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Title:
FLEXIBLE FIBROUS SURFACE-TREATING ARTICLE WITH LOW FORMALDEHYDE OFF-GASSING
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/005112
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Various embodiments disclosed related to flexible fibrous surface-treating articles with low formaldehyde off-gassing. In various embodiments, the present invention provides a flexible fibrous surface-treating article including an open, lofty, nonwoven web including fibers. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article also includes a binder that coats the fibers of the nonwoven web. The binder includes a cured product of a curable composition including a latex and a crosslinker. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article heated to 65 °C in a closed space for 30 minutes emits less than about 6 micrograms of gaseous formaldehyde total per gram of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article.

Inventors:
ALTSHULER, Gordon L. (3M Center, Post Office Box 33427Saint Paul, Minnesota, 55133-3427, US)
TAI, Huiwen (3M Center, Post Office Box 33427Saint Paul, Minnesota, 55133-3427, US)
LUND, Jesse D. (3M Center, Post Office Box 33427Saint Paul, Minnesota, 55133-3427, US)
Application Number:
US2017/037664
Publication Date:
January 04, 2018
Filing Date:
June 15, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
3M INNOVATIVE PROPERTIES COMPANY (3M Center, Post Office Box 33427Saint Paul, Minnesota, 55133-3427, US)
International Classes:
D04H1/58; D04H1/64; D06M15/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2013072713A12013-05-23
WO1998035085A11998-08-13
WO2017100152A12017-06-15
Foreign References:
EP0638680A11995-02-15
EP0387511A21990-09-19
Other References:
None
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
VAN VLIET, Emily M. et al. (3M Center, Office of Intellectual Property Counsel Post Office Box 33427Saint Paul, Minnesota, 55133-3427, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A flexible fibrous surface-treating article comprising:

an open, lofty, nonwoven web comprising fibers; and

a binder that coats the fibers of the nonwoven web, the binder comprising a cured product of a curable composition comprising a latex and a crosslinker;

wherein the flexible fibrous surface-treating article heated to 65 °C in a closed space for 30 minutes emits less than about 6 micrograms of gaseous formaldehyde total per gram of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article.

2. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the binder binds the fibers of the nonwoven web together.

3. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the binder bonds together the fibers at points where they contact one another.

4. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the fibers comprise a natural fiber, a polyamide, a polyester, rayon, polyethylene, polypropylene, or a combination thereof.

5. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the fibers comprise polyethylene terephthalate.

6. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the cured product of the curable composition is about 0.01 wt% to about 99.99 wt% of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article.

7. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the cured product of the curable composition is about 5 wt% to about 50 wt% of the flexible fibrous surface- treating article.

8. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the latex is about 30 wt% to about 99.99 wt% of the curable composition.

9. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the latex is about 50 wt% to about 99 wt% of the curable composition.

10. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein about 10 wt% to about 90 wt% of the latex is water. 11. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein about 30 wt% to about 80 wt% of the latex is water.

12. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the latex is a carboxylated latex.

13. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the latex is a polyacrylate latex, an ethylene-acrylate latex, a polyester urethane latex, a bromo isobutylene isoprene latex, a polybutadiene latex, a chloro isobutylene isoprene latex, a polychloroprene latex, a chlorosulphonated polyethylene latex, an epichlorohydrin latex, an ethylene propylene latex, an ethylene propylene diene monomer latex, a polyether urethane latex, a perfluorocarbon latex, a fluoronated hydrocarbon latex, a fluoro silicone latex, a fluorocarbon rubber latex, a hydrogenated nitrile butadiene latex, a polyisoprene latex, an isobutylene isoprene butyl latex, an acrylonitrile butadiene latex, a polyurethane latex, a styrene butadiene latex, a styrene ethylene butylene latex, a polysiloxane latex, a vinyl methyl silicone latex, or a combination thereof.

14. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the latex is a styrene butadiene latex, an acrylic latex, a polyurethane latex, or a combination thereof 15. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the latex is a styrene butadiene latex.

16. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the latex is a carboxylated styrene butadiene latex.

17. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the crosslinker is about 0.01 wt% to about 20 wt% of the curable composition.

18. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the crosslinker is about 1 wt% to about 10 wt% of the curable composition.

19. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the crosslinker is substantially free of formaldehyde.

20. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the crosslinker is an aziridine crosslinker, an oxazoline crosslinker, an isocyanate crosslinker, a melamine crosslinker, an epoxide crosslinker, a carbodiimide crosslinker, a silane crosslinker, a zirconium (IV) crosslinker, or a combination thereof.

21. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the crosslinker is a carbodiimide crosslinker.

22. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the latex is a carboxylated styrene butadiene latex and the crosslinker is a carbodiimide crosslinker.

23. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the curable composition further comprises an abrasive particle, an organic solvent, a surfactant, an emulsifier, a dispersant, a crosslinking agent, a catalyst, a rheology modifier, a density modifier, a cure modifier, a free radical initiator, a diluent, an antioxidant, a heat stabilizer, a flame retardant, a plasticizer, filler, a polishing aid, an inorganic particle, a pigment, a dye, an adhesion promoter, antistatic additives, or a combination thereof.

24. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the flexible fibrous surface-treating article heated to 65 °C in a closed space for 30 minutes emits about 0 micrograms to about 6 micrograms of gaseous formaldehyde total per gram of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article.

25. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the flexible fibrous surface-treating article heated to 65 °C in a closed space for 30 minutes emits about 0 micrograms to about 0.1 micrograms of gaseous formaldehyde total per gram of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article.

26. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein at room

temperature a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 20 lbf (9 Kgf) to about 100 lbf (45 Kgf).

27. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein at room

temperature a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 35 lbf (16 Kgf) to about 70 lbf (32 Kgf).

28. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein at room

temperature a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a modulus measured along the longest dimension of about 50 psi (345 KPa) to about 600 psi (4140 KPa).

29. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein at room

temperature a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a modulus measured along the longest dimension of about 250 psi (1720 KPa) to about 450 psi (3105 KPa).

30. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein at room

temperature a 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article soaked in a cleaning composition that is at least 95 wt% water for 1 hour at room temperature has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 10 Ibf (4 Kgf) to about 90 Ibf (21 Kgf).

31. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein at room

temperature a 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article soaked in a cleaning composition that is at least 95 wt% water for 1 hour at room temperature has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 30 Ibf (13 Kgf) to about 60 Ibf (27 Kgf). 32. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein at room

temperature a 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article soaked in a cleaning composition that is at least 95 wt% water for 1 hour at room temperature has a modulus measured along the longest dimension of about 50 psi (345 KPa) to about 400 psi (2760 KPa).

33. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein at room

temperature a 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article soaked in a cleaning composition that is at least 95 wt% water for 1 hour at room temperature has a modulus measured along the longest dimension of about 200 psi (1380 KPa) to about 400 psi (2760 KPa).

34. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein at 150 °F (66 °C), after 5 minutes of exposure to 150 °F (66 °C), a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of 10 Ibf (4.5 Kgf) to about 60 Ibf (27 Kgf).

35. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein at 150 °F (66 °C), after 5 minutes of exposure to 150 °F (66 °C), a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 30 Ibf (13 Kgf) to about 60 Ibf (27 Kgf).

36. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein after 5 minutes of exposure to 150 °F (66 °C) a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a modulus measured along the longest dimension of about 30 psi (205 KPa) to about 300 psi (2070 KPa).

37. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein after 5 minutes of exposure to 150 °F (66 °C) a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a modulus measured along the longest dimension of about 180 psi (1240 KPa) to about 300 psi (2070 KPa).

38. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, wherein the flexible fibrous surface-treating article is a floor pad.

39. A method of using the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, the method comprising:

cleaning or buffing a surface with the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1 sufficiently to clean or buff the surface with the flexible fibrous surface-treating article. 40. The method of claim 39, further comprising rotating the flexible fibrous surface- treating article of claim 1 during the contacting.

41. The method of claim 39, further comprising rotating the flexible fibrous surface- treating article of claim 1 during the contacting using a rotary cleaning machine.

42. The method of claim 39, wherein the surface is a floor.

43. The method of claim 39, wherein the contacted surface comprises a wax, a stripper, a cleaner, or a combination thereof.

44. A method of making the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1, comprising: coating the fibers with the curable composition; and

curing the curable composition, to provide the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of claim 1. 45. The method of claim 44, wherein curing comprises heating.

46. The method of claim 45, wherein the heating comprises heating to about 200 °F (90 °C) to about 500 °F (260 °C). 47. The method of claim 45, wherein the heating comprises heating to about 300 °F (145 °C) to about 400 °F (204 °C).

48. The method of claim 45, wherein the heating comprises heating for about 0.01 minutes to about 1,000 minutes.

49. The method of claim 45, wherein the heating comprises heating for about 5 minutes to about 60 minutes.

50. A flexible fibrous surface-treating article comprising:

an open, lofty, nonwoven web comprising fibers; and

a binder that coats the fibers of the nonwoven web, the binder comprising a cured product of a curable composition, wherein about 30 wt% to about 99 wt% of the curable composition is a carboxylated styrene butadiene latex and about 1 wt% to about 10 wt% of the curable composition is an aziridine crosslinker, an oxazoline crosslinker, an isocyanate crosslinker, an epoxide crosslinker, a carbodiimide crosslinker, a zirconium (IV) crosslinker, or a combination thereof;

wherein

the flexible fibrous surface-treating article heated to 65 °C in a closed space for 30 minutes emits less than about 6 micrograms of gaseous formaldehyde total per gram of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article.

51. A flexible fibrous surface-treating article comprising: an open, lofty, nonwoven web comprising fibers; and

a binder that coats the fibers of the nonwoven web, the binder comprising a cured product of a curable composition, wherein about 30 wt% to about 99 wt% of the curable composition is a carboxylated styrene butadiene latex and about 1 wt% to about 10 wt% of the curable composition is an aziridine crosslinker, an oxazoline crosslinker, an isocyanate crosslinker, an epoxide crosslinker, a carbodiimide crosslinker, a zirconium (IV) crosslinker, or a combination thereof;

wherein

the flexible fibrous surface-treating article heated to 65 °C in a closed space for 30 minutes emits about 0 micrograms to about 0.1 micrograms of gaseous

formaldehyde total per gram of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article,

at room temperature a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 35 lbf (15 Kgf) to about 70 lbf (32 Kgf),

at room temperature a 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article soaked in a cleaning composition that is at least 95 wt% water for 1 hour at room temperature has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 30 lbf (13 Kgf) to about 60 lbf (27 Kgf),

after 5 minutes of exposure to 150 °F (66 °C) a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 30 lbf (13 Kgf) to about 60 lbf (27 Kgf), and

after 5 minutes of exposure to 150 °F (66 °C) a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a modulus measured along the longest dimension of about 180 psi (1240 KPa) to about 300 psi (2070 KPa).

Description:
FLEXIBLE FIBROUS SURFACE-TREATING ARTICLE WITH LOW

FORMALDEHYDE OFF-GASSING

BACKGROUND

[0001] Lofty, open, non-woven three-dimensional abrasive articles can be used for cleaning and polishing floors and other surfaces. Binder systems currently used in commercial floor pad products typically result in off-gassing of formaldehyde after the product has been manufactured. Formaldehyde has a distinct smell and is highly toxic to all animals. The emitted formaldehyde can be a component of the binder system or a byproduct of the cured binder system. Alternate binder systems with lower off-gassing of formaldehyde suffer from decreased physical properties such as strength and tensile modulus under dry, wet, or hot conditions.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0002] In various embodiments, the present invention provides a flexible fibrous surface-treating article including an open, lofty, nonwoven web including fibers. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article also includes a binder that coats the fibers of the nonwoven web. The binder is a cured product of a curable composition including a latex and a crosslinker. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article heated to 65 °C in a closed space for 30 minutes emits less than about 6 micrograms of gaseous formaldehyde total per gram of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article.

[0003] In various embodiments, the present invention provides a flexible fibrous surface-treating article including an open, lofty, nonwoven web including fibers. The present invention provides a binder that coats the fibers of the nonwoven web. The binder includes a cured product of a curable composition. About 30 wt% to about 99 wt% of the curable composition is a carboxylated styrene butadiene latex and about 1 wt% to about 10 wt% of the curable composition is an aziridine crosslinker, an oxazoline crosslinker, an isocyanate crosslinker, an epoxide crosslinker, a carbodiimide crosslinker, a zirconium (IV) crosslinker, or a combination thereof. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article heated to 65 °C in a closed space for 30 minutes emits less than about 6 micrograms of gaseous formaldehyde total per gram of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article. [0004] In various embodiments, the present invention provides a flexible fibrous surface-treating article including an open, lofty, nonwoven web including fibers. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article includes a binder that coats the fibers of the nonwoven web. The binder includes a cured product of a curable composition. About 30 wt% to about 99 wt% of the curable composition is a carboxylated styrene butadiene latex and about 1 wt% to about 10 wt% of the curable composition is an aziridine crosslinker, an oxazoline crosslinker, an isocyanate crosslinker, an epoxide crosslinker, a carbodiimide crosslinker, a zirconium (IV) crosslinker, or a combination thereof. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article heated to 65 °C in a closed space for 30 minutes emits about 0 micrograms to about 0.1 micrograms of gaseous formaldehyde total per gram of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article. At room temperature a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 35 lbf (15 Kgf) to about 70 lbf (32 Kgf). At room temperature a 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article soaked in a cleaning composition that is at least 95 wt% water for 1 hour at room temperature has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 30 lbf (13 Kgf) to about 60 lbf (27 Kgf). After 5 minutes of exposure to 150 °F (66 °C) a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross- web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 30 lbf (13 Kgf) to about 60 lbf (27 Kgf). After 5 minutes of exposure to 150 °F (66 °C) a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross- web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a modulus measured along the longest dimension of about 180 psi (1240 KPa) to about 300 psi (2070 KPa).

[0005] In various embodiments, the present invention provides a method of using the flexible fibrous surface-treating article. The method includes cleaning or buffing a surface with the flexible fibrous surface-treating article sufficiently to clean or buff the surface with the flexible fibrous surface-treating article.

[0006] In various embodiments, the present invention provides a method of making the flexible fibrous surface-treating article. The method includes coating the fibers with the curable composition. The method also includes curing the curable composition, to provide the flexible fibrous surface-treating article. [0007] In various embodiments, the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of the present invention provides certain advantages over other flexible fibrous surface-treating articles, at least some of which are unexpected. For example, while conventional flexible fibrous surface-treating articles can release 6.1 micrograms or more of formaldehyde per gram of coated sample when tested using the method described in the Examples herein, in various embodiments, the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of the present invention has less formaldehyde off-gassing than other flexible fibrous surface-treating articles. In various embodiments, the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of the present invention has better physical properties such as a higher maximum load (e.g., is stronger), a higher tensile modulus (e.g., is more rigid), or a combination thereof, as compared to other flexible fibrous surface-treating articles, such as under dry conditions, heated conditions, wet conditions (e.g., soaked with cleaning or polishing solution), or a combination thereof. In various embodiments, the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of the present invention has a combination of lower formaldehyde off-gassing emissions with superior physical properties that make it superior to other flexible fibrous surface-treating articles.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0008] The drawings illustrate generally, by way of example, but not by way of limitation, various embodiments discussed in the present document.

[0009] FIG. 1 illustrates formaldehyde off-gassing levels of various flexible fibrous surface-treating articles, in accordance with various embodiments.

[0010] FIG. 2 illustrates the maximum load of various flexible fibrous surface- treating articles at room temperature, in accordance with various embodiments.

[0011] FIG. 3 illustrates the tensile modulus of various flexible fibrous surface- treating articles at room temperature, in accordance with various embodiments.

[0012] FIG. 4 illustrates the maximum load of various flexible fibrous surface- treating articles under heated conditions, in accordance with various embodiments.

[0013] FIG. 5 illustrates the tensile modulus of various flexible fibrous surface- treating articles under heated conditions, in accordance with various embodiments.

[0014] FIG. 6 illustrates the maximum load of various flexible fibrous surface- treating articles after soaking in cleaning liquid, in accordance with various embodiments. [0015] FIG. 7 illustrates the tensile modulus of various flexible fibrous surface- treating articles after soaking in cleaning liquid, in accordance with various embodiments.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0016] Reference will now be made in detail to certain embodiments of the disclosed subject matter, examples of which are illustrated in part in the accompanying drawings. While the disclosed subject matter will be described in conjunction with the enumerated claims, it will be understood that the exemplified subject matter is not intended to limit the claims to the disclosed subject matter.

[0017] Throughout this document, values expressed in a range format should be interpreted in a flexible manner to include not only the numerical values explicitly recited as the limits of the range, but also to include all the individual numerical values or subranges encompassed within that range as if each numerical value and sub-range is explicitly recited. For example, a range of "about 0.1% to about 5%" or "about 0.1% to 5%" should be interpreted to include not just about 0.1% to about 5%, but also the individual values (e.g., 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%) and the sub-ranges (e.g., 0.1% to 0.5%, 1.1% to 2.2%, 3.3% to 4.4%) within the indicated range. The statement "about X to Y" has the same meaning as "about X to about Y," unless indicated otherwise. Likewise, the statement "about X, Y, or about Z" has the same meaning as "about X, about Y, or about Z," unless indicated otherwise.

[0018] In this document, the terms "a," "an," or "the" are used to include one or more than one unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. The term "or" is used to refer to a nonexclusive "or" unless otherwise indicated. The statement "at least one of A and B" has the same meaning as "A, B, or A and B." In addition, it is to be understood that the phraseology or terminology employed herein, and not otherwise defined, is for the purpose of description only and not of limitation. Any use of section headings is intended to aid reading of the document and is not to be interpreted as limiting; information that is relevant to a section heading may occur within or outside of that particular section.

[0019] In the methods described herein, the acts can be carried out in any order without departing from the principles of the invention, except when a temporal or operational sequence is explicitly recited. Furthermore, specified acts can be carried out concurrently unless explicit claim language recites that they be carried out separately. For example, a claimed act of doing X and a claimed act of doing Y can be conducted simultaneously within a single operation, and the resulting process will fall within the literal scope of the claimed process.

[0020] The term "about" as used herein can allow for a degree of variability in a value or range, for example, within 10%, within 5%, or within 1% of a stated value or of a stated limit of a range, and includes the exact stated value or range.

[0021] The term "substantially" as used herein refers to a majority of, or mostly, as in at least about 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.9%, 99.99%, or at least about 99.999% or more, or 100%.

[0022] The term "cure" as used herein refers to exposing to radiation in any form, heating, or allowing to undergo a physical or chemical reaction that results in hardening or an increase in viscosity. A flowable thermoplastic material can be cured by cooling it such that the material hardens. A thermoset material can be cured by heating or otherwise exposing to irradiation such that the material hardens.

Flexible fibrous surface-treating article.

[0023] In various embodiments, the present invention provides a flexible fibrous surface-treating article. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article includes an open, lofty, nonwoven web including fibers. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article includes a binder that coats the fibers of the nonwoven web. The binder includes a cured product of a curable composition including a latex and a crosslinker. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article heated to 65 °C in a closed space for 30 minutes can emit less than about 6 micrograms of gaseous formaldehyde total per gram of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article.

[0024] The flexible fibrous surface-treating article can be used for treatment of any suitable surface under any suitable conditions, such as under dry conditions or in combination with fluids such as water or cleaning chemicals. The flexible fibrous surface- treating article can be a food service pad, a hand pad, or a floor pad.

[0025] The flexible fibrous surface-treating article includes an open, lofty, nonwoven web including fibers. The fibers can be any suitable fibers, such as include a natural fiber (e.g., vegetable fibers such as hemp, jute, and the like; animal hair fibers, such as hog's hair), a polyamide (e.g., a nylon), a polyester (e.g., polyethylene terephthalate or polyethylene isophthalate), rayon, polyethylene, polypropylene, or a combination thereof. The fibers can have a core of polyethylene terephthalate with a sheath of ethylene terephthalate and ethylene isophthalate. The fibers can have any suitable thickness, such as 3 denier (e.g., g per 9000 m) to about 500 denier, or about 5 denier to about 100 denier, or about 3 denier or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 5 denier, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, or about 500 denier or more. The fibers can include a blend of multiple sizes of fibers. The fibers can have any suitable length, such as about 1 mm to about 1,000 mm, or about 5 mm to about 100 mm, or about 1 mm or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 2 mm, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 500, 750, or about 1,000 mm or more. In some

embodiments, the fibers can be entangled or fused (e.g., melt-bonded) to form a prebond web prior to being coated with the curable composition.

[0026] The flexible fibrous surface-treating article includes a binder that coats the fibers of the nonwoven web. The binder can bind the fibers of the nonwoven web together, such as at points where the fibers contact one another. The binder can include a cured product of a curable composition including a latex and a crosslinker. The cured product can be any suitable proportion of the binder, such as about 20 wt% to about 100 wt%, or about 50 wt% to about 100 wt%, or about 20 wt% or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 25 wt%, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 99.9, 99.99, or about 100 wt%. The cured product of the curable composition can be any suitable wt% of the flexible fibrous surface treating article, such as about 0.01 wt% to about 99.99 wt%, about 5 wt% to about 50 wt%, or about 0.01 wt% or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 0.1 wt%, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 99.9 wt%, or about 99.99 wt% or more.

[0027] The curable composition can include one latex or more than one latex. The one or more latexes (e.g., polymer dispersion in water, wherein the polymer can be in a liquid state, a solid state, or any combination thereof, wherein the dispersion can be an emulsion or a solution of the polymer in the water) can be any suitable proportion of the curable composition, such as about 30 wt% to about 99.99 wt% of the curable composition, about 50 wt% to about 99.9 wt%, about 90 wt% to about 99 wt%, or about 30 wt% or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 35 wt%, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 82, 84, 86, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 99.9, or about 99.99 wt% or more. Any suitable proportion of the latex can be water (e.g., with the remainder being a curable material, optionally including additives or free of additives), such as about 10 wt% to about 90 wt%, or about 30 wt% to about 80 wt%, or about 10 wt% or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 15 wt%, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85 wt%, or about 90 wt% or more.

[0028] The latex can include one curable material or more than one curable material as a dispersion in the water. For example, the latex can be a polyacrylate latex, an ethylene-acrylate latex, a polyester urethane latex, a bromo isobutylene isoprene latex, a polybutadiene latex, a chloro isobutylene isoprene latex, a polychloroprene latex, a chlorosulphonated polyethylene latex, an epichlorohydrin latex, an ethylene propylene latex, an ethylene propylene diene monomer latex, a polyether urethane latex, a perfluorocarbon latex, a fluoronated hydrocarbon latex, a fluoro silicone latex, a fluorocarbon rubber latex, a hydrogenated nitrile butadiene latex, a polyisoprene latex, an isobutylene isoprene butyl latex, an acrylonitrile butadiene latex, a polyurethane latex, a styrene butadiene latex, a styrene ethylene butylene latex, a polysiloxane latex, a vinyl methyl silicone latex, or a combination thereof. The latex can be a styrene butadiene latex, an acrylic latex, a polyurethane latex, or a combination thereof. The latex can be a styrene butadiene latex. The latex can be a carboxylated latex. The latex can be a carboxylated styrene butadiene latex.

[0029] The curable composition can include one crosslinker or more than one crosslinker. The one or more crosslinkers can be any suitable proportion of the curable composition, such as about 0.01 wt% to about 20 wt% of the curable composition, about 1 wt% to about 10 wt%, or about 0.01 wt% or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 0.1 wt%, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, or about 20 wt% or more.

[0030] The crosslinker can be any suitable crosslinker. The crosslinker can be substantially free of formaldehyde, or the crosslinker can include formaldehyde. The crosslinker can be substantially free of materials that release formaldehyde during curing, or can include materials that release formaldehyde during curing. The crosslinker can be an aziridine crosslinker, an oxazoline crosslinker, an isocyanate crosslinker, a melamine crosslinker, an epoxide crosslinker, a carbodiimide crosslinker, a silane crosslinker, a zirconium (IV) crosslinker, or a combination thereof. The crosslinker can be a carbodiimide crosslinker. In some embodiments, the latex is a carboxylated styrene butadiene latex and the crosslinker is a carbodiimide crosslinker.

[0031] The curable composition can include one or more additives. In some embodiments, the curable composition, the flexible fibrous surface-treating article, or a combination thereof, can include, or can be substantially free of, an abrasive particle, an organic solvent, a surfactant, an emulsifier, a dispersant, a crosslinking agent, a catalyst, a rheology modifier, a density modifier, a cure modifier, a free radical initiator, a diluent, an antioxidant, a heat stabilizer, a flame retardant, a plasticizer, filler, a polishing aid, an inorganic particle, a pigment, a dye, an adhesion promoter, antistatic additives, or a combination thereof. In various embodiments, the presence or lack of certain additives can reduce cost, control viscosity, or improve physical properties.

[0032] The flexible fibrous surface-treating article has low formaldehyde off- gassing, such that the flexible fibrous surface-treating article emits low amounts of formaldehyde gas, such as under heated, chilled, or room temperature conditions. As used herein, formaldehyde off-gassing refers to formaldehyde emitted after the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has been manufactured, and not formaldehyde emitted during the curing process. The flexible fibrous surface-treating article can be considered to have been manufactured when the product is packaged or ready for packaging; after the heating cycle used to cure the curable composition (e.g., after the product has been cooled); after completion of the curing process of the curable composition (e.g., after about 100 wt% of the curable composition has been cured, or equal to or greater than about 99 wt%, 98, 96, 94, 92, 90, 95, 80, 85, 80, 75, or about 70 wt%); within 1 month of the completion of the curing process to form the cured product of the curable composition (e.g., within 1 day, 1 week, 1 day, or 1 hour of completion of the curing); less than, equal to, or greater than 1 month after completion of curing, 2 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 year, 5 years after completion of curing, or such as at the end of the product life; or a combination thereof. For example, when heated to 65 °C in a closed space for 30 minutes, the flexible fibrous surface-treating article can emit less than about 6 micrograms of gaseous formaldehyde total per gram of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article, about 0 micrograms to about 40 micrograms of gaseous formaldehyde total per gram, about 0 to about 20, about 0 to about 10, about 0 to about 5, about 0 to about 1, about 0 micrograms to about 0.1 micrograms of gaseous formaldehyde total per gram, or about 0.0001 micrograms or less per gram, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 0.001 micrograms per gram, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, about 38, or about 40 micrograms of gaseous formaldehyde total per gram of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article or more.

[0033] At room temperature a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 20 Ibf (9 Kgf) to about 100 Ibf (45 Kgf), or about 35 Ibf (16 Kgf) to about 70 Ibf (32 Kgf), about 50 Ibf to about 60 Ibf, or about 20 Ibf (9 Kgf) or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 25 Ibf, 30, 35, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 64, 66, 68, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 Ibf, or about 100 Ibf (45 Kgf) or more.

[0034] At room temperature a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a modulus measured along the longest dimension of about 50 psi (345 KPa) to about 600 psi (4140 KPa), about 250 psi (1720 KPa) to about 450 psi (3105 KPa), about 325 psi to about 450 psi, or about 50 psi (345 KPa) or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 75, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 310, 320, 330, 340, 350, 360, 362, 364, 366, 368, 370, 371, 372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381, 382, 383, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 392, 394, 396, 398, 400, 410, 420, 430, 440, 450, 475, 500, 550, or about 600 psi (4140 KPa) or more.

[0035] At room temperature a 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article soaked in a cleaning composition that is at least 95 wt% water for 1 hour at room temperature has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 10 Ibf (4 Kgf) to about 90 Ibf (21 Kgf), or about 30 Ibf (13 Kgf) to about 60 Ibf (27 Kgf), about 30 Ibf to about 45 Ibf, or about 10 Ibf (4 Kgf) or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85 Ibf, or about 90 Ibf (21 Kgf) or more.

[0036] At room temperature a 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article soaked in a cleaning composition that is at least 95 wt% water for 1 hour at room temperature has a modulus measured along the longest dimension of about 50 psi (345 KPa) to about 400 psi (2760 KPa), or about 200 psi (1380 KPa) to about 400 psi (2760 KPa), about 200 psi to about 300 psi, or about 50 psi (345 KPa) or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 210, 220, 230, 232, 234, 236, 238, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 262, 264, 266, 268, 270, 280, 290, 300, 325, 350, 375 psi, or about 400 psi (2760 KPa) or more.

[0037] At 150 °F (66 °C), after 5 minutes of exposure to 150 °F (66 °C), a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface- treating article has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of 10 lbf (4.5 Kgf) to about 60 lbf (27 Kgf), or about 30 lbf (13 Kgf) to about 60 lbf (27 Kgf), about 35 lbf to about 45 lbf, or about 10 lbf (4.5 Kgf) or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 15 lbf, 20, 25, 26, 28, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 50, 55 lbf, or about 60 lbf (27 Kgf) or more.

[0038] After 5 minutes of exposure to 150 °F (66 °C) a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a modulus measured along the longest dimension of about 30 psi (205 KPa) to about 300 psi (2070 KPa), or about 180 psi (1240 KPa) to about 300 psi (2070 KPa), about 190 psi to about 240 psi, or about 30 psi (205 KPa) or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 40 psi, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 160, 170, 180, 185, 190, 192, 194, 196, 198, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 225, 230, 240, 250, 275 psi, or about 300 psi (2070 KPa) or more.

Method of using a flexible fibrous surface-treating article.

[0039] In various embodiments, the present invention provides a method of using a flexible fibrous surface-treating article. The method can be any suitable method of using an embodiment of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article described herein.

[0040] For example, the method can include cleaning or buffing a surface with the flexible fibrous surface-treating article sufficiently to clean or buff the surface with the flexible fibrous surface-treating article. The method can include rotating the flexible fibrous surface-treating article during the contacting, such as using a rotary cleaning machine. The method can include moving the flexible fibrous surface-treating article in an orbital motion. The surface can be any suitable surface, such as a floor. The contacted surface can be dry or can include a wax, a stripper, a cleaner, or a combination thereof

Method of making a flexible fibrous surface-treating article.

[0041] In various embodiments, the present invention provides a method of making a flexible fibrous surface-treating article. The method can be any suitable method that forms an embodiment of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article described herein.

[0042] For example, the method can include coating the fibers with the curable composition. Prior to coating, the fibers can be melt-fused fibers arranged in a prebond web. The method can include curing the curable composition, to provide the flexible fibrous surface-treating article.

[0043] The curing can be any suitable curing, such as exposing a thermosetting curable composition to sufficient radiation to cause curing of the composition, such as heat, UV or IR light, electron beam irradiation, or gamma ray irradiation. The curing can include heating the coated fibers to a temperature of about 200 °F (90 °C) to about 500 °F (260 °C), about 300 °F (145 °C) to about 400 °F (204 °C), or about 200 °F or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 220 °F, 240, 260, 270, 280, 290, 300, 310, 320, 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, 390, 400, 410, 420, 440, 460, about 480 °F, or about 500 °F or more. The heating can be performed for any suitable time, such as for about 0.01 minutes to about 1,000 minutes, about 5 minutes to about 60 minutes, or about 0.01 minutes or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 10 seconds, 20, 30, 40, 50 seconds, 1 minute, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800, about 900 minutes, or about 1,000 minutes or more.

Examples

[0044] Various embodiments of the present invention can be better understood by reference to the following Examples which are offered by way of illustration. The present invention is not limited to the Examples given herein. [0045] Table 1. Materials.

[0046] Webs were formed using a conventional web making machine (trade designation "Rando Webber"). The web formed was a blend of fibers including 75 weight percent of crimped polyethylene terephthalate ("PET") staple fibers (50 denier, 58 mm long), and 25 weight percent of crimped sheath-core melt-bondable polyester staple fibers (15 denier, 58 mm long; with a core of polyethylene terephthalate and a sheath that was a copolymer of ethylene terephthalate and ethylene isophthalate). The formed web was heated in a convection oven for about 3 minutes at 320 °F (160 °C) to fuse the melt- bondable fibers together at points of intersection to form a prebond web. The prebond web weight was approximately 400 grams per square meter.

[0047] Samples of the prebond webs were cut to the dimensions of 1 x 7 inches in the cross-web direction (i.e. wherein the long dimension running sideways across the web as it is being made, rather than down-web). Samples were dipped in a curable

composition as described in Table 2, then passed through rubber rollers to squeeze out excess coating solution. Samples were dried in a convection lab oven at 350 °F (177 °C) for 15 minutes, then allowed to cool to room temperature before further testing, to provide Samples l(A-F), 2(A-F), 3(A-F), 4(A-F), and 5(A-F). Coating was carried out such that the cured coating composition was approximately 130% of the base fiber weight.

Table 2. Production of floor pads. "CL" means crosslinker. "PB" means

Example 2. Formaldehyde emissions.

[0049] Formaldehyde emissions of the Samples made in Example 1 were measured. Emissions were measured by reaction with 2,4 dinitrophenylhydrazine

[D PH] to form the corresponding hydrazone, which was readily and sensitively detected by liquid chromatography. Sampling tubes containing silica gel impregnated with 2,4- D PH were placed on a heated micro-chamber device having a volume of 44 mL (Marks micro-chamber), into which the coated non-woven sample was placed about 1 day to 1 week after the non-woven sample was finished curing and ready for packaging. The samples were heated to 65 °C (150 °F) for 30 minutes with a flow of helium at 50 mL/min passing through the sample chamber and into the collection tube. The tubes were then cut open and desorbed with 5 mL of acetonitrile, and the extract solution run by FIPLC. The formaldehyde-DNPH content was determined from the standard calibration curve, and the formaldehyde concentration was calculated from the formaldehyde-DNPH result by multiplying by the molecular weight ratio of formaldehyde to formaldehyde-DNPH which was 30.03 / 210.15 = 0.143. Results are presented in terms of micrograms of

formaldehyde per gram of original sample.

[0050] To prepare the standard, 5.23 mg of formaldehyde-2,4-DNPH from

Supelco was dissolved in 50 mL of acetonitrile. This stock solution was further diluted with acetonitrile into a series of standards, ranging from 12.55 to 0.05 μg/mL.

[0051] The standards and the sample extracts described above were analyzed by

HPLC-UV. The instrument used was an Agilent 1100 HPLC, with a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 150mm x 4.6 mm column, with a media size of 5 μπι, with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, with eluent A = H2O + 0.1% phosphoric acid and eluent B = acetonitrile, using a gradient of 0 min 50% B, 15 min 100% B, 20 min 1005 B, and post time of 5 min, with a temperature of 40 °C, an injection of 5 microliters, and detection wavelength using UV @ 355 nm, and reference 550 nm.

[0052] Formaldehyde offgas levels in micrograms of formaldehyde per gram of coated Sample, are given in Table 3, with Table 3b showing formaldehyde offgas levels in other flexible fibrous surface-treating articles. FIG. 1 illustrates formaldehyde off-gassing levels of the Samples from Table 3. [0053] Table 3. Formaldehyde offgas levels, in micrograms of formaldehyde per gram of coated Sample.

CX- FLX- None PZ-33 Resimene Carbodimide

100 CL1 747 V02-L2

PUD 1.6150 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.6

Rhoplex GL-618 0.2 0.3 0.7 0.0 8.4 0.3

Rhoplex HA-16 1.3 1.8 2.1 n/a 11.2 0.7

Rovene 5900 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 4.2 0.1 j Trinseo XU31570 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.6 0.0

Example 3. Physical properties at room temperature.

[0054] The maximum load and tensile modulus of the Samples prepared in

Example 1 were measured at room temperature. Tensile characterization was performed on an Instron tester, Model 59CP, with Bluehill 3 analysis software. Maximum load and modulus where determined at a jaw speed of 10 inches/minute. Samples were tested in triplicate.

[0055] The maximum load and tensile modulus of the Samples is given in Table 4.

Table 5 describes the change in maximum load caused by the crosslinker, as compared to crosslinker-free conditions. FIG. 2 illustrates the maximum load of the Samples at room temperature.

[0056] Table 4. Maximum load and tensile modulus of Samples at room temperature.

Latex XL i Avg Max Load (lbf) Avg Modulus (psi) j TrinseoXU31570 Resimene 747 60.1 371

! TrinseoXU31570 V02-L2 55.9 375 j TrinseoXU31570 CX-100 54.6 386 j TrinseoXU31570 Joncryl FLX-CL1 64.5 406

Rovene 5900 Resimene 747 62.4 239

Rovene 5900 V02-L2 49.9 207

Rovene 5900 CX-100 62.8 260

Rovene 5900 Joncryl FLX-CL1 54.1 225 j RhoplexHA-16 Resimene 747 59.9 464 j RhoplexHA-16 V02-L2 48.0 375

! RhoplexHA-16 CX-100 82.9 465 j RhoplexHA-16 Joncryl FLX-CL1 72.9 457

! RhoplexHA-16 None 43.1 412

PUU6150 Resimene 747 28.8 136

PUU6150 V02-L2 40.0 186

PUU6150 CX-100 54.3 209

PUU6150 Joncryl FLX-CL1 47.7 218

PUU6150 None 36.2 198 j RhoplexGL-618 Resimene 747 39.7 332 j RhoplexGL-618 V02-L2 44.4 286 j RhoplexGL-618 CX-100 63.1 419

! RhoplexGL-618 Joncryl FLX-CL1 51.5 334 j RhoplexGL-618 None 39.9 229

! RhoplexGL-618 PZ-33 42.2 353

! TrinseoXU31570 PZ-33 52.6 362

Rovene 5900 PZ-33 56.5 214

PUU6150 PZ-33 43.7 163 j TrinseoXU31570 None 39.3 284

[0057] Table 5. Change in maximum load of Samples at room temperature caused by crosslinker.

FLX- Resimene Carbodimide

CX-100 CL1 None PZ-33 747 V02-L2

PUD U6150 Increase Increase Increase Decrease Increase

Rhoplex GL- 618 Increase Increase NC NC Increase

Rhoplex HA- 16 Increase Increase Increase Increase

Rovene 5900 Increase Increase Increase Increase NC

Trinseo

XU31570 Increase Increase Increase Increase Increase

[0058] Table 6 describes the change in tensile modulus caused by the crosslinker, as compared to crosslinker-free conditions. FIG. 3 illustrates the tensile modulus of the Samples at room temperature.

[0059] Table 6. Change in tensile modulus of Samples at room temperature caused by crosslinker.

FLX- Resimene Carbodimide

CX-100 CL1 None PZ-33 747 V02-L2

PUD U6150 NC NC NC Decrease NC

Rhoplex GL- 618 Increase Increase Increase Increase Increase

Rhoplex HA- 16 Increase Increase Increase NC

Rovene 5900 Increase Increase NC Increase NC

Trinseo

XU31570 Increase Increase Increase Increase Increase Example 4. Physical properties under heated conditions.

[0060] The maximum load and tensile modulus of the Samples prepared in

Example 1 were measured at a temperature of 150 °F (66 °C), after the sample had been heated for 5 minutes at 150 °F (66 °C). The samples had a temperature of 150 °F (66 °C) at the time of testing. The procedure described in Example 3 was followed.

[0061] The maximum load and tensile modulus of the heated Samples is given in

Table 7. Table 8 describes the change in maximum load caused by the crosslinker, as compared to crosslinker-free conditions. FIG. 4 illustrates the maximum load of the Samples under heated conditions.

[0062] Table 7. Maximum load and tensile modulus of Samples under heated conditions.

Latex XL Avg Max Load (lbf) Avg Mod (psi) i j Trinseo XU31570 V02-L2 40.3 208 j Trinseo XU31570 CX-100 43.9 230 j Trinseo XU31570 I Joncryl FLX-CL1 51.1 243

Rovene 5900 Resimene 747 39.7 93

Rovene 5900 V02-L2 28.9 68

Rovene 5900 CX-100 41.2 93

Rovene 5900 I Joncryl FLX-CL1 34.4 74 j Rhoplex HA-16 Resimene 747 35.6 92 j Rhoplex HA-16 V02-L2 35.4 101 j Rhoplex HA-16 CX-100 44.9 100 j Rhoplex HA-16 I Joncryl FLX-CL1 32.7 74

I Rhoplex HA-16 None 21.5 58

PU U6150 Resimene 747 22.3 63

PU U6150 V02-L2 38.1 93

PU U6150 CX-100 38.6 89

PU U6150 I Joncryl FLX-CL1 35.1 100

PU U6150 None 24.4 105 j Rhoplex GL-618 Resimene 747 30.6 70 j Rhoplex GL-618 V02-L2 33.4 69 j Rhoplex GL-618 CX-100 43.6 85 j Rhoplex GL-618 I Joncryl FLX-CL1 31.6 66 j Rhoplex GL-618 None 24.6 49 j Rhoplex GL-618 PZ-33 41.0 103

1 Trinseo XU31570 PZ-33 43.6 221

Rovene 5900 PZ-33 30.1 66

PU U6150 PZ-33 42.0 102 j Trinseo XU31570 None 31.3 190

Rovene 5900 None 24.2 53

[0063] Table 8. Change in maximum load of Samples under heated conditions caused by crosslinker.

CX-100 FLX- j None j PZ-33 j Resimene ; Carbodimide

CL1 747 V02-L2

PUD U6150 Increase Increase Increase i NC Increase j Rhoplex GL-618 Increase Increase i Increase Increase Increase j Rhoplex HA-16 Increase Increase Increase i Increase Increase

Rovene 5900 Increase Increase i Increase i Increase Increase

! Trinseo XU31570 Increase Increase i Increase \ Increase Increase

[0064] Table 9 describes the change in tensile modulus caused by the crosslinker, as compared to crosslinker-free conditions. FIG. 5 illustrates the tensile modulus of the Samples under heated conditions.

[0065] Table 9. Change in tensile modulus of Samples under heated conditions caused by crosslinker.

CX-100 FLX- j None j PZ-33 j Resimene Carbodimide

CL1 747 V02-L2

PUD U6150 NC NC NC Decrease NC

! Rhoplex GL-618 Increase Increase i Increase \ Increase Increase

Rhoplex HA-16 Increase Increase Increase Increase

Rovene 5900 Increase Increase \ Increase i Increase Increase

! Trinseo XU31570 Increase Increase i Increase i Increase Increase Example 5. Physical properties after soaking in cleaning liquid.

[0066] The maximum load and tensile modulus of the Samples prepared in

Example 1 were measured at room temperature after soaking (immersion) for one hour in cleaning liquid (3M Twist N Fill General Purpose Cleaner No. 8). The procedure described in Example 3 was followed.

[0067] The maximum load of the cleaning liquid-soaked Samples is given in Table

10. Table 11 describes the change in maximum load caused by the crosslinker, as compared to crosslinker-free conditions. FIG. 6 illustrates the maximum load of the Samples after soaking in cleaning liquid. [0068] Table 10. Maximum load and tensile modulus of Samples after soaking in cleaning liquid.

Latex XL i Avg Max Load (lbf) Avg Mod (psi) i j TrinseoXU31570 Resimene 747 47.3 331

j TrinseoXU31570 V02-L2 37.0 246

j TrinseoXU31570 CX-100 37.6 289

j TrinseoXU31570 j Joncryl FLX-CL1 50.5 326

Rovene 5900 Resimene 747 53.3 214

Rovene 5900 V02-L2 29.5 168

Rovene 5900 CX-100 50.2 207

Rovene 5900 j Joncryl FLX-CL1 31.9 175

j RhoplexHA-16 Resimene 747 47.3 246

j RhoplexHA-16 V02-L2 41.8 253

j RhoplexHA-16 CX-100 68.1 238

j RhoplexHA-16 I Joncryl FLX-CL1 57.4 289

j RhoplexHA-16 None 37.3 224

PUU6150 Resimene 747 26.5 109

PUU6150 V02-L2 41.4 152

PUU6150 CX-100 43.2 128

PUU6150 j Joncryl FLX-CL1 40.2 165

PUU6150 None 34.3 185 j RhoplexGL-618 Resimene 747 44.7 206

j RhoplexGL-618 V02-L2 38.4 173

j RhoplexGL-618 CX-100 53.1 191

j RhoplexGL-618 j Joncryl FLX-CL1 36.8 215

j RhoplexGL-618 None 35.3 191

j RhoplexGL-618 PZ-33 53.5 190

1 TrinseoXU31570 PZ-33 36.0 253

Rovene 5900 PZ-33 42.3 151

PUU6150 PZ-33 36.4 95 j TrinseoXU31570 None 21.2 181

Rovene 5900 None 34.4 159

j TrinseoXU31570 Resimene 747 48.2 249

[0069] Table 11. Change in maximum load of Samples after soaking in cleaning liquid caused by crosslinker.

CX-100 FLX- None PZ-33 Resimene Carbodimide

CL1 747 V02-L2

PUD U6150 Increase Increase NC Decrease Increase

Rhoplex GL- Increase NC Increase Increase NC

618

Rhoplex HA- Increase Increase Increase Increase 16

Rovene 5900 Increase NC Increase Increase Decrease

Trinseo Increase Increase Increase Increase Increase XU31570

[0070] Table 12 describes the change in tensile modulus caused by the crosslinker, as compared to crosslinker-free conditions. FIG. 7 illustrates the tensile modulus of the Samples after soaking in cleaning liquid.

[0071] Table 12. Change in tensile modulus of Samples after soaking in cleaning liquid caused by crosslinker.

[0072] The terms and expressions that have been employed are used as terms of description and not of limitation, and there is no intention in the use of such terms and expressions of excluding any equivalents of the features shown and described or portions thereof, but it is recognized that various modifications are possible within the scope of the embodiments of the present invention. Thus, it should be understood that although the present invention has been specifically disclosed by specific embodiments and optional features, modification and variation of the concepts herein disclosed may be resorted to by those of ordinary skill in the art, and that such modifications and variations are considered to be within the scope of embodiments of the present invention.

Additional Embodiments.

[0073] The following exemplary embodiments are provided, the numbering of which is not to be construed as designating levels of importance:

[0074] Embodiment 1 provides a flexible fibrous surface-treating article comprising:

an open, lofty, nonwoven web comprising fibers; and

a binder that coats the fibers of the nonwoven web, the binder comprising a cured product of a curable composition comprising a latex and a crosslinker;

wherein the flexible fibrous surface-treating article heated to 65 °C in a closed space for 30 minutes emits less than about 6 micrograms of gaseous formaldehyde total per gram of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article.

[0075] Embodiment 2 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of

Embodiment 1, wherein the binder binds the fibers of the nonwoven web together.

[0076] Embodiment 3 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-2, wherein the binder bonds together the fibers at points where they contact one another.

[0077] Embodiment 4 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-3, wherein the fibers comprise a natural fiber, a polyamide, a polyester, rayon, polyethylene, polypropylene, or a combination thereof.

[0078] Embodiment 5 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-4, wherein the fibers comprise polyethylene terephthalate.

[0079] Embodiment 6 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-5, wherein the cured product of the curable composition is about 0.01 wt% to about 99.99 wt% of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article.

[0080] Embodiment 7 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-6, wherein the cured product of the curable composition is about 5 wt% to about 50 wt% of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article. [0081] Embodiment 8 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-7, wherein the latex is about 30 wt% to about 99.99 wt% of the curable composition.

[0082] Embodiment 9 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-8, wherein the latex is about 50 wt% to about 99 wt% of the curable composition.

[0083] Embodiment 10 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-9, wherein about 10 wt% to about 90 wt% of the latex is water.

[0084] Embodiment 11 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-10, wherein about 30 wt% to about 80 wt% of the latex is water.

[0085] Embodiment 12 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-11, wherein the latex is a carboxylated latex.

[0086] Embodiment 13 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-12, wherein the latex is a polyacrylate latex, an ethylene-acrylate latex, a polyester urethane latex, a bromo isobutylene isoprene latex, a polybutadiene latex, a chloro isobutylene isoprene latex, a polychloroprene latex, a chlorosulphonated polyethylene latex, an epichlorohydrin latex, an ethylene propylene latex, an ethylene propylene diene monomer latex, a poly ether urethane latex, a perfluorocarbon latex, a fluoronated hydrocarbon latex, a fluoro silicone latex, a fluorocarbon rubber latex, a hydrogenated nitrile butadiene latex, a polyisoprene latex, an isobutylene isoprene butyl latex, an acrylonitrile butadiene latex, a polyurethane latex, a styrene butadiene latex, a styrene ethylene butylene latex, a polysiloxane latex, a vinyl methyl silicone latex, or a combination thereof.

[0087] Embodiment 14 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-13, wherein the latex is a styrene butadiene latex, an acrylic latex, a polyurethane latex, or a combination thereof

[0088] Embodiment 15 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-14, wherein the latex is a styrene butadiene latex.

[0089] Embodiment 16 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-15, wherein the latex is a carboxylated styrene butadiene latex. [0090] Embodiment 17 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-16, wherein the crosslinker is about 0.01 wt% to about 20 wt% of the curable composition.

[0091] Embodiment 18 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-17, wherein the crosslinker is about 1 wt% to about 10 wt% of the curable composition.

[0092] Embodiment 19 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-18, wherein the crosslinker is substantially free of formaldehyde.

[0093] Embodiment 20 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-19, wherein the crosslinker is an aziridine crosslinker, an oxazoline crosslinker, an isocyanate crosslinker, a melamine crosslinker, an epoxide crosslinker, a carbodiimide crosslinker, a silane crosslinker, a zirconium (IV) crosslinker, or a combination thereof.

[0094] Embodiment 21 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-20, wherein the crosslinker is a carbodiimide crosslinker.

[0095] Embodiment 22 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-21, wherein the latex is a carboxylated styrene butadiene latex and the crosslinker is a carbodiimide crosslinker.

[0096] Embodiment 23 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-22, wherein the curable composition further comprises an abrasive particle, an organic solvent, a surfactant, an emulsifier, a dispersant, a crosslinking agent, a catalyst, a rheology modifier, a density modifier, a cure modifier, a free radical initiator, a diluent, an antioxidant, a heat stabilizer, a flame retardant, a plasticizer, filler, a polishing aid, an inorganic particle, a pigment, a dye, an adhesion promoter, antistatic additives, or a combination thereof.

[0097] Embodiment 24 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-23, wherein the flexible fibrous surface-treating article heated to 65 °C in a closed space for 30 minutes emits about 0 micrograms to about 6 micrograms of gaseous formaldehyde total per gram of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article.

[0098] Embodiment 25 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-24, wherein the flexible fibrous surface-treating article heated to 65 °C in a closed space for 30 minutes emits about 0 micrograms to about 0.1 micrograms of gaseous formaldehyde total per gram of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article.

[0099] Embodiment 26 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-25, wherein at room temperature a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 20 lbf (9 Kgf) to about 100 lbf (45 Kgf).

[00100] Embodiment 27 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-26, wherein at room temperature a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 35 lbf (16 Kgf) to about 70 lbf (32 Kgf).

[00101] Embodiment 28 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-27, wherein at room temperature a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a modulus measured along the longest dimension of about 50 psi (345 KPa) to about 600 psi (4140 KPa).

[00102] Embodiment 29 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-28, wherein at room temperature a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a modulus measured along the longest dimension of about 250 psi (1720 KPa) to about 450 psi (3105 KPa).

[00103] Embodiment 30 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-29, wherein at room temperature a 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article soaked in a cleaning composition that is at least 95 wt% water for 1 hour at room temperature has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 10 lbf (4 Kgf) to about 90 lbf (21 Kgf).

[00104] Embodiment 31 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-30, wherein at room temperature a 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article soaked in a cleaning composition that is at least 95 wt% water for 1 hour at room temperature has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 30 lbf (13 Kgf) to about 60 lbf (27 Kgf).

[00105] Embodiment 32 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-31, wherein at room temperature a 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article soaked in a cleaning composition that is at least 95 wt% water for 1 hour at room temperature has a modulus measured along the longest dimension of about 50 psi (345 KPa) to about 400 psi (2760 KPa).

[00106] Embodiment 33 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-32, wherein at room temperature a 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article soaked in a cleaning composition that is at least 95 wt% water for 1 hour at room temperature has a modulus measured along the longest dimension of about 200 psi (1380 KPa) to about 400 psi (2760 KPa).

[00107] Embodiment 34 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-33, wherein at 150 °F (66 °C), after 5 minutes of exposure to 150 °F (66 °C), a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 10 lbf (4.5 Kgf) to about 60 lbf (27 Kgf).

[00108] Embodiment 35 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-34, wherein at 150 °F (66 °C), after 5 minutes of exposure to 150 °F (66 °C), a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 30 lbf (13 Kgf) to about 60 lbf (27 Kgf).

[00109] Embodiment 36 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-35, wherein after 5 minutes of exposure to 150 °F (66 °C) a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface- treating article has a modulus measured along the longest dimension of about 30 psi (205 KPa) to about 300 psi (2070 KPa).

[00110] Embodiment 37 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-36, wherein after 5 minutes of exposure to 150 °F (66 °C) a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface- treating article has a modulus measured along the longest dimension of about 180 psi (1240 KPa) to about 300 psi (2070 KPa).

[00111] Embodiment 38 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-37, wherein the flexible fibrous surface-treating article is a floor pad.

[00112] Embodiment 39 provides a method of using the flexible fibrous surface- treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-38, the method comprising:

cleaning or buffing a surface with the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-38 sufficiently to clean or buff the surface with the flexible fibrous surface-treating article.

[00113] Embodiment 40 provides the method of Embodiment 39, further comprising rotating the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-38 during the contacting.

[00114] Embodiment 41 provides the method of any one of Embodiments 39-40, further comprising rotating the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-38 during the contacting using a rotary cleaning machine.

[00115] Embodiment 42 provides the method of any one of Embodiments 39-41, wherein the surface is a floor.

[00116] Embodiment 43 provides the method of any one of Embodiments 39-42, wherein the contacted surface comprises a wax, a stripper, a cleaner, or a combination thereof.

[00117] Embodiment 44 provides a method of making the flexible fibrous surface- treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-38, comprising:

coating the fibers with the curable composition; and

curing the curable composition, to provide the flexible fibrous surface-treating article of any one of Embodiments 1-38.

[00118] Embodiment 45 provides the method of Embodiment 44, wherein curing comprises heating.

[00119] Embodiment 46 provides the method of Embodiment 45, wherein the heating comprises heating to about 200 °F (90 °C) to about 500 °F (260 °C).

[00120] Embodiment 47 provides the method of any one of Embodiments 45-46, wherein the heating comprises heating to about 300 °F (145 °C) to about 400 °F (204 °C). [00121] Embodiment 48 provides the method of any one of Embodiments 45-47, wherein the heating comprises heating for about 0.01 minutes to about 1,000 minutes.

[00122] Embodiment 49 provides the method of any one of Embodiments 45-48, wherein the heating comprises heating for about 5 minutes to about 60 minutes.

[00123] Embodiment 50 provides a flexible fibrous surface-treating article comprising:

an open, lofty, nonwoven web comprising fibers; and

a binder that coats the fibers of the nonwoven web, the binder comprising a cured product of a curable composition, wherein about 30 wt% to about 99 wt% of the curable composition is a carboxylated styrene butadiene latex and about 1 wt% to about 10 wt% of the curable composition is an aziridine crosslinker, an oxazoline crosslinker, an isocyanate crosslinker, an epoxide crosslinker, a carbodiimide crosslinker, a zirconium (IV) crosslinker, or a combination thereof;

wherein

the flexible fibrous surface-treating article heated to 65 °C in a closed space for 30 minutes emits less than about 6 micrograms of gaseous formaldehyde total per gram of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article.

[00124] Embodiment 51 provides a flexible fibrous surface-treating article comprising:

an open, lofty, nonwoven web comprising fibers; and

a binder that coats the fibers of the nonwoven web, the binder comprising a cured product of a curable composition, wherein about 30 wt% to about 99 wt% of the curable composition is a carboxylated styrene butadiene latex and about 1 wt% to about 10 wt% of the curable composition is an aziridine crosslinker, an oxazoline crosslinker, an isocyanate crosslinker, an epoxide crosslinker, a carbodiimide crosslinker, a zirconium (IV) crosslinker, or a combination thereof;

wherein

the flexible fibrous surface-treating article heated to 65 °C in a closed space for 30 minutes emits about 0 micrograms to about 0.1 micrograms of gaseous

formaldehyde total per gram of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article, at room temperature a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 35 lbf (15 Kgf) to about 70 lbf (32 Kgf),

at room temperature a 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article soaked in a cleaning composition that is at least 95 wt% water for 1 hour at room temperature has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 30 lbf (13 Kgf) to about 60 lbf (27 Kgf),

after 5 minutes of exposure to 150 °F (66 °C) a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a maximum load measured along the longest dimension of about 30 lbf (13 Kgf) to about 60 lbf (27 Kgf), and

after 5 minutes of exposure to 150 °F (66 °C) a dry 1 inch by 7 inch (2.5 cm by 17.8 cm) cross-web sample of the flexible fibrous surface-treating article has a modulus measured along the longest dimension of about 180 psi (1240 KPa) to about 300 psi (2070 KPa).

[00125] Embodiment 52 provides the flexible fibrous surface-treating article or method of any one or any combination of Embodiments 1-51 optionally configured such that all elements or options recited are available to use or select from.