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Title:
FLUID LINE CONNECTOR WITH A RECEIVING CHANNEL FOR RECEIVING AN INSERT ELEMENT AS A HEATING ELEMENT AND METHOD FOR FORMING SAID CONNECTOR
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/030066
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Herein described is a fluid line connector (1) comprising a connector body (5) having a first end (6) comprising a coupling geometry (8) for a first fluid conduit (80), and a second end (7) in fluid communication with the first end (6) via a fluid passage (9), whereby the fluid line connector (1) further comprises a first receiving channel (20) in the connector body (5) for a first insert element (30), wherein the first receiving channel (20) has an outer end (22) and an inner end (23), wherein the inner end (23) is arranged at the second end (7) of the connector body (5), whereby the fluid line connector (1) further comprises a sealing element (40) having a first end (41) and a second end (42) in fluid communication with the first end (41) via a fluid passage (43), and a first receiving channel (46) between the first end (41) and extending into the direction of the second end (42), wherein the fluid passage (9) of the connector body (5) is connected in a fluid-tight manner at its second end (7) to the first end (41) of the fluid passage (43) of the sealing element (40), and wherein the first receiving channel (20) of the connector body (5) is connected at its inner end (23) to the first end (41) of the first receiving channel (46) at the first end (41) of the of the sealing element (40). Also described is a method for the formation thereof.

Inventors:
ZHANG, Bote (Ltd. No. 51 Zhuzhou RoadQingdao City, Shandong 1, 266101, CN)
Application Number:
EP2018/070807
Publication Date:
February 14, 2019
Filing Date:
July 31, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
NORMA GERMANY GMBH (Edisonstraße 4, Maintal, 63477, DE)
ZHANG, Bote (Ltd. No. 51 Zhuzhou RoadQingdao City, Shandong 1, 266101, CN)
International Classes:
F16L53/38; B29C65/16; F16L39/00
Foreign References:
US3673541A1972-06-27
US4121858A1978-10-24
DE102010053737A12012-06-14
DE202014100268U12015-04-27
EP2910834A12015-08-26
EP2910834A12015-08-26
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
PATENTANWÄLTE OLBRICHT, BUCHHOLD, KEULERTZ PARTNERSCHAFT MBB (Bettinastraße 53-55, Frankfurt am Main, 60325, DE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Patent Cl ai ms

A fluid line connector (1 ) comprising

a connector body (5) having

o a first end (6) comprising a coupling geometry (8) for a first fluid conduit (80), and

o a second end (7) in fluid communication with the first end (6) via a fluid

passage (9),

whereby the fluid line connector (1 ) further comprises

o a first receiving channel (20) in the connector body (5) for a first insert

element (30),

wherein the first receiving channel (20) has an outer end (22) and an inner end (23),

wherein the inner end (23) is arranged at the second end (7) of the connector body (5),

characterized in that the fluid line connector (1 ) further comprises

a sealing element (40) having

o a first end (41 ) and

o a second end (42) in fluid communication with the first end (41 ) via a fluid passage (43), and

o a first receiving channel (46) starting at the first end (41 ) and extending into the direction of the second end (42),

wherein the fluid passage (9) of the connector body (5) is connected in a fluid-tight manner at its second end (7) to the first end (41 ) of the fluid passage (43) of the sealing element (40), and

wherein the first receiving channel (20) of the connector body (5) is connected at its inner end (23) to the first receiving channel (46) at the first end (41 ) of the sealing element (40).

A fluid line connector (1 ) according to claim 1 , characterized in that the first insert element (30) is received by the first receiving channel (20) and wherein the first insert element (30) extends from the first receiving channel (20) of the connector body (5) through the first receiving channel (46) of the sealing element (40).

A fluid line connector (1 ) according to claim 1 , characterized in that it further comprises a second insert element (31 ) o received by a second receiving channel (21 ) in the connector body (5)

wherein the second receiving channel (21 ) has an outer end (22) and an inner end (23),

wherein the inner end (23) is arranged at the second end (7) of the connector body (5),

wherein the sealing element (40) has a second receiving channel (47) between the first end (41 ) and the second end (42),

wherein the second receiving channel (21 ) of the connector body (5) is connected at its inner end (23) to the second receiving channel (47) at the first end (41 ) of the sealing element and

wherein the second insert element (31 ) extends from the second receiving channel (21 ) of the connector body (5) through the second receiving channel (47) of the sealing element (40).

A fluid line connector (1 ) according to claim 1 , characterized in that the sealing element (40) comprises a laser-transmitting material (60) and the first (30) comprises a laser- absorbing material (61 ), wherein the laser-transmitting material (60) of the sealing element (40) is welded to the laser-absorbing material (61 ) of the first insert element (30).

A fluid line connector (1 ) according to claim 3, characterized in that the sealing element (40) comprises a laser-transmitting material (60) and the first and/or second insert element (30, 31 ) comprises a laser-absorbing material (61 ), wherein the laser- transmitting material (60) of the sealing element (40) is welded to the laser-absorbing material (61 ) of the first and/or second insert element (30, 31 ).

A fluid line connector (1 ) according to claim 1 , characterized in that the sealing element (40) comprises a laser-transmitting material (60) and the connector body (5) comprises a laser-absorbing material (61 ).

A fluid line connector (1 ) according to claim 6, wherein the laser-transmitting material (60) of the sealing element (40) is welded to the laser-absorbing material (61 ) of the connector body (5).

A fluid line connector (1 ) according to claim 1 , characterized in that the sealing element (40) comprises protrusions (48) and/or recesses (49) on its first end (41 ) that mate with corresponding recesses (13) and/or protrusions (12) on the second end (7) of the connector body (5).

9. A fluid line connector (1 ) according to claim 1 , characterized in that a sealing ring (70) is arranged in the first receiving channel (20) of the connector body (1 ).

10. A fluid line connector (1 ) according to claim 3, characterized in that a sealing ring (70) is arranged in the first and/or second receiving channel (20, 21 ) of the connector body

(1 )-

1 1. A fluid line connector (1 ) according to claim 1 , characterized in that the sealing element (40) comprises a coupling geometry (50) for a second fluid conduit (81 ) at the second end (42). 12. A fluid line connector (1 ) according to claim 3, characterized in that the sealing element (40) comprises a coupling geometry (50) for a second fluid conduit (81 ) at the second end (42).

13. A fluid line connector (1 ) according to claim 1 1 , characterized in that a second fluid conduit (81 ) is connected to the coupling geometry (50) of the sealing element, wherein the first insert element (30) protrudes from the first receiving channel (46) of the sealing element (40) out of the coupling geometry (50), preferably into the second fluid conduit (81 ). 14. A fluid line connector (1 ) according to claim 12, characterized in that a second fluid conduit (81 ) is connected to the coupling geometry (50) of the sealing element, wherein the first and/or second insert element (30, 31 ) protrudes from the first and/or second receiving channel (46, 47) of the sealing element (40) out of the coupling geometry (50), preferably into the second fluid conduit (81 ).

15. A fluid line connector (1 ) according to claim 14, characterized in that the first and/or second insert element (30, 31 ) inserts into the second fluid conduit (81 ).

16. A fluid line connector (1 ) according to claim 13, characterized in that the sealing

element (40) comprises a laser-transmitting material (60) and the second fluid conduit (81 ) comprises a laser-absorbing material (61 ), wherein the laser-transmitting material (60) of the sealing element (40) is welded to the laser-absorbing material (61 ) of the second fluid conduit (81 ), preferably such that a fluid-tight connection is formed.

A fluid line connector (1 ) according to claim 14, characterized in that the sealing element (40) comprises a laser-transmitting material (60) and the second fluid conduit (81 ) comprises a laser-absorbing material (61 ), wherein the laser-transmitting material (60) of the sealing element (40) is welded to the laser-absorbing material (61 ) of the second fluid conduit (81 ), preferably such that a fluid-tight connection is formed.

A fluid line connector (1 ) according to claim 1 , characterized in that the first insert element (30) comprises a heating element (32), a sensory probe or an injection element. A fluid line connector (1 ) according to claim 3, characterized in that the first and/or second insert element (30, 31 ) comprises a heating element (32), a sensory probe or an injection element.

A fluid line connector (1 ) according claim 1 , characterized in that at its outer end (25) the first receiving channel (20) of the connector body (5) has an opening (27) arranged flush with the outer surface (14) of the connector body (5).

A fluid line connector (1 ) according claim 3 characterized in that at its outer end (25) the first and/or second receiving channel (20, 21 ) of the connector body (5) has an opening (27) arranged flush with the outer surface (14) of the connector body (5).

A fluid line connector (1 ) according to one of the previous claims, characterized in that at its outer end (25) the first and/or second receiving channel (20, 21 ) of the connector body (5) has an opening (27) arranged flush with the outer surface (14) of the connector body (5).

A method of forming a fluid line connector (1 ) comprising the following steps:

providing a connector body (5) having

o a first end (6) comprising a coupling geometry (8) for a first fluid conduit (80), and

o a second end (7) in fluid communication with the first end (6) via a fluid

passage (9),

providing a first insert element (30)

o received by a first receiving channel (20) in the connector body (5) wherein the first receiving channel (20) has an outer end (22) and an inner end (23),

wherein the inner end (23) is arranged at the second end (7) of the connector body (5),

characterized by

providing a sealing element (40) having

o a first end (41 ) and

o a second end (42) in fluid communication with the first end (41 ) via a fluid passage (43), and having

o a first receiving channel (46) between the first end (41 ) and the second end

(42),

wherein the sealing element (40) comprises a laser-transmitting material (60) and the connector body (5) comprises a laser-absorbing material (61 ),

wherein the first insert element (30) extends from the first receiving channel (20) of the connector body (5) through the first receiving channel (46) of the sealing element

(40),

and comprising a laser welding step, in which the laser-transmitting material (61 ) of the sealing element (40) is laser-welded to the laser-absorbing material (61 ) of the connector body (5) by laser light, such that the fluid passage (9) of the connector body (5) is connected in a fluid-tight manner at its second end (7) to the first end (41 ) of the fluid passage (43) of the sealing element (40), and such that the first receiving channel (20) of the connector body (5) is connected at its inner end (23) to the first end (41 ) of the first receiving channel (46) of the sealing element (40).

The method according to claim 14, characterized in that the first insert element (30) comprises a laser-absorbing material (61 ), wherein the laser-transmitting material (60) of the sealing element (40) is laser-welded to the laser-absorbing material (61 ) of the first insert element (30) by laser light.

The method according to one of the claims 14 or 15, characterized in that a second fluid conduit (8) is connected to the coupling geometry (50) of the sealing element (40), wherein the first insert element (30) protrudes from the first receiving channel (46) of the sealing element (40) into the second fluid conduit (81 ).

Description:
FLUID LINE CONNECTOR WITH A RECEIVING CHANNEL FOR RECEIVING AN INSERT ELEMENT AS A HEATING ELEMENT AND METHOD FOR FORMING SAID CONNECTOR

The invention relates to a fluid line connector according to the preamble of claim 1 and a method for forming said connector according to the preamble of claim 14.

Fluid line connectors are used to join two or more fluid lines, for instance fluid conduits, together. Typically, such connectors are capable of additional functions, such as joining the ends of two or more fluid lines with various external elements, such as heating elements, sensor probes or injection elements.

A fluid line connector may be used to heat a urea injection line of a vehicle. Since urea solution is liable to freeze within the fluid lines at ambient temperatures, it is desirable to provide a means of introducing a heating element into the fluid line, so that the urea solution may be quickly melted when required (for instance, upon starting the engine).

In order to achieve this, prior art connectors, such as that displayed in EP 2 910 834 A1 , have comprised insert channels in the sidewalls of the connector body, via which a heating rod may be inserted into the fluid channel that runs through the connector body, and from there into a fluid line attached to the fluid line connector. In order to prevent the urea solution from leaking out of the insert channel, such prior art devices have comprised sealing plugs and sealing rings situated within the insert channel, which form a fluid tight connection around the heating rod, as well as securing caps that secure the various components together.

However, these components all take up a considerable volume. As a result, the fluid line connector suffers the disadvantage that it is bulky in the region where the insert element is accommodated in the sidewall of the connector, since the insert channel must extend sufficiently far out of the fluid line connector that enough space is present to contain a sealing plug, a sealing ring, and a cap element to retain the various components.

As a consequence of this the fluid line connector takes up more space, which in modern cars is especially valuable. In addition, the space that remains on the connector body to wrap the heating element is reduced, due to the protrusion of the 'dome' that contains the heating rod and associated components.

As such, a user is forced to wrap the wires that are connected to the heating rod tightly together around the connector body, which leads in many cases to overheating. This can cause the heating element or the fluid line connector to malfunction or even become damaged beyond repair. A malfunctioning heating element in the specific case of urea fluid lines would prevent the urea solution from being defrosted. This would result in an increase in emissions of noxious nitrogen oxide gases, which are harmful to the environment and humans alike.

To address this, there is a need for a fluid line connector with a slimmer profile that provides more room to wrap the wires that protrude out of the insert channel around the connector body, so that overheating of the wires does not negatively affect device operation.

Main features of the invention can be found in claims 1 and 14. Optional features are described in the claims 2 to 13 and 15 to 16 and the following description.

In a fluid line connector comprising a connector body having a first end, comprising a coupling geometry for a first fluid conduit, and a second end in fluid communication with the first end via a fluid passage, whereby the fluid line connector further comprises a first receiving channel in the connector body for a first insert element, wherein the first receiving channel has an outer end and an inner end, wherein the inner end is arranged at the second end of the connector body, the need is fulfilled according to the invention in that the fluid line connector further comprises a sealing element having a first end, and a second end in fluid communication with the first end via a fluid passage, and a first receiving channel starting at the first end and extending into the direction of the second end, wherein the fluid passage of the connector body is connected in a fluid-tight manner at its second end to the first end of the fluid passage of the sealing element, and wherein the first receiving channel of the connector body is connected at its inner end to the first receiving channel at the first end of the sealing element.

By arranging the sealing element, which contains a fluid passage as well as a receiving channel for the insert element, at the second end of the connector, it is possible to seal the insert element whilst at the same time relocating the sealing element itself away from the side of the fluid line connector. This frees up a considerable amount of space on the outer side of the connector, which may then be used to wrap the wires of the later-inserted element around the connector body. Due to the increased space, the wires may be arranged further apart from each other, which improves air circulation and heating distribution, thereby eliminating overheating. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the first insert element is received by the first receiving channel and the first insert element extends from the first receiving channel of the connector body through the first receiving channel of the sealing element. A fluid line connector is thereby provided that is essentially ready for use in an application.

In a particularly preferred embodiment, the fluid line connector further comprises a second insert element received by a second receiving channel in the connector body, wherein the second receiving channel has an outer end and an inner end, wherein the inner end is arranged at the second end of the connector body, wherein the sealing element has a second receiving channel between the first end and the second end, wherein the second receiving channel of the connector body is connected at its inner end to the second receiving channel at the first end of the sealing element and wherein the second insert element extends from the second receiving channel of the connector body through the second receiving channel of the sealing element. This permits two insert elements to be provided, which, in the case where the insert elements comprise heating elements, enables the fluid lines to be heated particularly efficiently and quickly. A further important aspect in using two insert elements is that the fluid line connector experiences significantly reduced pressure drop. In prior art devices, it is common to use, for instance, one large heating rod that extends through the fluid line connector and into the second fluid conduit. This heating rod typically takes up a large volume within the conduit, which results in a large pressure drop during device operation. However, by using two (or indeed more) insert elements - for instance heating elements - it is possible to achieve the heating output of one large heating rod, whilst at the same time ensuring that the heating rods themselves do not take up too great a volume within the conduit. This results in a reduced pressure drop. It also becomes possible to use different resistance heating rods to generate a variety of power designs, for instance where a particular region of the fluid conduit is heated with more intensity than another region of the fluid conduit. It is also possible to save material, since two smaller heating rods require less coating material than one large heating rod. Preferably, the receiving channels of the sealing element open out into the fluid passage of the sealing element, which has the advantage that the insert elements may be received in the fluid passage. This aids heating in the case where the insert elements are heating elements.

Preferably, the receiving channels open out into the fluid passage at a certain distance from the second end of the sealing element, which allows the insert elements to be retained more securely within the sealing element. Preferably the receiving channels open out into the fluid passage of the sealing element in the direction of the fluid channel, most prefereably parallel to the fluid channel, so that it is easy to guide insert elements in the direction of an attached fluid conduit.

Preferably, the sealing element comprises a laser-transmitting material and the first and/or second insert element comprises a laser-absorbing material, wherein the laser-transmitting material of the sealing element is laser-welded to the laser-absorbing material of the first and/or second insert element.

The laser-transmitting material is preferably a material that is able to transmit laser light. In particular, the laser-transmitting material is preferably such as to allow laser-light to penetrate all the way through it to reach a laser-absorbing material situated on another side. Such a material may be, for instance, a polymer. One example of such a polymer is a thermoplastic.

Depending on the composition of the laser-transmitting material, its ability to transmit laser light will be increased or decreased. This can be affected by the presence of various components as is known in the art, for instance colorants, fillers, and other additives. It is also thinkable that the chemical nature of the laser-transmitting material may be influenced to modify its ability to transmit laser light, for instance through the presence of certain chemical structure that are known in the art to absorb light at particular wavelengths. Preferably the laser-transmitting material should transmit at least 3% of light.

The laser-absorbing material is preferably a material that is able to absorb laser light. Such a material may be, for instance, a polymer. One example of such a polymer is a thermoplastic. Depending on the composition of the laser-absorbing material, its ability to absorb laser light will be increased or decreased. This can be affected by the presence of various components as is known in the art, for instance colorants, fillers, and other additives. In other embodiments, the laser-absorbing material may comprise chemical groups that are known to absorb light at desired wavelengths, for instance dyes or aromatic groups. Alternatively, the laser-absorbing material may contain additives that result in increased absorption.

It is also thinkable that the chemical nature of the laser-absorbing material may be influenced to modify its ability to absorb laser light, for instance through the presence of certain chemical structure that are known in the art to absorb light at particular wavelengths.

It is preferable that the laser-transmitting material transmits visible light and/or infrared radiation and/or UV radiation. It is also preferred that the laser-absorbing material also absorbs at least some of the wavelengths, preferably the wavelengths of maximum transmission, transmitted by the laser-transmitting material. Preferably, the maximum absorbance wavelength of the laser- absorbing material occurs close to the maximum transmittance wavelength of the laser- transmitting material. The term "close" may mean within 300 nm, within 200 nm, preferably within 100 nm, more preferably within 50 nm, more preferably still within 20 nm, more preferably still within 10 nm, and even more preferably within 5 nm. Preferably, the laser-absorbing material absorbs more of a certain wavelength or wavelength range of electromagnetic radiation than the laser-transmitting material. This desired wavelength or wavelength range may vary depending on the manner by which the weld is to be formed. The area of increased absorbance may correspond, for instance, to around 800 nm to 1000 nm in the case of a diode laser, around 1064 nm in the case of a Nd:YAG laser, or, for an infrared laser, between 2000 nm to 2500 nm or between 1000 nm to 1200 nm.

It shall be noted that somewhat broader ranges or somewhat narrower ranges than these are also thinkable.

One way of achieving an increased absorbance for the laser-absorbing material may be to provide a certain amount of a dark material therein, for instance a black material, since such materials are by their nature good absorbers of light. This material may comprise, for instance, carbon particles, for example, soot. This may be present in an amount ranging up to 5% by volume. Preferably, it is present in up to 3 % by volume. More preferable still is up to 1 % by volume. Even more preferable is between 0.1 and 0.8% by volume. Most preferable is between 0.2 and 0.4 % by volume. This is a cheap and reliable way to increase the absorbing properties of the material.

Where it is desired that laser-welding occurs at a high temperature to give a laser-weld for high temperature applications, it is preferable that the laser-absorbing and laser-transmitting material are selected to be compatible with this. For instance, the laser-absorbing and laser-transmitting materials may comprise a high-melting base material such as polyphthalamide. In other instances, where a lower operating temperature is desired, the laser-absorbing and laser- transmitting materials bay may comprise a lower-melting base material such as nylon-12. In a favorable embodiment, the laser-absorbing material and the laser-transmitting material comprise the same base material (for instance a polymer, e.g. a thermoplastic), which simplifies manufacturing. Further preferred is that this laser-absorbing material has a greater absorbance than the laser-transmitting material at a given wavelength of electromagnetic radiation.

However, it is also thinkable that different materials are used providing that these are suitable to both transmit and absorb energy as required such as a laser weld can be formed.

The laser-weld mechanism occurs preferably as follows. Laser energy penetrates the laser- transmitting material and continues to propagate therethrough until it reaches the laser- absorbing material. The laser energy is then absorbed by the laser-absorbing material, which causes the latter to begin to heat up and thereafter melt. The molten material of the laser- absorbing material transfers heat to the laser-transmitting material, thereby also causing the latter to heat up and melt. Through this, molten material forms between both laser-absorbing material and laser-transmitting material, which, after cooling and solidifying, results in the formation of a strong and high-strength weld joint over the interface.

It is also thinkable that the process occurs with another suitably intense source of

electromagnetic radiation apart from a laser, such as an intense source of visible light, UV radiation, infrared radiation, microwave radiation, or any other source of radiation that it suitable to be transmitted by a transmitting material and absorbed by an absorbing material, such that the latter is able to melt and form a weld-joint with the transmitting material. Where a laser is used, the laser may be a UV laser, an infrared laser, or a visible light laser, or another laser suitable for the present application.

As such, the terms "laser-transmitting material" and "laser-absorbing material" shall also include those materials that are suitable to transmit and absorb electromagnetic radiation from suitable sources other than lasers, such that these materials are able to form a weld-joint as described previously and later on. Generally, it is preferable that the laser-absorbing and laser-transmitting materials are arranged to contact each other directly so as to maximize heat-transfer and efficiency in weld-joint formation. However, depending on requirements of the connector, it is thinkable that another material is arranged between the laser-absorbing and laser-transmitting materials, for instance another laser-transmitting material or another laser-absorbing material.

The use of laser-transmitting and laser-absorbing material enables a join to be formed by a laser, which is a fast and effective method. The resulting join is also a particularly effective and strong weld joint between the sealing element and the first and/or second insert element, since the laser-transmitting material enables an even distribution of the laser-energy to result in melting of the laser-absorbing material. Preferably, the laser weld is formed in the area of the first and/or second receiving channel of the sealing element. This ensures that the first and/or second insert element is securely held within the sealing element, which prevents unwanted movement through, for instance, vibrations of the vehicle in which the fluid line connector is arranged. A further advantage is that the welding line is formed within the fluid line connector and is not visible. Preferably, the laser-weld forms a fluid-tight seal.

Preferably, the laser-absorbing material of the first and/or second insert element is an outer coating. An outer coating is particularly easy to form during manufacture of the insert element, especially since such elements will usually require a coating regardless, so that they are able to resist corrosion once they are inserted into the fluid line.

In a particularly advantageous embodiment, the laser-absorbing material is Nylon. Tests have shown that this material absorbs laser energy particular well and allows a good seal to be formed. In an especially preferred embodiment, the laser-absorbing material of the first and/or second insert element is Nylon.

In an important embodiment, the laser-transmitting material of the sealing element and the laser-absorbing material of the first and/or second insert element melts at a temperature above an expected operating temperature of the fluid line connector. This ensures that the join formed between the laser-transmitting and -absorbing material remains intact during operation of the fluid line connector. An expected operating temperature may be -40 to around 135 °C for standard applications, with short term peak temperatures of up to around 150 °C. For high temperature applications, operating temperature may be -40 to around 160 °C, with short term peak temperatures of up to around 180 °C. Regular applications may use Nylon-12 as a base polymer for the laser-absorbing and laser-transmitting materials, for example. For high- temperature applications, PPA (polyphthalamide) may be used.

Ideally, the sealing element comprises a laser-transmitting material and the connector body comprises a laser-absorbing material. It is thereby possible to join these two parts at a later point by a laser weld, which ensures a high quality joint that may be formed relatively quickly. Therefore, it is preferable that the laser-transmitting material of the sealing element is laser- welded to the laser-absorbing material of the connector body. A secure join between the connector body and the sealing element may thereby be formed. Preferably, the laser weld results in the formation of a fluid-tight connection. Advantageously, the laser-transmitting material of the sealing element and the laser-absorbing material of the connector body melts at a temperature above an expected operating

temperature of the fluid line connector. This ensures that the join formed between the laser- transmitting and -absorbing material remains intact during operation of the fluid line connector.

It is thinkable that entire parts of the fluid line connector are made from the laser absorbing and transmitting materials, or on the other hand, that only specific regions, for instance only in the contact regions, are made from these laser-absorbing or -transmitting materials. For instance, it is possible and indeed advantageous when the entire sealing element is made from the laser- transmitting material. Alternatively or additionally, the entire connector body and/or the entire second fluid conduit may be made from the laser-absorbing material. In addition, in an ideal embodiment, the first and/or second insert element and the connector body comprise laser-absorbing material in at least contact regions, where laser-transmitting material of the sealing element contacts the laser-absorbing material. In this way, it is possible to form a connection between the three said components in one step.

In an even more preferable embodiment, the first and/or second insert element, the connector body and the second fluid conduit comprise laser-absorbing material in at least contact regions, where laser-transmitting material of the sealing element contacts the laser-absorbing material. In this way, it is possible to form a connection between the four said components in one step.

It is thinkable that the connector body and/or the first and/or second insert element and/or the second fluid conduit are made entirely from laser-absorbing material, in order to simplify manufacturing. It is also thinkable that the sealing element be made entirely from laser- transmitting material, in order to simplify manufacturing.

In general, in the contact regions when the laser-absorbing and laser-transmitting materials meet, it is preferable that a fluid-tight connection is formed.

The sealing element may comprise protrusions and/or recesses on its first end that mate with corresponding recesses and/or protrusions on the second end of the connector body. This has the advantage that it is possible to form an even more secure connection between the sealing element and the connector body on which it is arranged. In particular, this creates an increased surface area in the contact region, which allows an even stronger connection to be formed. The protrusions may be embodied as teeth, pin elements, exposed edges of the ends of the components, thread profiles and/or clip elements. The recesses may be embodied to correspond with these, or indeed simply as any hollow area that is able to receive these elements.

A favorable embodiment of the fluid line connector provides that the sealing element and the connector body are engaged via the recesses and/or protrusions, preferably in the areas of the fluid tight connections. The recesses and protrusions may thereby work together like teeth to ensure that the sealing element is even more securely held on the connector body. A particularly advantageous embodiment provides that the sealing element comprises a circumferential recess at its first end suitable to accommodate a circumferential edge of the second end of the connector body. This results in a connection that is particularly securely formed all the way around the circumference of the sealing element and the connector body. In another embodiment, the outer edge of the sealing element at its first end overlaps an outer edge of the connector body at its second end, or vice versa. This creates a contact region of large surface area, so that a particularly secure connection may be formed.

Preferably, a sealing ring, for example an O-ring, is arranged in the first and/or second receiving channel of the connector body. This helps to secure the insert elements in the first and/or second receiving channels. Ideally, the sealing ring forms a fluid-tight seal between the first receiving channel and the first insert element and/or between the second receiving channel and the second insert element, to increase the overall sealing within the fluid line connector.

The sealing ring is preferably arranged in a seal seat at the inner end, preferably in an outer portion, of the first and/or second receiving channel of the connector body. This helps to ensure that the sealing ring remains in position, if the insert elements are in any way pulled. It also aids in assembly of the fluid line connector, since a defined region is provided where the sealing ring should be arranged.

In an important embodiment, the sealing element comprises a coupling geometry for a second fluid conduit at the second end. This provides a particularly simple way to connect the fluid line connector to a second fluid conduit. The coupling geometry of the sealing element may comprise an accommodation section suitable to receive the second conduit. By receiving the second fluid conduit, it is easy to push the conduit into the accommodation section in a manufacturing step, rather than having to prise the (usually flexible) outer walls of the second fluid conduit over the end of the sealing element. ln a particularly important embodiment, a second fluid conduit is connected to the coupling geometry of the sealing element, wherein the first and/or second insert element protrudes from the first and/or second receiving channel of the sealing element into the second fluid conduit. Preferably the second conduit is accommodated in the accommodation section. In an advantageous embodiment, the sealing element comprises a laser-transmitting material and the second fluid conduit comprises a laser-absorbing material, wherein the laser- transmitting material of the sealing element is laser-welded to the laser-absorbing material of the second fluid conduit. In this way, a particularly secure connection is formed between the second conduit and the sealing element. Preferably, the sealing element is laser-welded to the laser-absorbing material of the second fluid conduit such that a fluid-tight connection is formed.

Ideally, the laser-transmitting material of the sealing element and the laser-absorbing material of the second fluid conduit melts at a temperature above an expected operating temperature of the fluid line connector. This ensures that the join formed between the laser-transmitting of the sealing element and the laser-absorbing material of the second fluid conduit remains intact during operation of the fluid line connector.

In a favorable embodiment, the first and/or second insert element comprises a heating element, a sensory probe or an injection element. A heating element may be useful to heat the fluid in the fluid lines. A sensory probe may be useful for measuring the temperature of the fluid line or measuring the pH of the fluid line, for instance. An injection element may be used to inject additives into the fluid line. Also thinkable are combinations of these features, in particular: a heating element and a sensory probe, a heating element and an injection element, a sensory probe and an injection element, or a heating element and a sensory probe and an injection element. In such cases, the fluid line connector and sealing element may comprise appropriate receiving channels to receive an appropriate number of insert elements in accordance with the present disclosure.

Where the insert element comprises a heating element, the heating element is preferably embodied as a heating wire with a coating, preferably a coating made from a laser-absorbing material, such as Nylon, for instance Nylon-12. In higher temperature application, materials such as polyphthalamide may be utilized. The diameter of the heating element may be 2 mm, for instance. More generally, the diameter may be between 0.5 and 10 mm.

Ideally, at its outer end, the first and/or second receiving channel of the connector body has an opening arranged flush with the outer surface of the connector body. This ensures that any protrusion on the sidewall of the fluid line connector is kept to a minimum, in order to provide as much wrapping space for the wires of the insert element(s) as possible. Preferably, the outer end of the first and/or second receiving channel of the connector body is formed by an opening in a flat outer surface of the connector body, preferably in a cylindrical or cone-shaped outer surface. Ideally, the connector body comprises a cylindrical outer surface between its first and second ends. This surface geometry lends itself particularly favorably to receiving a wire wrapped around its circumference, since it does not comprise any sharp edges that could damage the wires. Also thinkable is an elliptic cylinder as an outer surface or a cone.

Preferably, the first and/or second receiving channel of the connector body and/or the sealing element has a circular cross-section. Such a cross-section is particularly easy to form in a manufacturing step and also ensures that the insert element(s) are not received on any sharp edges that could damage them. Preferably, this circular cross-section extends for the entire length of the first and/or second receiving channel of the connector body and/or the sealing element. It is preferable that the fluid passage of the connector body comprises a circular cross-section, for instance at least in the region of the first end, wherein the first and/or second receiving channels of the connector body are arranged within said circular cross-section at the second end of the connector body.

Advantageously, the first and second receiving channel of the connector body are arranged on opposing sides of the fluid channel of the connector body. This ensures that the insert elements are received in the connector body far apart from each other, which further contributes to increasing the wrapping area and thereby minimizes the possibility of overheating.

In one embodiment, the fluid passage of the connector body is bifurcated by the first and second receiving channel of the connector body at the second end of the connector body. By bifurcating the fluid passage, space is created which may be used to accommodate the receiving channels for the insert elements. The bifurcated fluid passage may be configured such that the cross-section of the two fluid passages are substantially in the shape of a mushroom or a funnel, i.e. with narrower lower stalk-like part arranged nearer the center of the connector body and a wider, upper part that fans out as it approaches the outer of the connector body. In this way, space is left free in the cross section of the fluid passage that may be used to accommodate the receiving channels. In another embodiment, fluid passage may be arranged to branch into a first and second fluid channel at the second end of the connector body. The branched fluid passages may also be configured to have a mushroom or funnel like cross section.

The term fluid passage may be used to refer to the general volume of the connector body and/or sealing element that it dedicated to carrying liquid, whereas fluid channel may be used to refer to individual fluid channels that branch off from the fluid passage, or which the fluid passage comprises. In other words, the term "fluid passage" may include the fluid channels.

Preferably, the fluid passage of the sealing element has a circular cross-section, wherein the first and/or second receiving channels of the sealing element are arranged within said circular cross-section at the first end of the sealing element. Advantageously, the first and second receiving channel of the sealing element are arranged on opposing sides of the fluid passage of the sealing element. This ensures that the insert elements are received in the sealing element far apart from each other, which minimizes the possibility for overheating of the wires. Ideally, the fluid passage of the sealing element is bifurcated by the first and/or second receiving channel of the sealing element at the first end of the sealing element. Preferably, the arrangement of the fluid passage and the first and/or second receiving channel is configured such that it matches and corresponds to the

arrangement of the openings of the fluid passage and the first and/or second receiving channels in the second end of the connector body. In this way, it is ensured that the respective channels and passages fit well together, so that fluid flows optimally and the insert elements are received easily.

Preferably, the first and/or second receiving channel of the connector body has a decline portion at the outer end that is arranged at a decline to a central longitudinal axis of the fluid passage of the connector body. This makes it easy to guide an insert element into the connector body and thereafter into a conduit. In an advantageous example of the invention, the first and/or second receiving channel of the connector body has a portion at the inner end that is arranged parallel to a longitudinal axis of the fluid channel of the connector body. This enables the insert element to be led into the sealing element in an optimal manner. Ideally, the change of angle between said portion at the inner end and the portion at the outer end is preferably less than 50 degrees, so that the insert element must not be bent too considerably.

The connector body and/or the sealing element and/or the second fluid conduit may be formed by an injection molding process. ln a method for forming a fluid line connector, the method comprising providing a connector body having a first end comprising a coupling geometry for a first fluid conduit, and a second end in fluid communication with the first end via a fluid passage, wherein the method further comprises providing a first insert element received by a first receiving channel in the connector body, wherein the first receiving channel has an outer end and an inner end, wherein the inner end is arranged at the second end of the connector body, wherein the invention lies in providing a sealing element, for instance formed as a cap, having a first end and a second end in fluid communication with the first end via a fluid passage, and having a first receiving channel between the first end and the second end, and wherein the sealing element comprises a laser- transmitting material and the connector body comprises a laser-absorbing material, wherein the first insert element extends from the first receiving channel of the connector body through the first receiving channel of the sealing element, and comprising a laser welding step, in which the laser-transmitting material of the sealing element is laser-welded to the laser-absorbing material of the connector body by laser light, such that the fluid passage of the connector body is connected in a fluid-tight manner at its second end to the first end of the fluid passage of the sealing element, and such that the first receiving channel of the connector body is connected at its inner end to the first end of the first receiving channel of the sealing element.

By arranging the sealing element, which contains a fluid passage as well as a receiving channel for the insert element, at the second end of the connector, it is possible to seal the insert element whilst at the same time relocating the sealing element itself away from the side of the fluid line connector. This frees up a considerable amount of space on the outer side of the connector, which may then be used to wrap the wires of the insert element around the connector body. Due to the increased space, the wires may be arranged further apart from each other, which improves air circulation and heating distribution, thereby eliminating overheating. Additionally, due to the laser-welding step, a high-quality join is formed very quickly between the sealing element and the connector body.

Ideally, the first insert element comprises a laser-absorbing material, wherein the laser- transmitting material of the sealing element is laser-welded to the laser-absorbing material of the first insert element by laser light. In this way, a high-quality join is formed between the first insert element and the sealing element quickly and effectively.

Preferably, the laser-transmitting material of the sealing element is laser-welded to the laser- absorbing material of the first insert element by laser light in the area of the first receiving channel. This leads to the formation of a secure join very quickly in the area where the first insert element is received, holding it in place. Advantageously, this takes place such that the first receiving channel of the connector body is connected in a fluid-tight manner. Even more preferably, this takes place within the same laser operation as the welding of the sealing element to the connector body. This improves the efficiency of the process. Optionally, a second fluid conduit is connected to the coupling geometry of the sealing element, wherein the first insert element protrudes from the first receiving channel of the sealing element into the second fluid conduit.

In the method, the laser-light may also be any source of light of sufficient intensity, whereby a sufficient intensity level is determined at the laser-absorbing surface by whether the laser- absorbing and laser-transmitting material melt to form a join.

In a further advantageous embodiment of the method, a second fluid conduit is connected to a coupling geometry of the sealing element, wherein the first insert element protrudes from the first receiving channel of the sealing element into the second fluid conduit, where the second fluid conduit comprises a laser-absorbing material, and wherein the laser-transmitting material of the sealing element is laser-welded to the laser-absorbing material of the second fluid conduit by laser light.

Preferably, this takes place such that the fluid channel of the sealing element is connected in a fluid-tight manner to the second fluid conduit. Even more preferably, this takes place within the same laser operation as the welding of the sealing element to the connector body. More preferably still, the laser-welding steps between the sealing element and the connector body, the sealing element and the insert element, and the sealing element and the second fluid conduit, all take place at the same time and in one laser-welding step.

In a preferable embodiment of the method, the sealing element is formed as a cap. In this way, it is held securely on the end of the connector body. Ideally, the first receiving channel of the connector body is connected at its second end to the first end of the first receiving channel of the sealing element in a fluid-tight manner.

In an advantageous embodiment of the method, the first insert element comprises a laser- absorbing material, wherein the laser-transmitting material of the sealing element is laser- welded to the laser-absorbing material of the first insert element by laser light. This ensures that a strong connection may be created in a particularly efficient manner. Preferably, the connection is formed in the area of the first receiving channel, so that the insert element that is held in the receiving channel is securely held and that a sealing may be formed with it. Preferably, a connection is formed such that such that the first receiving channel of the connector body is connected in a fluid-tight manner, and preferably within the same laser operation as the welding of the sealing element to the connector body. In a favorable embodiment of the method, a second fluid conduit is connected to the coupling geometry of the sealing element, wherein the first and/or second insert element protrudes from the first receiving channel of the sealing element into the second fluid conduit.

The second fluid conduit should ideally comprise a laser-absorbing material, wherein the laser- transmitting material of the sealing element is laser-welded to the laser-absorbing material of the second fluid conduit by laser light.

Ideally, the second fluid conduit comprises a laser-absorbing material.

In an additional example of the inventive method, the laser-transmitting material of the sealing element is laser-welded to the laser-absorbing material of the second fluid conduit by laser light, such that the fluid channel of the sealing element is connected in a fluid-tight manner to the second fluid conduit, preferably within the same laser operation as the welding of the sealing element to the connector body.

In an important embodiment, the method comprises heating the fluid line connector with laser light. In a further important embodiment, the method comprises heating the laser-absorbing material that contacts the laser-transmitting material so as to melt the laser-absorbing material and/or the laser-transmitting material at the contact surfaces between the laser-transmitting material and the laser-absorbing material.

An embodiment of the invention is further explained in the following detailed description, making use of the figures. These show:

Fig. 1 A side view of a longitudinal cross-section of a connector body of the fluid line connector;

Fig. 2 A perspective view of a connector body of a fluid line connector;

Fig. 3. A side view of a longitudinal cross-section of a fluid line connector;

Fig. 4. A perspective view of a sealing element; and

Fig. 5. A side view of a fluid line connector connected to a first and second fluid

conduit. The connector body of Fig. 1 features a coupling geometry 8 and a first end 6, which is suitable to receive a first fluid conduit (not shown). The coupling geometry 8 is formed as a series of step-like recesses in the connector body 5, into which the first fluid conduit (not shown) may be inserted and held. A second end 7 of the connector body 5 is in fluid communication with the first end 6, such that between these two ends a fluid passage 9 is formed. Fluid can thereby flow from the first end 5 from an attached first fluid conduit (not shown) through the connector body to the second end 7. Not shown in Fig. 1 are the first fluid channel 10 and the second fluid channel 1 1 , which are both in fluid communication with and split off from the fluid passage 9. The first 10 and second 1 1 fluid channels are arranged at the second end 7 of the connector body and allow a fluid to flow out of the second end 7 of the connector body 5. However, the first 10 and second 1 1 fluid channels are arranged in a plane oriented perpendicular to the plane of Fig. 1 , which is why they are not visible.

The connector body 5 further comprises a first 20 and second 21 receiving channel, which are suitable to accommodate a first and second insert element (not shown). The first 20 and second 21 receiving channels have outer ends 22 that are in communication with the surroundings via openings 27. The openings 27 are arranged flush to an outer surface 14 of the connector body 5, such that no protrusions or domes are present in the region of the openings 27. The first and second receiving channels 20 and 21 comprise decline portions 24 in the region of the outer ends 22, which are in communication with the openings 27 and are suitable to receive first and second insert elements. The decline portions 24 are formed as channels with a circular cross section. The decline portions 24 are further arranged such that an angle between their longitudinal axis L2 and the central longitudinal axis L1 of the fluid passage 9 of the connector body 5 is approximately 30 degrees.

The decline portions 24 open out into central portions 25 of the first and second receiving channel 20 and 21 , which are arranged parallel to the central longitudinal axis of the fluid passage 9 of the connector body 5. The diameter of the central portions 25 is wider than the diameter of the decline portions 24. The central portions 25 extend back in the direction of the first end 6 of the connector body 5 further than the point at which the decline portions 24 meet the central portions 25 to form a blind bore, or in other words, to form a closed end. The central portions 25 are separated from each other by a walling 29 of the connector body 5. The central portions 25 are formed with circular cross sections.

The central portions 25 are arranged opposite to each other along a diameter of the connector body 5 and lead into outer portions 26. The outer portions 26 are formed with a cylindrical cross section. These outer portions 26 are further formed such that there is a step between the central portions 25 and the outer portions 26, wherein the step is suitable to act as a seal seat 28 for a sealing ring (not shown).

Fig. 2 shows a perspective view of the connector body 5 of Fig. 1 . Therefore, some reference signs refer to related technical features. In particular, the various openings on the second end 7 of the connector body 5 are visible. Here, the first and second fluid channels 10 and 1 1 that are a bifurcation of the fluid passage 9 of the connector body 5 may been seen. These fluid channels 10, 1 1 have a substantially mushroom-shaped cross section, in order that the maximum of available space is made use of. The mushroom cross-section results from the fact that, when seen from the second end 7 of the connector body 5, the fluid channels 10 and 1 1 are shaped around the first and second receiving channels 20, 21 , which have a circular cross section and are arranged near or at ends of a diameter of the cross section of the second end 7.

Here can also be seen that the connector body 5 is formed as a cylinder from its second end 7 up to approximately the coupling geometry 8. In particular, the outer surface of the cylinder in this region is smooth with the exception of the openings 27 (partially shown). The second end 7 of the connector body 5 is formed with a circular circumferential edge, which is more broadly part of the circular circumferential wall of the connector body 5. In the region of the second end 7 of the connector body 5, the outer circumferential of the connector body 5 forms part of the respective walls of the first and second receiving channels 20 and 21 as well as the first and second fluid channels 10 and 1 1 , which themselves are more broadly part of the fluid passage 9. Whilst not shown here, it is thinkable that the circumferential edge could be part of non-circular circumferential cross sections of the connector body, for instance oval or square.

In the connector body shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the openings between the decline portions 24 and the central portions 25 of the receiving channels 20 and 21 are arranged in an outer wall of the respective central portion 25 in a radial direction from the center of a cross section of the connector body 5.

A fluid line connector 1 according to the present invention is shown in Fig. 3, whereby first and second fluid conduits 80 and 81 are also shown connected to the fluid line connector 1 .

A sealing element 40 is arranged at the second end 7 of the connector body and is formed from a laser-transmitting material 60. The connector body 5 is formed from a laser-absorbing material 61 in the region of its second end 7.

The sealing element 40 comprises recesses 49 in the region of its first end 41 that co-operate with the outer circumferential edge of the second end 7 of the connector body 5. In this case, th e circumferential edge may be regarded as a protrusion, since it protrudes into the recess 49. In addition, wallings 29 in the region of the second end 7 of the connector body 5 protrude into corresponding recesses 49 in the center of the first end 41 of the sealing element 40.

At the second end 42 of the sealing element 40 is a coupling geometry 50 for coupling to a second fluid conduit 81. In the embodiment shown in Fig. 3, the coupling geometry 50 is formed as an accommodation section 51 , which accommodates or receives an end of the second fluid conduit 81 within itself. In particular, the accommodation section 51 is formed as a bore with circular cross section in the second end 42 of the sealing element 40. The sealing element 40 comprises a laser-transmitting material 60 in the region in which it contacts the second fluid conduit 81. The second fluid conduit 81 also thereby comprises a laser-absorbing material in this region.

First and second insert elements 30 and 31 , in this case formed as heating elements 32, are received in the first and second receiving channels 20 and 21 of the connector body 5, and extend from the surroundings, through the outer ends 22 and out of the inner ends 23 to emerge from the second end 7 of the connector body 5. The heating elements 32 are bent so that they follow the length of the first and second receiving channels 20 and 21 respectively.

The first and second insert elements 30 and 31 continue to extend into the first and second receiving channels 46 and 47 of the sealing element 40. The openings of these channels 46 and 47 protrude some way into the second end 7 of the connector body so that there is no break between the channels. After passing through the first and second receiving channels 46 and 47 of the sealing element 40, the first and second insert elements 30 and 31 continue into the second fluid conduit 81 , which is coupled to the second end 42 of the sealing element 40.

The respective insert elements 30 and 31 are formed in substantially three sections, such that in the second fluid conduit 81 they are arranged parallel to the longitudinal axis L3 of the second fluid conduit 81 , in the sealing element 40 they are arranged at an angle away from this axis L3, and in the decline portions 24 they are received at a greater angle still away from this axis. This allows the insert elements 30 and 31 to be inserted without having to be bent at too great an angle in one particular place.

The sealing element 40 contacts the connector body 5, the insert elements 30 and 31 , and the second fluid conduit 81 at contact regions 62. In these contact regions 62, the sealing element 40 comprises a laser-transmitting material 60 and the insert elements 30 and 31 , the second fluid conduit 81 and the connector body 5 comprise a laser-absorbing material. ln this way, when a laser is directed to the laser-transmitting material 60 of the sealing element 40, laser energy is transmitted to the contact regions 62, where it is absorbed by the laser- absorbing material 61 . This causes the material to melt, which results in the formation of a join between the laser-transmitting material 60 and the laser-absorbing material 61 . In this way, three joins may be made at the same time in one step between the sealing element 40 and the connector body 5, the insert elements 30 and 31 and the second fluid conduit 81 .

Sealing rings 70 are arranged to contact the seal seats 27 formed in the outer portions 26. These wrap around the outside of the insert elements 30 and 31 , which in this case are formed as heating elements 32. Fig. 4 shows a perspective view of the sealing element 40. Here, the arrangement of the first and second receiving channels 46 and 47 as well as the first and second fluid channels 44 and 45 may be seen. The first and second receiving channels 46 and 47 are formed in a section of material 53 that extends between outer walls 54 of the sealing element 40. In the embodiment depicted in Fig. 4, the receiving channels 46 and 47 are formed with a circular cross section and are separated by a middle region 55 of the section of material 53.

In addition, raised rims 52 are formed on the ends of the receiving channels 46 and 47 at the first end 41 of the sealing element 40. These rims 52 are suitable to protrude into the outer portions 26 at the second end of the connector body. In particular, the rims 52 are suitable to contact the inner circumferential walls of the outer portion so that when laser energy is applied, a join is formed with the sealing element 40 at a contact region that extends all the way around the circumference of the respective outer portion 26 of the connector body 5.

The fluid channels 44 and 45 run from the first end 41 in the direction of the second end 42, where they merge into one fluid passage 43. The term fluid passage is used to refer to the general volume of the sealing element 40 that it dedicated to carrying liquid, whereas fluid channel is used to refer to specific fluid channels that branch off from the fluid passage, or which the fluid passage comprises.

Fig. 5 shows an outer view of a fluid line connector 1 connected to first and second fluid conduits 80 and 81 as shown in Fig. 3. Here, it can be seen that the wrapping area 15 is large and particularly suitable to receive the wires 33 of the insert elements 30 and 31 . List Of ren ces

I Fluid line connector 43 Fluid passage

44 First fluid channel

5 Connector body 45 Second fluid channel

6 First end 46 First receiving channel

7 Second end 47 Second receiving channel

8 Coupling geometry 48 Protrusion

9 Fluid passage 49 Recess

10 First fluid channel 50 Coupling geometry

I I Second fluid channel 51 Accommodation section

12 Protrusion 52 Raised rims

13 Recess 53 Section of material

14 Outer surface 54 Outer walls

15 Wrapping area 55 Middle region

20 First receiving channel

21 Second receiving channel 60 Laser transmitting material

22 Outer end 61 Laser absorbing material

23 Inner end 62 Contact region (between materials)

24 Decline portion

25 Central portion 70 Sealing ring

26 Outer portion

27 Opening L1 Longitudinal axis of fluid passage

28 Seal seat L2 Longitudinal axis of decline channel

29 Walling L3 Longitudinal axis of second fluid conduit

30 First insert element C1 Cross section of connector body fluid

31 Second insert element channel

32 Heating element C2 Cross section of sealing element

33 Wire fluid channel

34 Coating

80 First fluid conduit

40 Sealing element 81 Second fluid conduit

41 First end

42 Second end