTR) of greater than 1000 grams/meter 2 /24 hours (g/m 2 /24hr). In other embodiments, the MVTR, expressed as g/m 2 /24hr, of the facial layer (110) can be greater than or equal to 5000 or greater than or equal to 10,000 or greater than or equal to 20,000. In some embodiments, the facial layer (110) can include, but are not limited to polyamide, nylon; e.g., 30 denier (D) nylon, 40 D nylon, or 70D nylon; nylon twill, e.g., 30D nylon twill, 40D nylon twill, or 70D nylon twill; polyester, polypropylene, polyethylene or multilayer laminates thereof. In some embodiments, the facial layer(l 10) can be waterproof and/or the facial layer can be coated with a layer of a durable water resistant (DWR) coating. This DWR coating can be on the outer side (112) of the facial layer (110). In another embodiment, the facial layer is uncoated but comprises a waterproof material.

[0064] When used, the facial layer (110) can be attached to the textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10) using any of the known techniques, including, for example, lamination and/or adhesion. In some embodiments, the facial layer is attached to the textile layer comprising the covered core yam using an adhesive. Suitable adhesives can include any of those listed previously.

[0065] In some embodiments, the one or more additional layers can be attached to the textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam so that in the composite article, for example, a garment, the additional layer can be an inner layer (140) oriented on the inside of the garment, that is, on the side that is closer to a wearer of the garment. In embodiments comprising an inner layer (140), as exemplified in FIG. 2, 3 and 6, the adhesive layer (130) may be disposed on the textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10) or on the inner layer (110). In some embodiments, the adhesive layer (130) can be applied in a manner in which the adhesive layer (130) provides an adhesive bond between the inner layer (140) and the textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10). The inner layer (140) can be a textile, for example, knit, woven or nonwoven material or a film. The inner layer (140) can be attached to the textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10) by the adhesive layer (130) as illustrated in FIG. 2. In some embodiments, the inner layer (140) can comprise a thermally stable backer. Materials suitable for use as a thermally stable backer can include, for example, textiles which are not meltable according to the Melting and Thermal Stability Test as presented herein. Examples of suitable heat stable textile backers include aramids, Flame Retardant (FR) cottons, PBI, PBO, FR rayon, modacrylic blends, polyamines, carbon, fiberglass, PAN and blends and combinations thereof.

[0066] In other embodiments, the one or more additional layers can independently comprise, for example, films, knits, wovens, non-wovens or a combination thereof. In still further embodiments, the inner layer (140) can comprise breathable or non-breathable thermally stable convective barrier material(s) to further enhance the performance of the composite (100) upon exposure to flame or heat. In some embodiments, the one or more additional layers can be a thermally stable convective barrier material that can be a film, for example, polyimide, silicone, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), such as unexpanded PTFE or expanded PTFE. The thermally stable convective barrier prevents the convective heat transfer to the layers or substrates behind it when exposed to a convective heat source.

Convective barriers for use in embodiments described herein have a maximum air permeability of less than 10 Frazier after thermal exposure when tested as per the method described herein. Preferably, a convective barrier has an air permeability after thermal exposure of less than 5 Frazier. More preferably, a convective barrier has an air permeability after thermal exposure of less than 3 Frazier.

[0067] In further embodiments, as exemplified in FIG. 5, the composite article (100) comprises a textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10) to 100%, an adhesive layer (130) which is disposed between the textile layer (120) and the inner layer. The inner layer may comprise a multilayer thermally stable convective barrier (142). The thermally stable convective barrier (142) may comprise two or more layers of a thermally stable film (144 and 146) and, for example a polymer layer (148) there between. The polymer layer (148) may be waterproof, breathable, air impermeable or a combination thereof.

[0068] In a further embodiment, such as the one illustrated in FIG. 6, the composite article (100) comprises a textile layer (120) comprising the covered core yam (10), and an adhesive layer (130). As shown in FIG. 6, only some of the fibers in the textile layer (120) are covered core yams (10). At least one other yam, fiber or filament (40) that is different than the covered core yam (10) can be used within the textile layer (120) as well. The composite article (100) may further comprise an inner layer (140) as a textile backer positioned on a side of a thermally stable convective barrier (142) that is opposite the adhesive layer (130). The textile backer can be attached with an additional adhesive layer (152) in the form of discrete dots. Preferably, the textile backer is a thermally stable textile backer, such as a material which passes the melting and thermal stability test described herein.

[0069] Further embodiments relate to a method for producing the composite article comprising providing a textile layer comprising the covered core yam having a first surface and a second surface, providing an adhesive, applying a layer of the adhesive to at least one surface of the textile layer comprising the covered core yam. The method can further comprise the step of providing at least one additional layer, and attaching the at least one additional layer to the adhesive layer. The step of applying at least one additional layer to the adhesive layer can be done just after the application of the layer of adhesive, in the case of a crosslinkable adhesive. Typically, in embodiments using a crosslinkable adhesive, a continuous method occurs wherein the layer of the adhesive is applied to the textile layer comprising the covered core yam and the at least one additional layer is applied to the layer of adhesive within, for example, less than 1 second to 1 minute. If the adhesive is a thermoplastic adhesive, the at least one additional layer can be applied immediately after the application of the layer of adhesive, or days or even weeks after the application of the layer of adhesive. The at least one additional layer can be adhered to the adhesive layer via pressure, for example, passing the two layer composite article through the nip of two rollers. Any second or subsequent additional layer can be applied to the textile layer or the first additional layer via any of the methods described above. The second or subsequent additional layer can be applied in the same manner as the application of the first additional layer, for example, during the application process of applying the first additional layer or any time period following the application of the first additional layer. The method can further include the step of applying a durable water resistant (DWR) coating to the textile layer comprising the covered core yam. An inner layer can be attached to the adhesive layer to form the product. As used herein, the term“attaching” means bonding, adhesively securing or otherwise laminating one surface to another. Lamination techniques and the use of lamination adhesives are known in the art.

[0070] The textile layer comprising the covered core yam may also be flammable or nonflammable. Materials are tested with the Vertical Flame test to determine whether they are flammable or nonflammable.

[0071] A method is also provided for reducing the predicted percent body bum after exposure to flame when tested according to the ASTM F1930 Garment Flammability Test (thermal manikin) described herein. The method comprises providing the composite article comprising the textile layer comprising the covered core yam and at least one additional layer, having an adhesive layer between the textile layer comprising a covered core yam and the optional at least one additional layer; subjecting the composite article to ASTM F1930, wherein the textile layer is oriented toward the heat source; testing a comparable composite article wherein the textile article does not containing the covered core yam; and calculating the percent difference. As used herein, a“comparable composite fabric” means a composite article formed from a textile comprising essentially the same fibers, but not including the covered core yam. For example, if the textile layer comprising the covered core yam is a polyester fabric wherein every 5 th pick and every 5 th end is a covered core yam comprising an aramid core and a polyester covering, then the comparable composite fabric would be a polyester fabric. The method further comprises constmcting a garment from the composite wherein the textile layer comprising a covered core yam is oriented away from the body of the wearer and toward the source of the flame. In some embodiments, the reduction in body bum as compared to the comparable composite article can be up to 10 percent less or up to 15 percent less or up to 20 percent less or up to 25 percent less.

[0072] In one embodiment, the composite article as described herein is suitable for use in garments for workers in hazardous environments. The garments can be shrink resistant, breathable, waterproof, and/or flame retardant, while being lightweight, flexible, comfortable to wear, with good colorfastness, printing, and abrasion resistance. In embodiments, the composite article can have a thickness of less than 0.5 mm, e.g. less than 0.48 mm, less than 0.40 mm, less than 0.35 mm, less than 0.25 mm, less than 0.21 mm, or less than 0.2 mm. In embodiments, the composite article can have an average weight of less than 275 g/m 2 , e.g., less than 255 g/m 2 , less than 240 g/m 2 , less than 220 g/m 2 , less than 200 g/m 2 , less than 190 g/m 2 , less than 185 g/m 2 , less than 171 g/m 2 , or less than 160 g/m 2 .

[0073] Typically, lightweight fabrics are relatively easy to tear. Composite articles of the present disclosure can improve the Elmendorf tear strength by at least 10% when compared to the same fabric made without the covered core yam. In other embodiments, the composite articles can have an Elmendorf tear strength of greater than 15% or greater than 20% or greater than 30% when compared to a comparable fabric produced without the disclosed covered core yam.

[0074] In one embodiment, when tested according to the Thermal Protective Performance ASTM F2703-08 test method provided herein, the composite article (100) has a thermal protective performance of 20 or higher. In another embodiment, upon exposure of the outer surface (112) of the textile layer comprising a covered core yam to a flame, the composite article (100) has a Burned Area of less than 5 cm 2 after a 3 second exposure when tested according to the JIS Flammability test (JIS L1091 A-l Method). In another embodiment, upon exposure of the outer surface (112) of the textile layer comprising a covered core yam to a flame, the composite article (100) has a Burned Area of less than 50 cm 2 after a 60 second exposure when tested according to the JIS Flammability test (JIS L1091 A-l Method).

[0075] Composite articles made according to the methods described herein preferably have a moisture vapor transmission rate (MVTR) greater than 1000 grams/square meter/24 hours (g/m 2 /24hr), or greater than 3000 g/m 2 /24hr, or greater than 5000 g/m 2 /24hr, or greater than 7000 g/m 2 /24hr, or greater than 9000 g/m 2 /24hr, or greater than 10,000 g/m 2 /24hr, or higher. Preferred composite articles have a break open time greater than 50 seconds, greater than 60 seconds, or even greater than 120 seconds when tested according to the methods for

Horizontal Flame Test described herein. Preferable composite articles are also flame retardant and can have an after flame less than 20 seconds when tested according to the Horizontal Flame Test and Self-Extinguishing Test methods described herein. Further preferred composite articles have an afterflame less than 15 seconds, or less than 10 seconds, or less than 5 seconds. Preferred composite articles exhibit substantially no melt dripping behavior when tested in the Horizontal Flame test. In another embodiment, a composite article is formed according to the methods described herein, can have a hand less than 300, or less than 250, or less than 200, and have an after-flame of less than 20 seconds, or less than 15 seconds or less than 10 seconds, or an after-flame of zero, when measured according to the tests described herein for Flexibility and Hand, and Horizontal Flame Test and Self- Extinguishing Test.

[0076] Composite articles of the present disclosure can also provide lower char lengths when compared to a similar composite articles made without the covered core yams. In some embodiments, the char length can be improved by greater than or equal to 20% or greater than or equal to 30% or greater than or equal to 40% or greater than or equal to 50% or greater than or equal to 60% or greater than or equal to 70% or greater than or equal to 80% or greater than or equal to 90%. Char length can be measured according to ASTM D6413.

[0077] Without intending to limit the scope of the present invention, the following examples illustrate how the present invention may be made and used.

Test Methods

THERMAL SHRINK TEST

[0078] The Thermal Shrink Test or Thermal Dimensional Change Test is measured according to ASTM F2894-14. The data reported is the average shrinkage based on three replications.

HORIZONTAL FLAME TEST

[0079] This test is modeled generally after MIL-C 83429B. A 75 mm by 250 mm textile composite sample (3 inch by 10 inch) is clamped in a steel fixture (400 mm long by 75 mm wide with a center window of 350 mm long and 50 mm wide) using binder clips. The sample is clamped in a manner that secures the edges of the textile composite without obstructing the area of textile composite present in the window of the steel clamping fixture. The sample in fixture is placed horizontally at a height of 40mm in a 90mm flame (based on butane at 2 psi using a Meeker burner). The sample is exposed to the flame and the time is recorded until the convective barrier breaks open (or a hole forms in the face textile in case where convective barrier is not used), either by cracking or the formation of a hole, and light from the flame is evident when viewing through the crack or opening in the material. The sample is subsequently removed from the flame. The time recorded is referred to as the horizontal flame break open time. The sample is observed for melt dripping or falling droplets.

SELF-EXTINGUISHING TEST

[0080] After the material sample is removed from the flame in the Horizontal Flame Test, above, the material is observed for any afterflame and afterflame time is recorded. If the sample exhibits any melt dripping or falling droplets, it is also recorded. If no afterflame is observed, or if an afterflame is observed upon removal but extinguishes within five (5) seconds after removal from the flame, the material is said to be self-extinguishing.

VERTICAL FLAME TEST

[0081] Testing is in accordance with the ASTM D6413 test standard. Samples are exposed to flame for l2-seconds. Afterflame time is averaged for 3 samples. Textiles with afterflame of greater than 2 seconds are considered as flammable.

FLAMMABILITY TEST

[0082] The flammability of samples is measured according to the JIS-1091 Al Method. A 350 mm x 250 mm sheet of the composite article sample is mounted to a combustion test box heated by a burner with flame length 45 mm for 1 minute. Afterflame time, afterglow time and burned area are measured. The test is repeated with a two additional samples so that the flame is removed 3 seconds and 60 seconds after flamed.

MELTING AND THERMAL STABILITY TEST [0083] The test is used to determine the thermal stability of textile materials. This test is based on thermal stability test as described in section 8.3 of NFPA 1975, 2004 Edition. The test oven is a hot air circulating oven as specified in ISO 17493. The test is conducted according to ASTM D 751, Standard Test Methods for Coated Fabrics, using the Procedures for Blocking Resistance at Elevated Temperatures (Sections 89 to 93), with the following modifications: o Borosilicate glass plates measuring 100 mm x 100 mm x 3 mm (4 in. x 4 in. x ½ in.) are used. o A test temperature of 265°C, +3/-0°C (5l0°F, +5/-0°F) is used.

[0084] The specimens are allowed to cool a minimum of 1 hour after removal of the glass plates from the oven.

[0085] Any sample side sticking to glass plate, sticking to itself when unfolded, or showing evidence of melting or dripping is considered as meltable. Any sample side lacking evidence of meltable side is considered as thermally stable.

Moisture Vapor Transmission Rate (MVTR)

[0086] A description of the test employed to measure moisture vapor transmission rate (MVTR) is given below. The procedure has been found to be suitable for testing films, coatings, and coated products.

[0087] In the procedure, approximately 70 ml of a solution consisting of 35 parts by weight of potassium acetate and 15 parts by weight of distilled water are placed into a 133 ml polypropylene cup, having an inside diameter of 6.5 cm at its mouth. An expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane having a minimum MVTR of approximately 85,000 g/m2/24 hr as tested by the method described in U.S. Patent 4,862,730 (to Crosby), is heat sealed to the lip of the cup to create a taut, leakproof, microporous barrier containing the solution.

[0088] A similar expanded PTFE membrane is mounted to the surface of a water bath. The water bath assembly is controlled at 23°C plus 0.2°C, utilizing a temperature controlled room and a water circulating bath. [0089] The sample to be tested is allowed to condition at a temperature of 23°C and a relative humidity of 50 percent prior to performing the test procedure. Samples are placed so the microporous polymeric membrane is in contact with the expanded

polytetrafluoroethylene membrane mounted to the surface of the water bath and allowed to equilibrate for at least 15 minutes prior to the introduction of the cup assembly.

[0090] The cup assembly is weighed to the nearest l/lOOOg and placed in an inverted manner onto the center of the test sample.

[0091] Water transport is provided by the driving force between the water in the water bath and the saturated salt solution providing water flux by diffusion in that direction. The sample is tested for 15 minutes and the cup assembly is then removed, weighed again within l/lOOOg.

[0092] The MVTR of the sample is calculated from the weight gain of the cup assembly and is expressed in grams of water per square meter of sample surface area per 24 hours.

Expansion test

[0093] TMA (Thermo-mechanical analysis) is used to measure the expansion of expandable graphite particles. Expansion is tested with TA Instruments TMA 2940 instrument. A ceramic (alumina) TGA pan, measuring roughly 8mm in diameter and l2mm in height is used for holding the sample. Using the macroexpansion probe, with a diameter of roughly 6mm, the bottom of the pan is set as zero. Then flakes of expandable graphite 0.1- 0.3mm deep, as measured by the TMA probe, are put in the pan. The furnace is closed and initial sample height is measured. The furnace is heated from 25°C to 600°C at a ramp rate of l0°C/min. The TMA probe displacement is plotted against temperature; the displacement is used as a measure of expansion.

Elmendorf Tear Strength

[0094] The Elmendorf Tear strength test was performed according to ASTM 1424. The data reported is the average of 3 tests in both the warp and fill directions and the units are provided in kilograms.

Puncture, Propagation Tear Resistance test [0095] The puncture, propagation tear resistance test was performed according to ASTM D-2582. The data reported is the average of 3 replicates in the warp direction only and the units are provided in kilograms.

Preparation of Yarn #1 (filament wrapped!

[0096] A 70/34 denier black polyester filament available from McMichael Mills, Inc., Mayodan, North Carolina, USA was double wrapped in the S direction and in the Z-direction around a 125/1 Nm stretch broken TWARON® aramid yam available from Schappe Techniques, SaRL, Chamoz-sur-Ain, France. The covered core yam had a denier of 240.

Preparation of Yam #2 (Staple wrapped!

[0097] Polyester staple fiber from Inman Mills, Enoree, South Carolina, USA was wrapped around a 125/1 Nm stretch broken TWARON® aramid yam available from Schappe Techniques, SaRL, Chamoz-sur-Ain, France. The covered core yam had a denier of 240.

Yarn Thermal Shrinkage test

[0098] Individual samples of Yam #1 and Yam #2 have an length of about 15 centimeters (cm) were placed in an oven that was set to a temperature of 260 ° C and left in the oven for 5 minutes. After removal from the oven, Yam #1 showed very little thermal shrinkage, in the range of 1 to 2%. The samples of Yam #2, on the other hand showed very high shrinkage, forming a convoluted, twisted structure.

Preparation of adhesive #1

[0099] A flame retardant polyurethane resin was prepared by first forming a resin according to commonly owned US Patent 4,532,316 and adding in to the reactor a phosphorus-based flame retardant material, in an amount of about 20% by weight. After the polyurethane resin was formed, 70 grams of the polyurethane resin was mixed with 18 grams of expandable graphite having an expansion of greater than 900 micrometers and an additional 18 grams of another phosphorus-based flame retardant material at 80 ° C in a stirring vessel. The polymer resin was heated to 80 ° C and the expandable graphite was added, followed with low shear hand mixing until a uniform dispersion was formed. The mixture was cooled and used as is. Comparative Fabric A

[0100] Comparative Fabric A is a plain weave fabric (product #758680, available from Milliken & Company, Spartanburg, South Carolina, USA). The fabric is made of a polyester having about 31.5 yams/centimeter in the warp direction and 20 yams/centimeter in the fill direction (80 yams/inch X 50 yams/inch). The fabric has a weight of 149 grams/meter 2 (4.4 ounces/yard 2 , (oz/yd 2 )).

Preparation of Comparative Laminate A1

[0101] Comparative Fabric A was laminated to a GORE-TEX® porous ePTFE membrane (part # 18050C) available from W.L. Gore and Associates, Elkton, Maryland, USA using Adhesive #1. The adhesive #1 was gravure printed to provide about 57% fabric coverage onto the fabric surface. The porous ePTFE membrane was placed on top of the adhesive and rolled through the nip of two rollers. The laminate was placed on a roll to cure. The laminate had a weight of about 237 grams/meter 2 (7.0 oz/yd 2 ).

Preparation of Fabric #1:

[0102] Fabric # 1 was produced as a plain weave using Yam #1 as the only yam in both the warp and fill directions. The fabric was produced with about 21.6 yams/cm in both the warp and fill directions (55 yams/inch X 55 yams/inch). The fabric had a weight of 119 grams/meter 2 (3.5 oz/yd 2 ).

Preparation of Laminate #1

[0103] Fabric #1 was laminated to a GORE-TEX® porous ePTFE membrane (part # 18050C) available from W.L. Gore and Associates, Elkton, Maryland, USA) using Adhesive #1. The adhesive #1 was gravure printed to provide about 57% fabric coverage onto the fabric #1 surface and the porous ePTFE membrane was placed on top of the adhesive and rolled through the nip of two rollers. The laminate was placed on a roll to cure. The laminate had a weight of about 210 grams/meter 2 (6.2 oz/yd 2 ).

Preparation of Fabric #2:

[0104] Fabric #2 was produced as a plain weave using a 150/48 polyester filament (Akra Polyester S.A. de C.V., Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico) with Yam #1 inserted at every l0 th yam. The fill yam is a 70/34 denier black polyester filament available from McMichael Mills, Inc., Mayodan, North Carolina, USA inserted at every l0 th fill yam. The fabric was produced with about 29.1 yams/cm in the warp direction and 28.3 yams/cm in the fill direction (74 yams/inch X 72 yams/inch). The fabric had a weight of 119 grams/meter 2 (3.5 oz/yd 2 ).

Preparation of Laminate #2

[0105] Fabric #2 was laminated to a GORE-TEX® porous ePTFE membrane (part # 18050C) available from W.L. Gore and Associates, Elkton, Maryland, USA) using Adhesive #1. The adhesive #1 was gravure printed to provide about 57% fabric coverage onto the fabric #2 surface and the porous ePTFE membrane was placed on top of the adhesive and rolled through the nip of two rollers. The laminate was placed on a roll to cure. The laminate had a weight of about 210 grams/meter 2 (6.2 oz/yd 2 ).

Preparation of Fabric #3:

[0106] Fabric #3 was produced as a plain weave using Yam #2 as the only yam in both the warp and fill directions. The fabric was produced with about 21.6 yams/cm in the warp and 20.9 yams/cm in the fill direction (55 yams/inch X 53 yams/inch). The fabric had a weight of 119 grams/meter 2 (3.5 oz/yd 2 )

Preparation of Laminate #3

[0107] Fabric #3 was laminated to a GORE-TEX® porous ePTFE membrane (part #l8050C) available from W.L. Gore and Associates, Elkton, Maryland, USA) using

Adhesive #1. The adhesive #1 was gravure printed to provide about 57% fabric coverage onto the fabric #3 surface and the porous ePTFE membrane was placed on top of the adhesive and rolled through the nip of two rollers. The laminate was placed on a roll to cure. The laminate had a weight of about 217 grams/meter 2 (6.4 oz/yd 2 ).

Preparation of Comparative Fabric B

[0108] Comparative Fabric B was prepared as a plain weave using 70/34 polyester filament yam (available from Milliken & Company, Spartanburg, South Carolina, USA) in both the warp and fill directions. The fabric was produced with about 39.4 yams/cm in both the warp and fill directions (100 yams/inch X 100 yams/inch). The fabric had a weight of about 75 grams/meter 2 (2.2 oz/yd 2 ). Preparation of Comparative laminate B1

[0109] Comparative Fabric B was laminated to a GORE-TEX® porous ePTFE membrane (part #l8050C) available from W.L. Gore and Associates, Elkton, Maryland, USA) using Adhesive #1. The adhesive #1 was gravure printed to provide about 57% fabric coverage onto the comparative fabric B surface and the porous ePTFE membrane was placed on top of the adhesive and rolled through the nip of two rollers. The laminate was placed on a roll to cure. The laminate had a weight of about 163 grams/meter 2 (4.8 oz/yd 2 ).

Preparation of Fabric # 4:

[0110] Fabric #4 was produced as a plain weave using 70/34 polyester filament yam (available from Milliken & Company, Spartanburg, South Carolina, USA) and Yam #1 inserted at every l0 th position in both the warp and fill directions. The fabric #4 was produced with about 35.4 yams/cm in both the warp and fill directions (90 yams/inch X 90yams/inch). The fabric #4 had a weight of about 88 grams/meter 2 , (2.6 oz/yd 2 ).

Preparation of Laminate #4

[0111] Fabric #4 was laminated to a GORE-TEX® porous ePTFE membrane (part #l8050C) available from W.L. Gore and Associates, Elkton, Maryland, USA) using

Adhesive #1. The adhesive #1 was gravure printed to provide about 57% fabric coverage onto the fabric #4 surface and the porous ePTFE membrane was placed on top of the adhesive and rolled through the nip of two rollers. The laminate was placed on a roll to cure. The laminate had a basis weight of about 169 grams/meter 2 (5.0 oz/yd 2 ).

Preparation of Fabric # 5:

[0112] Fabric #5 was produced as a plain weave using a 70/34 polyester filament yam (available from Milliken & Company, Spartanburg, South Carolina. USA) and Yam #2 inserted at every 5 th position in both the warp and fill directions. The fabric #5 was produced with about 31.5 yam/cm in both the warp and fill directions (80 yams/inch X 80yams/inch). The fabric had a weight of 91.5 grams/meter 2 (2.7 oz/yd 2 ).

Preparation of Laminate #5

[0113] Fabric #5 was laminated to a GORE-TEX® porous ePTFE membrane (part #l8050C) available from W.L. Gore and Associates, Elkton, Maryland, USA) using Adhesive #1. The adhesive #1 was gravure printed to provide about 57% fabric coverage onto the fabric #5 surface and the porous ePTFE membrane was placed on top of the adhesive and rolled through the nip of two rollers. The laminate was placed on a roll to cure. The laminate had a basis weight of about 173 grams/meter 2 , (5.1 oz/yd 2 ).

TABLE 1

TABLE 2

Comparative C

[0114] Comparative fabric C was a sample of NOMEX aramid woven laminate (product WGBZ106000HZ, available from W.L. Gore & Associates, Elkton, Maryland, USA) having a basis weight of 207 g/m 2 (6.1 oz/yd 2 ). A sample measuring 38 cm by 38 cm was cut out of Comparative Fabric C. A sample of laminate #1, also measuring 38 cm by 38 cm, was cut. The approximate center of both Comparative C and laminate #1 were marked (using a permanent marker) with a square measuring 25.4 cm by 25.4 cm with the edges of the square parallel to the warp and fill directions. The samples were then placed in an oven set to a temperature of 260 ° C for 5 minutes. After the samples were removed from the oven they were allowed to cool to room temperature. The previously marked square was measured in both the warp and fill directions to determine the percentage of shrinkage. Comparative C was found to have shrunk 3.5% in the warp direction and 2.5% in the fill direction, while laminate #1 (containing a fabric made of 30% p-aramid and 70% polyester) shrunk only 0.7% in the warp direction and 2.2% in the fill direction.

[0115] Samples (10 cm X 10 cm) from Comparative C laminate and laminate #1 were each subjected to a heat exposure of 84 kilowatt/meter 2 (2.0 calories/cm 2 /second) in Cone Calorimeter (model CC-2, available from Deatak, Inc., McHenry, Illinois, USA) for 3 seconds to observe any shrinkage. Both samples had slight shrinkage and looked very similar in appearance after the exposure.